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Branchlines, Vol. 13, no. 3 Watts, Susan B.; University of British Columbia. Faculty of Forestry 2002

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Volume 13  No. 3 December, 2002 From  the Dean's  Desk As I visit various insti- tutes in Scandinavia this week, I have been re- minded of the need for British Columbia’s and Canada’s forest-based sectors to “reinvent” themselves. The Scandinavian forest sector includes everything from world class consulting engi- neering companies, such as Jaako Pöyry, to one of the world’s best design studios working in teak! In a similar effort to reinvent forestry, the thrust of forestry education in Sweden and Finland holistically incorporates ecology and conservation biology as an integral part of forest management studies. Although this has started to occur in Canada, with our own natural resources conservation program show- ing good enrolment, holistic forestry is only slowly making it into the “market place”.  BC’s new Forest Practices Code now encourages the recognition of Professional Biologists for “professional” input into important aspects of forest management. Today, most Canadian forestry schools have a significant and critical component of their curriculum devoted to the biology of the forest environment. The educa- tional commitment to the triple bottom line of economic, ecological and social well being of the forest and its dependent communities is also reflected by the importance forestry education now places on issues such as First Nations, market forces, and climate change, which have both local and global implications. As the debate continues about whether Canada should support the Kyoto accord, the Scandinavian forest-based sector has clearly articulated what it can do to meet Europe’s goals to reduce dependency on fossil fuels, sequester carbon and, consequently, reduce greenhouse gases. BC and the Canadian forest- based sectors have, with some notable excep- tions, stayed largely quiet on this topic. One problem has been to determine who speaks for the BC and the Canadian forest sectors. Progress is being made in the ration- alization of many of the regional associa- tions that are scattered around the country. The Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) continues to make good strides with what, in my humble opinion, was the best sub- sector submission from Natural Resources Canada in the recent Resource Sector Inno- vation Summit that was hosted by Minister Dhaliwal in Vancouver. This submission, entitled, “Accelerating Forest Sector Re- newal”, which was approved by the CEOs of the FPAC member companies, covered many of the economic, ecological and social changes that the Canadian forest sector will have to implement if it hopes to be globally competitive. A further study, entitled, “Accel- erating Forest Sector S&T Renewal: Significant, Sustainable, Innovative”, summarized Canada’s past innovation record in forest-related science and technology. Although the report describes several areas where the Canadian forest sector has been truly innovative, from its investment of billions of dollars in the research and devel- opment of pulp mill effluent clean-up initia- tives to its lead role in the implementation of Criteria and Indicators in the development of sustainable forest management practices, it barely touches on describing what science and technology should be carried out to ensure the future Canadian forest-based sector is globally competitive. Part of our problem is defining what will constitute the future Canadian forest sector. Scandinavia’s broadening of its forest sector definition has not been at the expense of any core competencies in structural wood and pulp and paper areas, but rather, Scandinavian countries have re-emphasized how forests and their multiple uses are key components of enhancing their global reputation as inno- vative stewards of their natural resources. As organizations such as FPAC broaden their constituents beyond their pulp and paper roots into other components of the forest products sector, it will be interesting to see how the traditional forest-based organiza- tions fit into the evolving forest sector of the future. It is recognized that this century will likely be the one where the technology of “life sciences” will affect us in the same way that mechanical/chemical/electrical/computing affected us in past decades. Agriculture has embraced this concept, almost rebranding the sector as “Agbiotech”, with traditional agri- cultural companies such as Monsanto realign- ing themselves with this evolving technology. Most aspects of forestry clearly fall within the broad definition of “life sciences” – from the epidemiology of the mountain pine beetle (“sick-trees” + insects + fungi) to its impacts on forest dependent communities in BC. The new “life sciences” agenda for BC should have forestry as a key pillar of this strategy. Our challenge will be to define Canada’s future forest-based sector