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Branchlines, Vol. 9, no. 3 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry 1998

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 9 No. 3 December, 1998 From the Dean 's Desk W e have settled in to our new home in the Forest Sciences Centre. Classes have drawn to a close for this term and students are completing their last assignments and sit- ting their final examinations. In addition to their concerns about examinations, this is also the time when students are trying to line up that all important summer work ex- perience. A good summer job working alongside a professional really helps to develop student interest, shows the rele- vance of the work that they have been doing on campus and broadens their experience. Students and faculty both gain when sum- mer experiences act as reality checks in subsequent classroom discussions. Employ- ers benefit from well-educated, enthusias- tic and eager-to-learn summer employees. We have undergraduate students (current enrolment in parentheses) studying in five majors: • Forest Resources Management (289) • Forest Operations (78) • Natural Resources Conservation (123) • Forest Science (35) • Wood Products Processing (85). The Wood Products Processing major has a formal Co-op work placement compo- nent. Work terms are spaced throughout the year in order to meet the formal defini- tion of a Co-op program. If you are inter- ested in having one of these students take a Co-op work term in your business, please contact Christine Forget, Co-op Education Coordinator, at (604) 822-4793 or e-mail her atforget@interchg.ubc.ca. Our experi- ences show us that both students and com- panies gain from these well focused work placements. Students in the other four majors need field experience that can only be obtained In addition to paid work place- ments, our Natural Resources Con- servation students are also interest- ed in "volunteer" positions where, in return for provision of transpor- tation and some help with living expenses, they can gain a valuable first field experience and interac- tion with a professional biologist. If you have possible positions here, p lease contact us at consjobs@ interchg.ubc.ca. Any help you can give in provid- ing a work place experience for our students will be greatly appre- ciated. You can reach me in person, by letter, S (604) 822-2467, fax (604) 822-8645, ore-mail mclean@interchg. ubc.ca. Students at work in the undergraduate lounge and study area in the Forest Sciences Centre. John A. McLean Acting Dean safely during the summer after the snow has melted, access is reliable and it is generally safe for them to be in the field. These dedicated young professionals-in- training are committed to studies in many aspects of forestry broadly defined. A summer work experience, under the inter- active direction of a professional, will greatly help our students to develop the skills they will need for the "real world". Who better to have as a partner in learning than a Professional Forester or a Profes- sional Biologist? Interactive learning situ- ations, mentoring and work placements are among the strategies for learning encom- passed by UBC' s TREK 2000 vision for the 21s' Century1 . Please keep our students in mind when you are hiring for summer positions. If you would like to interview a Forest Resources Management, Forest Operations, Natural Resources Conservation or Forest Science student for a summer position, please con- tact Helen Samson, our Coordinator of Student Services, at (604) 822-3547 or e-mail her at helens@interchg. ubc.ca. We can arrange for student resumes to be collected for you. Interview rooms are available for employers who are able to visit the Forest Sciences Centre. 1 Copy available on request. Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Optimum conditions for natural regeneration IN C R E A S I N G L Y , in British Columbia, partial cu t t ing a l t e rna t ives to c lear- cut t ing are be ing c o n s i d e r e d by fores t managers. An important question that arises is — what is the best way of regenerating partially cut forests? Wi th an on-site seed source, natural regenerat ion becomes an option. Knowledge of the opt imum con- ditions for natural regeneration of forests will thus assist assessments of partial cut- ting and silvicultural systems options for forest management . Our knowledge of the opt imum condi- tions for natural regeneration in B.C., often extrapolated f rom contradictory U.S. stud- ies, has been incomplete and uncertain. To improve this knowledge a series of studies has been c o n d u c t e d on impor t an t tree species in different biogeocl imatic zones in B.C. To date we have studied western red cedar in the C W H biogeocl imat ic zone, Engelmann spruce and suba lp ine fir in the ESSF zone, western larch in the IDF, MS, ICH, and E S S F zones, and lodgepole pine, interior (white x Enge lmann) spruce, and subalpine fir in the SBS zone. All studies have used small (approx. I m2) plots placed with either mineral soil, burned forest floor, or undis turbed forest f loor seedbeds in different light environments , from open clearcuts to heavily shaded for- ests. Sometimes ecosystem (site associa- tion) and animal predation or plant com- petition have been assessed as well. In these studies each seedbed/l ight environ- ment/ecosystem/animal predation or com- petition combinat ion was replicated 9-15 times. Each plot was seeded, usually with 100 seeds per species, and subsequent ge rmina