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Branchlines, Vol. 11, no. 1 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry Mar 31, 2000

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 11 No. 1 March, 2000 F r o m t h e D e a n ' s D e s k In the fourth feature of our new series of guest editorials by Faculty members, Dr. John Innes addresses "The need for an international perspective in forest management. " John, our recent appointment as Forest Renewal BC Chair in Forest Management, suggests that concentration on issues in British Columbia is reducing the effectiveness of forest managers here. He believes that the rapid increase in access to information from all over the world will make it necessary for future forest managers to be much more aware of recent developments in science and technology than they are today. As a starting point, there is a need for a clear vision for forestry, not just in British Columbia but also in Canada and globally. John A. McLean, Acting Dean • E D I T O R I A L by Dr. John Innes A few months after I moved to Switzerland, I told a group of foresters that forestry could sometimes have negative effects on the en- vironment. This caused outrage; "How dare a foreigner", demanded one delegate, "cast aspersions on Swiss forest management?" I replied that I had been referring to infor- mation gathered in my previous job in the U.K., and that of course, there was nothing wrong with Swiss forestry. Ruffled feathers were smoothed, but maybe the point was made. Now, once again, I am asked to stick my neck out after only a few months in a new job, new country and new continent. My impressions of British Columbia are quite mixed: majestic scenery, lots of strikes, very curious politics, and a widespread and overbearing attitude that it is only what hap- pens in British Columbia that is important. This last impression is puzzling. The majority of wood cut in British Columbia is exported. Of the three biggest forestry companies operating in the province, two are under for- eign control. Why is there so little interest in what is happening in our export markets and in the countries of some of our major forestry employers? Surely, it would be prudent to pay greater attention to some of the changes that are occurring elsewhere? This int rovers ion runs deeper . Some students at UBC appear interested only in courses that are a requirement for profes- sional forester status. These courses fulfil an essential function in ensuring that certain minimum standards are attained that will enable graduates to enroll as foresters in training in those provinces with professional forestry associations. However, knowledge of what is happening in forestry outside of Canada does not feature strongly, if at all, in the national forestry school accreditation requirements. This knowledge is essential if foresters are to be effective land managers in today's global environment. As identified in the previous editorial by Dr. John Barker, we are in a time of great and rapid change. One of the fuels of this change is the increasingly well-informed cri t icism that is being made of forest management. There is a rapidly increasing amount of information available on the inter- net, supplemented by information sources designed to help private individuals assess and criticize forest management plans. Take, for example, the recent book by Gordon Robinson called The Forest and the Trees: A Guide to Excellent Forestry. Whether or not you agree with his views, the book pro- vides access to material that makes it neces- sary for today's forest manager to be fully aware of new developments if plans are to be justified. Globalization is placing new pressures on forest managers. Last summer, an environ- mental pressure group was able to flash pictures across the world on a daily basis of a developing clearcut in northern British Columbia. All they needed was a digital camera and a satellite-linked modem. Sights normally hidden to all but the most deter- mined were suddenly made available to any- one anywhere in the world with a link to the internet. Armed with such material and presenting one side of the story only, critics of forest management are becoming in- creasingly plausible, especially to decision makers. Given the application of such information technology, there is now no excuse for a forest manager to be uninformed. Equally, we might hope that everyone with an inter- est in forestry in the province would take the trouble to become acquainted with re- cent developments in forest science and forest management around the world. There is much that resource managers here could learn from elsewhere, but we are failing to do so. Free electronic journals, such as the Journal of Ecosystems and Management (http://www.siferp.org/jem/) may help, and there are many other sources of pertinent information. One of the conclusions reached by the World Commission on Forests and Sustain- able Development was that there is a lack of global leadership in forestry. This seems to be a problem at all levels: global, national, and provincial. It is time for a clear vision of the future of forestry in British Columbia, a vision that is shared within and