and what role we want enabling technologies and societal concerns to play in this “reinvention” of the Canadian forest-based sector. You can reach me in person, by letter, fax 604-822-8645, phone 604-822-2467, or email saddler@interchg.ubc.ca. Jack Saddler Forest  Sciences  Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT DEPARTMENT NEWS Branch Lines 2 Survey of the western hemlock looper in the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest HE western hemlock looper (WHL) (Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa Lepi- doptera: Geometridae) is a periodic defoli- ator of western hemlock in British Columbia. In 2001 high numbers were recorded in the GVRD watersheds and also at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest (MKRF). Three pheromone-baited traps set out at one sta- tion in the MKRF by the Canadian Forest Service (CFS) in 2001 caught 2116 male moths. The objective of this 2002 study was to survey the western hemlock forests on the southern part of the MKRF to deter- mine the distribution and intensity of the western hemlock looper population. Seven collecting locations were set up, see figure. At each location a three-tree beating sample was made on July 31 to determine the numbers of caterpillars feeding on the foliage. These insects were taken to the labo- ratory at UBC where they were reared and causes of mortality, especially parasitism, were noted. Three trees at each location were stem-wrapped with burlap sacking to intercept older larvae as they attempted to crawl up the tree after spinning down from the tree in search of new foliage. These traps were collected on September 17. Three pheromone- baited traps were set out at each location in mid- August and were collected on November 1. A total of 202 larvae were collected from the beating samples, 132 of which were WHL. The numbers from Locations 1-7 were 22, 86, 4, 7, 7, 4 and 2 respectively. Overall, 69 emerged as adults.  Of the 63 that died, 26 were killed by parasitoids – 16 by tachinid flies and 10 by hymenopterous parasites. A total of 218 mature larvae were collected from the burlap traps. The numbers from locations 1-7 were 27, 158, 17, 3, 3, 4 and 6 respectively. Of these insects 54 emerged as adults, 21 were killed by tachinid parsitoids and 59 were killed by hymenopterous parasitoids. The most abun- dant wasp was the Ichneumonid Aoplus velox occidentalis. The numbers of moths captured in the pheromone-baited traps are shown on the figure. The catch in the CFS traps was only 117 this year, about 6% of the numbers caught in 2001. Location 2 had the highest larval catches. Overall the numbers of larvae in beating samples and those in the burlap samples were comparable. The pattern of male moth captures did not match the larval pattern. Greatest numbers of moths were captured at location 3 and, importantly, the catches showed that male moths were widely dispersed throughout the sampling area. Studies are planned for 2003 to de- termine if the larval numbers follow the same trends as in 2002 or whether the male moth catches are a better predictor of following year population trends. This study was conducted by Re- search Assistant Adrian Behennah. Fund- ing was provided by the Kathleen and Sheldon Rothwell Forest Research Fund. We thank Dr. Imre Otvos and Nicholas Conder for advice on trapping methodologies used by the CFS and for sharing the numbers captured in their pheromone-baited traps. For further information, please contact Dr. John McLean at 604-822-3360, fax 604-822-8645 or email mclean@interchg. ubc.ca. T Numbers of male western hemlock looper trapped at the MKRF 2002. Base map by Ionut Aron. ❑ n October, Dr. Jörg Bohlmann gave an invit- ed talk in the Plant Physiology Seminar at Washington State University. Dr. Scott Hinch served as the opponent at a Ph.D. defense in the Dept. of Aquaculture at the Swedish Agricultural Univ. in Sweden. While in Sweden, Scott delivered research seminars on Pacific salmon migration ecology, and fish/ forestry interactions in BC. In September, Dr. Yousry El-Kassaby attend- ed and presented a paper at the “Tree Seeds 2002”, Annual Meeting of IUFRO 2.09.00 Research Group for Seed Physiology and Technology held in Crete. Dr. Chris Chanway presented an invited talk entitled “Nitrogen fixation in lodgepole pine and western redcedar after inoculation with diazotrophs isolated from internal tissues of mature pine and cedar” at the University of Helsinki, Finland in June. In September, Chris presented an invited paper entitled “Gymnosperms derive a large proportion of foliar N from the atmosphere after inoculation with an endophytic diazotroph” in Leuven. Dr. Kathy Martin has been elected a Mem- ber of the International Ornithological Committee. Her election was based on a nomination by the Executive Committee of the International Ornithological Committee in recognition of her excellence of scientific work and involvement in promoting ornithology. Graduate student John McCarthy S.J., was presented with the