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Catching more bait: A bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies (2nd version). Sumaila, Ussif Rashid 2012

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ISSN 1198-6727  CATCHING MORE BAIT: A BOTTOM-UP RE-ESTIMATION OF GLOBAL FISHERIES SUBSIDIES  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 2006 Volume 14 Number 6    ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports   2006 Volume 14 Number 6   CATCHING MORE BAIT: A BOTTOM-UP RE-ESTIMATION OF GLOBAL FISHERIES SUBSIDIES  (2  Version) nd      Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada   CATCHING MORE BAIT: A BOTTOM-UP RE-ESTIMATION OF GLOBAL FISHERIES SUBSIDIES (2ND VERSION)     edited by Ussif Rashid Sumaila and Daniel Pauly                    Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6) 115 pages © published 2006 by  The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2202 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4       ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6) 2006   CATCHING MORE BAIT: A BOTTOM-UP RE-ESTIMATION OF GLOBAL FISHERIES SUBSIDIES  edited by Ussif Rashid Sumaila and Daniel Pauly   CONTENTS   Page DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD ....................................................................................................................................    1  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 2  LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................................ 3  CHAPTER 1   THE NATURE AND MAGNITUDE OF GLOBAL NON-FUEL FISHERIES SUBSIDIES KHAN, A. S., U. R. SUMAILA, R. WATSON, G. MUNRO AND D. PAULY............................................. 5  CHAPTER 2  FUEL SUBSIDIES TO GLOBAL FISHERIES SUMAILA, U.R., L. TEH, R. WATSON, P. TYEDMERS AND D. PAULY .............................................. 38  CHAPTER 3 SUBSIDIES TO HIGH SEAS BOTTOM TRAWL FLEETS SUMAILA, U.R., A. KHAN, L. TEH, R. WATSON, P. TYEDMERS AND D. PAULY............................... 49  CHAPTER 4  OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO FISHERIES AS A SUBSIDY ALDER, J., H. FOX AND M. JORGE .............................................................................................. 54  CHAPTER 5   A HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF BRAZILIAN POLICY ON FISHERIES SUBSIDIES ABDALLAH, P. R. AND U.R. SUMAILA..........................................................................................68  APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: Regional fisheries subsidy estimates by categories ........................................................ 78 APPENDIX 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs.......................................... 84        A Research Report from the Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC  115 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2006   FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.)                                                     1 DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD This report on fisheries subsidies explores a theme that may seem baffling to the uninitiated: all but the fisheries industry seem to think subsidies are a bad thing, but nevertheless, “cosi fan tutte” (roughly: “they all do it”) in Amadeus Mozart’s immortal words (he also provided the music, which helped).  Most opera houses, by the way, survive only because they are subsidized. In the 1950s and 1960s, the more boat-building subsidies you gave, the more fish you got, and so it is not surprising that the young aides to managers kept on believing in this magic when, in the subsequent decades, they became managers themselves. Things have changed, however: the resource base is too diminished for all these fishing boats to turn a profit, and the subsidies, far from having the effect they had earlier, now contribute to overfishing, i.e., more fish being caught than should be, as explained in the second chapter of this report.  This is not intuitive, and most managers and policy makers either cannot wrap their heads around it, or do not act on it. Another reason for inaction is that, in most countries, fisheries subsidies are, in budget terms, part of agricultural subsidies… and these are a nightmare that few persons awake would want to get into. As a result, subsidies not only stay – particularly in Europe and the East Asia – but grow inexorably, and are now conservatively estimated between US$30-34 billion per year for the period from 1995 to 2005. This is nearly double the figure US$14-20 billion accepted until now, which was issued by the World Bank. This discrepancy is due to this report explicitly accounting for countries which do not quantify the subsidies they give to (or receive for) their fisheries.  Thus, in official statistics (e.g., those of the World Bank), they are treated as having zero subsidies.  The ‘missing data = 0 problem’ also occurs in the official fishing catch statistics of many maritime countries, and is now known to have misinformed policy-making in numerous instances. Here, this problem is overcome through an explicit procedure for filling the gaps, which was applied, however, only to countries known to have the subsidy type in question (i.e., that the subsidy was given was known, but not the amount). Another thing that this report does is differentiate between subsidy types – fuel and non-fuel, subsidies that are considered ‘good’ (e.g., management and surveillance), ‘bad’ (e.g., boat building), and ‘ugly’, i.e., subsidies whose evaluation depends on context.  Moreover, subsidies amount and their sources are presented in tables or appendices for all countries, thus allowing skeptical readers to check for themselves. This may contribute toward transparency, and perhaps even assist those who think that ‘cosi fan tutte’ is not an excuse. P.S. This 2007 version of the original 2006 report corrects a few inconsistencies in the earlier version. Daniel Pauly, February 2007  2                                                                                                                                                    Executive Summary, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ussif Rashid Sumaila and Daniel Pauly1 Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory (AERL), University of British Columbia. 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC., V6T 1Z4, Canada r.sumaila@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca Subsidies that reduce the cost of fisheries operations and those that enhance revenues make fishing enterprises more profitable than they would otherwise be.  This results directly or indirectly in the build- up of excessive fishing capacity, leading to the overexploitation of fishery resources. We present in this report five contributions on the issue of fisheries subsidies.  The first four contributions have a global scope, while chapter 5 looks at the history of fisheries subsidies in one country, Brazil. Chapter 1 identifies, categorizes, and compiles a database of fisheries subsidies for 144 maritime countries spanning 1995 to 2005.  Using this database, an annual non-fuel subsidy amount for the year 2000 was computed that explicitly deals with data gaps. Global annual non-fuel subsidies were estimated at US$26 billion.  The proportion of subsidies contributing to an increase in fishing capacity globally is estimated at US$ 16 billion, while subsidies that contribute to fisheries management and conservation programs come to approximately US$7 billion. The objective of the second contribution is twofold.  First, it explores the theoretical basis for the expectation that increasing fuel price faced by fishing enterprises will, everything being equal, reduce fishing pressure. Second, it estimates the amount of fuel subsidies paid to the fishing sector by governments globally. Results from the study indicate that global fuel subsidies stand at between US$4 to 8 billion per year. This implies that, depending on how much of this subsidy existed before the recent fuel price increases, fishing enterprises can, in the aggregate, absorb as much as an US$8 billion increase in their fuel budget before we begin to see any conservation benefits from fuel price increases.  The sum of fuel and non-fuel subsidies ranges between US$30-34 billion, which is nearly two times the earlier World Bank estimate of US$14-20 billion. Chapter 3 estimates the global amount of subsidies paid to bottom trawl fleets operating in the high seas, i.e., outside of the Exclusive Economic Zones of maritime countries, to be at least US$152 million per year. This constitutes 25% of the total landed value of the fleet.  Economic data for bottom trawlers suggest that the profit achieved by this vessel group is normally not more than 10% of landed value.  The implication of this finding is that, without subsidies, the bulk of the world’s bottom trawl fleet operating in the high seas will operate at a loss (unable to fish), thereby reducing the current threat to deep sea and high seas fish stocks. Chapter 4 explores the effects of Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), i.e., the transfer of funds from developed to less developed countries’ capture fisheries sector.  Overall, this study found that ODA, while in many cases, helping to jump-start the development of modern fisheries, has not helped developing countries to address the issue of overfishing. In some cases, this has contributed to current problems. Chapter 5 provides the only country-level analysis in this report. It presents a historical account of Brazil’s national policy on fisheries subsidies. Brazil is important both in its own right as an important developing country with a lot of influence, and as a strong voice in international fora, where it defends the subsidization of fisheries in developing countries. The chapter discusses problems and limitations resulting from this policy. P.S.: This 2007 version of the original 2006 report corrects a few inconsistencies in the earlier version.  1 Cite as: Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D., 2006. Executive Summary.  In  Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D. (eds.), Catching more bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies (2nd Version). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6), pp. 2. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.  List of Acronyms                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 LIST OF ACRONYMS ACP  African, Carribean and Pacific countries associated with the European Union ADB   Asian Development Bank AFDB   African Development Bank APEC   Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation ASCM   Agreement on Subsidy and Countervailing Measures BANCEN   Central Bank of Brazil CARICOM  Caribbean Community CIDA  Canadian International Development Agency CFFA  Coalition for Fair Fisheries Arrangement DANIDA  Danish International Development Agency DFID   Department for International Development DFO   Department of Fisheries and Ocean, Canada ECOWAS  Economic Community of West African States EEC   European Economic Community EEZ   Exclusive Economic Zone EFF   European Fisheries Fund EU   European Union FAD   Fish Aggregating Device FAO   Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAS   Fish Agro-food System FED   Foundation for Enterprise Development FIFG   Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance FISET    Regional and Sectorial Investment Fund GATT   General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GEF   Global Environment Fund GFT   Government Financial Transfers GRT   Gross Registered Tons GTZ   German Technical Cooperation HACCP  Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point IBAMA   Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources ICEIDA  Icelandic International Development Agency ICES   International Council for the Exploration of the Seas ICZM   Integrated Coastal Zone Management IDAF   Integrated Development for Artisanal Fisheries IDRC   International Development Research Council IFAD   International Fund for Agricultural Research IFREMER   Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer INFOFISH  Intergovernmental Organization for Marketing Information and Technical   Advisory Services for Fishery Products within the Asia Pacific Region IPEA/COMIF  Institute of Applied Economic Research IRD   Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération (formerly OSTROM) IUCN   International Union for the Conservation of Nature  4                                      Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, U. R. Sumaila and D. Pauly (eds.) IUU   Illegal, Unregulated and Unreported fishing LV   Landed Value LME   Large Marine Ecosystems JICA   Japanese International Cooperation Agency MC&S   Monitoring, Control and Surveillance MMA    Ministry of Environment, Brazil MPA   Marine Protected Areas MRAG   Marine Resources Assessment Group, London NEPAD  New Partnership for African Development NGO   Non Government Organization NOAA  National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. NORAD  Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation ODA  Overseas Development Agency OECD   Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development R&D   Research and Development REVIZEE   Living Resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone (of Brazil) RFMO   Regional Fisheries Management Organization SEAP    Special Secretary for Aquaculture and Fisheries SFLP   Sustainable Fisheries Livelihood Project SIFAR   Support Unit for International Fisheries and Aquatic Research SIFR   Study of International Fisheries Research SUDEPE   Superintendency for the Development of Fisheries  (Brazil) UN   United Nations UNCLOS  United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea UNDP   United Nations Development Program UNEP   United Nations Environment Program WB  World Bank WSSD   World Summit on Sustainable Development WTO   World Trade Organization WWF   World Wildlife Fund  The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    5 CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE AND MAGNITUDE OF GLOBAL NON-FUEL FISHERIES SUBSIDIES1 Ahmed S. Khan, U. Rashid Sumaila, Reg Watson, Gordon Munro and Daniel Pauly Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory (AERL), University of British Columbia. 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC., V6T 1Z4, Canada ABSTRACT Fishery subsidies greatly impact the sustainability of fishery resources. Subsidies that reduce the cost of fisheries operations and those that enhance revenues make fishing enterprises more profitable than they would be otherwise. Such subsidies result in fishery resources being overexploited, as they contribute directly or indirectly to the build-up of excessive fishing capacity, thereby undermining the sustainability of marine living resources and the livelihoods that depend on them. In this contribution, fishery subsidies are identified and categorized, taking into consideration the policy relevance of fishery subsidies worldwide, subsidy program descriptions, sources of funding, scope and coverage, annual total amounts, administering authority, and the recipients of the subsidy. Using this taxonomy, a database of subsidy programs reported in marine capture fisheries for 144 coastal countries was compiled spanning 1995 to 2005. From this, an annual estimate of subsidies paid to the fishing sector by governments globally is computed for 2000. This static estimate accounts explicitly for data gaps. Total global fishery subsidies were estimated at about US$26 billion for the eleven subsidy types identified in this study (excluding fuel subsidies). About 49% of this amount was provided by 38 developed countries and the remaining 51% by 103 developing countries. The proportion of estimated subsidies that contributed towards an increase in fishing capacity globally amounted to about US$16 billion, while subsidies that contributed to fisheries management and conservation programs were approximately US$7 billion. The remaining US$3 billion are defined as ugly subsidies, i.e., they may lead either to fisheries conservation or to overcapacity depending on the context. India, Japan and the EU were the highest subsidizers of their fisheries, with about US$4.3 billion, US$ 4.0 and US$3.0 billion, respectively. The results from this study have policy implications for fisheries subsidy reforms at the on-going WTO negotiations on rules to eliminate subsidies that cause overcapacity, and in achieving sustainable fisheries management. In conclusion, three major areas are highlighted for future research, the impact of subsidies on: (i) resource exploitation, (ii) industrial profits, and (iii) food sufficiency and livelihoods. INTRODUCTION Fishery subsidies are financial payments from public entities to the fishing sector, which help the sector make more profit than it otherwise would. Subsidies have gained worldwide attention because of their complex relation to trade, ecological sustainability and socioeconomic development. It is widely acknowledged that global fisheries are overcapitalized, resulting in the depletion of fishery resources. Although many reasons have been ascribed for the decline of fishery resources, the role of subsidies in the issue of overcapacity and overfishing cannot be sufficiently emphasized. These issues were reiterated at the WSSD (2002) in Johannesburg, the Doha 2001 Ministerial Conference (Doha Conference, 2001), by the FAO (1995) Code of Conduct and Responsible Fisheries, and in the Millennium Ecosystem Report (2005), and have thus prompted significant research interests.  1 Cite as: Khan, A., Sumaila, U.R., Watson, R., Munro, G., Pauly, D., 2006. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies. In Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D.  (eds.),  Catching more bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies (2nd Version, 2007). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6), pp. 5-37. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 6                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidies provided by governments have been identified as a driving factor for the build- up of excessive fishing capacity, thereby undermining the sustainability of marine resources and the livelihoods that depend on them (WWF, 2001). Subsidies that enhance revenue and those that reduce cost lead to a marginal increase in profit, thereby increasing participation and fishing effort (Sumaila, 2003). Subsidies that promote fishery resource conservation and management are however, regarded as good and necessary (Milazzo, 1998). This contribution aims to contribute to our understanding of the present nature of fishery subsidies and to estimate the size and extent of subsidies worldwide. It is divided into five parts: Part I provides background information on the status of fish stocks, and presents the issues of concerns and lays out a set of research questions. Part II presents an overview of fishery subsidies and provides a set of criteria for identifying and categorizing fishery subsidies. Part III describes the methods and steps in computing fisheries subsidies globally. Part IV gives the results of the global magnitude of non-fuel fisheries subsidies, and delves into a discussion of the results by subsidy categories and geographic regions. Part V, finally, concludes with a summary of major findings, policy implications and suggestions for further research. Appendix 1 presents the results of the subsidy estimates by geographic regions, and Appendix 2 presents an inventory of the subsidy programs for each maritime country worldwide. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Context: Status of global fish stocks It is widely acknowledged that many global fish stocks are in decline (Watson and Pauly, 2001; Jackson et al. 2001; Worm and Myers, 2003). An analysis of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nation’s global fisheries catch statistics by Froese and Pauly (2003), which involved more than 900 species, demonstrated a gradual decline of the status of oceanic fishery resources. Their study illustrates that compared to the 1950s, when most of the catches were taken from undeveloped fisheries (Figure 1); the 1990s showed that most of the catches (about 75%) were from fully exploited or overfished fisheries and over 10% from collapsed fisheries.    Figure 1. Global trend in the status of marine fisheries resources. Based on FAO statistics to 2003 and the methods and definitions in Froese and Pauly (2003).  