outside the province. We need to move forward rapid- ly and with determination - while industry and environmental groups here continue to bicker, other countries have made significant progress on issues such as certification, in- creasing their chances of capturing yet more of the market share previously held by B.C. We glibly ask students to develop "desired future condit ions" in their management plans. This is a near-impossible task given the absence of a clear vision for forestry in the province, in Canada and in the world as a whole. Maybe we can inspire the current generation of UBC forestry students to broaden their horizons and maybe, just maybe, some of those students will use that knowledge to become tomorrow's leaders in resource management issues in B.C. and elsewhere. Dr. John Innes can be reached at (604) 822-6761, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail innes @interchg.ubc.ca. Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT From tissue to data point in the Genetic Data Centre GENETIC markers have traditional-ly played a strong role in forest gene- tics. A "genetic marker" is a gene with usually many forms, and is used to trace ancestry for a variety of purposes. These in- clude (among many things): estimating levels of self-fertilization, assessing levels of genetic variability, detecting pollen con- tamination in seed or- chards, and speeding the rate of tree breeding. The newest class of genetic markers is called "micro- satellites"; such markers are short stretches of a DNA sequence where the same pair or short repeat of nucleotides is repeated many times, and the num- ber of repeats is quite vari- able among individuals. This variability provides superior statistical information for studies such as those mentioned above. However, the technical requirements have likewise increased, and unfortunately, many researchers lack the equipment and knowl- edge base for using markers such as micro- satellites in their research. In 1999, we obtained a grant from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation for the establishment of a "Genetic Data Centre" (GDC), whose purpose is to provide space, equipment, and the knowledge base for the DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Scott Hindi was recently awarded a UBC Izaak Wal ton Kil lam Memoria l Faculty Research Fellowship. Scott will use this award for his sabbatical leave starting September 1, 2000. He will spend a portion of his leave as a visiting scientist in the Zoology Department at the University of North Carolina. Dr. Peter Arccse will deliver a plenary talk at the 8l" International Meeting of the Society for Behavioral Ecology in Zurich this coining August. As well, he is an invited speaker at a special symposium on 'Animal collection and analysis of molecular genetic data in forestry, agriculture, con- servation, and evolution. It is open to all faculty, technicians, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who wish to carry out molecular marker studies using the latest equipment and the best technical and statistical assistance. This Centre was the vision of Dr. Gene Namkoong, our former departmental head. The new Forest Sciences Centre has been instrumental in providing ideal laboratory space. Equip- ment in the Centre includes three LiCor automated sequencers, many polymerase chain reaction machines and three growth chambers. I highlight three projects, currently con- ducted in the GDC, which use the equip- ment in breeding and conservation gene- tics. Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), a very important conifer in British Columbia, Dispersal' at the annual meeting of the Animal Behavior Society in August. He also recently accepted an editorship for the Journal of Avian Biology. Dr. Sally Aitken will be promoted to Associate Professor effective July 1, 2000. Dr. Chris Chan way will be on sabbatical leave from July 1 until December 31, 2000. Dr. John Richardson has assumed the role of co-chair of the species recovery team for the critically endangered Oregon spotted frog. Dr. Kathy Martin became president of can exhibit high rates of self-fertilization, which can be detrimental to successful re- generation as "selfed" trees are less viable. We have found 12 microsatellite loci in this tree species, and are using them in studies of selfing rates in the wild and seed orchards, and in studies of gene diversity and geographic population structure. The second project involves the white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi), which is responsi- ble for an enormous reduction in the poten- tial productivity of Sitka spruce. This pro- ject has also involved discovery of micro- satellite loci and studies of its mating sys- tem. With six microsatellite markers, we are determining the roles of female choice, sperm storage and sperm competition in the produc- tion of new larvae; this knowledge will aid in pest management decisions. The third project involves the use of eight microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure and mating system of Garry oak (Quercus garryana), a keys tone species in the dry environment of southeast Vancouver Island, providing unique niches for many