Lands and Forests 2002 Award at an Ottawa ceremony for the Cana- dian Environment Awards. John received a gold medal and a cheque for $5,000 to be donated to the environmental cause of his choice. I ❑ Branch Lines 3 RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Forest  Resources  Management  Department DEPARTMENT NEWS raduate students Denise Allen, Laura Cotton and Gordon Hickey won the first prize in the Research Poster Competition at the Canadian Institute of Forestry AGM and Conference held from 28 September to 3 October in North Bay, Ontario. The group poster presented an over- view of all the research projects conducted by students in Dr. John Innes’ Sustainable Forest Management Laboratory. Dr. Jonathan Fannin received a Visiting Scholars Award from the Government of France for a three-month collaboration on decision support systems for landslide risk assessment. Jonathan’s collaboration is in affiliation with the European ECO-SLOPES study at the Laboratoire de Rheologie du Bois de Bordeaux. Dr. George Hoberg (Department Head) delivered the keynote address at the sympo- sium Ecology and Sustainability: Canadian Perspectives, at the German-Canadian Centre of the University of Bonn, Germany. George’s address (which he also delivered at the University of Cologne and the Frei Univer- sity in Berlin) was entitled “The sustaina- bility agenda in Canada: A comparative perspective.” While in Germany, George also lectured on BC forest politics at Goettingen University. G HIS is not a theoretical question. Inter- national conservation organizations are faced with such questions when deciding where to invest in conservation most effective- ly. Wise spending requires a global view of con- servation priorities. Ironically, most environ- mental organizations have grown from the bottom up, with the focus being on the preservation of local species or habitats. In an area such as western Canada, this means that considerable effort is placed on local conserva- tion efforts, sometimes at great expense. The funds do not go very far. Should the focus be on local priorities? This has been a question that myself and graduate students in the Sustainable Forest Management Laboratory at UBC have been addressing. One possibility is to identify high conserva- tion value forests (HCVFs), and ensure that these are protected. However, there is vigorous debate over what constitutes an HCVF. Despite the uncertainty, large timber buyers such as IKEA are pushing ahead with schemes aimed at ensuring that wood procurement is derived from well-managed forests. Like most environ- mental groups, they are justifiably wary of claims made by government or industry that forests are well-managed, preferring some form of credible third-party audit. Because of the uncertainty surrounding HCVFs, IKEA, to- gether with ProForest, has designed a “stair- If you had funds to spend on forest conservation, where would you spend it? case model” that recognizes different levels of forest management. To achieve the bottom rung of the ladder, wood from HCVFs is only acceptable if the forest operation has been certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. The identification of HCVFs is critical, but many attempts to define HCVFs have often been based on local priorities. Surprisingly little attention has been given to the relative endangerment of different forests globally: the issue has generally been the preservation of forests in one’s own backyard. (In Britain, this attitude resulted in a new type of person being recognized: the NIMBY was anxious that any development was ‘not in my back- yard’. Another type has since been recog- nized: the NODAM, who wants ‘no devel- opment after mine’.) Faced with the prospect of significant numbers of extinctions directly attributable to forest loss in some parts of the world, there is a clear need to move be- yond this local approach to conservation. Under practical conditions, it seems likely that some HCVFs will be lost, especially if so-called frontier forests (‘Intact Natural Forests’) are included within the definition of HCVF. An important question is how much can be lost, if any, without increasing the risk of loss of biological diversity to an unacceptable level. Here, an international perspective could be useful for foresters in a country such as Canada. In Europe, forests have been greatly altered and, in the case of countries such as Scotland, reduced to a frac- tion of their former extent. Studies of thres- hold effects in these heavily impacted areas could provide useful information about whether such thresholds actually exist, and when they might be encountered. The BorNet project (www.bornet.org), which is coordinat- ed by our group, is attempting to do this. For many, adopting a more global per- spective to conservation priorities is difficult because funding sources (primarily the devel- oped world) are often located far from the areas of highest conservation priority (primarily located in the developing world). Identifying ways to