The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    7  The dire situation of many commercially important species, such as Southern Bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyi) and Northern cod (Gadus morhua), led the World Conservation Union (IUCN) to add these to its ‘Red List’ of critically endangered and vulnerable species, respectively  (IUCN, 2003). The number of threatened fish species for both the endangered and vulnerable categories increased from 144 to 238 and from 452 to 682, respectively, for the years 2000 to 2006 (IUCN, 2006). Furthermore, fishing effort increasingly targets species lower down the marine food web, such as sardines, herring and anchovies (Pauly et al. 1998). Such ‘fishing down of marine food webs’ greatly disrupts the structure of marine ecosystems, simplifying their food webs and consequently lowering the resilience of ecosystems to environmental variations, and further increasing the risk of collapse. Despite the collapse of major world fisheries within the past couple of decades, the global expansion of fishing effort has continued unabated and trade in fish products has intensified to the extent that they have become one of the most globalize commodities (Sumaila, 2002). Fisheries today are an important source of food, contributing about 19% of animal protein for human consumption, a valuable source of foreign exchange; with more than 60% of global fish production from developing countries (FAO, 2002). The fishery industry is now global in scope, employing close to 200 million people worldwide, with international trade of fisheries products reaching over US$ 50 billion per year (Vannuccini, 2003). Commercial fisheries are driven by global markets with capital flows being largely unregulated and tied to multinational investments (NOAA, 1999). The result is that “over 75% of the world catch is sold and consumed in other countries, rather than the countries in whose EEZ the fish were landed” (Hempel and Pauly, 2002). However, global landings are in decline from a peak of 80 million tonnes since the late 1980s (Watson and Pauly, 2001). It has been suggested that this crisis is the result of unspecified environmental changes (Sinclair et al. 1997). However, an examination of the history of fisheries reveals that overfishing by humans is one of the fundamental causes of the decline of marine species (Jackson et al. 2001; Pauly et al. 2002). Factors that drive this overfishing include the increasing demand for fish, international global fish trade, poor management and ineffective monitoring of open access fisheries, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, technological innovations, short term economic and social pressures, subsidies and overcapacity (Sumaila, 2002). The contention that the depletion of fishery resources should lead to rising prices and consequent reduction in consumption has not been well supported (Sadovy and Vincent, 2002). This is partly due to the prevalence of subsidies, which distort market price. Global negotiations on trade issues in fisheries have led to the identification of subsidies and non-tariff barriers as areas of concern. Political considerations, however, make global wholesale change in ‘perverse’ subsidies unlikely (Stone, 1997). At present, plans and calls to action for the use of sustainable fishery techniques, the reduction of harmful subsidies, and the minimization of by-catch and discards are meeting a strong opposition (Butcher, 2002). Given this bleak state of the marine fisheries worldwide, there is a growing recognition that the management of fisheries must be put in an ecosystem context (Pauly et al. 2002; Pikitch et al. 2004), which includes creation of marine protected areas. Other solutions to the global fishery crisis includes right-based fishery management, eco-labeling of fishery products, reduction of fishing capacity and the abolition of fishery subsidies which contributes directly to the overcapacity problem (Pauly, 2005a). Issues: Overcapacity, overfishing and fisheries subsidies One of the most severe impediments to responsible fishing is that on a global scale, there are too many vessels chasing too few fish (Porter, 1998; Cunningham and Gréboval, 2001). The FAO (2003a) International Plan of Action for the Management of Fishing Capacity (IPOA-Capacity) calls on states to achieve an efficient, equitable and transparent management of fishing capacity to reduce, and eventually eliminate, all factors, including subsidies, which contribute, directly or indirectly, to the build-up of excessive fishing capacity (FAO, 1998). According to Milazzo (1998), capacity refers essentially to vessels, gears and labor and how all of these are put to use. Excess capacity (i.e., overcapacity) can be defined as the difference between current fishing capacity and target capacity (FAO, 1998). Fishery subsidies contribute to overcapacity and overfishing in two major ways: 8                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) i. Subsidies that reduce the cost of fisheries operation both in terms of capital and operational cost provides an incentive for fishers to increase their catch and profit, with an aggregate impact to further stimulate effort and compound resource overexploitation problems (Milazzo, 1998); ii. Revenue enhancing subsidies makes fishing enterprises far more profitable even when the fishery resources are in decline (Pauly et al. 2002). The consistent conclusion from a number of studies and reports (FAO, 1992; Milazzo, 1998; OECD, 2000; FAO, 2000; WWF, 2001; Munro and Sumaila, 2002) is that overcapacity exists worldwide, with government subsidies contributing to the problem. Government assistance takes all forms, including state- owned enterprises and parastatals, direct capital infusion, financing assistance and preferential tax treatment, market promotion, government management and research, and negotiating access agreements for distant water fishing operations (NOAA, 1999). Fishing gear and vessel technology has achieved the capacity to radically impact the marine ecosystems with fishing fleets becoming so powerful as to overexploit essentially all stocks in the world (Sumaila, 2002). Global fishing fleets were estimated to be more than twice what the oceans can sustainably support (Porter, 1998), with some current estimates even higher (Pauly, 2005a). Within the recently hit tsunami regions of South East Asia, there were concerns about the potential harmful build-up of excessive fishing capacity as some of the region's coastal fisheries were already overcapitalized prior to the disaster (Pauly, 2005b). The European Union (EU) Fisheries Council in July 2004 voted for the promotion of European investments and the transfer of technology and vessels to developing countries, which would be detrimental to sustainable fisheries management (CFFA, 2005). In the Gulf of Guinea, it has also been demonstrated that providing subsidized fishing access by the European Union to fishing fleets in countries with poor control measures may lead to stock depletion2. With the recently concluded New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) Fish for All Summit in Abuja (August, 2005) and the World Bank ‘profish’ Partnership, the issue of fisheries subsidies have gained new momentum. The overcapitalization of the fishing industry is in turn the result of a number of factors, including the classic tragedy of the commons (Hardin, 1968), a self-defeating race to grab dwindling fish stocks. The massive payments made by a number of governments to support their national fishing industries are, however the main cause, with high levels of fishery subsidies worldwide significantly contributing to the present poor status of fishery resources (WWF, 2001). Recommendations from a coalition of NGOs concerned with marine conservation called the Green Group during the 2005 Hong Kong World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Meeting included: • Strong disciplines under the WTO Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (ASCM) on the prohibition of harmful subsidies that lead to overcapacity, overfishing and IUU fishing; • Significant improvements in transparency and accountability in subsidy reporting and effective WTO notification requirements; • Appropriate treatment of the special concerns of developing countries and small-scale fishers; • Recognition of subsidies that improve fisheries management by reducing fishing capacity and effort, minimizing by-catch and promoting important policy goals. Research Questions The specific research questions for this study include: i. What are the types and categories of fishery subsidies provided worldwide? ii. What is the present amount and extent of each subsidy type (with the exception of fuel) nationally, regionally and globally? iii. What proportion of the estimated subsidies contributes toward the increase in fishing capacity?  2 http://www.seaaroundus.org/Dakar?ScientificDocs.html last accessed 01/12/04 The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    9 Justification Fishery subsidies are topical because of the concern that they contribute directly or indirectly to overcapacity and overfishing. Previous global estimates of fishery subsidies have ranged from US$ 14-20 billion (Milazzo, 1998) to US$ 54 billion (FAO, 1992). Reports by two respected intergovernmental bodies—the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)—have produced significant new data (WWF, 2001). Regional estimates have also been provided for the Asia Pacific Rim of about US$ 12 billion (APEC, 2000) and for the North Atlantic at about US$ 2.5 billion (Munro and Sumaila, 2002). A better and more robust estimate that is composed of various subsidies, in both the industrial and small-scale sectors is needed, so that policy makers can target reducing specific harmful subsidies. Currently, within the OECD, fishery subsidy data are published annually as part of the review of fisheries and country statistic bulletin (OECD, 2004; 2005). In other regions, such as the Pacific Island States and the Caribbean Islands, subsidies are reported in the grey literature and usually not quantitatively (Haughton, 2002). Studies and reports done on fishery subsidies and other related issues in the Gulf of Guinea, including those by Mabawonku (1990), Everett (1994), Kaczynski and Fluharty (2002), Alder and Sumaila (2004) and United Nations Environment Program-UNEP (2004a) are either limited in scope or qualitative in nature. Two research areas remain little explored: (i) subsidies provided by donors to developing countries under international aid / bilateral agreements, and (ii) domestic subsidies provided within both the small-scale and industrial fisheries sector in developing countries. There is also a need for a comprehensive inventory of fishery subsidies both regionally and globally, as well as a current estimation of the magnitude considering all coastal countries for marine capture fisheries. The results of this research is an improvement on existing global subsidy estimates, which will provide a basis for further studies on subsidies and fisheries sustainability. THE NATURE OF FISHERY SUBSIDIES Antecedents Fishery subsidies provided by governments in the early 1930s and 1940s were originally intended towards investment in the fishing sector – the “infant industry” argument (Schrank, 2003). With rapid technological advancement in boat building, gear design and preservation methods in the early 1940s to the 1970s, and the inclusion of 200 nautical miles under national jurisdiction (FAO, 1992), fishery subsidies acted as catalysts for the ‘race to fish’ phenomenon. The global subsidy debate was prompted by the FAO in the early 1990s in preparation for the May 1992 Conference on Responsible Fishing in Mexico (Milazzo, 1998). The FAO (1992) made an argument that subsidies are a major causal factor in the creation and perpetuation of excess fishing capacity, with a gross estimate of global fisheries subsidies of about US$ 54 billion. A further review of a wide range of direct and implicit assistance programs that encourage and promote the building, repair, modernization, and operations of the world's fishing fleets was done by Milazzo (1998) with an estimate of about US$ 14-20 billion accounting for about 20-25 % of landed value. Regional fisheries subsidy estimates by APEC (2000), and Munro and Sumaila (2002), have to shed more light on these issues. Attempts were earlier made in the OECD and the WTO to fashion rules that could be applied to fisheries subsidies (Milazzo, 1998). In the OECD, the context was shipbuilding negotiations; in the WTO, it was the Uruguay round agreement on agriculture. In both instances, the fisheries sector was explicitly excluded. This led to New Zealand’s submission3 to the WTO highlighting the implication of fishing subsidies for fishers, vessel builders and vessel owners, and the enhancement and expansion of fishing fleet capacity. A submission by the United States4 also raised the issue of overcapitalization and overfishing and raised concerns about ecological impact and the need for conservation measures.  3 WT/CTE/W/52 Committee on Trade and the Environment - Item 6: The Fisheries Sector - Submission by New Zealand. http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_home.asp?language=1and_=1, last accessed 10/08/06. 4 WT/CTE/W/51 Committee on Trade and the Environment - Item 6:  Environmental and Trade Benefits of Removing Subsidies in the Fisheries Sector - Submission by the United States. http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_home.asp?language=1and_=1, last accessed 10/08/06.  10                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) During the WTO Uruguay round of negotiations, fisheries were discussed in the negotiating group as natural resource based products, based on the recommendations from a working party report (Milazzo, 1998). Fishery issues were moved to the market access group along with other negotiating subjects. As a result of the Uruguay round, fisheries subsidies were therefore included under the remit of the WTO agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures, which covers all goods except for agriculture (Porter, 2004). Further impetus for the inclusion of fisheries subsidies in trade negotiations developed from the emergence of a broader international coalition in support of subsidy reforms in the fisheries sector, because of the overcapacity problem. Following this, ‘The Friends of Fish’, a group of states including Australia, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Chile, the Philippines and the United States, was formed to work on the inclusion of fisheries subsidies in the multilateral trade round5. Also, fishing interests in developing countries centered on the implication of heavily subsidized fishing fleets from wealthier nations out competing with local fishers in developing countries in meeting food security needs (Sumaila, 2003; Stokkes and Coffey, 2003). The WTO agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures represents a significant improvement in the rules and disciplines governing both the use of subsidies and countervailing measures to offset their effects. This agreement constitutes the existing international legal regime governing subsidies in the fisheries sector; and applies to more than 140 WTO member countries. The creation of the WTO Committee on Trade and Environment reflected an effort by the WTO to be more sensitive to trade implications of environmental policy measures, which has allowed discussions on the potential environmental advantages of eliminating harmful subsidies. Among subsidies that are to be reported to the WTO, only that contingent on export performance or which favor domestic over imported goods are prohibited. Other subsidies can be actionable under the ASCM, if they can be shown to have adverse effects on the interests of another party (WTO, 1994). According to WWF (2001), notifications to the WTO of fishery subsidies have been very limited in terms of the amount of subsidies reported, the range of subsidies covered, and the quality of information provided. Stone (1997) further pointed out that several key concepts in the ASCM are defined in ways which make it difficult to determine whether many of the most prolific government expenditures and other interventions in the fisheries sector fall within the domain of the agreement. A central challenge for WTO subsidy reform is to clarify which part of a large grey area should be placed definitely in the class of government financial transfers (GFT), which should be disciplined under WTO rules (Stokke and Coffey, 2003). Fishery subsidy issues are now widely addressed worldwide by national agencies; inter governmental organizations including the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD, 2000) and the Asian Pacific Economic Community (APEC, 2000); and regional organizations including New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD), the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Associations of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the South Pacific island nations. The roles played by the International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and of a coalition of NGOs such as the World Wildlife Fund for Nature, BirdLife International, Greenpeace, The Fisheries Secretariat and Oceana, on public outreach and advocacy on these issues cannot be emphasized. The issue of subsidies that leads to IUU fishing and fishing overcapacity was addressed by the UN General Assembly in its resolution 59/25 of 17 November 2004 and, more recently, at the sixth meeting of the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea6. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) also highlighted the need to eliminate subsidies that promote excessive use of ecosystem services and, where possible, to transfer those subsidies to payments for non- marketed ecosystem services. The work of the UN agencies, notably the FAO and the UNEP has probably been salient in bringing understanding and dialogue on fisheries policy reforms. This has culminated in a multi-stakeholder workshop7, reports by UNEP (2002; 2003; 2004b), and expert consultations in partnership with international agencies by FAO (2000; 2001; 2003b). These efforts have also brought particular attention  5 An opposition bloc, the ‘friends of fishers’ have formed in Europe, with Spain and France as leading members. 6 http://www.un.org/Depts/los/consultative_process/consultative_process.htm, last accessed 10/08/06. 7 http://www.unep.ch/etb/events/FishMeeting2004.php, last accessed 20/06/06. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    11 to the impacts of fisheries subsidies on developing countries, notably in relation to fishing agreements and food sufficiency issues. Subsidies towards fishing access agreements and their impact in developing countries have been examined by Porter (1997), Acheampong (1997), Grynberg (1993), IFREMER (1999), Kaczynski and Fluharty (2002) and Mwikya (2006). Policy research conducted in collaboration with the Support Unit for International Fishery and Aquatic Research (SIFAR) has improved our understanding of the implication of subsidies and trade liberalization for four countries including: Guinea, India, Bangladesh and Vietnam (Bostock, et al. 2004). The workshop on overcapacity, overcapitalization and subsidies in European fisheries in Portsmouth - UK in 1998 (see Hatcher and Robinson, 1999), concluded with an assessment of subsidies to the fishery sector and their effect on trade, and resource sustainability. In addition, the international workshop on fishing vessel and license buyback programs in La Jolla, California in 2004, concluded with numerous case studies on the benefits of decommissioning schemes in general. The workshop also stressed on the need for better design and implementation of such programs for effectiveness fisheries management.  Attempts to provide empirical results on the impact of subsidies on fishery resources have been limited both in scope or time. Anderson (1986) showed the impact of subsidies on the cost and revenue structure in open access fisheries using the Gordon-Schaefer equilibrium model. The underlying theory still holds on the effect of subsidies even though most fisheries are not open access. Arnason (1999) proposed a model for fishery subsidies impact using a change in profits approach, considered far more effective than the government cost approach. This involves modelling resource and effort dynamics to understand the impact on fish biomass and profits. Chuang and Zhang (1999) reviewed subsidy schemes in Taiwan, and how they relate to fish stock sustainability and trade. Seijo (1999) further suggested exploring the potential effect of subsidies for technological development and gear selectivity and recruitment enhancement technologies, which are all relevant to sustainable fisheries management. The UNEP (2004b) provided a matrix approach of analysing the impact of subsidies on fishery resources using two main parameters, i.e., the degree of exploitation and the management system. However, the data needed in analyzing the impact of subsidies on fishery sustainability requires amongst others, an understanding of the nature and extent of fishery subsidies in different regions. This comprehensive study will contribute significantly to an understanding of the current nature of fishery subsidies, and will provide an estimate of the present magnitude of fishery subsidies worldwide. The results of such an estimate, for each maritime fishing country, in major geographical regions, will be useful for policy reforms toward the reduction of overcapacity in marine fisheries worldwide and for long term socioeconomic development. What are fisheries subsidies? The FAO (2001) expert consultation on the economic incentives and responsible fisheries failed to come to an agreement on the definition of a fishery subsidy, partly because of conceptual issues relating to policy relevance and effects of subsidies (Steenblik, 1999; Schrank, 2003). Despite conceptual disagreements, the forms of government financial transfers (GFT) or subsidies that were prioritized were compatible with the conventional definition of subsidies espoused by the WTO: capital expansion such as vessel purchase or modernization grants, tax waivers and deferrals, and fish price support programs. According to the Marine Resources Assessment Group-MRAG (2002), fishery subsidies may be given for different reasons depending on the government’s policy objectives. Broadly speaking, fishery subsidies are provided for the following reasons: i. To support and develop local fishing industry; ii. To protect employment and to improve income distribution in fishing communities; iii. To manage the marine environment (Cox and Schmidt, 2003). Fisheries subsidy issues have been of interest to policymakers because of the potential impact of subsidies on trade, fishery sector development, social issues and the environment. What to include and exclude, therefore, in terms of the analysis of subsidy programs may change according to the reason for such an analysis (Cox and Schmidt, 2003). This also helps to explain the wide range of aggregated subsidy data that has been put forward by various organizations (Porter, 2002). 