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Branchlines, Vol. 10, no. 2 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry Sep 30, 1999

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER' T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 10 No. 2 September, 1999 From the Dean's Desk In the second feature of our new series of guest editorials by Faculty members, Dr. Hamish Kimmins addresses "Forestry and Forestry Education at the Start of the Third Millennium." Hamish concludes that while forestry and forest education must change to reflect shifting public preferences, this change must be consistent with the ecology and sociology of the desired values. John A. McLean, Acting Dean • EDITORIAL by Dr. Hamish Kimmins Forestry has always been changing. So has forestry education. Both have proceeded through a series of distinct changes, though not always in an orderly, linear manner. Forestry arises when unregulated forest use or exploitation leads to unacceptable consequences. There was no formal for- estry education pre-forestry, although be- lief systems about forests and spiritual or religious attitudes towards forests were taught in many early cultures. Traditional forest knowledge based on experience was passed from generation to generation, but this was not generally part of a formal system of management or conservation. The early stage of forestry ("administra- tive forestry") has in the past been charac- terized by policies, regulations and prac- tices that lacked an adequate foundation in the ecology of the values it was intended to conserve and sustain. The lack of this eco- logical foundation has limited the effec- tiveness of early forestry and led to failures to conserve and sustain desired values and forest conditions. Forest education at this stage typically focused on timber and eco- nomic criteria, and had a largely abiologi- cal, engineering, statistical and management- systems approach. The shortcomings of administrative for- estry lead, irrevocably it seems, to an eco- logically-based stage. This involves poli- cies and management practices that recog- nize and respect ecological diversity and some aspects of biological diversity. As a response to unsuccessful timber manage- ment, this stage has typically had a silvicul- tural focus, often accompanied by a focus on commercially and recreationally impor- tant wildlife species. Forestry education early in the ecologically-based stage has a strong emphasis on the biophysical sci- ences, on timber and game animal species, and on management sciences involved in sustaining a balance, albeit limited in scope, of forest values, functions and conditions. Given sufficient time to evolve, ecologi- cally-based forestry will develop policies and practices that sustain a broad diversity of biophysical characteristics of forests and related social values. However, the widespread commencement of this stage of forestry has occurred at a time of acceler- ated change in public preferences and desires about forests. As a consequence, forestry has frequently come under strong public pressure to evolve to the final, "social forestry" stage before it has devel- oped a strong tradition of ecologically-based forestry. This social stage is characterized by management for a wide variety of bio- logical and physical values, services and conditions, a focus on non-commercial species, values and services, and a strong emphasis on aesthetics and spiritual values. This has clearly influenced forestry educa- tion, which now includes a much greater proportion of courses outside of the tradi- tional biophysical and management sciences. Forestry education, like forestry, has evolved largely in response to changing markets, social attitudes and desires. While research and education have contributed to the evolution they have played a smaller role. Unless this changes as forestry enters the third millennium, the risk that forestry will become marginalized as a profession will increase. Key forest policy decisions, and key decisions about practices, will in- creasingly be made by individuals or organi- zations that lack an adequate understanding of ecological diversity and ecosystem func- tion, the fundamental issues in sustainable forest management and conservation, and the social, economic and cultural dimen- sions of forestry, topics that a contempo- rary forestry education should cover. Forestry has been defined as the art, sci- ence and business of managing forested landscapes to sustain a desired balance of forest values, services and conditions. By the very definition of the profession, for- estry must change as the desired balance changes. However, as a profession, forestry must resist changes suggested by society that are inconsistent with the ecology and sociology of the values, services and condi- tions desired by society. In the face of these responsibilities, for- estry