ensure that funds are spent in the most appropriate fashion has be- come an important area of research for our group that links science to policy. Institu- tions such as the World Heritage Convention provide the opportunity to take a global per- spective; now it is up to us to do so. For further information, please contact Dr. John Innes, Director, Centre for Applied Con- servation Research at 604-822-6761, fax 604- 822-9106 or email innes@interchg.ubc.ca. T ❑ ❑ Branch Lines 4 Wood  Science  Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT DEPARTMENT NEWS n November, Dr. Dave Barrett led the Cana- dian delegation at the International Standards Organization Technical Committee on Timber Structures in Ottawa. This technical committee is developing new international standards for timber use in buildings. Dr. Phil Evans (Director of the Centre for Advanced Wood Processing) has been elected as a Fellow of the International Academy of Wood Science. In November, Phil attended the 6th Pacific Rim Biobased Composites Sympo- sium held in Portland, Oregon, where he presented three papers, co-authored another, chaired a keynote session and participated in a panel discussion on the future of wood composites. Dr. Paul McFarlane (Department Head) chaired a session at the Sustainable Forest Management Network’s annual conference held in Edmonton, November 13-15. Drs. Frank Lam, Dave Cohen, Helmut Prion and Phil Evans attended the 8th Inter- national Wood Construction Conference (Holzbauforum) in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, December 4-6. In October, Dr. Greg Smith gave a presen- tation entitled “The effect of some para- meters on the tumbling behavior of OSB strands in a rotary drum blender” at the Structural Board Association World OSB Symposium in Chicago. Greg also presented a paper at the 6th Pacific Rim Biobased Com- posites Symposium in Portland, Oregon. I Populus – weed or to seed? VER the past decade there has been a radi- cal shift in the way society views for- estry.  A new paradigm is emerging with an emphasis on conservation of natural forest lands and recognition of the inherent value of trees as carbon sinks, wildlife habitats, scenic vistas and recreational areas. However, with the growing human population, the world’s forests are experiencing increasing pressures to meet demands for wood products, fuel and agricul- tural land. With the current global population at approx. 6 billion people, the present global timber harvest is approx. 3.3 billion cubic meters. Assuming that the per capita consump- tion of timber-based products remains at its current level, it is clear that the predicted growth in global population (>9.4 billion people in the next 50 years), will have a dramatic effect on the required and harvested timber supply. A dichotomy is emerging between the need for more wood fibre and the increasing societal pressure to preserve forestland. In Canada, both the economics of the forest industry and the availability of natural fibre resources are signi- ficantly impacting our global competitiveness. Trees harvested from managed plantations suited to cold climates may have the potential to alleviate some of these demands, as well as pressures on the natural forests. In Canada, Populus spp. is a likely candidate to complement and/or compete with, for exam- ple, the eucalyptus plantation of the Southern Hemisphere as a source of wood fibre for the pulp and paper industry. Some hybrid Populus species are well suited to the northern climate, have rapid growth rates (~30 m3/ha/yr) and an inherent lower age of maturity, which results in shorter rotation times compared to other tree species. Populus also has an unusual mode of asexual reproduction, which is referred to as “suckering”. This reproductive mechanism generates several genetically identical stems, known as ramets, that originate from a com- mon root system. This pattern promotes the occurrence of natural genetic clones in highly concentrated geographic stands. Consequent- ly, Populus is very amenable to reforestation and genetic selection. Some of the clonal lines existing in the Canadian Boreal forests inherently display properties that are superior to available plantation eucalyptus. In addition, there is a substantial diversity in fibre attributes expressed by the various clones, which could facilitate the selection of specific fibre resources to meet end-product needs. For example, within the population, significant differences in average cell wall thickness (fibre coarseness) exist, and these resources could be segregated for specific end-use applications, i.e. fine paper versus tissue grade paper, respectively (see figure). Clearly there exists a substantial, genetically diverse, natural resource, and within these poorly characterized materials, significant, but as yet relatively untapped, opportunities exist. The focus of current research projects in our laboratory (and in collaboration with PAPRICAN), is identifying clonal lines that contain easily processible