12                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) In economic terms, subsidies may be defined as “a payment by government to consumers or producers which makes the factor cost received by producers greater than the market price charged by producers” (Black, 1997). Schrank and Keithly (1999) defined a subsidy in terms of profits to industry as “any government program that potentially permits the firm to increase its profit through time beyond what they would have been in the absence of the government program”. According to MRAG (2000), producer subsidies may benefit richer groups such as industrialized fishing companies in developed countries at the expense of poorer fishing communities in developing countries. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) defines subsidies (GFTs) as the monetary value of government interventions associated with fisheries policies. Here, eight program classifications are recognized: (i) management, research, enforcement and enhancement; (ii) fisheries infrastructure; (iii) investment and modernization of vessels and gear; (iv) tax exemptions; (v) decommissioning of vessels and license retirements; (vi) expenditures to obtain access to other countries EEZs; (vii) income support and unemployment insurance, and (viii) other government financial transfers (OECD, 2000). The Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) describe subsidies as a combination of GFTs and support programs that fall within the auspices of the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council, with six generic modalities or types: (i) direct assistance to fishers and fisheries workers; (ii) lending support programs; (iii) tax preferences and insurance support programs; (iv) capital and infrastructure support programs; (v) marketing and price support programs; and (vi) fisheries management and conservation programs (APEC, 2000). Milazzo (1998) categorized subsidies into budgeted and unbudgeted and further added cross-sectoral subsidies, conservation and resource pricing subsidies to his categories in obtaining a global estimate of US$ 15-20 billion (see Table 1).  Table 1: Estimates of global fisheries subsidy by major categories (Milazzo, 1998). Subsidy categories Major types Amount (US$ billion) Budgeted Subsidies • Development grants 3.5-4.5 • Domestic  • State investment • Foreign access • Market promotion   • Price support   • Foreign access payments Unbudgeted subsidies • Subsidized loans 6.0-7.0   • Loan guarantees   • Loan restructuring   • Fuel tax exemptions   • Income tax deferral   • Accelerated depreciation Conservation subsidies • Vessel/permit buybacks Cross sectoral subsidies • Aid to shipbuilders 1.5-2.0   • Targeted infrastructure Resource rent subsidies • User fees 3.0-7.0 Total (US$ billion) All types 14.0-20.5  Mabawonku (1990) in his analysis of subsidies in West Central Africa considers subsidies as a means by which certain economic objectives can be achieved in a cost-effective manner. The major types of subsidies identified were: (i) rebate on fishing inputs, (ii) provision of infrastructure, and (iii) fuel subsidies (see Sumaila, et al. 2006a). He argued that in many cases, subsidies and other economic instruments are used in various combinations to achieve specific economic objectives. WTO (1994) define subsidies are direct or potentially direct transfers of funds from governments to firms or individuals (e.g. grants, loans, loan guarantees, equity infusions), government revenue foregone (e.g. tax waivers or deferrals), government provision of goods and services other than infrastructure at less than market prices, and government support of prices and incomes.  To be a subsidy the action must confer a benefit on the firm or individual and must be specific to an industry or a group of industries. This The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    13 definition, however, serves the purpose of setting a standard for fair international trade. There are two schools of thought on the impacts of subsidies which concern economists. One is the ‘injury-only’ school, which addresses the concerns from subsidized trade, and the other is the ‘antidistortion’ school, which focuses on the inefficient consequences of government interventions (Hufbauer and Erb, 1984). According to the WWF (2001), determining the definition of ‘fishing subsidy’ is not a policy-neutral exercise, especially in the context of growing debate over calls for subsidy reforms. Broadly defined in environmental terms, subsidies include all government support to the fishing industry that may play a significant role in encouraging overfishing. However, the most comprehensive and widely accepted definition with a legal standing is that given by the WTO (GATT, 1994). Subsidies identified and classified There is no single criterion for classifying fishery subsidies; the various categories (Milazzo, 1998; OECD, 2000; APEC, 2000) mostly overlap depending on the nature of the subsidy and the purpose of classification. The complexity of this issue is based on the fact that there is no single agreement on what a subsidy is or how its effect can be measured. Subsides, support programs, financial support, economic assistance, and government financial transfers are just five of the most commonly used names for payments that governments provide to the fisheries sector. The following guidelines were useful in identifying and assessing fisheries subsidies: (i) policy objective of the subsidy; (ii) the subsidy program descriptions; (iii) scope, coverage and duration; (iv) annual US$ amounts; (v) sources of funding; (vi) administering authority; (vii) subsidy recipients, and (viii) the mechanisms of transfer (FAO, 2003b; Westlund, 2004). The objective criterion for the classification of a subsidy in this study lies in the potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery resource. The effect of a subsidy, however, depends on the status of the fishery and the management system in place. According to Munro and Sumaila (2002), economists have now come to regard fishery resources, like all other natural resources, as natural capital.  A set of fishery resources in a particular region can be viewed as a portfolio of natural capital assets capable of yielding a stream of economic benefits (both market and non-market) to society through time. If natural capital is renewable then one can within limits engage in ‘investment’ in the natural capital assets, such as refraining from harvesting and allowing the resource to rebuild to a biological optimum. Similarly, one can also engage in ‘disinvestment’ in the natural resource, for example, through activities such as biological and economic overfishing that take the fishery resource away from its optimal use. Based on this theory three categories of subsidies can be identified: (i) ‘good’ subsidies, (ii) ‘bad’ subsidies, and (iii) ‘ugly’ subsidies. Good subsidies ‘Good subsidies’ are programs that lead to investment in natural capital assets to a social optimum, which is defined here as the maximum allocation of natural resources to society as a whole, i.e., by maximizing economic rent. Good subsidies enhance the growth of fish stocks through conservation, and the monitoring of catch rates through control and surveillance measures to achieve a biological optimal use. Good subsidies are made up of the following two types: i. Fisheries management programs and services: These are subsidy programs to ensure that publicly-owned fisheries resources are appropriately managed and that regulations are enforced (OECD, 2005a). Sub categories include: (a) monitoring, control and surveillance programs, (b) stock assessment and resource surveys, (c) fishery habitat enhancement programs, (d) implementation and maintenance of MPAs, and (e) stock enhancement programs. ii. Fishery research and development (R&D): These are subsidy programs geared towards improving methods for fish catching and processing, and other strategies that enhance the fishery resource base through scientific and technological breakthroughs. Sub categories include: (a) fishery frame surveys, (b) oceanographic studies, (c) fishery socio-economic studies, (d) fishery planning and implementation, (e) setting fishery information systems, (f) creating database and statistical bulletin supportive of fishery management plans, and (f) setting up marine protected areas (MPA) and reserves. 14                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Fisheries management programs and services have been questioned on the basis that the services mostly benefits the private sector, and not the public, i.e., the rightful owners of marine resources (WWF, 2001). However, most countries have justified it as their sovereign right to manage and conserve their marine resources within their EEZs as espoused under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS, 1980). Bad subsidies ‘Bad subsidies’ are defined as subsidy programs that lead to disinvestments in natural capital assets once the fishing capacity develops to a point where resource exploitation exceeds the Maximum Economic Yield (MEY). This is equal to the maximum rent obtainable from the fishery, computed as the largest positive difference of total cost and total revenues. As such, MEY corresponds to an effort level lower than the maximum sustainable yield (MSY). Excessive disinvestment can lead in some cases to outright destruction of the natural resources (Bjorndal and Munro, 1998). Fishery economics theory holds that, in an open access fisheries, in which fishing cost is assumed to be proportional to fishing effort, effort will continue to increase even though revenues per unit of effort are declining, and that ultimately revenues will decline until they equal costs (Gordon, 1954). The point at which total revenue equals total cost is commonly regarded as the bionomic equilibrium (BE), where both industry profits and resource rents have been completely dissipated (Figure 2). With subsidies, the fishing effort can actually exceed E3 (Sumaila, 2002).   MEY MSY        BE Total cost of fishing effort       (TC) Total Revenue   (TR) Fishing effort (E) Total revenue       and  Total cost       ($) E1 E2 E3 Max. rent  Figure 2: Gordon Schaefer bioeconomic model (Gordon, 1954).  Figure 3 demonstrates that subsidies that lower cost from TC1 to TC2, will also lower the bionomic equilibrium from BE1 to BE2, thus encouraging the growth of fishing effort from E3 to E4.  The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    15  TC1 TC2 BE2 BE1 TR Total revenue and Total cost    ($) E3 E4 Fishing effort (E) Effect of cost-reducing  subsidies  Figure 3: Schematic representation of how subsidies induce overfishing (see text).   Bad subsidies include all forms of capital inputs and infrastructure investments from public sources that reduce cost or enhance revenue and include the following types: i. Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs: These support programs include lending programs below market rate and geared toward fishing vessel construction, renewal and modernization such as loan guarantees, restructuring and other lending programs. This subsidy type also involves support programs to enhance fishing technology from public funds for fishing enterprises, parastatals and firms; ii. Fishing port construction and renovation programs: These support programs include public funds toward the provision of fish landing site infrastructures, port improvements for fishing fleets (APEC, 2000), harbor maintenance, jetty and landing facilities and low or free moorage for fishing fleets; iii. Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs: These are support programs towards market interventions such as export promotion, value addition and price support. They also include infrastructure investment programs from public funds toward processing and storage of fishery products and fish auction facilities; iv. Fishery development projects and support services: These are support programs towards fisheries enterprises development. It also includes support programs such as the provision of institutional support and services, the provision of baits, and search and rescue programs. The nature and sources for such support programs are diverse and includes development grants and concession credit either from national sources or through bilateral and multilateral assistance programs; v. Tax exemptions: These are subsidy programs for investment in the fisheries sector that have a direct impact on profits such as rebates and other government-funded insurance support programs including: (a) income tax deferral for fishers; (b) crew insurance (OECD, 2004); (c) duty free imports of fishing inputs; (d) vessel insurance programs, and (e) other economic incentive programs; vi. Foreign access agreements: This program entails a combination of one of the following: (a) explicit monetary transfer; (b) the transfer of fishing technology, and (c) the provision of market access in another fishing country (OECD, 2005a). Out of these varied combinations, three types of access agreements can be identified worldwide: (i) reciprocal access; (ii) access for trade agreements, and (iii) access fees for third country agreements (Milazzo, 1998). The aggregate impact of subsidies that enhance overcapacity and overfishing through increased revenues or profits is to further stimulate effort and compound resource overexploitation problems (Milazzo, 1998). Certain types of subsidies therefore create incentives for overfishing under certain management conditions (Munro and Sumaila, 2002). 16                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Ugly subsidies ‘Ugly subsidies’ are defined as programs that have the potential to lead to either investment or disinvestment in the fishery resource. These subsidy programs can lead to positive impacts such as resource enhancement programs or to negative impacts such as resource overexploitation. Subsidies in this category include controversial ones such as fisher assistance programs, vessel buyback programs and rural fisher community development programs: i. Fisher assistance programs: These are payments to fishers to stop fishing temporarily or to ensure income during bad times. These subsidies can also be given due to a lack of alternative employment opportunities in regions where fishing is the main activity (OECD, 2005b). This subsidy type could be revenue enhancing from government budgets and increase community dependence on government funds; or may reduce fishing pressure through retraining programs into other economic sectors. They include the following types: (a) income support programs; (b) unemployment insurance; (c) worker adjustment programs, and (d) fisher retraining, and other direct payments to fishers; ii. Vessel buybacks programs: These are fishing capacity reduction programs including two types: (a) permit buybacks, and (b) license retirements. These subsidies reduce fishing pressure and foster resource management goals; however their effectiveness has been seriously questioned (Holland et al. 1999; Munro and Sumaila, 2002; Clark et al. 2005); iii. Rural fishers’ community development programs: These consist of programs that are geared towards rural fisher development with an overall objective of poverty alleviation and food sufficiency. These programs include multiple stakeholder participation within local communities involving cooperatives, with assistance from donor agencies and NGOs for integrated livelihood development policy objectives. Despise such development policy objectives, a number of fisheries development donor consultations8 have concluded that projects concentrated on enhancing productive capacity in developing countries are contributing to overcapacity, and with poor rate of management success (SIFR, 1992). In summary, three categories of subsidies with eleven program types are identified globally in this study: A. ‘Good subsidies’ • Fisheries management programs and services; • Fishery research and development. B. ‘Bad subsidies’ • Tax exemption programs; • Foreign access agreements; • Boat construction renewal and modernization programs; • Fishing port construction and renovation programs; • Fishery development projects and support services; • Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs.  C. ‘Ugly subsidies’ • Fisher assistance programs; • Vessel buyback programs;  and • Rural fishers’ community development programs.  Although fuel tax rebates can be classified as a sub category of tax exemption, this study does not consider subsidies towards vessel fuel usage, which have recently been estimated at about US$ 6.5 billion by Sumaila et al. (this volume).  8 http://www.onefish.org/global/archive/sifar/onefish.htm, last accessed 12/08/06. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    17 METHODOLOGY FOR COMPUTING SUBSIDY ESTIMATES Data collection and compilation Information was recorded on 144 coastal countries for the eleven fishery subsidy types identified in this study. Overseas territories of European countries or others, whatever their legal status, are not included in this study9, except for Hong Kong. Within a matrix framework, quantitative data was collected and recorded in each cell for any given country and subsidy type, and summed to provide subsidy category totals. The coastal countries were grouped (using the UNDP Human Development Index-HDI) into two categories: developed (Group I) and developing (Group II) countries. The HDI10 is a composite index that measures country’s development by taking into account three basic components of human development: (i) longevity; (ii) level of education; and (iii) standard of living. Longevity is a measure of life expectancy, level of education is measured by a combination of adult literacy (two-thirds weight) and mean years of schooling (one-third weight), and standard of living is measured by real GDP per capita at purchasing power parity.  Countries with HDI scores ranging from 0.80-1.00 were classified as Group I, and those with HDI scores from 0.00-0.79 were classified as Group II. Some adjustments were made to this general rule, i.e., Russia, China and Taiwan with HDI of less than 0.80 were nonetheless assigned to the Group I category. This is due to their highly developed industrial fishery sectors and high public expenditures in this sector. This step lessened problems of outliers in statistical estimations for the two country groupings. Similarly, countries such as Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, and Uruguay with HDI scores greater than 0.80 but with less developed fishery sectors were placed in Group II. Out of the 144 coastal countries, 38 countries were categorized in Group I (developed) and the remaining 106 countries were categorized in Group II (developing). Sumaila et al. (this volume) used the same categorization, and hence their fuel subsidy estimates can be added to those presented here by categories. Fishery subsidy data were compiled mainly from secondary sources in the primary and grey literature, including newspaper articles. Internet web resources and search tools were also widely utilized. The study targeted information on the major fishing nations around the world in all six FAO fishery regions (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, South and Central America plus Caribbean). They were obtained mainly through the publications of intergovernmental organizations and multilateral agencies. The first step was targeted at developed countries’ fisheries subsidy statistics available from intergovernmental agencies. The next effort was targeted at developing countries statistics through publications of multilateral agencies such as the FAO and UNEP, intergovernmental organizations such as CARICOM, and at individual country levels. Data were obtained from the following major sources: (a) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2000; 2004; 2005); (b) Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC, 2000); (c) European Commission (www.europa.eu); (d) Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), web resources on sections that dealt with ‘aid’ and ‘international cooperation’ under specific country profiles and ‘investment’ or ‘subsidies’ under the fisheries management information link for any given country (www.fao.org); (e) national fisheries department web links, financial and budgetary reports, and fishery reports and documents; (f) the web resources of the Support for International Fisheries and Aquatic Research, now known as the ‘onefish’ community directory program (www.onefish.org); (g) United Nations Environment Program reports (UNEP, 2002; 2003; 2004b); (h) regional financial institution portfolios such as the African Development Bank; (i) overseas development project reports on fishery issues such as the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID); (j) World Trade Organization (WTO) trade notifications; and (ix) NGO reports on marine issues, such as WWF (2001).  