other organisms. Since many Garry oak populations are at risk due to development, we need more information about their genetic diversity and patterns of mating. These are three of the many projects cur- rently underway. For more information about the GDC, please contact Dr. Carol Ritland at (604) 822-3908, fax (604) 822-9102 or e-mail critland@interchg.ubc.ca. • the Society for Canadian Ornithologists in January 2000. She is currently involved in planning for the upcoming Birds 2000 tri- national ornithological meeting (Canada, United States and Britain) in St. John's Newfoundland next August. Dr. Brett Sandercock has joined the de- partment as a Killam Post-Doctoral Fellow with Dr. Kathy Martin. His research interests include applying new demographic analyti- cal techniques to avian species of conserva- tion interest. Brett can be reached at (604) 822-9368. • Microsatellite of weevil family (M = male, F = female). Courtesy of Cherdsak Liewlaksaneeyanawin. Branch Lines 2 Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The whole is greater than the sum of the parts: Sustainable wood housing FOR the past four years, an interdiscipli-nary team of researchers from the De- partment of Wood Science and Fuyosoken (Winter Research Institute, Hokkaido, Japan) have been conducting collaborative research into sustainable wood housing on a continuing nine-year project. This multi-year international project was first described in Branch Lines (Volume 7 No. 3) in December, 1996. The project is based on recognition that a key component of sustainable forestry is to use renewable wood products for their "best" purpose. The overall research theme in this initiative is to explore many of the innovative ideas and practices that contri- bute to a "total housing system." These practices, which are all based on strong ethical and philosophi- cal underpinnings, include design, pro- motion, production, construction and research. The ideas relating to sustaina- bility include not only ecological impacts but also social and health concerns. In fact, it is this interaction of so many diverse ethical concerns that creates the holistic approach to a healthy and sustain- able house where "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts." Researchers from the University of British Columbia are involved in several innovative interdisciplinary research projects as part of this overall initiative. The following list includes the name of the primary UBC researcher in brackets: • An examination of historic and current use of wood in construction in Japan. Published in the Forest Products Journal 1996 46 (11 /12): 18-24 (Dr. David Cohen, Department of Wood Science). • Examination of traditional Japanese temple construction. Faculty members from the School of Architecture, Depart- ments of Wood Science and Civil Engin- eering plus industry representatives. • Examination of the theory and practice of bioregionalism in Hokkaido and Vancouver Island (Dr. Ray Cole, School of Architecture). • Analysis of roofing forms and systems in areas with heavy snow loads (Ms. Linda Brock, School of Architecture). • Exploration of the Japanese house as a reflection of changing Japanese society - a book with the working title "Within These Paper Walls" (Dr. David Cohen, Department of Wood Science). • An exhibition of historic and cur- rent models of Japanese and Canadian prefabricated houses entitled "Assembling Utopia: Packaging the Home " exhibited Vancouver in 1999 and Tokyo in 2000 (Dr. Sherry McKay, School of Architecture. Interdisciplinary UBC research team (Brock, McKay, Cohen, Prion and Cole) studying traditional Japanese house built by Akira Yamaguchi (founder of Fuyosoken). • Developing an integrative model of parameters for a "healthy house" (Dr. Robert Kozak, De- partment of Wood Science). For further information, please contact Dr. David Cohen, Project Leader at (604) 822-6176, fax (604) 822-9104, e-mail dcohen@interchg. ubc.ca. • DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Urs Buehlmann has left UBC to take up a position at North Carolina State Uni- versity Department of Wood and Paper as an extension specialist. Dr. Les Paszner retired from the Depart- ment after over 30 years of service. Les will continue to part icipate as an emeri tus professor in wood chemistry. Dr. Jack Saddler gave the inaugural pre- sentation at the U.S. Department of Agricul- tural Millenium, year-long symposium series. He spoke on "sustainable chemicals and fuels from agriculture and forests." Dr. Shawn Mansfield joined the De- partment as assistant professor (see page 5 for details). Shawn was an invited speaker at the conference "New Opportunities on Fibre Raw Material for Paper and Board Production," hosted by the Centre of Com- petence for Paper and Board, the Argotech- nological Research Institute and Industry in Doorwerth, The Netherlands on February 9 and 10. His paper was entitled "Improve- ments in mechanical pulp processing with enzymatic treatments." Q Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT The effect of patch size on timber supply and landscape structure A traveller flying over British Columbia will observe forested landscapes alter- ed by harvesting. To