education must equip its graduates with a strong sense of ethics towards the forest, the broader environment and soci- ety. This ethical training must equip future foresters to play a more active role in the evolution of forestry and prepare them for change. It must also equip them to resist suggested changes that are in conflict with the broader management objectives that society has chosen. They must understand and be able to effectively communicate the social, cultural and ecological constraints that render public demands for certain changes impractical or contrary to the very values society wishes to sustain. This is not a trivial challenge. Our re- sponse to it will determine in large part whether forestry continues as a profession or is replaced by some other institutional arrangement with which to regulate the re- lationships between the present six billion humans and the 60% of the world's "origi- nal" forests that are reported to remain. You can reach Dr. Hamish Kimmins at (604) 822-3549, fax (604) 822-9102, or e-mail kimmins@ interchg. ubc. ca. Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT A global vision for forests IN late 1995, on the recommendation of the FAO Advisory Committee on Paper and Wood Products, the FAO Forestry Department initiated the Global Fibre Supply Study. The study was intended to respond to questions raised by forest in- dustry and the public such as: Where is the raw material going to come from to cover forest products needs? And, how much productive forest is needed to sustainably supply expected future fibre demand? In general terms the study aimed to con- tribute to worldwide forest policy develop- ment through the provision of reliable data, information and analysis of industrial fibre sources for over 108 countries. This means the study includes a compilation of the latest available forest inventory statis- tics along with recovered and non-wood fibre data. The focusing is primarily on the sources of industrial fibre as raw material for the sawmilling, wood-based panels, and pulp and paper industries. A modelling effort was also undertaken to improve our ability to examine future developments in fibre supply, based on explicit consideration of the major factors affecting supply, for the important pro- ducer countries in Asia/Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Finally, the study also provided a link between fibre resources and wood consumption in order to better assess the relationship between fibre sup- ply and consumption trends. Dr. Gary Bull, who worked with the FAO as project manager for this initial project, has now joined the Forest Resources i w f " ffyT" 1996 Year Scenario: Potential fibre availability by for Indonesia. Management Department at UBC as an assistant professor. The FAO study was viewed as a 'first step' in more extensive efforts to address these issues through further outlook stud- ies. One such effort is now underway with the key international agencies which have developed a hypothesis that by the year 2050 an ongoing worldwide trend towards intensification of forest management will mean that commercial scale production forestry operations could be concentrated in 20 percent of the global closed forest area. World demand for industrial forest products such as timber, wood-based panels and paper will be met primarily from more intensively managed semi- natural forests and plantations, supple- mented by supplies from woodlands and agroforestry farming systems that are 2050 used in many developing countries as an important source of timber in meeting local needs. To test the hypothesis, Gary Bull, in collaboration with several in- ternational agencies, has begun developing a further examina- tion of the economics of wood supply. This requires further analysis of each country using topographic maps, further data collection on such things as mill location, transport distances, harvest cost and forest revenues from each country. In addition, further efforts will be made to cross-check and validate the data already provided in the Global Fibre Supply Model. This requires a further analysis of the area legally gazetted as forest reserves, area allocated to various opera- tors in forest concessions, and a review of the area deemed legally protected or in IUCN classes 1 and 2. Finally, the harvest- ing intensity (m-Vha) associated with low impact harvesting can be further validated and the role of lesser known commercial species explored. The role of improved technology will also be discussed. The potential utility of these studies are: it will help to sensitize industry, govern- ments and NGOs to the critical policy issues which surround industrial raw mate- rial sources and sustainable uses of forest resources, and it will highlight the neces- sity for countries to improve their data col- lection, storage and analysis in this