9 The reason is that the landings are summed up under the major countries within ‘territorial EEZs’ in the Sea Around Us Project database, from which landed values were obtained. For example, landings from the Azores and the Madeira Islands are grouped under  Portugal.  For each coastal country, four types of landings were considered (i)  from their own EEZs (ii) from their territories’ EEZs (iii) landings from other countries’ EEZs (iv) from the high seas.  10 http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2003/pdf/hdr03_HDI.pdf Last accessed 12/06/06. 18                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) According to Insull and Orzeszko (1991), international assistance in fisheries is provided in the form of capital aid or technical assistance from bilateral cooperation, multilateral donors and regional financial development banks. Thus, for developing countries, fisheries subsidies were identified from both domestic and international sources, and data was collected from both the subsidy providers and the recipients. Analysis of collected data A database of ten subsidy types identified for 144 coastal countries engaged in fishing activity in the year 2000 was created, spanning 1995 to 2005. Even though this is a static analysis for the year 2000, for countries for which year 2000 data was not available, the closest available data within the period 1995 to 2005 was used. The data from years prior or after 2000 were normalized to constant 2000 US dollars by applying the consumer price index (CPI), extracted from the International Financial Statistics website11. The estimate for the magnitude of fishery subsidies is therefore a static estimate, with the eleven year information used explicitly for data gaps. For each data cell entry within the matrix, comments were provided on the year or duration of the subsidy program, the source(s) of information, the nature of the subsidy program, and the subsidy recipients. For each country where a subsidy was provided with information on the amount and duration, the absolute annual amounts in United States dollars (US$) were recorded in the database. This information is referred to as ‘known subsidy amounts’. In the OECD (2004) report, from which subsidy amounts were obtained, the government financial transfer (GFT) categories were reclassified under the eleven types of subsidies identified in the study. The values of the GFT from this report were converted from OECD member countries’ local currency to US$. This study focuses on marine capture fisheries only, and subsidies within other fishery sectors such as aquaculture and inland capture fisheries were not considered. Several steps were taken to normalize the available data: (a) subsidy programs towards capital cost such as infrastructure were annualized by considering depreciation costs (if available), or by using World Bank statistics; (b) subsidy programs towards fishery projects were assumed to last five years if the project cycle was not provided; (c) subsidy programs in the form of concession loans were calculated on the basis of forgone interest rate. For instance, the African Development Fund of the African Development Bank provides interest-free loans for artisanal fishery rural development projects, fisheries harbor complexes and fish markets. The real subsidy benefit were calculated as the market cost of the loan less the total cost of subsidized loan which is estimated at 4%-5% of the principal loan amount. This estimate however, depends on available information on subsidized lending such as: (i) the subsidization rate; (ii) the amount of reduced interest rate; (iii) the time of maturities associated with government-guaranteed loans; and (iv) the amount of forgiven loans. According to Milazzo (1998), in the absence of such information, 10% of the principal amount is a better measure of benefits for all subsidized lending. The 10% rule by Milazzo (1998) is applied when information on subsidized loans was not available. Three types of data cell entries can be found in the matrix worksheets: (i) cell entries with annual subsidy figures, i.e., reported amounts; (ii) cell entries where subsidies are known to exist but without absolute figures; and (iii) cell entries where information was not available. Out of the 144 countries under investigation, subsidy information (both qualitative and quantitative) was collected for 141 countries ranging from one to all ten subsidy types identified above. Croatia, Lebanon and the Democratic Republic of Congo had no information on fishery subsidies, and they were assumed not to provide any. The total available subsidy amounts for the ten identified subsidy types (excluding fishing access agreements), was US$ 11.0 billion. Data were mostly obtained from developed countries, amounting to about 85% of the collected information. Developed countries also contributed close to 70% of global total landed values in year 2000. The bulk of the information from developing countries was qualitative, (i.e., with unknown amounts), for which estimates are provided below (see section 3.3). Payments for fishing access are provided by only a few countries, mostly the EU, USA and some Asian countries, including Japan, China, Taiwan and South Korea. The most significant is the European Union – African, Caribbean and Pacific Countries (EU-ACP) fishing agreement, which involves lump sum  11 http://pacific.commerce.ubc.ca/ifs/ , last accessed 28/06/04. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    19 payments from the EU to the African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. Other kinds of payments from the US and Japan included access fees for tuna fishing fleets to the Pacific Island States. MRAG (2000) reported that the EU devotes one third of its budget to these agreements, resulting in a subsidy of some US$ 400 million in total. These foreign agreements are funded mainly for the benefit of Spanish, French and Portuguese fleets (see Milazzo, 1998). Spain has been particularly successful with EU assistance subsidies for joint ventures, with over 250 vessels in 22 countries with catches reaching 190,000 tons (MRAG, 2000). The EU lump sum payments to its member countries are prorated by LV with about 60% of the amount to Spain, France and Portugal and the remaining 40% to the rest of the EU membership. The known subsidy amounts for fishing access payments are about three quarter billion (Milazzo, 1998), which was scaled up to about a billion considering other payments from Russia, China, USA, Taiwan and South Korea (Milazzo, 1998; MRAG, 2000; Mwikya, 2006). Filling the data gaps Out of the 1152 cell entries12 within the global subsidy matrix worksheets, 22% are known reported subsidy data entries (252 cells), and 34% of the data cell entries were qualitative with unknown quantities (396 cells). The remaining 44% were cell entries where subsidy information was not available (504 cells). Given this absence of information, the 504 data cells were assigned zero amounts, i.e., the assumption was made that subsidies were not provided. Estimates were computed for the 396 data cell entries where subsidies were reported, but with unknown amounts (Figure 4).  For each country with annual subsidy amount, a ratio of the known subsidy amount to the country’s total landed value (LV) was obtained. The expressed ratio of subsidy amount per LV was then averaged for each group of countries, i.e., developed (Group I) and developing countries (Group II) to obtain a group mean. The group mean for each subsidy type was noted, and used for the data cells where subsidies were reported, but with unknown amounts. Here, subsidies were estimated as the group mean multiplied by the 2000 LV for the country in question.  The LV for the year 2000 is obtained from the Sea Around Us Project database13, except for Gabon14. The LV data is computed as the ex-vessel price multiplied by the country landings (see Sumaila et al. 2006b). The magnitude of global fishery subsidies is the sum of the data cell entries for both the known subsidy amounts and the estimates for the unknown amounts.   12 Data entries for fisher assistance programs and vessel buybacks are limited to Group I countries and  rural community fishery development program entries was limited to Group II countries; thereby excluding 288 data cell entries with no information. 13 http://www.seaaroundus.org/eez/eez.aspx Last accessed July 13th, 2006. 14 Because Gabon is such an outlier within the Group II subsidy/LV averages, the LV from the FAO was used instead,  (see http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm, last accessed August 15th 2006.  20                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Fish. mngt programs & serv ices Fisheries R&D Boat construct. & modernization Fish. port construct. & renovation Market./process./storage infrastruct. Tax  exemptions Vessel buy backs Fisher assistance Fish. dev . projects & serv ices Rural fish. community programs Total number of countries for which data were estimated Dev eloping countries Dev eloped countries Figure 4: Number of data cells for which subsidy estimates were computed.  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Global total estimate of fisheries subsidies The total magnitude of fishery subsidies in marine capture fisheries was estimated at US$ 25.7 billion for the eleven types of subsidies identified, excluding fuel subsidies. Table 2 shows that more than half of the total estimated non-fuel subsidies were provided by developing countries (US$ 13.0 billion), with the rest being provided by developed countries (US$ 12.7 billion). The zeroes in brackets in Table 2 are subsidies for which data were not available, and which were assumed to be zero. In addition, a high and low estimate was obtained by using the upper and lower ranges (one standard deviation) of the country subsidy totals. This produced a lower and upper range estimate of US$ 25.3 billion and US$ 26.3 billion for the total global non-fuel totals. Table 2 also shows that, subsidies towards vessel buyback programs, fishing access agreements and fisher assistance programs were provided by developed countries only. Likewise, rural fishers’ community development programs are provided in developing countries only. Developed countries contributed about 90% to the estimated amount for fisheries management programs and services (US$ 5.1 billion). Boat construction, renovation and modernization programs in developed countries contributed about 67% of the program total amounting to US$ 1.9 billion. The results further shows that developing countries provided appreciable amounts towards fishing port construction and renovation programs, about 90% of the program totals of US$ 8.0 billion. Fishery development projects and support services from developing countries contributed significantly as well, about 87% to the global total of US$ 2.5 billion. This result is well supported by Insull and Orzeszko (1991), who reported earlier on management type aid to the fishery sector in developing countries. This included capital aid projects and technical assistance provided and coordinated by multilateral agencies, international development agencies and regional development banks. At present, these wide ranging The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    21 donor funded fishery development program activities can be located at a number of web resources including the OECD15, the DFID16 and the ‘onefish’ web portal17. Table 2: Global fisheries non-fuel subsidy estimates per year in billion US$. Subsidy program types Developing countries (US $b) Developed countries (US$b) Global toal (US$b) Fisheries management programs and services 0.7 5.1 5.8 Fishery research and development 0.5 0.4 0.9 Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs 0.6 1.3 1.9 Fishing port construction and renovation programs 7.3 0.7 8.0 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs 0.5 1.1 1.6 Tax exemption programs 0.4 0.3 0.7 Fishing access agreements (0) 1.0 1.0 Vessel buyback programs (0) 0.9 0.9 Fisher assistance programs (0) 1.7 1.7 Fishery development projects and support services 2.2 0.3 2.5 Rural fishers community development programs 0.9 (0) 0.9 Totals (US$b) 13.0 12.7 25.7  The results from this study also confirms that capital aid programs usually involve loans or direct financial inputs for vessel and equipments, fishery infrastructure including ports and processing facilities, and support programs towards fishery development enterprises. Technical assistance includes diverse support programs such as grants towards fishery development projects and production enhancing technologies, institutional infrastructure, technical resources and capacity building geared towards fisheries research and development, and technical advice for fisheries management (See Appendix 2).  As illustrated in Figure 5, the US$ 26 billion subsidy estimate in this study, complemented by the US$ 6.3 billion fuel estimates by Sumaila et al. (2006b), is nicely bracketed by earlier global estimates. Milazzo’s (1998) estimate of US$ 14-20 billion was probably on the low side, and the FAO’s (1992) estimate of US$ 54 billion was generally assumed to be too high by most fisheries practitioners. All except  fuel Fuel 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 FAO (1 9 9 2 ) This study  Milazzo (1 9 98) S u b si d y am o u n ts  ( U S D  b il li o n  Figure 5: A comparison of global fishery subsidy estimates.   15 http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/50/17/5037721.htm, last accessed 25/08/09. 16 http://www.fmsp.org.uk/fmsp/faces/Logout.jsp, last accessed 25/08/09. 17http://www.onefish.org/global/index.jsp , last accessed 25/08/06. 22                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Fisheries subsidy estimates by categories The result of the subsidy estimates by categories is presented in Figure 4. Subsidies in the ‘bad’ category are the highest, amounting to US$ 16 billion, with 70% of the global total provided in developing countries. ‘Good’ subsidies are the next highest in total amount (US$ 6.6 billion), mostly given in developed countries. ‘Ugly’ subsidies are by far the least (US$ 3.4 billion), with 75% also provided in developed countries. 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 Th e Good Th e Ba d Th e Ug ly Su bs id y es ti m at es  ( U SD  b ill io n s) Dev elopin g  cou n tr ies Dev eloped cou n tr ies  Figure 4: Fishery subsidy estimates by categories. Appendix 1 details country estimates of good, bad and ugly subsidies by regions, with country subsidy intensity provided, i.e. subsidy as a percentage of landed value (LV). Good subsidies The total amount of good subsidies was estimated at about US$ 6.6 billion, as the sum of two subsidies types: fisheries management and services (87%), and fisheries research and development (13%). The results for the good subsidies amounts reflects on the fact that in most developing countries with limited budgets, subsidies are obtained for fisheries management (including enforcement) and research and development mostly through international assistance programs. This is demonstrated by numerous international fishery research and management programs, such as the R/V Dr Fridtjof Nansen Resource Surveys. This program jointly funded by NORAD and FAO have conducted regional fish stock assessments spanning three decades in several developing countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean (Saetersdal et al. 1999). This study has established that a very large number of countries (about 95% worldwide) provided some form of good subsidies to their fishing sectors (see appendix 2, subsidy program compendium). With major commercial fish stocks in decline (FAO, 2004) and an increase in international trade of fishery products (Vannunccini, 2003), there is an increasing and concerted effort towards fisheries management and conservation programs, research and development globally (Hempel and Pauly, 2002). The notion that public management of fisheries can be a subsidy has generated significant debate among economists and policy makers, due to the role of the public sector in managing fishery resources as a public good, and transferring management cost to the private sector (WWF, 2001). It is widely believed that subsidizing an open access fishery resource by reducing operational cost leads to overexploitation of the resource, but with negligible resource consequences in a privatized fishery (Sumaila, 2003). The argument for and against subsidies under privatized fishery has been widely debated (see Clark et al. 2005). Nonetheless, Milazzo (1998) commended user fees on fishery resources as a form of good subsidy, i.e., resource rent subsidies, since natural resources are typically under priced and overexploited.  This is justified on the basis that user groups should meet the recovery cost of resource use and collateral environmental impacts. In some countries such as New Zealand and Iceland, user fees are instrumental in recovering government’s expense in managing the fishery. In Australia, about 2.5% of landed value is levied on domestic fishers operating in marine fisheries, whilst in Canada; the rate is about 5% of landed value for fisheries managed with individual quotas. Furthermore, Clark et al. (2006) suggested the use of right-based schemes in conjunction with taxes for effective fisheries management. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    23 The challenge however, lies in developing broad rules by which management cost can be recovered from resource users. Bad subsidies The total amount estimated for the six subsidy types under the bad subsidy category was US$ 16 billion, with fishing port construction and renovation programs contributing up to about 50% (US$ 8.0 billion), next to fishery development projects and support services amounting to 16% (US$ 2.5 billion) as shown in Table3. The fisheries subsidy debate has been topical because of the concern that some subsidies aggravate the management of fishery resources by increasing fishing capacity to an unsustainable level (Milazzo, 1998; Munro and Sumaila, 2002). A build up of excess fleet capacity generally results in economic waste and undermines the capacity of resource managers to manage fish resources sustainably (Sumaila, 2003). Table 3: Estimates of bad subsidy types Bad Subsidy types Amounts (US$b) (%) Fishing port construction and renovation 8.0 (51) Fishery development projects and services 2.5 (16) Boat construction and modernization 2.0 (13) Marketing and storage infrastructure 1.6 (10) Fishing access payments 1.0 (6) Tax exemption programs 0.7 (4) Total 15.8 (100) Tietze et al. (2001) further illustrates the effect of subsidies on fishery profits using case studies in specific fisheries from both developing and developed countries. The findings showed that within the European Union and India, almost all types of vessels which received subsidies would also have been profitable without subsidies. The subsidies played a role, however, in significantly increasing their earnings and profitability, thus encouraging participation. In South Korea, the situation was ambivalent, while in Thailand, vessels that received tax exemptions on fuel required that exemption in order to make profits. The now largely abandoned 2004 European Commission ban on subsidies for more powerful engines was a significant move towards sustainable management of fishery resources. The reform sought to restrict modernization or investment to the whole vessel except for the sole purpose of safety on decks.  