the trained eye, the harvest patterns read like a history book of forest policy. Over the past 30 years, the typical landscape cutting pattern in British Columbia has evolved through three stages: 1) progressive clearcutting, 2) the 3-pass cut/leave system, and 3) small openings combined with adjacency and green-up rules. The move towards smaller openings was first driven by biological and environmental concerns and later by social values. However, in moving from one extreme to another, we have created new environ- mental and social prob- lems, such as short-term timber supply, access man- agement, and forest frag- mentation. We are in for further change as ecosys- tem management evolves, including a range of patch sizes distributed across the landscape. A research team lead by Drs. Fred Bunnell and John Nelson has been developing com- puter simulation models to forecast the long-term consequences of forest manage- ment on timber supply, forest structure and wildlife. In a recent project, we investigated how alternative patch management strate- gies affect timber supply and landscape structure. Options were developed that in- clude a range of opening sizes, levels of compliance for opening size targets, and rotation ages. These options were simulated for 240 years on a 30,000 ha forest. When attempting to force a target patch size distribution on to a very different land- scape pattern, we should expect decreased harvest levels, especially in the short-term. The more the existing pattern deviates from the target pattern, the greater the impacts on iO u-19ijrs Y e a r 30 Recruitment of large, old serai patches in years 30 and 100 represent management opportunities to influence the landscape structure. The absence of patch management leads to the depletion in year 80 of the patch that recruited in year 30. timber supply, especially in the short-term. However, if we work with the existing landscape when introducing new patterns, and we are prepared to compromise on the target structure, we can, at the minimum, maintain short-term timber flows. Regardless of the patch size strategy, rotation ages of approximately 100 years do not lead to large, old patches. The forest developed a normal age class structure on the harvested land (0-100 years), while isolated reserves and inoperable lands grew very old - with a huge age gap between the two (i.e. a generation gap). This is of concern because it forecloses options to recruit old growth should this be necessary for conservation and response to natural disturbances. If we want large, old patches on a continuous basis, and located through- out the forest, then longer rotations and an appropriate patch size distribution arc necessary. The temporal aspects of patch dynamics are as important as the spatial ones. We observed that two periods were significant for the recruitment of large patches into the late serai age class (years 30 and 100, see figure). The patch that recruits in year 30 origi- nates from a large fire, and the patch that recruits in year 100 from a large clearcut. These periods represent substantial op- portunity to inf luence both landscape pattern and serai stage distribu- tions. Conversely, by year 80 a decline in late serai patches was observed when harvesting of the large patch that recruited in year 30 is complete. Most importantly, we need to think of patch size, adjacency, and rotations age as objectives rather than absolute constraints, and to be prepared to deviate from these objectives from time to time. For additional information, please contact Dr. John Nelson at (604) 822-3902, fax (604) 822-9106, e-mail nelson® interchg. ubc.ca or Ralph Wells at (604) 822-0943, e-mail nvells@interchg.ubc.ca. • DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . John Innes recently co-edited a book on "Biomass Burning and Its Interrelation- ships with the Climate System" published by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000. In November, he co-chaired the World Forest Forum on Forests and Society focussing on the role of the media in environmental communication and in methods to raise public awareness and strengthen public participation. Drs. Val LeMay &Temesgen Hailemariam hosted a workshop on January 21, 2000 at UBC entitled "Generation of Tree Lists from Aerial Information" sponsored by the University of B.C., the B.C. Ministry of Forests and Forest Renewal BC. Dr. Roy Sidle was one of three invited international participants at the U.S.