t ion and seed l ing g rowth was assessed for 2-3 years. Predation was not studied in the SBS and ESSF plots, but overwinter seed predation of the relatively Percent P e r c e n t Survival (% of viable seeds applied) of seed- lings of different species in different bio- geoclimatic units as a function of seedbed (top) and light environment (bottom). large subalpine Fir seeds was found to be significant. Seeding plots in spring over- came this problem. Where seed predation was not wanted, plots were covered by wire mesh screens. After 3 years, survival has ranged f rom <2% for western larch in the IDF x h subzone to 20-40% for subalpine fir in the SBS zone (see figure) with most mortality occurring the first growing season. Survival has in- variably been better on disturbed (burned or mineral soil) than on undisturbed forest floor seedbeds. Survival has also generally been better in open or light shade, than in heavily shaded env i ronment s . Seedl ing growth has invariably decreased as the amount of the shading has increased, being best in open clearcuts, but has shown vari- able trends with seedbed type, being best on either mineral soil, burned, or undisturbed forest floor seedbeds, depending on species and biogeoclimatic zone. For the species and biogeoclimatic zones studied, it can be generally concluded that opt imum condit ions for natural regenera- tion involve dis turbance which changes the nature of the ground surface and increases the amount of light reaching this surface. Natural regeneration of the species studied in partially cut areas within the biogeo- climatic units studied, can be successful and can be enhanced if appropriate treat- ments are applied to the forest f loors. For further information, please contact Dr. Michael Feller at (604) 822-3729, fax (604)822-9102 or e-mailfeller@interchg. ubc.ca.Q DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Sally Aitken has been appointed by the Chief Forester to the Forest Genetics Coun- cil and has agreed to chair the Coastal Technical Advisory Commit tee to the Forest Genetics Council for a second term. In September, Drs. Yousry El-Kassaby and Gene Namkoong were in China attending the IUFRO meeting and presented two papers entitled "Phenotypic Plasticity in Western Redcedar" and "Impacts of Industrial For- estry on Genetic Diversity of Forest Trees ." Recently Dr. Hamish Kimmins taught a module on ecosystem modell ing at the Alberta Advanced Forest Management Institute in Hinton, Alberta. The first major grant to UBC from the Canada Foundation for Innovation was awarded to Dr. Kermit Ritland in support of the "Genetic Data Centre ", a service lab for the collection and analysis of molecular genetic data. The Centre received $382,000 as 40% of a matching funding proposal of $955,000, and credit goes to Dr. Gene Namkoong for its conception and to Dr. Carol Ritland for current direction. Dr. Scott Hinch and two colleagues have been awarded a 4-year $800,000 N S E R C Strategic Grant to investigate effects of river discharge and temperature changes, caused by hydro operat ions on upriver migrating salmon energetics, survival, and reproductive success. Dr. Cindy Prescott is hosting visiting scientists Raija Laiho f rom University of Helsinki and T imo Pentilla from Finnish Forest Research Institute for nine months. Drs. Alison Munson f rom Laval University and Margaret Schmidt f rom Simon Fraser University are spending sabbaticals work- ing with Cindy. • Branch Lines 2 Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Western red cedar: A source of special products WE S T E R N red cedar ( T h u j a plicata) is the "provincial t ree" of British Columbia and has played an important part in the deve lopment of the province. Its extraordinary properties were the founda- tion of the e c o n o m y of the indigenous peoples of the northwest coast of Canada. The wood is durable and light, and as such was used for production of totem poles and canoes. Red cedar also proved easy to split into p lanks for use in bui ld ing houses , decks and boxes. The wood extractives be- came a source of chemicals with medicinal and aromatic propert ies . Even the bark, with its stringy nature, was woven into ropes and clothing. Commercial production of products from western red cedar began around 1825 in Fort Vancouver with the hand-split t ing of cedar into shakes by the Hudson Bay Company. Over the years, other applications were de- veloped such as poles, siding, fencing, cas- kets and arbors, sheds and gazebos. A major problem in the processing of red ccdar is the production of a large amount of wood waste, much of which is burned. Our research, in the Department of Wood Science, aims at the production of specialty mechanical pulps and papers f rom this wood residue. In collaboration with MacMil lan Bloedel Ltd., Pacifica Paper Inc. and Paprican, we have been conduc t ing research into the causes of the dark colour and poor bleacha- bility of wes te rn red cedar mechanica l pulps. Mechanical pulps were prepared on a pilot scale in Paprican 's Vancouver labo- ratories f rom wood chips supplied by MacMillan Bloedel. The extractable colour from the pulp was characterized by spec- initial at tempts at bleaching cedar me- chanical pulp, large amounts of hydrogen p e r o x i d e were c o n s u m e d in o rde r to achieve a brightness level of only 55% ISO. Based on our understanding from the fundamental studies into the structure of the colour and its format ion , we have recently been able to achieve brightness