Gear replacement or renovations programs were to be funded within the context of recovery plans only, or in improving gear selectivity and in meeting sustainable environmental criteria. However, these reforms are undergoing a wave of disproval because of two new developments: (i) enlargement of the EU membership and the needs of new members in securing EU benefits in the areas of fisheries subsidies, and (ii) a worsening economic situation due to increasing fuel prices, eroding the viability of an industry already weakened by overcapacity and depleted stocks (Coffey, 2006). Most of the disapproval comes from a pro- subsidy coalition including France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Portugal, and two new members Poland and Estonia. This new group also known as the ‘friends of fishers’ have successfully requested aid to support engine replacements and general modernization. Moreover, a new proposal by some member states to outright reverse the 2002 EU subsidy reform that prohibits public aid to joint ventures and the exports of vessels to third countries is far more troubling; as this has been a turning point in phasing out damaging subsidies within both the WSSD and the WTO contexts (Coffey, 2006). Certain types of subsidies such as vessel construction, renovation and modernization are contingent on countries that have a long history of industrial development (Milazzo, 1998). It is predominantly governments in the North that can afford to subsidize fisheries (Sumaila, 2003), both locally within their EEZs and internationally as distant water fleets (Hempel and Pauly, 2002). According to WTO notification, six countries provided over US$ 8.4 billion in aid to the shipbuilding sector in 1996, and in 1997 eight countries reported almost US$ 4.5 billion as shown in Table 4 (WWF, 2001).  There are three impacts of subsidies from the North on fish and fishers in the South: (i) they tend to distort prices and/or costs of fishing in favor of fishers in the North, with a consequent uncompetitive market; (ii) decommissioned vessels in the North posed a threat of vessel transfer to the South with fear of resource overexploitation and a threatened fisher livelihood; and (iii) the purchase of access rights by governments in the North is a subsidy that has negative consequences on the resource biomass and food security of people in the South (Sumaila, 2003). 24                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) The results from this study shows that fishing access payments for distant water fleets (DWF) are provided by only a handful of countries but with a significant share of world catches, including the EU, Japan, Russia, Korea, Taiwan, China and the USA, amounting to about a billion US$ (see Table 5). The access payments are in the form of (i) bilateral access such as the EU-ACP agreement, which involved financial compensation for a defined quantity of a specified fishery species. The EU also administers several joint ventures programs, and ‘trade for access’ arrangements to developing countries for preferential access to markets for various fishery products. In addition to these, Argentina signed a second generation agreement with the EU, which allows quota access to EU vessels in Argentinean EEZ (Mwikya, 2006); (ii) the US has negotiated the only multilateral tuna fisheries access agreements with seventeen pacific island countries. In 2003, the annual fee was US$ 21 million for approximately 16 purse seiners. About 86% of this amount is disbursed from the State Department and the 14% comes from the American Tuna Association (Mwikya, 2006); (iii) The Japanese and other far eastern distant water fleets from Korea, China and Taiwan usually fish under private access agreements with payments from the private sector organizations, as joint ventures or   payments made in the form of aid from the governments. These payments are based on the amount of catch reported at specific ports, and the payments are often not disclosed. Milazzo (1998) reported payments from Japan towards DWF and securing fishing rights in developing countries to the tune of about US$ 200 million. China also continues its DWF and high seas fisheries policy with payments in the North pacific, Indian Oceans, off Western Africa and recently in the Caribbean (Milazzo, 1998; Bonfil et al. 1998). Table 4: World Trade Organization ship building notifications 1996- 1997 in US$ million (WWF, 2001). Country 1996 1997 Australia 19 17 Belgium - 2 Germany 500 99 Italy - 676 Japan 6,893 3,553 Norway 191 92 Portugal - 13 Spain 503 - United Kingdom 302 8 Total (US$m) 8,408 4,460 Fishing access subsidies are not only subsidies under the terms of the WTO agreement, but also effectively contribute to the transfer of excessive fishing capacity from Northern to Southern waters, and thereby undermine the economic and conservation interests of coastal developing countries. Fishing access agreements pretend to reconcile trade and aid, but have barely contributed to the developments to the local fishing industries of the coastal states (Milazzo, 1998). These arrangements can be of mutual long-term benefit only if it is effectively enforced and measures are in place to ensure compliance (Atta-Mills et al. 2004). Most of the EU agreements signed with West African states, nonetheless, do not contain catch quotas for EU vessels and this usually results in resource overexploitation (Kaczynski and Fluharty, 2002). Between 1992 and 2000 EU companies signed 152 joint ventures involving 241 boats, representing about 88,319 GRT; these deals were highly subsidized by the EU. Half of these companies were Spanish, and the rest were Portuguese, Italian, Greek, French and Danish. As of 2000, these vessels were fishing in the waters of 28 countries; 77% of them in Africa, 22% in South and Central America and 1% in Europe (COFREPECHE, 2000). Bonfil et al. (1998) using Senegal and Mauritania to exemplify the problem of transfer of protein and wealth from developing countries to relatively rich DWF nations; they estimated that over 80% of the catch was taken by DWF nations from 1950 to 1994. Table 5: Fishing access subsidy payments for 19 fishing nations. Country Access subsidies amounts (US$’000) (%) Japan 200,000 (20) China 193,418 (19) Spain 117,791 (12) France 107,209 (11) Russia 70,878 (7) UK 56,452 (6) Portugal 45,000 (5) Korea 43,606 (4) Denmark 37,747 (4) Italy 22,693 (2) Taiwan 21,098 (2) US 21,000 (2) Netherlands 17,989 (2) Ireland 12,789 (1) Germany 9,517 (1) Greece 9,335 (1) Sweden 7,578 (1) Finland 3,566 (~0) Finland 2,323 (~0) Total (US$’000) 1,000,000 (100) Fishery subsidies provided in developing countries are going through a transition from ‘capture component’, i.e., poorly managed, state controlled semi- industrial fisheries, to ‘export stimulating mechanisms’ (UNEP, 2002). According to Milazzo (1998), in developing countries, where government agencies responsible for fisheries generally have modest budgets, it appears that the bulk of subsidies are provided in the form of subsidized loans and tax breaks. Lately, in the 1990s, the emphasis has been on management aid and technical assistance programs in value adding and quality control, as shown by the results of this study and confirmed by other reports (see FAO, 2003c). This could also justify the huge The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    25 investments in capital infrastructure and marketing programs, from both domestic and international sources (see Appendix 2). Ugly subsidies The total estimate of ugly subsidies worldwide is about US$ 3.4 billion, with fisher assistance programs in developed countries contributing about 50% (US$ 1.7 billion). Fisher assistance programs, though applauded for their social welfare objectives in many instances, have also been criticized for their role in creating a subsidy-dependent community. The argument against fisher assistance programs is that it encourages fishers to stay in the fishing industry rather than leave it and diversify into other economic activities (Schrank, 2003). The impact of such subsidies is basically to artificially raise the price of harvested fish or reduce the cost of fishing (Munro and Sumaila, 2002). Subsidy policies that are directed either implicitly and/or explicitly at social objectives need to be analyzed to ensure that they do not hamper the effective management of fish stocks (OECD, 2005a). The policies should at least be coherent and mutually supportive for sustainable resource management. With the decline of fisheries within the North Atlantic (Pauly and Mclean, 2003) and grossly overcapitalized global fleets (Gréboval, 1999), vessel buyback programs are generally regarded as good subsidies due to their capacity reduction goals (Milazzo, 1998). Buyback programs were estimated close to a billion US$ and provided only by developed countries. These programs though with good intent in reducing fishing capacity, have been criticized for their ineffectiveness as the fishing capacity usually seeps back into the fishery over time (Cunningham and Gréboval, 2001; Holland et al. 1999; Clark et al. 2005). Munro and Sumaila (2002) also pointed out that buybacks can be good when not anticipated by fishers, but bad when anticipated because fishers will accumulate effort in anticipation, thereby neutralizing the expected benefits. Furthermore, there is the general fear of a ‘spillover effect’ of vessels from one fishery to another either in the high seas or as distant water fleets into other EEZs (Munro, 1998). It has been reported that vessels decommissioned from the Canadian cod fishery, for e.g., were transferred to Argentinean waters (UNEP, 2003). The EU for instance has developed sets of criteria and sustainability reference points for sustainable vessel buyback programs including: (i) an entry/exit ratio for the introduction of new vessels of 1 to 1; (ii) vessel buybacks supported by public aid non-replaceable; and (iii) for any new vessels over 100 GRT built with public aid, the entry/exit ratio should be 1 to 1.35 to counter technological advancement18.  However, EU common fishing policy rules are often poorly enforced and monitored, resulting in breaches and infringements19 and the export of fishing capacity to other countries (Milazzo, 1998). According to COFREPECHE (2000), from 1992 to 2000, Kenya, Guinea Conakry and Angola had about 110%, 96% and 85% increase in GRT respectively, due to vessels imported as a result of EU joint venture agreements. An earlier common fisheries policy (CFP) Regulation (2371/2002) sought to strengthen the link between fleet management and public aid but without any success. This was because monitoring and control was ineffective, and aid was conditional upon compliance with reference points. With recent developments in the CFP such as vessel modernization, it appears that the EU may be stepping from some of the key subsidy reforms committed to a few years ago (Coffey, 2006). Case study analysis in West Central Africa by Mabawonku (1990) demonstrated that fishery subsidies can achieve specific economic objectives, such as increasing income through the reduction of input prices (mainly for food) and the provision of infrastructure and services, such as extension and training. It is important from a sustainability perspective, to assess subsidies in small scale fisheries that would be directly ‘capacity-enhancing’ and to distinguish it from other subsidy types without such effects (Schorr, 2005). Rural fisher community development programs in developing countries are synonymous to fisher assistance programs in developed countries; however, the major difference is that the former has livelihood program activities integrated within coastal communities.  In several developing countries,  18 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GBR/body.htm , last accessed 18/06/06. 19http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/06/992andformat=HTMLandaged=0andlanguage=ENandguiLangu age=en, last accessed 12/08/06. 26                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) excess capacity in the form of human capital or labor is likely to be more significant than capital in the form of fleets, particularly where barriers to labor mobility are commonplace (Clark et al. 2005). This is further exacerbated by intergenerational shift into fishing activities from other sectors (Tietze et al. 2000), and the lack of access to alternative income generating activities in several coastal communities.  Subsidy support programs in such circumstances are regarded as unsustainable if they promote indiscriminate gear use by coastal fishers (Pauly et al. 1989; CECAF, 2000), and/or promote large excess of rural labor that may lead to Malthusian overfishing as shown in Figure 7 (Pauly, 1993; 1997; Teh and Sumaila, 2006). This can have negative impact in sustaining fishery resources and the very livelihoods they aim to support. To remedy such situation, Teh and Sumaila (2006) recommended the integration of food sufficiency program goals within a sustainable coastal management framework.  TC1 TC2 BE2 BE1 TR Value of catch  ($) E3 E4 Fishing effort (E) Old costs New costs Excessive labor and subsidized gear  Figure 7: Subsidies and Malthusian overfishing (adapted from Pauly, 1997).  Also, the effect of subsidies and development assistance in most developing countries does not seem to meet the expected outcome of the intended policy goals (SIFR, 1992). For instance, most external assistance programs on research in developing countries tend to target high value species such as tuna for export rather than species that could be harvested by the local fishermen to supply domestic markets (Milazzo, 1998).  Moreover, there are indications to show that some of the subsidy programs geared towards small scale fisheries development in general are intended to enhance fishing capacity to target commercial fish species for export (FAO, 1996; Khan, 1998) with a consequent shortage of protein to the local population (UNEP, 2002). Fisheries subsidy estimates by region With seven geographical regions of the world identified (Sub Saharan Africa, Asia, North Africa and the Mediterranean, Europe, North America, Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean), information is provided on the size and extent to which subsidies contribute to fisheries conservation programs and the increase in fishing pressure. Figure 8 illustrates that Asia provided the largest amount of non-fuel subsidies, about US$ 12.5 billion, representing about 29% of total LV, and with more than 50% in the bad subsidies category. Asia also contributes more than half of the global landed value of US$ 43 billion. The next highest subsidizing region is Europe with about US$ 4.5 billion, with more than half in the bad subsidies category as well, representing about 35% of the total LV (see Figure 9 for regional subsidy intensity).  North Africa and the Mediterranean region provided the least amount of subsidies to its fishery, about US$ 494 million, representing 34% of its LV. North America has the least subsidy intensity, with only about 21% of its subsidy per LV. In contrast to developed countries, industrial fisheries of many developing countries in Asia, Oceania, Africa etc., deal with the high capital investment and operating costs by one or more of the following: (i) national inputs: import or export duty waivers and concessions; (ii) bilateral or overseas development assistance: technical assistance in the form of infrastructure support; (iii) multilateral assistance such as marketing supports programs, and (vi) joint venture arrangements (UNEP, 2003). The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    27 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 Asia Europe Latin America & the Caribbean North America Oceania Sub Saharan Africa North Africa &  Mediterranean Subsidy  am ounts (USD billion) 4 Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly  subsidies  Figure 8: Subsidy amounts, by major geographic regions.  A breakdown of the non-fuel subsidy results of this study by categories provided by major fishing nations is illustrated in Figure 10, with India, Japan and the EU leading at about US$ 4.3, US$ 4.0 billion and US$ 3.0 billion; representing 177%, 30% and 42% of its LV, respectively. Next were Brazil, Russia, USA, China and Gabon in decreasing order; with subsidy intensity ranging from as low as 8% in China to more that 100% in Gabon (see Appendix 1 for a list of countries’ subsidy intensities).  0 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 Su b Sa h . A fr ica La t . A m er ic.  & Ca r ib. Eu r ope Ocea n ia Nor th A fr ica  & Medit . A sia  Nor th A m er ica Su bs id y in te n si ty  ( % )  Figure 9: Subsidy as a percentage of total landed value for major geographic regions.  As a leading fish producer in developing countries, and with an increasing importance of fisheries to the economic sector and in meeting local protein needs, subsidies in India are varied, provided by the government for both economic development and, for social welfare and equity concerns (MPEDA, 2002; Kulkarni, 2005). According to Salagrama (2004) and Kleih et al. (2006), these subsidy programs take the form of financial lending support programs to the fishing sector, processing and marketing and programs and towards capital and infrastructural development programs, particularly in meeting the requirements for international trade. Most of the subsidies in India, however, are not actionable under the WTO rules, since they are mostly provided for fishing port development, general fisheries management programs and towards small scale fisheries.  The Japanese fishing industry is one of the largest and highly diverse, with the Fisheries Agency of Japan’s budget amounting to about US$ 4.0 billion, a quarter of total revenues in the marine capture fisheries (Milazzo, 1998). Japan’s per capita fish consumption has consistently ranked among the highest in the world, about 69.1 kg/year, far exceeding the world average of 16.0 kg/year  (FAO 2002). Japan’s fish consumption patterns have also accounted for being one of the world’s largest markets for fishery 28                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) products, both in weight and value20. Japan obtains much of its catch from the coastal waters of developing countries (Swartz, 2004). As of 2000, Japan ranked third in marine landings, behind China and Peru (FAO 2002), with most of the catch based on joint venture agreements (Nakai, 1995) and distant water fleets (Iwasaki, 1997) subsidized by the Japanese governments in the form of aid packages and development grants (Bergin and Haward, 1995). 0.0 0.5 1 .0 1 .5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 India Japan EU Brazil Russia USA China Gabon S u b si d y am o u n ts  ( b il li o n  U S D ) Good su bsidies Ba d su bsidies Ug ly  su bsidies  Figure 10: Subsidy estimates for some major fishing nations.      The EU has the third largest fleet in the world with around 100,000 boats taking 10% of the world’s catch, with an increase in fleet size by about 6% with the entry of 10 new members into the Union21. The newly approved EU subsidy budget of about US$ 4.8 billion, have both fisheries management and cost reduction components and includes: (i) installing more efficient engines for crafts less than 12 meters long; (ii) providing aid towards rising fuel cost; (iii) contributing towards environmental friendly fishing techniques; (iv) assisting with processing and marketing programs, and (v) providing fisher assistance support22. The new European Fisheries Fund (EFF) is to replace the Financial Instrument on Fisheries Guidance (FIFG), and is responsible for the provision of financial support to the fisheries sector from 2007-2013. However, controversy still looms over the terms of agreement of the fund; since Britain, Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands and Belgium object to the expansion of existing fishing fleets, because this will undermine current WTO subsidy negotiations and fisheries sustainability.  The demand came mainly from ‘friends of fishers’ who have requested for grants for new engines in boats under 12 meters long, which account for 80% of Europe’s fleet23. Russia’s current subsidy programs are low (estimated at US$ 1.4 billion) compared to the mid seventies and early eighties when they were the most dominant player in high sea fisheries with distant water trawler and factory ‘mother ships’ (Milazzo, 1998). Pashkova (2001) reported that current government subsidies to the industry are in the order of US$ 5 billion, taking into consideration distant water fleet investments and local infrastructure support needs. Current post-Soviet subsidy programs are to boost about 50 fishery factories, for enhanced processing and marketing of fishery products particularly around the Murmansk region, one of the biggest fish processing complexes in the world (Euro Arctic news, March 11th 2006)24. The estimates for Russian subsidies may be on the conservative side. Both domestic and international public funds to the fisheries sector of Gabon is increasing, in the form of projects25, and fish for market access into the EU.  The EU Council provisionally approved a protocol to  20 http://faostat.fao.org/site/506/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=506, last accessed 17/08/06. 21 http://oceana.org/uploads/media/UNEP_workshop_on_fisheries_subsidies_and_sustainable_fisheries_management.pdf, last accessed 16/08/06. 22  www.intrafish.com Published 20/06/06, last accessed 22/06/06. 23 NewScientist.com Published 20/05/06, last accessed 25/05/06. 24 http://www.sr.se/cgi-bin/euroarctic/amnessida.asp?programID=2460andNyheter=0andgrupp=2604andartikel=813284, last accessed 22/06/06. 25 http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2004/48167/index.html last accessed February 09/02/07. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    29 the Fisheries Partnership Agreement with Gabon, setting out the fishing opportunities for 24 purse seine vessels from Spain and France and 16 long line vessels from Spain and Portugal until 2 December 201126. Most of the subsidies provided by the USA as illustrated in Figure 10 are good subsidies, aimed at management and conservation purposes. Appendix 2 lists for all maritime countries the types of subsidies, their estimates or reported figures and the sources of information. It is worthy to note that some countries have relatively low subsidy amounts reported (such as China and Canada) as compared to others whose subsidies were estimated based on our statistical approach (such as India and Argentina). Research Limitations The accuracy of the estimation techniques used in this study are determined by a number of factors: (a) the availability of information provided by most countries to multilateral and intergovernmental organizations, such as the FAO, OECD and APEC; (b) the type of normalization and standardization applied to the available data sets; (c) the appropriateness of grouping countries into developed and developing country categories based on economic indicators28; (d) the reliability in the secondary information collated without cross checking or validation; (e) the use of weighted averages based on countries landed value for interpolation purposes; (f) the criteria for excluding certain information from the estimates (e.g. subsidies towards aquaculture);  (g) the taxonomy of subsidies used in the study; and (h) the nature of the data sources. Table 6: WTO fisheries subsidy notifications from 1995-2001. Country27 Capture sector Ship building Processing Others Total No. by country Canada 4 NA NA NA 4 Japan 6 NA NA 1 7 S. Korea 6 2 2 1 11 Norway 16 1 1 4 22 Philippines 1 NA NA NA 1 Poland 3 NA NA NA 3 Senegal 1 NA NA NA 1 Slovakia 1 NA NA NA 1 USA 5 NA NA NA 5 EU countries 75 9 9 34 127 Iceland 1 NA 1 3 5 Tunisia NA NA NA 1 1 Singapore 1 NA NA NA 1 Turkey 1 NA NA NA 1 Thailand NA NA NA 1 1 Total 121 12 13 45 191 Despite the attempt in obtaining detailed information on all countries and on all types of subsidies, there have been several challenges and drawbacks. These include the following: i. The WTO notifications on actionable subsidies submitted to the negotiation group mostly lacked information on specific amounts of the various subsidies reported. Table 6 shows that from 1995 to 2001, about 191 submissions were made (Cox and Schmidt, 2002); Table 7: Some discrepancies in fisheries subsidies reported from 1996 to 1997 (WWF, 2001). Country/ States Officially reported government subsidies to the OECD and APEC (US$b) Amount of government subsidies  reported to the WTO (US$b) Year 1996 1997 1996 1997 Japan 8.2 3.0 5.0 0 EU 0.9-1.0 0.8-1.0 0.6 0.7 Canada 0.8 0.7-0.8 0.6 0.7 Korea 0.4 0.3-0.4 0.04 0.05 Taiwan 0.1 0.2 NA NA Norway 0.2 0.2 0.01 0.02 Spain 0.1 0.2 0.07 0.07 Italy 0.08 0.07 0 0 China 0.06 0.05 NA NA ii. Information from WTO records does not reflect the true nature of the subsidies provided, nor is the values corroborated and updated. According to WWF (2001), the twelve countries with the largest total fishing subsidies officially reported by OECD (2000) and the APEC (2000) showed considerable  26http://www.fishupdate.com/news/fullstory.php/aid/3471/EU_and_Gabon_initial_new_fisheries_partnership_agreement_and_ protocol.html, last accessed 09/02/07. 27 NA: Not Available. 28 http://earthtrends.wri.org, last accessed 10/06/06. 30                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) discrepancies in their figures reported to the various intergovernmental organizations as shown in Table 7; iii. Some under-reporting has also been noted and include the following: • The USA provided subsidies under the capital construction fund (APEC, 2000), with known costs of administration, but without the actual subsidy figures enjoyed by the fishing industry (WWF, 2001); • China provided rough estimates of about US$ 700–800 million in annual subsidies to the fish-harvesting sector (Milazzo, 1998), yet only US$ 50 million was officially reported to APEC (2000); • Japan reported US$ 5 billion subsidies to the WTO in 1996 for tax preference programs, that was not included in either the OECD or APEC studies (WWF, 2001). Detailed information and clarity on the amount and nature of the subsidies provided by countries worldwide will set the stage for better negotiation rules on setting sustainable fishing criteria and also measuring the impact of these subsidies on fishery resources. In order to encourage transparency, the data used for this exercise, given in Appendix 2, will be made available, by country, via the website of the Sea Around Us Project (www.seaaroundus.org). We hope this will lead to feedback and correction/amplification of the database. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Summary of major findings Major findings of this research are: • The magnitude of global fishery subsidies was estimated at US$ 26 billion for marine capture fisheries for eleven subsidy types identified (excluding fuel subsidies). The eleven subsidy types were (i) fisheries management programs and services; (ii) fishery research and development; (iii) tax exemption programs; (iv) foreign access agreements; (v) boat construction renewal and modernization programs; (vi) fishing port construction and renovation programs; (vii) fishery development projects and support services; (viii) marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs; (xi) fisher assistance programs; (x) vessel buyback programs;  and (xi) rural fishers’ community development programs; • Fisheries subsidies can be classified into three categories based on their potential impact on fish stocks as: the ‘Good’, the ‘Bad’ and the ‘Ugly’. For these three subsidy categories, bad subsidies were the highest, estimated at US$ 16 billion. Next were the good subsidies at about US$ 7 billion; and the ugly subsidies being the least provided at about US$ 3 billion; • A total of 1152 entries were made within the subsidy matrix in computing for the magnitude of fishery subsidies. This information was obtained for 141 countries where subsidies were provided and documented; • Out of the eleven subsidy types identified, fishing port construction and renovation programs, and fishery management programs and services amounted to the highest subsidies provided, amounting to US$ 8.0 and US$ 5.8 billion, representing 10 and 7% of global LV, respectively; • Vessel buyback programs, fishing access agreement and fisher assistance programs were common to developed countries only, with estimates of about US$ 1 billion, US$ 1 billion and US$ 1.7 billion, respectively; • Rural fisher community development programs are only provided in developing countries and estimated close to about US$ 1.0 billion; • Subsidies for fishery access agreement payments were estimated at US$ 1 billion, and they are given by a handful of nations with a huge share of global catch including the EU, Japan, China, USA, Russia, Taiwan and Korea; • About 49% of the total global non-fuel fisheries subsidies is provided by 38 developed countries (US$ 12.7 billion) and the remaining 51% from 103 developing countries (US$ 13.0 billion); The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    31 • By geographical regions, Asia (East, South and West) provided the largest share of the global fishery subsidies about US$ 12.5 billion, next to Europe with US$ 4.5 billion, with subsidy intensity of 29% and 35%, respectively; • Amongst the major fishing nations, India, Japan and the EU provided the highest subsidy amounts of about US$ 4.3 billion, US$ 4.0 billion, and about US$ 3.0 billion, respectively. This is followed by Brazil, Russia, USA, China and Gabon with US$ 2.0 billion, US$ 1.2 billion, US$ 1.1 billion, US$ 863 million and US$ 750 million, respectively. Policy implications The debate on fisheries subsidies no longer deals exclusively, or even largely with trade injury, but increasingly with fishery resource conservation issues (Milazzo, 1997) and economic waste (Munro, 1998). Other concerns have been socio-economic regarding rural development, coastal employment and food security issues (Fluharty and Kaczynski, 2002; Sumaila, 2003; Alder and Sumaila, 2004). Most policy reforms on fishery subsidies have been within multilateral trade talks by the negotiation group on subsidy rules at the World Trade Organization (WTO) in collaboration with the United Nation agencies such as the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), intergovernmental organizations and a coalition of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The emphasis has been to eliminate subsidies that distort trade and also those that lead to overcapacity and overfishing based on the Doha rounds of trade talks and the Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development. At the moment, out of the numerous position papers and proposals to the WTO negotiation group, two submissions for policy reforms are noteworthy. One approach is to have a top-down broad-based prohibition of all fishery subsidies, and the other is a bottom-up approach that prohibit subsidies that are explicitly listed as trade distorting or that lead to overcapacity. The difference between the two approaches, i.e., top-down and bottom-up is simply about what is at stake. The argument for the bottom- up approach led by Japan, the EU, Korea and Taiwan is that, by addressing overcapacity through reduction in vessel construction, modernization and overseas transfers, would inevitably curtail problems of overfishing. Also, the bottom-up proponents are arguing that ineffective fisheries management is also a contributing factor as much as subsidies to the present status of global fish stocks. Alternatively, the ‘Friends of Fish’ countries and several other countries including Iceland, New Zealand, Pakistan, Australia, Brazil, Chile and India, are advocating for a total ban of all subsidies, but with exemptions, such as considering the needs of developing countries under a special and differential (S&D) provision. The benefits of this blanket prohibition are that it is simple, leads to transparency, and still allow for some exceptions. However, the top-down prohibition imposes stronger disciplines and notification requirements, which are neither within the Doha mandate nor within the ASCM and may have impact on other non fishing sectors. There are several challenges to this proposal as well, such as compliance to rules, and the cost of notification and enforcement. Some countries including the US and a coalition of NGOs have been advocating for subsidies that support conservation efforts, and disaster relief programs. The contention with the S&D provision is that, since some developing countries have large catches, extending such a rule will undermine the effectiveness of any new fisheries rules. Further proposal on the negotiations of rules on the S&D provision are on-going, but the needs of small and vulnerable coastal states have emphasized with particular reference to the exemption of access payments, research related fisheries management programs and certain social insurance programs for fisher communities and disaster relief programs. Beneficiaries of such de minimis, i.e., developing country subsidies prohibition package will then need to meet certain other eligibility criteria. One suggestion has been to give exceptions to fisheries in developing economies with a gross national income per capita of less than a thousand US$29.  Another proposal is to provide a basis for itemizing small scale fishing boats by size, length or volume of catch landed, and to set a limit to which rules should apply in identifying which fisheries are artisanal and small scales. Another issue has been the ambiguous definition of small scale or artisanal fisheries, which requires the provision of guidelines or sets of criteria to measure the effect of subsidies  29 TN/RL/GEN/57/REV.2 Paper submitted to the WTO negotiation group on rules. http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_home.asp?language=1and_=1, last accessed 10/08/06. 32                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) that enhance overcapacity (Schorr, 2005). To this effect, the best proposals is to apply S&D only to those countries that fall below a certain threshold based on weight in terms of world market share of traded fish30. According to Schorr (2005), because subsidies to artisanal fisheries appear to take on a wide variety of forms, their effect is always hard to measure. Subsidies are most likely to be associated with the following: (i) vessel/gear modernization including motorization and the use of efficient gear such as purse seines; (ii) landing and processing infrastructure including fishing port facilities, refrigeration, roads and transport infrastructure; (iii) export including value adding and quality control; (iv) fuel subsidies; (v) other inputs such as ice; (vi) training programs and capacity building, and (vii) capital for investment. However, the outcomes of some of these policies on fishery sustainability in small scale fisheries have not been well studied, and needs further investigation. A turning point in the WTO negotiations has been the suggestion by Brazil31 and other developing countries to include regional fisheries management organizations (RFMO) in the subsidies discussion, since they have regional management responsibilities (see Abdallah and Sumaila, this volume, for more on Brazil).  Sumaila and Keith (2006) further emphasized on the positive role of RFMOs in stimulating discussion amongst regional members and the sharing of information towards the WTO negotiation on rules. The suggestion to include fishery subsidy talks within multilateral environmental agreements with the collaboration of the UN agencies, and ways to improve on the reporting and clarification of subsidy information is highly relevant to policy development. However, the challenges to these contributions are many, ranging from non-membership role within RFMOs, the legal procedures for international environmental agreements and the cost of monitoring and compliance.  How to address these issues within the WTO requires more negotiations and proposals on better reporting of subsidies and understanding the impact on subsidies on resource sustainability. Defining working guidelines and sustainability criteria for specific fishery sectors, using both ecological and economic indicators is highly desirable, and needed for the following goals: • To monitor subsidies aimed at reducing fishing capacity, but results in seepages and spill over effects; • To assess certain subsidies in developing countries that are effort-enhancing such as access agreements, using the criteria ‘patently at risk’ in terms of fish stocks and ‘effective fishery management’ in terms of monitoring and control should be considered; • To examine subsidies that may lead to Malthusian overfishing in rural coastal communities and to develop coherent policies for rural communities; • To investigate subsidy programs that promote food sufficiency and poverty alleviation and to distinguish them from subsidies that promote fish exports; • To develop national fisheries subsidy report cards, with rules on transparent reporting, and compliance on notifications. Such a report card can be used for S&D provisions, RFMO management programs and for negotiation rules on subsidy reforms within the WTO. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Three major areas have been less investigated in the analysis of impacts of subsidies. Future research should therefore focus on the following three areas, both for policy reforms in sustaining fishery resources and for sustainable fishery livelihoods: • To assess the impact of subsidies on resource exploitation and sustainability in different fishery sectors, i.e., artisanal and industrial fishing sector; • To examine the impact of subsidies on industrial  profits;  30 http://www.ictsd.org/weekly/06-06-21/story4.htm, last accessed 20/08/06. 31 TN/RL/GEN/79/REV.1 Paper submitted to the WTO negotiation group on rules. http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_home.asp?language=1and_=1, last accessed 10/08/06.  The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies, Khan et al.                                                                                                    33 • To investigate the impact of subsidies on exports, food sufficiency and livelihoods in artisanal fisheries; • To corroborate subsidy data in Appendix 2 (and available online at www.seaaroundus.org) with reporting agencies to account for biases and uncertainties in the computation of fishery subsidy estimates. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank members of the Fisheries Economics Research Unit and the Sea Around Us Project at the Fisheries Centre for their inputs into this study. We also thank Sylvie Guénette and Patrizia Abdallah for French and Spanish translations, respectively; and to Andrew Sharpless of Oceana, for access to various information sources. A. Khan is indebted to the World University Service of Canada, UBC Chapter for the financial support during his study at UBC. 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Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly 38 CHAPTER 2 FUEL SUBSIDIES TO GLOBAL FISHERIES: MAGNITUDE AND IMPACTS ON RESOURCE SUSTAINABILITY1 Ussif Rashid Sumaila1, Louise Teh1, Reg Watson1, Peter Tyedmers2 and Daniel Pauly1 1Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory (AERL), University of British Columbia. 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC., V6T 1Z4, Canada 2School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Faculty of Management, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada ABSTRACT It is generally accepted that global fisheries are grossly overcapitalized, resulting in overfishing in most of the world’s fisheries. Fuel prices have recently seen significant increases.  Given that fuel constitutes a significant component of fishing costs, it is obvious that, other things being equal, increasing fuel prices will reduce overcapacity and overfishing, because they will reduce the profits that can be made, thereby driving marginal fishers out of fishing. But, other things are hardly equal. Here, the willingness of governments to provide the fishing sector fuel subsidies reduce, if not completely negate, the conservation value of increasing fuel costs. The objective of this contribution is twofold. First, we explore the theoretical basis for the expectation that increasing fuel price faced by fishing enterprises will, everything being equal, reduce fishing pressure. Second, we estimate the amount of fuel subsidies (defined narrowly here as the price differential between what others and fishers pay in an economy) paid to the fishing sector by governments globally. Results from our study indicate that global fuel subsidies stand at between US$ 6±2 billion per year. This implies that, depending on how much of this subsidy existed before the fuel price increase, fishing enterprises can, in the aggregate, absorb as much as this amount of increase in their fuel budget before we begin to see any conservation benefits from fuel price increases. INTRODUCTION A key motivator for commercial fishing is profits. That is, the more profitable it is to fish the more fishing will take place, everything else being equal. Given that many fisheries in the world are currently overfished, and that fuel constitutes a significant component of fishing costs, reaching up to 60% in some fisheries, an obvious question to ask is whether the recent sharp increase in fuel price will help reduce overfishing, as this reduces the profitability of fishing. The chances of this happening can be reduced significantly where fuel subsidies are given to the fishing sector by governments. Fuel subsidies, defined narrowly here as the price differential between what others and fishers pay in an economy, are an example of fisheries subsidies usually defined as direct or indirect financial transfers by the government of a country to its fishing sector. They are given in various forms including grants, loans and loan guarantees, equity infusions, tax preferences or exemptions, and price or income support programmes (OECD, 1997; Milazzo, 1998; Schrank and Keithly, 1999; Clark et al., 2005; Khan et al., this volume). To help provide research inputs into the debate on the conservation value of fuel subsidies, we estimate global fuel subsidies to the fishing sector, and discuss the potential impact of this on the ability to manage fishery resources sustainably through time. We collected and analyzed time series data on (i) the price differential, if any, enjoyed by the fishing sector in each country relative to other economic sectors due to subsidies, and (ii) the quantity of fuel consumed by the fishing sector. We applied statistical techniques to  1 Cite as: Sumaila, U.R., L. Teh, Watson, R., P. Tyedmers, D. Pauly. 2006. Fuel subsidies to fisheries globally: Magnitude and impacts on resource sustainability. In  Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D.  (eds.), Catching more bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies (2nd Version, 2007). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6), pp. 38-48. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.  