-Japan joint seminar on the Hydrology and Bio- geochemistry of Forested Catchments held at the East-West Center in Hawaii, January 31 to February 4. Dr. Sidle chaired one ses- sion and presented a paper on "Preferential flow contributions to storm runoff: evidence of self organization." Dr. Amod Dhakal, a recent graduate from the University of Tsukuba in Japan, has joined Dr. Sidle's Forest Hydrology group to work on landslide modeling. Dr. John Innes is organizing a sustaina- ble forest management workshop to be held at UBC on August 28-30, 2000. For further details, please visit our web site www.forestry.ubc.ca/workshop/index.html. • Branch Lines 4 Faculty News New appointments Dr. Shawn Mansfield has joined the Wood Science Department as an assistant professor. He obtained his B.Sc. (Hons.) in biology from Mount Allison Univer- sity and completed his M.Sc. in microbiology at Dalhousie Uni- versity. After graduating from UBC with a Ph.D. in wood science, Shawn spent two years as a research scientist at the New Zealand Forest Research Institute, working on enzymatic applications to modify fiber morphology and products. During his tenure down under he also held a term position at the University of Waikato in Hamilton New Zealand as a lecturer in biological sciences. Shawn has returned "home" to UBC to help develop and teach in our new one-year non- thesis masters program in fibre and wood. His research interests focus on understand- ing how fibre morphology and chemistry/ biochemistry influence wood, fibre and pulp properties. Shawn can be reached at (604) 822-0196, fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail shawnman@ interchg.ubc.ca. Adrian Weber - in memoriam Adrian Weber, a senior Ph.D. student in Forest Ecology, died in a swimming accident on January 1. He started his post-secondary education with a degree in Physics at Queens University and went on to graduate in the first class of our Natural Resources Conservation program. Adrian was studying the succes- sional relationships of the two stand types that characterize the landscape west of Port McNeil. The highly productive HA (western hemlock-amabilis fir) stand type has long been considered to be a wind-maintained early serai stage leading to the CH (western red cedar) stand type. Adrian' s work is show- ing that this is probably entirely wrong. The failure of the supposedly shade tolerant red Cheryl Griffioen has been appointed to the position of Develop- ment Officer for the Faculty of Forestry. She will be working with the Dean, faculty members, alumni and the Faculty's Advisory Committee to plan and implement our development program. Cheryl comes to us from CIBC and her most recent fundraising position was as chairperson of CIBC's United Way Cam- paign. She is looking forward to working with the Faculty and promoting our work and needs to the community. Your ideas, knowledge, proposals and questions will help to strengthen our Faculty's develop- ment program, and Cheryl encourages you to share your thoughts with her. Cheryl can be reached at (604) 822-8716, or e-mail cgrijf@ interchg.ubc.ca. Dean search update Our search for a new dean continues after the University was not able to bring the negotia- tions with a selected candidate to a successful conclusion. In the interim, Dr. John McLean will remain in the role of Acting Dean. cedar to invade the HA stands appears to be related to a combination of low light, the lack of appropriate mycorrhizal fungi, and the fact that while red cedar seedlings are very shade tolerant, the germinants are very shade intolerant. Adrian's work has clearly shown the need for an ecosystem-level explanation for these successional relationships. Contributions to an Adrian Weber Memo- rial Scholarship in Forest Ecology can be sent to the Department of Forest Sciences. Sincere thanks to Western Forest Products and Weyerhaeuser for generous contribu- tions to the completion of Adrian's work and to the Memorial Fund. Adrian is greatly missed by family, friends and fellow students. Our sympathy goes to all of them. Position available ... First Nations forestry coordinator We are looking for an individual to fill the role of First Nations Forestry Coordinator in the Faculty of Forestry. The position in- volves working with faculty members, stu- dents and the community to increase the participation and success of First Nations students in the Faculty. We currently have 19 self-declared First Nations students, up from five when this initiative began under the guidance of our first coordinator in 1995. The coordinator will also work with the faculty to continue the development and implementation of First Nations content in our Forestry curriculum. Closing date for applications is March 31, 2000. For further information, please visit our web site at www.forestry.ubc.ca or contact Mrs. Barbara Alivojvodic at (604) 822-5542, e-mail alivoj@interchg. ubc.ca. New on-line course for technology managers Our Department of Wood Science is offering a new on-line distance learning course on "Managing Technology for Value Delivery." The course, which starts on March 6, 2000 and will run for 8 weeks, is being led by Dr. Alan Procter, the former Research Director for MacMillan Bloedel and a proven leader in the innovative man- agement of research and technology. A sec- ond session will begin in the fall of 2000. Recognizing that the management of tech- nology is vitally important to the competi- tiveness of industry and research organiza- tions, this internet-based course explains how technology can be better managed to deliver high quality products and services. The course is geared towards research and technology managers/professionals, tech- nical directors, technology acquisition pro- fessionals, strategic planning executives and chief officers responsible for tech- nology development in their organisations. The cost of the course is CDN$ 1,000 per participant (with group discounts available). For more information, contact Alan Procter at (604) 822-5936, e-mail a. r.jjrocter @ telus. net. Also, feel free to visit our demo site: http:/ /wwwl.cstudies.ubc.ca:8900/public/RMTD/. Upcoming . . . C a r e e r s E v e n i n g Our 8th Annual Careers Evening for forestry undergraduates will take place on Wednesday, March 15 at 4:30 p.m. All alumni are invited. Further information can be obtained from Helen Samson, Coordinator of Student Services at (604) 822-3547 or e-mail helens@interchg.ubc.ca. Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Variable retention on visually sensitive slopes - the Pitt Lake demonstration site W h en the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest was founded in 1943, H.R. MacMi l l an described it as "potentially the most influ- ential 10,000 acres in the province." The expectations of this great man continue to be a tall order, as the Forest strives to be a role model of relevant issues in an era of social forestry that extends beyond both exploitation and pure science. Over the years, forest operations have moved onto increasingly steeper and more sensitive terrain. Public criticism based on visual impact has led to an increasingly constrained landbase. Highly visible areas now comprise a large proportion of the mature timber supply in many regions of the province. Increasingly, forest planners are faced with the need to develop strategies for development of these areas. • Do aesthetic concerns preclude timber harvesting on these sites? • Are there silvicultural systems and har- vest methods that can safely manage aesthetic impacts? • What types of long-term planning are needed to implement these strategies? • W h a t a re the o p e r a t i o n a l cos t s and implications of these alternatives? The Pitt Lake slopes are a highly visible area at the northwest corner of the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest (see photo below). The surrounding area is heavily used for recreation with more than 200,000 people visiting annually. Research Fores t s taff , in coopera t ion with Dr. Stephen Sheppard, are setting up the area as a demonstration site for varia- ble retention harvest ing techniques. The following planning phases are underway: • Total chance planning to delineate all product ive forest , road requi rements and environmental constraints. • Development planning and economic analysis. • Road layout and geometric design. • Cutblock design and visualization. • Site diagnosis (including visual impact a s s e s s m e n t ) , l a n d s c a p e des ign and silviculture prescriptions. Road construction was completed in October 1999 (see photo) and multispan skyline harvesting will begin on two first phase cutblocks covering six hectares in the spr ing of 2000 . T h e s e c u t b l o c k s have been designed as variable retention "snake and blob" cutblocks. SFEIBC wins awards The Silviculture and Forest Engineering Institute of B .C. has been awarded the British Columbia Forests Excel lence Award in Education for 1999. The award was presented at a reception for finalists on February 22, 2000. The Ins t i tu te ' s d ip loma program in forest engineering, which will be produc- ing its first graduating class this spring, w a s r ecen t l y a w a r d e d the A B C P F / A P E G B C Forest Engineering Award of Excellence for 1999. Copies available ... Leslie L. Schaffer Lecture The Leslie L. Schaf fe r Lectureship was established in 1981 by Mrs. Kato Schaffer for the purpose of disseminating scientific information and achievement among forestry students, professional foresters, scientists and the public. This year 's lecture was given on February 2 by Dr. Gerald Rehfeldt of the USDA Forest Service. The lecture was held in conjunction with a Faculty Research Evening and attract- ed well over 100 interested individuals. Free copies of Dr. Rehfeldt's talk "Genes, Climate and Wood'" are available electronically at the Faculty's web site www.forestry.ubc.ca, or can be obtained by writing to the address below. Pitt Lake slopes. Road construction for first phase cutblocks. Dr. Sheppard and his students are cur- rently modeling the visual impact of this project . Stand mode l ing will predict green-up and the even- tual amelioration of visual im- pact. The results of this visuali- zation work will be displayed to the public both on the Forest and along the Pitt Lake shore. For more information, please contact Paul Lawson, RPF, Man- ager of the UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forestat(604)463-8148, fax (604) 463-2712 or e-mail plawson @ interchg. ubc. ca. • NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION B r a n c h L ines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1 181-9936. ht tp: / /www.forestry .ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts , Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry, Dean's Office University of British Columbia Forest Sciences Centre 2005-2424 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 S (604) 822-63 1 6 Recycled Paper Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@interchg.ubc.ca ©Facul ty of Forestry, 2000 Branch Lines 6

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