field. For further information, contact Dr. Gary Bull at (604) 822-1553, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail garybull@interchg.ubc.ca.l3 DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Jonathan Fannin has completed a new fieldbook entitled: "Basic Geosynthetics: A Guide to Best Practices", with funding from FRBC. An author's review will appear in the next issue of Branch Lines. Dr. Stephen Sheppard gave an invited paper at "Our Visual Landscape" in Swit- zerland entitled: "Building a better crystal ball: proposed system designs and a code of ethics for landscape visualization ". The Department's FIRMS (Forest Infor- mation Resource Management Systems) Lab has installed new computers, with funding from the Canada Foundation for Innovation, to benchmark visualization software for forested landscapes. Dr. Sheppard is collaborating with Dr. Kellogg Booth (Computer Science) on using a new Silicon Graphics ONYX II Computer for real-time virtual reality applications. Dr. John Innes, the new Forest Renewal BC Chair in Forest Management, chaired the "World Forest Forum on Forests and Atmosphere-Water-Soil" in Germany. The forum examined the interactions between forests and water, soil and climate, includ- ing carbon sequestration and the Kyoto Protocol, the impacts of harvesting on water quality and quantity, and the long- term effects of soil acidification and ozone on forests. • Branch Lines — 2 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Windthrow research WIND damage to trees along the edges of recently harvested cutblocks and in newly established riparian reserves, wildlife tree patches and partial cuts is a problem in many areas of British Columbia. Windthrow results from complex interac- tions of climatic, environmental and management factors. Depending on the local management objectives and the severity of windthrow, impacts can be negative or positive. Common concerns are the loss of timber vol- umes and overstory structure, provi- sion of bark beetle habitat, and in- creased potential for erosion.Wind- throw prediction, management and impact assessment are being investi- gated in a series of research projects at UBC. Geographic information systems (GIS) provide the opportunity to assemble and analyze multiple layers of environmental and management data. In a project funded by Forest Renewal BC with cooperation from Western Forest Products Limited, a series of software tools have been developed which work with Arc View GIS to enable construction of empiri- cal models of windthrow risk and production of landscape level hazard maps. For a test area of 900 square kilometres on northern Vancouver Island, stand height, stocking class, leading species, site quality, opening size, and boundary orientation have been found to be good predictors of edge wind- throw. The resulting hazard maps enable the evaluation of cutblock layout strate- gies and identify locations where field assessment of windthrow risk is advisable. Windthrow along a cutblock boundary on northern Vancouver Island. In a recently completed study funded by the BC Ministry of Forests and the South Moresby Forest Replacement Account, the post-thinning stem growth patterns in slender trees from high density stands were measured using stem analysis in order to document the rate of re-acclima- tion. The 45-year old Douglas-fir and Sitka spruce trees in the study became more tapered in the years following thinning through temporary height increment reduction, allocation of stem increment towards the stem base and increased radial increment. Trees which were more slender at the time of thinning made the greatest adjustments. Moni- toring the rate of stem form adjustment assists with scheduling subsequent entries in stands vulnerable to wind or snow damage. The consequences of wind damage for stand structure, water quality, fish habitat and fish and animal population dynamics are being studied as part of a multidisciplinary study of within- cutblock riparian reserves on the UBC Malcom Knapp Research Forest at Maple Ridge. Portions of these reserves were wind damaged during the winter of 1998/99. Monitoring the conse- quences of this damage will help iden- tify whether windthrow risk reduction measures are worth prescribing when partial windthrow is expected. For further information on windthrow research, contact Dr. Steve Mitchell at (604) 822-4591, fax (604) 822-9102 or e-mail smitchel@ interchg. ubc.ca. • DEPARTMENT NEWS A symposium in honour of Dr. Gene Namkoong in commemoration of his re- tirement after four decades of pioneering research in forest genetics was held in July. See page 5 for a detailed write-up of this highly successful event. Two new faculty members joined our team on July 1: Dr. John Barker, the new incumbent of the FRBC Chair in Silvicul- ture, and Dr. Peter Arcese filling the FRBC Chair in Applied Conservation