Fuel subsidies to global fisheries, Sumaila et al. 39 scale this up to estimate, at the global level, the annual dollar amount paid to the fishing sector as fuel subsidies by governments around the world. To our knowledge, there is currently no global estimate of fuel subsidies to the fishing sector in the literature. However, global estimates of fishery subsidies in general have been provided earlier by the FAO (1992) and Milazzo (1998). A more recent estimate of global subsidies less fuel subsidies, with intermediate value between the two earlier estimates is given in Khan et al. (this volume). Regional estimates of fisheries subsidies have also been provided for the Asia Pacific Rim by APEC (2000), and for the North Atlantic by Munro and Sumaila (2002). The OECD publishes annual fisheries subsidies estimates for its member countries (OECD, 2004; 2005a). The current study is the first to provide a global estimate of fisheries fuel subsidies. Our results indicate that global fuel subsidies are in the range of between US$ 4.2 to 8.5 billion per year, or around 8% of the annual commercial fish catch value of about US$80 billion (Sumaila et al., 2006). THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK It is generally accepted that commercial fishing operations fish for profit. The more profits they can make by going fishing the more they will fish, other things being equal. Profit, π , is determined here by the difference between total revenue, TR, and total cost, TC. TR is a function of price (p) and catch (H) while TC is a function of fishing effort, which in turn is a function of fuel cost (f) and other costs (o) such as the cost of labour. Let profit without fuel price increase, and no fuel subsidies, 0π , be expressed as )),((),(0 ofECExpH −=π         (1) Where x is the stock size and E is the fishing effort. Note that well-behaved cost functions, 0/ <∂∂ fπ . That is, the higher f the lower the profit, other things being equal. With a fuel price increase from f to f’, the profit can be expressed as )),((),( ''0 ofECExpH −=π         (2) Since f’ is greater than f, the profit will be less. With fuel subsidies,  the effect of the increase in fuel cost is either reduced or completely negated. Or, in the case of a fishery that is well connected politically, a fuel price increase could be exploited to get a subsidy that is higher than the fuel price increase, resulting in a higher level of fishing effort than before the fuel price increase. ),(0 'ffs −≤< The scenario given above is captured neatly in the case of open access fisheries by Figure 1 below. Figure 1 a, b, c, and d illustrate what could happen with an increase in fuel prices to fishing effort using the simple Gordon-Schaefer model (Gordon, 1954). In Figure 1a, we have the standard model with total revenue curve (TR) and the initial linear total cost function (TC0). Under open access the equilibrium effort is E. Figure 1b shows a swing in the total cost curve from TC0 to  with an equilibrium effort of . If this was all that happened, the fuel price increase will have a conservation value. However, as seen in many countries after the recent increases in fuel prices, the fishing sector normally advocates for fuel subsidies in the face of increasing fuel cost. Depending on how successful the sector is in this regard,  can swing to anywhere between TC0 and  (Figure 1c) or to (Figure 1d). ' 0TC ' 0E ' 0TC ' 0TC 20 fTC The outcomes under open access illustrated in Figure 1 can be shown to apply under a sole owner profit maximizing economic agent model by setting up a Hamiltonian function and solving it with the objective of maximizing discounted profit under the relevant stock constraint (Clark, 1990).                                                                 Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly 40 COMPUTING FUEL SUBSIDIES Data collection and compilation We researched printed and online sources to compile data on fuel subsidies worldwide. We also enlisted the help of colleagues worldwide, including academics, government officials, and NGOs. We categorized countries into those that provided (or were likely to provide) fuel subsidies, and those not likely to do so. For each country in the former group with available relevant and useable fuel subsidies data, we computed the cost of a subsidized litre of fuel (usually diesel). We then estimated the country’s total fuel subsidies based on the fleets’ fuel consumption. Fuel consumption data was obtained from Tyedmers et al. (2005). TR = ph (x,e) 0 E Effort TCo Co st  / Re ve nu e ($ ) a) b) c) d) TR = ph (x,e) 0 Eo Effort TCo TCo´ Eo´ Co st  / Re ve nu e ($ ) TR = ph (x,e) 0 Eo Effort TCo TCo´ Eo´ TCof Eof Co st  / Re ve nu e ($ ) TR = ph (x,e) 0 Eo Effort TCo TCo´ Eo´ TCof2 Eof2 Co st  / Re ve nu e ($ )  Figure 1. Figure 1a illustrates the standard model with total revenue curve (TR) and the initial total linear cost function (TC0). Figure 1b shows a swing in the total cost curve from TC0 to .Depending on the size of fuel subsidies,  can swing to anywhere between TC0 and  (Figure 1c) or to (Figure 1d). ' 0TC ' 0TC ' 0TC 20 fTC  We created a database of fuel subsidies for 144 coastal countries which had engaged in fishing activity in the year 2000, and were not territories or dependences. Information related to fuel subsidies was compiled from primary and grey literature, the internet, and newspaper articles. Even though this is a static analysis for 2000, we used the closest available data within the period from 1995 to 2006, for countries for which we did not have year 2000 data, Data from years prior or after 2000 were normalized to constant 2000 US dollars by applying the consumer price index (CPI). CPI rates were extracted from the International Financial Statistics website available at http://pacific.commerce.ubc.ca/ifs/. Information for each country was filtered into three groups, progressing from countries with specific fuel subsidy data to those with coarse or no information. Group 1 countries had the best data, i.e., the actual monetary value of fuel subsidy per litre, or total cost of fuel subsidies. In the case of countries where the total value of subsidies was provided, we calculated the per litre subsidy by dividing total subsidies by the country’s total fuel consumption (based on data Tyedmers et al. 2005). Group 2 countries were those with  Fuel subsidies to global fisheries, Sumaila et al. 41 qualitative information available about the provision of fuel subsidies in the respective countries. Group 3 countries were those for which we have no information. There were 24, 25, and 60 countries in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In addition, there were 35 countries which, according to our research, did not provide subsidies (Table 1).  Table 1: List of data sources Country Subsidies provided? Y/N $/Litre (US$) bracket = estimated Source (s) Albania Y 0.33 Albania Directorate of Fisheries Policies, 2004.   Fisheries Economy Analysis. http://www.dfishery.gov.al Accessed 21 Aug 2006 Angola Y (0.15) WTO (2006) Antigua and Barbuda N - Caribbean Regional Fisheries Mechanism (CRFM) http://www.caricom- fisheries.com/members/antigua.asp  Accessed 21 Aug 2006 Argentina Y (0.18) Onestini, M. and G. Gutman 2001 Australia Y 0.20 Parliament of Australia Library. Research Note 24 2000-01 http://www.aph.gov.au/library/Pubs/rn/2000-01/01RN24.htm.  Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Bahamas N3  CRFM http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/bahamas.asp  Accessed 21 Aug 2006 Bangladesh Y 0.04 Khatun, 2004 Barbados Y (0.15) a. Barbados Fisheries Division – Fisheries Management Plan. http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/cepnet/barbados/czmu/bbsoc/barbados.htmBarba dos  Accessed 21 Aug 2006 b. CRFM http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/barbados.asp Accessed 21 Aug 2006 Belgium N2 -- a. OECD, 2005c b. Cox, 2003 Benin N - Personal communication (E. Fiogbe, 2006) Brazil Y 0.11 Brazil Secretariat of Agriculture and Fisheries. www.planalto.gov.br/seap  Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Cameroon N  FAO fisheries management profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CMR/body.htm  Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Canada Y (0.18) a. http://www.gnb.ca/acts/acts/g-03.htm (fuel tax exemption in New Brunswick) b.http://www.finances.gouv.qc.ca/en/ministre/discours/20050902.asp (fuel tax exemption in Quebec) Cape Verde Y (0.15) FAO Fishery Profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/body.htm China Y (0.18) Xinhua Online news, 27 March 2006. Fuel prices jump to aid battered refiners.  http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006- 03/27/content_4349323.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Colombia N1 - FAO Fishery Profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/COL/profile.htm Congo (Dem Rep) N1 - FAO Fishery Profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/COD/profile.htm Congo (Rep) N1 - Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods Programme Bulletin 16. http://www.sflp.org/eng/007/pub1/bul16_1.htm#_ftn1 Costa Rica Y 0.20 La Nacion online news, 12 March 2006. Pescadores anclados a pobreza pese a millonaria ayuda estatal. http://www.nacion.com/ln_ee/2006/marzo/12/pais1.html  Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Cote d’Ivoire Y (0.15) Overa,  2001 Denmark N2  OECD, 2005c Dominica Y (0.15) CRFM http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/dominica.asp  Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Ecuador N1 - FAO Fisheries management country profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ECU/BODY.HTM Accessed 24 Aug 2006 El Salvador N4 - FAO Fishery Profile.  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/SLV/profile.htm Fiji N1 - a. Fiji Times, 2 January 2 2006.  Fiji fishing industry in crisis. http://www.ecsiep.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=533 &Itemid=63 Accessed 24 Aug 2006 b. http://www.fijivillage.com/budget/index.html France Y 0.14 Financial Times Online, 27 April 2006. Federation chief wants answers on French fuel move. http://www.fishupdate.com/news/fullstory.php/aid/4426/Federation__chi ef_wants_answers_on_French__fuel___move__.html Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Gabon Y 0.23 Personal communication (G. Bernart, 2006) Gambia Y (0.15) Mabawonku, 1992 Germany N2 - OECD,  2005c                                                               Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly 42 Country Subsidies provided? Y/N $/Litre (US$) bracket = estimated Source (s)  Georgia N1 - FAO Fishery Profile.  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GEO/profile.htm Ghana Y 0.10 EUROPA i centre. http://trade- info.cec.eu.int/doclib/cfm/doclib_section.cfm?sec=168&lev=2&order=date Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Greece Y 0.20 OECD, 2005b Grenada Y (0.15) CRFM. http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/grenada.asp Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Guinea N1 - FAO Fishery Profile.  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/GIN/profile.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Guyana N1 - Associated Press, 1 September 1 2005. Guyana deep-sea fishermen suspend operations due to high fuel costs. http://www.icsf.net/jsp/english/externalnews/newsDetails.jsp?id=23189 Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Hong Kong Y 0.40 China Fisheries, 17 May 2006 Hong Kong :Fishermen's fuel-subsidy call rejected. http://en.cappma.com/news/readnews.asp?newsid=21140 Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Iceland Y (0.18) Scottish Executive Publications online. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library3/environment/ccna-11.asp Accessed 24 Aug 2006 India Y 0.11 The Hindu Online, 26 Oct 2004. No sales tax on diesel for fishermen. http://www.hindu.com/2004/10/26/stories/2004102608930400.htm Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Indonesia Y 0.07 LKBN Antara. 19 April 2006. Government provides subsidized fuel supply for fishermen.  http://www.antara.co.id/en/ Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Italy N2  OECD, 2005c Jamaica Y (0.15) CRFM. http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/jamaica.asp Japan Y 0.25 Milazzo, 1998. Marshall Islands N1  Marshall Island Chamber of Commerce. http://www.majurochamber.net/Marshall%20Isls%20Journal%20News.ht m Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Malaysia Y 0.11 a. New Straits Times, 16 March 2006. Petrol price for coastal fishermen reduced.  http://www.nst.com.my Accessed 22 Aug 2006 b. Pertubuhan Berita Nasional Malaysia, 4 Jan 2006. Syndicates Lure Fishermen to Sell their Subsidised Diesel. http://www.bernama.com Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Malta N1 - FAO Fishery Profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MLT/profile.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Mexico Y (0.18) FAO country fisheries management profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MEX/body.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Mozambique N1  Tembe, 2004 Namibia Y (0.15) FAO Fisheries management profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/body.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Netherlands N2 - OECD, 2005c New Zealand N - OECD, 2005c Nigeria N - Personal communication (C. Isebor, 2006) Norway Y (0.18) Tietze et al., 2001 Pakistan N - Daily Times Newspaper,  February 12, 2006.  Government considering subsidy on diesel sales to fishermen. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006%5C02%5C12%5Csto ry_12-2-2006_pg5_6 Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Panama N - FAO country fisheries management profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/PAN/body.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Papua New Guinea N -  Sokimi and Chapman, 2005 Peru N - EUROPA i centre http://trade- info.cec.eu.int/doclib/cfm/doclib_section.cfm?sec=168&lev=2&order=date Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Philippines Y (0.15) Rab et al., 2002 Poland Y (0.18) a. OECD, 2005c b. FAO Fishery Profile.  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/POL/profile.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Portugal N2 - OECD, 2005c Russian Federation Y (0.18) Milazzo, 1998 Saint Lucia Y (0.15) FAO Fishery Profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Saint Kitts and Nevis N - CRFM. http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/stkitts.asp Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Samoa Y (0.15) SPC Samoa profile. http://www.spc.int/coastfish/Sections/Community/samoa.htm Accessed 22  Fuel subsidies to global fisheries, Sumaila et al. 43 Country Subsidies provided? Y/N $/Litre (US$) bracket = estimated Source (s)  Aug 2006 Accesssed 24 Aug 2006 Senegal Y 0.22 UNEP, 2002 Seychelles Y (0.15) a. FAO Fishery Profile. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYC/PROFILE.HTM Accessed 22 Aug 2006 b. International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, 1999 Soloman Islands Y (0.15) Hand, 1999 South Africa Y 0.10 South Africa Budget Review 2000. http://www.treasury.gov.za/documents/budget/2000/review/chapter_4.pd f Accessed Aug 21 2006 South Korea Y (0.18) Tietze et al., 2001 Spain Y 0.10 Pravda.Ru, 27 October  2005.  Spanish fishermen keep up protests against fuel prices. http://newsfromrussia.com/world/2005/10/27/66385_.html. Accessed April 26, Sri Lanka Y (0.15) Parliament Speech by President of Sri Lanka 25 Nov 2005. http://www.presidentsl.org/data/html/speeches/2005/new_session_of_par liament.htm Sweden N2 - OECD, 2005c Taiwan Y 0.09 a. Taipei Times Online, 22 Dec 2004. EPA tackles air pollution, illegal diesel. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2004/12/22/20032161 88 Accessed 24 Aug 2006 b. Hong Kong Legislative Council Secretariat Information Note IN09/05-06. http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr05-06/english/sec/library/0506in09e.pdf Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Tanzania N3 - Budget speech 2004. http://www.tanzania.go.tz/budgetspeech/2004/financeE.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Thailand Y 0.13 Bangkok Post Online, 11 June 2006. Fuel prices hit southern fishermen. http://www.bangkokpost.com/breaking_news/breakingnews.php?id=10088 9 Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Togo Y 0.12 Personal communication (Sedzro, 2006) Tonga Y (0.15) Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean. National Report Tonga, December 2005. http://www.wcpfc.org/tcc1/pdf/WCPFC-TCC1-NR8- TO.pdf#search=%22SPC%20report%20Tonga%20fisheries%20subsidies%2 2 Trinidad and Tobago Y (0.15) CRFM. http://www.caricom-fisheries.com/members/tt.asp Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Tunisia Y 0.20 Fishing Development Strategy in Tunisia. http://www.utap.org.tn/htmlang/pech_agr/bas_1_6.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Turkey Y 0.09 EU Twinning Project TR/2004/I/AG/01 February 2006. www.tarim.gov.tr/AB_Tarim/balikcilik/ayrintili_tarama_sunumlar/7- state_aid_in_fisheries.ppt Accessed 22 Aug 2006 Ukraine Y (0.15) FAO Fishery Profile.  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Accessed 22 Aug 2006 United Kingdom N - OECD, 2005c Uruguay N  FAO Information on fisheries management in the country. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/URY/body.htm Accessed 22 Aug 2006 USA Y 0.06 a. Weber, 1994 b.http://www.chevron.com/products/prodserv/fuels/bulletin/diesel/L2_3_ 11_fs.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Vanuatu Y 0.23 Asian Development Bank, 2000 Vietnam N  Impacts of Oil Price to Vietnamese Fisheries Sector. Global News Wire. 15 Nov 2005. Lexis Nexis. Yemen Y (0.15) Yemen embassy economic report. http://www.yemenembassy.org/economic/Reports/Heritage%20Foundatio n/Yemen_2004%20Index%20Of%20Economic%20Freedom.pdf Accessed 22 Aug 2006 1 Likely no subsidies due to limited fuel supplies for fishing fleet or high fuel cost with no reported subsidies. 2 No fuel subsidies listed under direct government transfers in OECD Fisheries Review (2005). 3  Other types of input subsidies (e.g. gear, boats) available, but fuel subsidies not mentioned. 4  The government has set up the PESCA Trust  to use tax from fuel to support artisanal fishing organizations. Note: Countries with insufficient or no information include: Bahrain, Chile, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Israel, Kuwait, Lithuania, Qatar, Singapore, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Belize, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Comoros, Croatia, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Rp, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Guatemala, Guinea Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Iran, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mauritania, Mauritius, Micronesia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nauru, Nicaragua, Oman, Palau, Romania, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, St. Vincent, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Venezuela.  44                                                              Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly  Within each group, countries were divided into two categories – developed, and developing - based on their score on the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations. This was to take into account the fact that developed and developing countries face different economic constraints, and therefore, are likely to have different abilities to provide fuel subsidies. The HDI runs from 0 to 1, and we assumed in this study (as in Khan et al., this volume) that countries with scores ranging from 0 to 0.79 were developing countries, and those with scores above 0.79 were developed countries. Some adjustments were made to this general rule as follows: Russia, China and Taiwan with HDI of less than 0.79 were nonetheless assigned to the developed country category. This was because their fisheries are highly industrial with the potential for high fuel subsidies to be advanced to the fishing sector. Also, countries such as Trinidad and Tobago, Cuba, and Uruguay had HDI scores greater than 0.79, but were classified as developing countries due to the less developed nature of their fishing sectors (this also follows Khan et al., this volume). For Group 1 countries, we multiplied each country’s per unit fuel subsidy by the annual amount of fuel consumed by the country’s fishing fleets. This gave the total annual fuel subsidies provided by each country to their fishing sector in constant 2000 US$. For Group 2 countries we estimated total fuel subsidy per country by multiplying each country’s fuel consumption by the average real cost per litre of subsidized diesel obtained from Group 1 countries. Fuel consumption data was obtained from a global database of fisheries fuel consumption (Tyedmers et al. 2005). For Group 3 countries, that is, the remaining 60 countries with no information, we assumed that no fuel subsidies were provided. This is clearly a strong assumption, with the implication that our estimates are conservative. It should be noted, however, that the total fuel consumption for these countries was 0.8 and 2.8 billion litres for the developed and developing countries, respectively, and accounted for only about 8% of the total fuel consumed for all countries in our analysis. Finally, we obtained an estimate of global fuel subsidies to the world’s fishing sector by adding the Group 1 and 2 estimates. RESULTS Subsidy cost for Group A countries As of August 25, 2006 we had information for 86 out of 144 countries. Of the 86 countries with information, 52 were believed to have subsidies, and 34 did not. There were altogether 24 Group 1 countries, of which 8 were categorized as developed, and 16 as developing countries. For Group 1 developed countries, we calculated an average real (2000) cost per litre of subsidized diesel to be US$ 0.18 ± 0.11 (S.D.). The total cost of subsidies for this group was US$ 1.75 billion (Table 2). For the developing countries, corresponding values were US$ 0.15 ± 0.08 per litre, with a total subsidy cost of almost US$ 1 billion (Table 3).        