levels of 72% ISO. W e anticipate that, by op t imiz ing b leach ing cond i t ions , even 0 2 0 2 / \ Fe3* ' H 2 O Fe 2 + J R \ \ 1 \ \ 1 / R / / 1 rS ^ ^ A Base Catalyzed Coloured P o l y m e r P r o d u c t s HO Y ^ O M e OH A3 O O M e Formation of colour during refining of western red cedar. troscopy (NMR. IR, UV) and was deter- mined to be formed by polymerization of the phenolic extractives in the original wood. The polymerization appears to be promoted by the presence of iron and the extreme conditions of temperature and humidity found in a chip refiner. Mechanical pulps f rom western red cedar have a brightness level around 22% ISO, which is much lower than the value of 60% obtained with spruce. Our goal was to produce a high quality cedar pulp with brightness over 70% ISO. In our higher brightness levels can be achieved at reasonable levels of peroxide consump- tion. The indigenous peoples of British Co- lumbia spoke of ccdar as the "tree of l i fe" and made full use of every part of the tree. We hope that our research will be a step towards once again achieving full utiliza- tion of this valuable resource. For further information, please contact Dr. Rodger Beatson at (604) 822-9736, fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail beatsonr@ interchg.uhc.ca. Q DEPARTMENT NEWS T h e Department of Wood Science is one of the organizing sponsors of the next World Conference on T imber Engineering. Dr. Dave Barrett is the Chairman of the confer- ence which will be held July 31 to August 3, 2000 in Whistler, B.C. Dr. Helmut Prion has been promoted to Associate Professor . Drs. Frank Lam and Helmut Prion orga- nized a success fu l " T i m b e r Connect ion Design Seminar" conference on October 10, 1998. The conference was held in the new Forest Sciences Centre and was at- tended by 80 engineers, architects, re- searchers and graduate students. Dr. John Ruddick has been elected to the Execut ive Board of the American Wood Preservers Association for a six- year term. During the last year of this appointment John will become the sixth Canadian president in the 100-year his- tory of the A W P A and will hold this off ice in the centenary year of the Association. Dr. Jack Saddler was Co-Chair of the Nordic Bioenergy Conference on "Ethanol f rom Lignocel lulosics" held in Sarpsborg, Norway, November 9 to 11, 1998. This is part of the Scandinavian strategy on allevi- ating global warming. Dr. Stavros Avramidis has been appointed a regular member of the European Union ' s 5th Program Framework Key Action Ex- ternal Advisory Group on "Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries" for 1 9 9 8 - 2 0 0 2 . • Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Developing a Centre of Excellence in Computer-Aided Decision Support INTERESTED in walking through a virtual forest which simulates condi- tions 50 years hence? Care to send your proposed harvesting plan out for review by the general public via the web? New computer technology is emerging with exciting possibilities for natural re- source management and forest landscape design: examples include computer visu- alisation and virtual reality (VR), PC- based GIS, high-resolution satellite imagery, and web-based public partici- pation. However, standards or guidelines have yet to be developed for using these systems to improve decision-making. In step with the "Smart Forestry" con- cept, the Faculty is establishing a Centre of Excellence in Computer-Aided Re- source Decision-Support, to test new techniques in spatial analysis and compu- ter visualisation. With an interdisciplinary team (including Computer Science, Land- scape Architecture, and Geography), the Faculty of Forestry has won funding from the Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI), to build this state-of-the-art research infrastructure. The Centre will: • Benchmark and validate emerging 2D, 3D, and 4D techniques in computer visu- alisation and spatial modelling, applied to land management and forest resource planning. • Develop user-friendly prototypes forcom- munications and decision support, such as gaming and interactive modelling. • Disseminate the results with appropriate guidance to real-world users. The facility builds upon the Forest Infor- mation Research Management Systems (FIRMS) laboratory originally developed by Dr. Peter Murtha for remote sensing research. The Centre will serve as a hub for researchers from various disciplines (inside and outside Forestry) who wish to: • add visualisation to their own computer models, (e.g. in ecosystem modelling, growth and yield forecasting, and timber harvest planning); and • test the social acceptability of future forest management scenarios, by obtain- ing lay people's responses to visualiza- tions. It is hoped that Forestry, perhaps in cooperation with Computer Science, can equip a virtual reality lab which obtains public preferences on social forestry issues through VR modelling of alternative land- scape scenarios. Current projects in the Centre include: • Visualization of sequential partial cut designs at Gavin Lakes in the Alex Fraser Research Forest using 3D modelling and photographic imaging techniques (see figures above). • Dr. Murtha's RAINS (RAdar Imaging Natural Systems) project researching RADARSAT data for monitoring ripar- ian zone leave strips, and remote sensing protocols for B.C. forests. • Development of a prototype for realistic ground-view visualization, as aqueriable interface "bolted-on" to GIS and other modelling programs. Partial (strip) cuts