Biology. Dr. Scott Hinch was awarded tenure and promotion to associate professor on July 1. As of September 1, he will be taking over as director of the undergraduate program in Natural Resources Conservation. Dr. Chris Chanway has been promoted to full professor, and Dr. Steve Mitchell has been promoted to a tenure-track posi- tion as an assistant professor. A team of researchers from Forest Sciences, Centre for Applied Conservation Biology, and Forest Resources Manage- ment (Fred Bunnell, Hamish Kimmins, John Nelson, Stephen Sheppard, Roy Sidle, Brad Seely, Ralph Wells and Nicole Robinson) have been awarded a 2-year grant from Arrow District Innovative Forest Practices Agreement. This initiative will test new and innovative forestry practices to improve forest productivity and to create and maintain forestry jobs while protecting environmental values. The re- searchers will work with the licencees in the region to apply stand-level vegetation models, timber supply models, slope stability models, biodiversity models, and visualization tools to address local manage- ment issues. • Branch Lines — 3 Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Reinforced connections for structural composite lumber IN light of diminishing resources and increased pressure towards environmen- tal sustainability, the future of the forest industry in British Columbia will depend to a large extent on the transition from a purely resource-based to a manufacturing industry. An important component of the industry will therefore be the design and manufacture of prefabricated wood buildings that can be produced locally and shipped for final assembly to markets across the world. Of particular interest for the multi-storey hous- ing and light commercial building sector are newly developed structural composite lumber products that have superior primary material properties, but also demand more sophisticated connection methods to utilize the added strength and justify higher material costs. This project, funded by a Forest Renewal BC grant was specifically aimed at develop- ing connection re inforcing methods suitable for prefabri- cated heavy timber construction with structural composite lum- ber. Since a significant part of the Canadian market for such products is located in high risk seismic regions, the ductility or energy absorbing capabilities was a primary concern, in addi- tion to adding strength to the connections. The biggest problem in con- nections is the relatively weak perpendicu- lar to grain strength of wood, which causes brittle failures and potentially catastrophic collapses (Fig. la). The main goal is thus to DEPARTMENT NEWS D r s . Dave Barrett and Peter Lau have re- ceived the second place award for excellence in research and writing exhibited in Wood and Fiber Science for their article entitled "Modelling the reliability of wood tension members exposed to elevated temperatures". Drs. Jack Biernacki, Frank Lam and Dave Barrett received the 1999 L.J. Markwardt Wood Engineering Research Award from the Forest Product Society. Branch Lines — 4 a)Unreinforced b lP lywood c )F ib reGlas s d ) T r u s s Plate Fig. 1: Surface reinforced parallel strand lumber. For larger cross-sections it was found that an internal reinforcement method provided more efficient strengthening. Threaded rods were inserted into the wooden members, transverse to the bolts, Drs. Dave Cohen and Robert Kozak co- chaired the International Conference on Global Markets for Value-added Wood Products in Halifax, Nova Scotia in June. Drs. Simon Ellis and Robert Kozak collaborated on a paper entitled "A new model for undergraduate wood process- ing education - the B.Sc. Wood Products Processing program at UBC." at the 4lh International Conference on the Develop- ment of Wood Science, Wood Technology 4. T> m s provide cross-grain reinforcement that allows a more ductile and controlled load transfer tluough crushing of the wood in the longitudinal direction. Two reinforce- ment methods were found to be the most beneficial and cost effective. For smaller sections, surface reinforcement tech- niques, such as the application of punched tooth truss plates, fibre glass or plywood in the connection region proved to be effective in increasing both strength and ductility (Fig. 1). Although quite drama- tic improvements in both strength and ductility were achieved for single bolt connections in small sections (Fig. 1), not much strength was gained for larger cross-sections (Fig. 2). In all cases, how- ever, significant gains were made in the ductility of the connections, which is an important feature for earthquake resistant design. Load-Displac ement curves 'i ,1 ij »i Displacement (mm) Fig. 2: Unreinforced bolted connection. Displacement (mm) Fig. 3: Threaded rod reinforce bolted connection. approximately halfway between the bolts, such that no load was directly transferred by