lignin and/or favourable structural characteristics that will subsequently pulp more rapidly, and lead to increased productivity, lower energy de- mands, reduced by-products, and ultimately a reduced ecological footprint left by indus- try on our environment. The overall objective of the Mansfield research program is to understand, and subsequently be able to con- trol and/or predict, intrinsic phenotypic fibre attributes such as specific density, fibre length, cell wall thickness, and chemical com- position that will be paramount in generating “quality” resources for the future. For additional information, please contact Dr. Shawn Mansfield, CR Chair in Wood and Fibre Quality at 604-822-0196, fax 604-822- 9104 or email shawnman@interchg.ubc.ca. O Paper produced from fine vs. coarse fibred Populus (micrograph courtesy of J. Drummond, PAPRICAN) ❑ ❑ Faculty  News Branch Lines 5 r. Scott Hinch was awarded a 5-year, $1.1 million grant to investigate why adult Pacific salmon have begun entering rivers earlier than normal and dying at extremely high rates (>90%) prior to spawning. This unusual and unexplained recent change in migration be- haviour has pushed some stocks to the point of collapse and the sustainability of others is severely threatened. This research brings to- gether several scientists from Simon Fraser University, University of Victoria, University of Guelph, University of Northern British Columbia, and Department of Fisheries and Oceans with backgrounds in salmon ecology, behaviour, physiology, molecular biology and parasitology. Dr. Shawn Mansfield was awarded a three- year, $500,000 grant to investigate the poten- tial of characterizing wood and fibre properties by metabolic profiling. Metabolomics is one NSERC Strategic Grant Successes of the newest and most promising technol- ogies in functional genomics, which investi- gates the concentration of low molecular weight compounds produced during genomic expression within a cell. This technology could be a sensitive means to characterize the genetic and/or environmental factors that affect the quality and processing properties of wood. This new area of research represents an interface among forest science, molecular biology and material science. Dr. Colette Breuil was awarded a four-year, $315,000 grant to examine the premature failure of old and second-growth western red- cedar products. Second-growth western red- cedar trees constitute a substantial and in- creasing proportion of British Columbia’s timber production. To help the industry ex- tend the service life of second-growth cedar products, Colette’s team will investigate the Wood Products Processing Program wins award Simon Ellis receiving the Yves Landry Award on behalf of the UBC wood products processing program. impact of extractives modification and leach- ing on premature failure of western redcedar products. Dr. Robert Guy was awarded a three-year, $135,000 grant to determine whether the iso- topic composition of carbon within foliage and stem wood of western hemlock can be used to assess nutritional status and predict response to fertilisation. Western hemlock is one of the most important tree species in coastal management units facing reductions in wood supply. Fertilisation can enhance the productivity of some stands but is not cur- rently an option for western hemlock because foresters lack the necessary tools to distin- guish stands that will respond from stands that will not. Isotope analysis has potential to fill this need. D  n November 7, 2002, Dr. Simon Ellis at- tended a STARS Gala in Toronto to receive the Yves Landry Award on behalf of UBC’s wood products processing program, of which Simon is the director. The Yves Landry Foun- dation is based on the vision, principles, and hopes of the late Yves Landry, chairman, president and CEO of Chrysler Canada Ltd. from 1990-1998 “to forge an enlightened part- nership between industry and education; train a world-class pool of skilled manufactur- ing workers, technicians, technologists, and engineers; and secure technological advan- tage in a rapidly changing world”. UBC is the only North American institution offering a B.Sc. program designed specifically to provide management-calibre graduates for the wood products. Our wood products processing pro- gram was selected as recipient of this award for being considered the most innovative Canadian university-level manufacturing tech- nology program. The five-year program in- cludes 19 months of industry work experience, and graduated its first class in 1999. So far it has achieved 100% job placement. O ©Faculty of Forestry, 2002  NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting, design and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry, Dean’s Office University of British Columbia Forest Sciences Centre 2005–2424 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 !    