at 40 and 100 years from initial entry. The Centre will also coordinate the new teaching role of the FIRMS lab, which is responsible for supporting the growing num- ber of instructors using GIS in their classes. For further information, please contact Dr. Stephen Sheppardat (604) 822-6582, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail shep@interchg. ubc.ca. • DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Stephen Sheppard joined an interna- tional review team for an unusual Commu- nity Forest initiative in the UK. The Wychwood Project in Oxfordshire aims to restore ancient broadleaf woodland and related landscape, agro-ecological, and economic values within the boundaries of the Royal Hunting Forest recorded in the Domesday Book in 1086. Branch Lines 4 Dr. Peter Murtha was session chair for the forestry application in the final Appli- cation Development and Research Oppor- tunity (ADRO) Symposium, October 1998, in Montreal. Dr. Murtha also presented two papers and received the "RADARSAT ADRO Managers Award" presented by the Canadian Space Agency, for significant contr ibutions to the Canadian A D R O program. Dr. David Tait has taken on the role of Program Director for Professional Forestry programs in the Faculty of Forestry. Dr. Casey Van Kooten edited a special issue of Canadian Public Policy (24: May 1998) on Forestry Policy in Canada. He is also one of the editors of a volume entitled "Forest Policy: International Comparisons", to be published in December, 1998 D Faculty News New appointments Dr. Rodger Beatson has joined the Department of Wood Science as Assistant Professor. Rodger obtained his doctorate in organic chem- istry from the University of Western Ontario. He has held senior research positions with the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada and Canadian Forest Products. His research interests are in the area of wood chemistry as it pertains to manufacture of fibre- based products. Rodger presently has active research programs into the influence of western red cedar extractives on fibre properties and the use of fungi/enzymes to treat process waters in pulp mills. He has responsibility for coordinating the development of the professional Masters program in Wood and Fibre Science. Rodger can be reached at (604) 822-9736, fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail beatsonr@ interchg. ubc.ca. Dr. Urs Buehlmunn has joined the Department of Wood Science as Assistant Professor. Urs obtained his doctorate in wood processing from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He also holds an engineering degree from the Swiss Institute of Wood Technology. His research interests are in the area of industrial engineering and business administration for the forest products industry. He currently has research projects in the optimization of lumber supply for secondary wood products manufacturers, oppor- tunities for increasing yield in rough mills, and the implementation of flexible manu- facturing cells into existing operations. Urs is currently looking for industrial coopera- tors where his knowledge and experience may be useful in enhancing an operation's competitiveness. Urs can be reached at (604) 822-9716, fax (604) 822-9104 ore-mail ursb@ interchg.ubc.ca. Upcoming accreditation visit The Canadian Forestry Accreditation Board (CFAB) is composed of a represen- tative from each province with a profes- sional forestry association and a represen- tative from the Canadian Institute of For- estry. The mandate of the CFAB is to pro- vide an accreditation service for forestry programs at Canadian universities. Gradu- ates from an accredited forestry program are academically eligible for enrolment in any of the provincial professional forestry associations. The last CFAB accreditation visit to the Faculty of Forestry at UBC took place in 1993, at which time the Forest Resources Management Program and the Forest Operations Program were accred- ited for six years. These programs need to be reviewed again in the near future. A site visitation team from the CFAB is scheduled to visit UBC on March 30 and 31, 1999. The team will be composed of four individuals: two nominated by CFAB, and two nominated by the ABCPF. Only one member of the team may be a forestry graduate from UBC. Prior to the visit, the team will receive a dossier that includes information on the governance of the uni- versity and the program, teaching and re- search facilities, CVs of each member of the teaching faculty, and course outlines and other relevant information on the cur- riculum. With this in hand, the team will make an initial assessment of the curricu- lum content relative to the minimum stan- dards set for each required subject area and identify areas of possible concern prior to the site visit. The site visit will involve tours of the facilities and a series of interviews with university and faculty administrators, fac- ulty members, student representatives, and perhaps, recent alumni. During the inter- views, the team will solicit feedback on the effectiveness of the programs. Follow- ing the site visit, the team will prepare an accreditation report, containing a synopsis Calling all Up Alumni John Worrall has taken on the role of Faculty contact for our Alumni and is working on an alumni newsletter to be included with the March 1999 issue of Branch Lines. He would like to hear from you about where you are now and what you are doing. John has finally agreed to give in to technology and now has e-mai I at his desk! He can