the reinforcement rods. Significant improvements were achieved both in strength and ductility by preventing pre- mature splitting of the wood (Fig. 3). Further projects are planned or under- way to refine reinforcement techniques and to assess the behaviour of entire frames when built with reinforced connections. In general, it can be expected that significant improvements can be gained in earthquake resistance of timber frame structures when connection reinforcement techniques are applied in critical areas. Further information on this or related projects is available from Dr. Helmut Prion at (604) 822-3864, fax 822-6901 (prion@ civil, ubc.ca) or Dr. Frank Lam at (604) 822- 6526, fax 822-9104 (franklam®interchg. ubc.ca J.O and Forestry at High Wycombe, England in July. Dr. Urs Buehlmann collaborated on two presentations delivered at the meeting of the International Federation of Opera- tional Research Societies 99 in Beijing, China in August entitled "Lumber yield optimizat ion using MS Excel", and "Lignum optimizer: A spreadsheet-based decision support system for wood panel manufacturing".• Faculty News Undergraduate enrolment These enro lment statistics are pre l iminary and will be f inal ized in mid-October . 81/82 83*64 85*86 87/6B 89/SO 91/92 93/M 95*96 97/98 99/00 Year Our undergraduate enrolment for the 1999/ 00 session dropped to 564 students from 614 last year (not including visiting and exchange students). The admission quotas for the 1999/00 session were changed in order to reflect the changing needs of vari- ous degrees. The admission quota in the B.Sc. (Natural Resources Conservation) degree was decreased to 25 in first year and quotas in the B.Sc. (Wood Products Pro- cessing) degree were increased from 20 to 30 in both first and second year. As a result, 164 new students entered the Faculty compared to 157 new students last year. The admission grade point averages (GPA) in each of the four degrees for first year was reduced this year in an effort to meet admission quotas. The final GPA for all programs was 67%. The average admis- sion GPA for each program will not be determined until October. Careers evening The 8lh Annual Forestry Careers Evening will be held on Wednesday, November 10. Ail alumni are invited to attend! For further information, contact Helen Samson, Coordinator of Student Services at (604) 822-3547 or e-mail helens@interchg. ubc.ca. Natural Resources Conservation wins award This past year the Natural Resources Con- servation program received the Alfred Scow Award for exceptional contributions or improvements to student experience and learning environment at UBC. Unifying Perspectives of Evolution, Conservation, and Breeding A symposium in honour of Dr. Gene Namkoong, in commemoration of his re- tirement after four decades of pioneering research in Forest Genetics, was held at the Forest Sciences Centre, during July 22- 24, 1999. This symposium explored new directions in forest genetics research in population dynamics and evolution, tree breeding, and gene conservation, with an emphasis on biology at the population and species levels of organization. Over 110 participants, representing over ten countries in Europe, Asia, and North and South America participated in the symposium. Twenty-four invited lec- tures and 24 posters were presented at the meetings. As many commented, "it was a V very personally, and professionally energizing and uplifting" occasion for the Forest Genetics community around the world. The invited papers of the symposium will be published as a special issue of Canadian Journal of Forest Research. For a snap shot of events, you can visit the website forgen.forestry.ubc.ca/photos. IUFRO, Forest Renewal BC, Forest Genetic Council of BC, US Forest Service, University of Alberta, Seoul National University, University of Sao Paulo, Uni- versity of British Columbia, and various other institutions extended their honours to Gene for his outstanding contributions to forest genetics. J Conservation Career Services and Volunteers Program The Conservation Career Services (CCS) and the Conservation Volunteers Program (CVP) were created in 1998 to help students in our Natural Resources Conservation undergraduate program find relevant paid positions and gain volunteer experiences. The CCS and CVP look for organizations that may be willing to accept our students to assist in conservation- related projects such as animal and plant inventories, stream and wetland restoration, geographic information systems and remote sensing mapping, and fisheries and land management projects. The student-maintained CCS website www.forestry.ubc.ca/iands/ ocs_index.html and the CVP website http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/iands/cvpindex.htm provide students with online, up to date employment and volunteer opportunities and a database of volunteer organizations. If your organization