604-822-6316 Fax: 604-822-8645 Email:  suwatts@interchg.ubc.ca Recycled Paper Branch Lines 6 Fish enhancement efforts at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Forest News arge woody debris (LWD), wood larger than 2 m in length and 10 cm in diameter, is increas- ingly recognized in forest management as an important component of stream ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest. LWD contributes to nutrient cycling by retaining sediments and detritus, influences stream morphology by creating pools and increasing sinuosity, and provides habitat for some aquatic species. Coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and other salmonids depend on LWD as cover to avoid predation and to escape high water events. Without sufficient reserve zones (buffer strips), logging riparian areas can deplete woody debris recruitment and reduce stream productivity. Instream habitat enhancement may help mitigate losses of LWD. However, much of these habitat enhancement efforts have focused on anadromous salmonids in wide, low-gradient streams. Less has been done to enhance resident trout habitats in narrow, high-gradient streams. Upper Blaney Creek, within the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest (MKRF), provides an opportunity to explore the response of resi- dent cutthroat to instream placement of LWD. Upper Blaney was gravel-mined and logged in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A Provincial Level 1 Habitat Assessment revealed that two sections of Upper Blaney were ideal restora- tion candidates, since they lacked LWD, pools, and structural diversity. In August 2002, technicians and MKRF staff installed three pairs of log deflectors and a log jam in one reach of Upper Blaney Creek. The MKRF provided materials and equipment. For a week, participants captured and penned resident fish, placed logs, drilled holes, attached cables, moved rocks, and planted native vegetation. The response of coastal cutthroat trout to these efforts will be monitored in the coming winter months, assessing changes in trout density, growth, and movement. Special thanks to Paul Lawson (MKRF Forest Manager); Andrew Lotto (Senior Fisheries Technician); Johanna Ledezma, Vicki Maloney, and Stephanie Topp (NSERC summer students); Michael Main, Vern Pankratz, Rick St. Jean, and David Tuokko (MKRF staff); and my advisor, Dr. Scott Hinch. For information, please contact Jennifer De Groot, M.Sc. candidate in Forest Sciences at UBC, 604-822-1969 or email jldgroot@ interchg.ubc.ca. Upcoming ...             Public Lectures On January 21, 2003, Dr. Leena Paavilainen will be talking in our Jubilee Lecture Series on “Promoting the competitiveness of forestry and forest-based industries in Finland”. Leena is program director of the Finnish Forest Cluster Research Program WOOD WISDOM. Her talk will be at 6 pm in the Forest Sciences Centre room 1005. On February 24, Dr. Barry Noon, Profes- sor of Fishery and Wildlife Biology from Colorado State University, will be the Leslie L. Schaffer Lecturer in Forest Sciences. Barry will be talking on “New pathways for conservation science: Amending the exist- ing agenda”. The lecture, which begins at 5:15 pm in room 1005 of the Forest Sciences Centre, will be followed by a Forestry grad- uate student research poster presentation. On March 20, Larry Pedersen, Chief For- ester for British Columbia, will be the final speaker in our Jubilee Lecture Series for the 2002/2003 academic year. Larry’s talk, which will include an extended question and answer period, will begin at 5:15 pm in the Forest Sciences Centre room 1005. All of the above lectures are open to the public at no charge. Further information can be found by visiting our website: www.forestry.ubc.ca. Recent Public Lectures Our highly successful Jubilee Lecture Series continued into its second year with three guest speakers in the fall term. On September 12, Dr. George Hoberg, Head of the Forest Resources Management Depart- ment at UBC, opened the series with a talk entitled “Finding the right balance:   Designing policies for sustainable forestry in the new era”. On October 7 and 8, Dr. Tim Synnott, Forest Stewardship Council Executive Director from 1994-2001, talked on “The end of forestry?” Tim gave this talk at UBC’s Robson Square downtown campus as well as at the Forest Sci- ences Centre on the main university campus. On December 2, Dr. Scott Hinch, Associate Professor in UBC’s Forest Sciences Depart- L ment, gave a presentation entitled “Salmon at their southern edge:  Current challenges to survival and prognosis for long-term sustainability”. On September 20, Dr. Robert Evans, CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Aus- tralia was our 2002 lecturer in the Burgess Lane Lecture Series.  Robert’s talk was en- titled “Art, science and informatics – visuali- sation of large, complex data sets in high- speed measurement of the microstructure of wood”. These lectures, as well as previous Jubilee Lectures, are available in pdf format from our website:  http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/events.html


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