be reached at worrall @interchg.ubc.ca. John's role is our first step in trying to establish a better contact with Forestry alumni. We are also working with the UBC Alumni Association to establish an active Forestry Alumni Division for the university. The purpose of the Division would be to involve alumni in activities and programs of interest to all Forestry graduates — Speaker's Series, mentor- ing programs, social events, etc. For Division information please contact Catherine Newlands, UBC Alumni Association, at (604) 822-8917, toll free at 1-800-883-3088, or e-mail newlands @ alumni, ubc. ca. of perceived strengths and weaknesses of the programs, as well as a recommendation for accreditation status. This report will be sent to the Dean to check for factual accu- racy and then it will be distributed to all CFAB members. Within a month or two of receiving the report, the CFAB will decide on accredita- tion status. This can range from no accredi- tation, through provisional status, to full accreditation. The maximum accreditation period is six years. The CFAB accreditation decision is binding on all of the provincial professional forestry associations. Further information can be obtained from Dr. Peter Marshall, Associate Dean Under- graduate Studies, at (604) 822-4918, fax 822-8645 or e-mail marshall@interchg. ubc.ca. Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Blowdown in the November storms Blowdown in riparian buffer strips at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. W i n t e r has arrived and with it, the some- what seasonally inclement weather. Pre- vailing climatic conditions have consider- able impact on operations, both with re- spect to research and education support, as well as routine forest operations such as timber harvesting. Over the weekend of November 21 -22, a storm blew in from the Pacific and caused chaos in the Fraser Valley. Power was dis- rupted over considerable areas. The proce- dures for emergency response were fol- lowed at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, and in a similar manner to the storm of 1995, a quick survey was carried out to provide a preliminary estimate of damage. A fol low-up more detailed survey indi- cated little damage to the older stands and the road system was fully functional by the end of the weekend ' s storm event. This was in strong contrast to the storm of 1995 when the road system was blocked by fallen trees for more than two weeks. Although the older stands were generally free of major damage, the younger stands, particularly those that regenerated after the 1931 railway logging fire, were severe- ly damaged locally. Some areas within the Riparian Management Research Project (a major effort involving nine research projects and some 15 researchers), were severely impacted. The project is designed to assess the effects of harvesting on a wide range of riparian and stream activi- ties by the removal of 14 blocks of 65- year-old forest over six watersheds. Har- vesting blocks have been laid out with different creek buffer strip widths result- ing in unconventional shapes and consid- erable lengths of edge. In fact, there are over 12.3 kilometres of edge for 42.8 hectares, or 288 lineal metres of edge per hectare - considerably more than conven- tional west coast harvesting patterns which rarely exceed 100 metres of edge per hectare. About 2,000 cubic metres of t imber were blown over, much of it within the buffer strips of the riparian project. Small patches also came down in other parts of the watersheds. The di lemma now is how to harvest the windblow without disrupt- ing research. From the operations side, it is important to salvage the windblow which represents over 15% of the annual harvest at the Forest. Some researchers would like the windblow to be left. This would be diff icult to jus t i fy as the Research For- ests have to be managed for financial self- suff iciency. Further, windblown trees will p r o v i d e f a v o u r a b l e b r e e d i n g s i t es fo r ambrosia beetles. How this issue will be resolved is still a matter of debate. W e will need to assess the potential impact of t imber salvage on each stream. If the windblow is located closer to the upper boundaries of the watershed, there will probably be a m u c h lower impact than if the windblow is located on the lower slopes where the creeks are larger. However , re- moving the t imber is bound to have some impact on riparian processes, regardless of the location of the windblow. Possibly we have the m a k i n g s of ano the r resea rch project. Certainly stand edge stability is the focus of one part icular research project within the riparian study, but the impact of removing the windblow could be included in the wide spect rum of research being carried out in this highly complex, joint research venture. For further information, please contact Peter Sanders, Research Forests Director, at (604) 463-8148, fax (604) 463-2712 or e- mail sanders @ interchg. ubc. ca. • NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. ht tp: / /www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts , Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry, Dean 'sOff ice University of British Columbia Forest Sciences Centre 2005-2424 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V 6 T 1 Z 4 S (604) 822 -63 16 Recycled Paper Fax:(604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@interchg.ubc.ca ©Facul ty of Forestry, 1998 Branch Lines 6


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