would like to advertise volunteer or par t - t ime oppor tuni t ies on our websi te , p lease contact Er in Nicholson at consjobs.interchg.ubc.ca. • Branch Lines — 5 FOREST NEWS from the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest The unvalued asset: 50 years of accomplishment • Paul Lawson Manager, Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, Maple Ridge Dean search UPDATE The President's Advisory Committee for the Selection of a New Dean for the Faculty of Forestry has invited the following candidates to participate in the next stage of the process: • October 18-19 Hamish KIMMINS, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, UBC • October 20-21 Theodore PANAYOTOU, Ph.D. Institute Fellow and Director, International Environment Program, Harvard Institute for International Development, Harvard University • November 1-2 James P. LASSOIE, Ph.D. Professor and Chair, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University Each candidate will participate in a forum open to faculty, staff, students and other interested people. This will provide an opportunity for the candidate to talk about the trends in contem- porary Forestry education and research; the dynamics around which faculties of forestry will set strategic directions in relation to teach- ing, research and service; his approach to leadership and administration; and how he would expect to lead UBC's Faculty of Forestry. Following the open forum, a reception will pro- vide an opportunity for the candidate to inter- act with faculty, staff, students, members of the profession and alumni in a more informal setting. Please check our website at www.forestry, ubc.ca for full details of these events. NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry, Dean's Office University of British Columbia Forest Sciences Centre 2005-2424 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T1Z4 » ( 6 0 4 ) 822-6316 ""^ed Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@interchg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1999 Branch Lines — 6 W h a t is the value of fifty years experience? Dur- ing our academic or technical education, the point was seldom made that we would encounter men and women in our careers who have had little formal training, but who possess great character, wisdom and understanding of nature. Such a person is Henry Carlson, founder and owner of C&L Log- ging Ltd. - the road and logging contractor at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest in Maple Ridge. Henry celebrated 50 years of achievement at the Research Forest on September 24 in a reception hosted by the Research Forest and the Faculty at Loon Lake Camp. On hand to honour Henry's mile- stone were C&L's employees as well as current and Henry at the Forest in 1947. retired Faculty members, Research Forest staff, and alumni. Born in 1927, Henry grew up in Mission. He began his career at an early age as a fisherman, shake cutter, hand faller, and horse logger. He came to work at the Research Forest prior to the construction of Loon Lake Camp. One of his first jobs was to cut the timber and shakes for the cabins that every alumnus remembers fondly as a part of their undergraduate Field School. In 1949, Henry and John Lens founded C&L Logging and began working on the Research Forest. In 1971 he bought a highlead yarder, and became the sole contractor on the Forest. Today, he and his wife Vi, and their son Dan share the job of operating the company that carries out multi-span skyline logging and cut-to-length commercial thin- ning on the Forest. Although C&L specializes in harvesting, Henry's real love is road build- ing. He can be found today at the controls of his beloved John Deere tractor, anchoring the road construction team which is currently working on the Pitt Lake slope. The dedication, en- thusiasm and energy that he Henry at the Forest in 1999. b r i n g s t 0 w o r k t o d a y remains as genuine as it was when Malcolm (Pappy) Knapp prowled the Forest in his Packard during the 1950's. Many of us have fond memories of working with Henry. His ingenuity and skill were instrumental in constructing projects such as the Mills Crossing suspension bridge and the North Alouette bridge. Virtually every major road and bridge on the Forest attests to his l ife 's work. He has always been actively involved in education not only at the Forest but also at his own Christmas tree farm in Maple Ridge where he teaches local school children each year about forests and forestry. Where would this Forest and the entire forest industry be without the long term contribution of people like Henry? There is no doubt that the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest owes a great debt of thanks, to Henry and to the many other dedicated forest workers who have toiled here over the years.


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