Fuel subsidies to global fisheries, Sumaila et al. 45  Table 2. Estimated fuel subsidy for Group 1 developed countries Country  Subsidies (US$ per Litre) Fuel consumption (m litres) Total subsidy cost US$m) Australia 0.20 205 41 France* 0.14 673 94 Greece* 0.20 68 14 Hong Kong 0.40 155 62 Japan 0.25 4,459 1,115 Spain 0.10 1,259 122 Taiwan1 0.09 1,329 120 USA 0.06 3,010 184 Total   11,158 1,752 * Total subsidy value provided. 1 Average of subsidies from two separate sources: a) The Taipei Times online http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2004/12/22/2003216188 and b) Taiwan Legislative Counil Secretariat Information Note IN09/05-06 Available at http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr05- 06/english/sec/library/0506in09e.pdf.        Table 3. Estimated fuel subsidy for Group 1 developing countries Country Subsidies (US$ per litre) Fuel consumption (m litres) Total subsidies (US$m) Albania 0.33 2 1 Bangladesh 0.04 203 8 Brazil 0.11 550 61 Costa Rica 0.20 48 10 Gabon 0.23 20 5 Ghana 0.10 176 18 India 0.11 2,304 233 Indonesia 0.07 3,127 171 Malaysia 0.11† 1,012 116 Senegal 0.22 139 30 South Africa 0.10 256 27 Thailand 0.13 1,856 241 Togo (artisanal sector) 0.12 6 1 Tunisia 0.20 77 15 Turkey* 0.09 190 17 Vanuatu 0.23 107 25 Total   10,073 976 * Total subsidy provided. † Subsidy for Malaysia is the average between diesel and petrol subsidy. Subsidy cost for Group 2 countries Our research suggested that 28 Group 2 countries provide fuel subsidies, although the amount was not known. Of these, 9 were developed countries, and 19 were developing countries. The total fuel consumption for Group 2 developed and developing countries was around 18 and 2.3 billion litres, respectively. We multiplied total fuel consumption with the average fuel subsidy cost to obtain total subsidy costs of US$ 3.2 billion and US$ 0.3 billion for developed, and developing countries, respectively (Tables 4 and 5). In addition, a high and low estimate was obtained by using the upper and lower ranges (one standard deviation) of the Group 1 subsidy means. This produced an upper and lower range estimate of US$ 5.3 billion and US$ 1.3 billion for Group 2 developed countries. Subsidy costs for developing countries ranged from a high of US$ 0.5 billion to a low of US$ 0.2 billion.     46                                                              Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly  Table 4. Estimated fuel subsidy for Group 2 developed countries (based on subsidy of US$ 0.18 per litre) Country Fuel consumption (m litres) Real 2000 subsidy cost (US$m) Argentina 640 115 Canada 519 93 China 10,087 1,814 Iceland 530 95 Mexico 974 175 Norway 786 116 Poland 80 15 Russian Federation 2,732 491 South Korea 1,841 331 Total 18,189 3,246    Table 5. Estimated fuel subsidy for Group 2 developing countries (based on subsidy of US$ 0.15 per litre) Country Fuel consumption (m litres) Real 2000 subsidy cost (US$m) Angola 119 17.6 Barbados 4 0.6 Cape Verde 13 2.0 Cote d’Ivoire 34 5.0 Dominica 1 0.2 Gambia 7 1.0 Grenada 2 0.4 Jamaica 4 0.6 Namibia 319 47.1 Philippines 1,122 165.6 Samoa 9 1.4 Seychelles 53 7.8 Soloman Islands 27 4.0 Sri Lanka 282 41.7 St. Lucia 2 0.3 Trinidad and Tobago 14 2.1 Tonga 3 0.4 Ukraine 150 22.1 Yemen 82 12.0 Total  2,249 332.0  Total global cost of fuel subsidies The sum of Group 1 and 2 countries gave us a global estimate for fisheries fuel subsidies of US$ 4.6 billion, ranging from US$ 4.2 to US$ 8.5 billion (Table 6).  Table 6. Estimate of global fisheries fuel subsidies (US$b)  Group 1 Group 2 Total subsidies (US$b)  Developed Developing Developed Developing Average 1.75 1.00 3.27 0.33 6.35 High 1.75 1.00 5.27 0.51 8.53 Low 1.75 1.00 1.27 0.16 4.18  CONCLUDING REMARKS We have presented in this paper the theoretical expectation that an increase in fuel price increase paid by fishers to go fishing should have conservation value. We also demonstrated that fuel subsidies to the fishing sector could subvert the workings of the market, and completely negate the expected conservation value of a fuel price increase. In fact, recent events have demonstrated this to be true, as rises in fuel price  Fuel subsidies to global fisheries, Sumaila et al. 47 have led to an increase in fisheries fuel subsidies in some countries. For example, in June 2006, the Malaysian government started providing coastal fishers with subsidized petrol at RM1 per litre, a RM0.92 (US$0.25) subsidy (New Straits Times, 2006). In October 2005, the Spanish government agreed to a 60% increase in fuel subsidies after fishers blockaded several Mediterranean ports (PravdaRU, 2005) in the country. The preceding cases illustrate that in some instances, the decision to provide fuel subsidies is influenced more by political and social concerns, rather than on the sustainability of fisheries resources. We have determined the amount of fuel subsidies globally of up to US$8.5 billion, implying that global fishing enterprises can, in the aggregate, absorb as much as this amount of increase in their fuel budget before we begin to see any conservation benefits from fuel price increases. Comparing this amount to the US$ 25.7 billion of global fisheries subsidies less fuel subsidies reported in Khan et al. (this volume) means that fuel subsidies amount to about 25% of total fisheries subsidies.  Fuel subsidies inflate the proportion of global subsidies defined as ‘bad subsidies’ or subsidies that lead to overcapitalization in Khan et al., (2006) to about US$21 billion or over 65% of total global fisheries subsidies.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are grateful to the Sea Around Us Project, a Partnership of the Pew Charitable Trusts, for support. R. Sumaila also acknowledges the support of the European Community’s Program for International Scientific Co-operation (INCO) through Contract 003739 for INCOFISH project. REFERENCES Asian Development Bank, 2000. Vanuatu: Agriculture and Fisheries Sector Review. Available from www.adb.org. Accessed 22 Aug 2006. APEC, 2000. Study into the nature and extent of subsidies in the fisheries sector of APEC member economies. PricewaterhouseCoopers Report No. CTI 07/99T. Clark, C.W., 1990. Mathematical Bioeconomics: The optimal Management of Sustainable Resources. Wiley-Interscience, New York. Clark, C.W., Munro, G.R., Sumaila, U.R., 2005. Subsidies, buybacks, and sustainable fisheries. J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 50, 47-58. Cox, A., 2003. OECD Work on Defining and Measuring Subsidies in Fisheries. OECD Publication. Dahou, K., Déme, M., Dioum, A., 2001. Socio-economic and Environmental Impact of Senegalese Fishery Support Mechanisms. UNEP, Geneva. FAO, 1992. Marine Fisheries and the Law of the Sea: A Decade of Change. FAO Fisheries Circular No.853. FAO, Rome. FAO, 2003. The role and effect of subsidies on fisheries. Available from http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/U1990E/U1990E02.htm Accessed 24 Aug 2006 Gordon, H.S., 1954. The Economic Theory of Common Property Resource: the Fishery. J. Polit. Economy 62, 124-143. Hand, T., 1999. A Review of Fisheries Taxation & Licensing in the Soloman Islands. Asian Development Bank Report. p.34. Available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Reports/Consultant/Review_Fisheries_Taxation_Licensing_SOL.pdf Accessed 22 Aug 2006. International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO, 1999. Supply survey on Seychelles’ fish and fish products. Available from http://www.intracen.org/sstp/Survey/fish/fishsey.html Accessed 22 Aug 2006. Khan, A., Sumaila, U.R., Reg Watson, Gordon Munro Pauly, D., 2006. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies. In: Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D. (ed.) Catching more bait:  a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia. Khatun, F., 2004. Fish Trade Liberalization in Bangladesh: Implications of SPS Measures and Eco-Labelling for the Export-Oriented Shrimp Sector. FAO, Rome. Milazzo, M., 1998. Subsidies in world fisheries: a re-examination. World Bank Technical Paper No. 406. Fisheries series, The World Bank., Washington, DC. Munro, G., Sumaila, U.R., 2002. The impact of subsidies upon fisheries management and sustainability: the case of the North Atlantic. Fish Fish 3, 233-250. OECD, 1997. Towards sustainable fisheries: Economic aspect of the management of living marine resources. Organization for Economic Community and Development, Paris. OECD, 2004. Review of fisheries in OECD countries. Country statistics 2000-2002, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.  48                                                              Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly OECD, 2005a. Subsidies: a way towards a sustainable fisheries? Policy Brief. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris. OECD, 2005b. Review of Fisheries in OECD Countries. Country statistics 2001-2003. OECD Publishing, Paris. OECD, 2005c. Review of Fisheries in OECD Countries. Policies and summary statistics. OECD Publishing, Paris. Onestini, M. Gutman, G., 2001. Subsidies in Argentine Fisheries. In Fisheries and the Environment. Fisheries Subsidies and Marine Resources Management: Lessons learned from Studies in Argentina and Senegal. UNEP. p.1-22. Overa, R., 2001. Institutions, mobility and resilience in the Fante migratory fisheries of West Africa. Chr. Michelsen Institute Working Papers. Available from http://www.cmi.no Accessed 22 Aug 2006. Rab, M., Dey, M.M., Ahmed, M., 2002. Sustaining Fisheries and Aquaculture Production To Benefit Poor Households in Asia. March- August 2002 Semi-annual progress report. WorldFish Centre, Penang, Malaysia. Schrank, W.E., Keithly, W.B.J., 1999. The concept of subsidies. Marine Resource Econ. 14, 151-164. Sumaila, U.R., Marsden, A.D., Watson, R., Pauly, D., (In press). Global Ex-Vessel Fish Price Database: Construction, Spatial and Temporal Applications. J. Bioecon. Sokimi, W., Chapman, L., 2005. Field Report No. 27 on Technical Assistance Provided to the National Fisheries College, To Review the Small Fishing Operations (SFO) Course. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Noumea, New Caledonia. Tembe, H.L., 2004. Access agreements within the context of fiscal reforms – The Mozambican context. In Cunningham, S. and T. Bostock (Eds.). Papers presented at the Workshop and Exchange of Views on Fiscal Reforms for Fisheries - to Promote Growth, Poverty Eradication and Sustainable Management. Rome, 13-15 October 2003. FAO Fisheries Report R732, Suppl. Tietze, U., Prado, J., Le Ry, J.M., Lasch, R. (Eds.), 2001. Techno-economic performance of marine capture fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 421. FAO, Rome. Tyedmers, P., Watson, R., Pauly, D., 2005. Fuelling global fishing fleets. Ambio 34: 59-62. Weber, P.K., 1994. Net Loss: Fish, Jobs and the Marine Environment. World Watch Paper 120, July 1994. WTO, 2006. Angola Trade Policy Review Report no. WT/TPR/S/158. p.68 Available from http://www.docsonline.wto.org Accessed 22 Aug 2006.   Subsidies to high seas bottom trawl fleets, Sumaila et al.                                    49 CHAPTER 3 SUBSIDIES TO HIGH SEAS BOTTOM TRAWL FLEETS AND THE SUSTAINABILITY OF DEEP SEA BENTHIC FISH STOCKS1 Ussif Rashid Sumaila1, Ahmed Khan1, Louise Teh1, Reg Watson1, Peter Tyedmers2 and Daniel Pauly1 1Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory (AERL), University of British Columbia. 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC., V6T 1Z4, Canada 2School for Resource and Environmental Studies (SRES), Faculty of Management, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada ABSTRACT The life spans of demersal species of fishes occurring in deep waters are much longer and their potential growth rates much lower than those of related shallow water species.  As a result, deep-sea demersal fish species are more vulnerable to exploitation. This is because low growth rates relative to the available market discount rate for capital makes it desirable for fishing firms to mine, rather than sustainably exploit, these resources even in the absence of fisheries subsidies. However, it is common knowledge that governments around the world do provide subsidies to their fishing industries. The objective of this contribution is to estimate the global amount of subsidies paid to bottom trawl fleets operating in the high seas, i.e., outside of the Exclusive Economic Zones of maritime countries. Our study suggests that fisheries subsidies to these fleets stand at about US$152 million per year, which constitutes 25% of the total landed value of the fleet. Economic data for bottom trawlers suggest that the profit achieved by this vessel group is normally not more than 10% of landed value.  The implication of this finding is that without subsidies, the bulk of the world’s bottom trawl fleet operating in the high seas will be operating at a loss, and unable to fish, thereby reducing the current threat to deep-sea and high seas fish stocks. INTRODUCTION There is evidence that bottom trawling is extending into the deep ocean, where fishing effort, especially on seamounts, has intensified (Morato et al., 2006).  The life spans of deep-sea fishes are much longer and their potential growth rates are much lower than those of related shallow water species.  As a result, deep-sea fish species are more vulnerable to exploitation (Koslow et al., 2000; Roberts, 2002; Froese and Sampang, 2004; Morato et al., 2004). The point is reinforced when one takes into account the incentives that commercial fishers face. The low growth rates of the fishes that inhabit the deep and high seas make it desirable for fishing firms to mine rather than sustainably exploit these resources. In the absence of effective regulation, fleets compete to catch as much as they can before others do (Gordon, 1954). Fisheries subsidies make matters worse by keeping fleets at sea beyond the time when fishing is profitable (Clark et al., 2005). Even if there were no competition for deep-sea resources, low biological regeneration rates provide economic incentives to run down fish stocks as quickly as possible, and then invest the profits in other sectors of the economy (Clark, 1973; Sumaila and Walters, 2005). Global estimates of fishery subsidies in general have been provided earlier by the FAO (1992) and Milazzo (1998). Khan et al. (this volume) provide the latest estimate of global non-fuel subsidies, while Sumaila et al. (this volume) provide an estimate of global fuel subsidies. The sum of the two recent estimates provides an  1 Cite as: Sumaila, U.R., Khan, A., Teh, L., Watson, R., Tyedmers, P., Pauly, D. 2006. Subsidies to high seas bottom trawl fleet and the sustainability of deep sea benthic fish stocks. In Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D. (eds.), Catching more bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies (2nd Version, 2007). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6),  pp. 49-53. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. 50                                                                  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) intermediate global fishery subsidy value that is nicely bracketed by the two earlier estimates. The current contribution is the first to provide a global estimate of subsidies to the global bottom trawl fleets operating in the high seas, and belonging to the 12 leading high seas bottom trawl fishing nations. This study is timely because of the current ecological concerns expressed on the increasing activity by bottom trawlers in the high seas, and the general view that this could not be possible without the existence of fisheries subsidies (Pauly et al., 2003; Gianni, 2004). Of the three major gear types targeting deep-sea bottom species, i.e., gillnets, longlines and bottom trawlers, the latter are by far the most commonly used and most damaging. Around 80% of high seas catch of bottom species are taken by bottom trawlers (Gianni, 2004). The main species fished by these trawlers on the high seas are roundnose grenadier (Coryphaenoides rupestris), blue ling (Molva dypterigia), smoothheads (Alepocehalus spp.), black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo), Greenland halibut (Rheinhardtius hippoglossoides), orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) and deep-water sharks (Gianni, 2004). METHOD We first generated a list of all countries that have landings by bottom trawlers in the Sea Around Us Project catch database (www.seaaroundus.org).  We then identified the world’s 12 current leading high seas bottom trawl fishing nations. The countries that made this list were: Japan, Russia, Spain, Korea, Australia, Ukraine, Faeroe Island/Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Lithuania, Latvia and France (Table 1). New Zealand would have been in this list but for the fact that our research informs us that the country does not give subsidies to its fisheries. It should be noted that the 10 countries included in Gianni (2004) are all included in our list. Gianni (2004) notes that fishing vessels flagged by 13 countries took over 95% of the reported high seas bottom trawl catch in 2001. We then estimated the amount of fisheries subsidies received by their high seas bottom trawlers using the results reported in Sumaila et al. (this volume) and Khan et al. (this volume), as explained below. Khan et al., (this volume) and Sumaila et al. (this volume) identified 12 types of subsidies, i.e., (i) boat construction, renewal and modernization; (ii) fishing port construction and renovation; (iii) marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure; (iv) tax exemption; (v) vessel buyback; (vi) fuel subsidies; (vii) rural fisheries community development; (viii) fisheries management and services; (ix) fishery research and development; (x) fishery development projects and support services; (xi) foreign access agreements; and (xii) fisher assistance programs. Of these, only (i)-(vi) appeared to be applicable to high seas bottom trawlers. We therefore estimated and ascribed only these subsidies to the class of vessels under study. Estimating fuel subsidies to high seas bottom trawlers We obtained the quantity of fuel consumed by bottom trawlers operating in the high seas (defined as ocean areas outside of countries’ EEZ) from each of these countries from Tyedmers et al. (2005), and subsidy per liter by country reported in Sumaila et al. (this volume). From these two sets of data, the total subsidy to bottom trawlers in each of the 12 countries was calculated. For the purposes of further analysis, we also compiled total catch, and catch by high seas bottom trawlers in each of these countries based on the geo-referenced catches of the Sea Around Us Project (see www.seaaroundus.org; Watson et al., 2004). Finally, we assessed the total landed value of bottom trawl catches using information in Sumaila et al. (2006). Estimating non-fuel subsidies to high seas bottom trawlers Non-fuel subsidy estimates relevant to bottom trawlers active in the high seas, for the 12 high seas bottom trawling nations being studied, were taken from Khan et al. (this volume). We then used the ratio of bottom trawl catch to total catch by all the fleets active in each of the 12 countries to prorate the total relevant non-fuel subsidies in each country to the portion of the relevant non-fuel subsidies that can be ascribed to high seas bottom trawlers. How profitable are bottom trawlers? According to Statistics Iceland, profit per revenue of about 3.5% was recorded in 2000 (the year for our analysis); while Statistics Norway reported 7% operating profits for trawlers that process fish onboard in 2002. Subsidies to high seas bottom trawl fleets, Sumaila et al.                                    51 We assumed that profits from other trawl fisheries from around the world are not likely to be higher than these numbers.  Table 1. Summary of data in fisheries subsidies to high seas bottom trawl (HSBT) fleets. Country HSBT fuel used (m liters)a Subsidy per liter (US$) b HSBT fuel subsidy (US$m) c HSBT non-fuel subsidy (US$m)d HSBT total subsidy (US$m) e Total catch all species (‘000 t) f HSBT catch (‘000 t) g Total real catch value all species (US$m) h HSBT real value (US$m) i Japan 101.76 0.25 25.44 9.48  34.92  4,895 92 13,463 125 South Korea 96.57 0.18 17.38 9.74  27.12  1,805 88 3,348 92 Russia 90.93 0.18 16.37 13.69  30.06  3668 66 2,753 126 Spain 69.70 0.10 6.97 12.70  19.68  1132 66 1,414 103 Australia 5.17 0.20 1.03 8.92  9.95  183 6 1,673 9 Ukraine 24.40 0.15 3.66 3.20  6.86  393 27 235 20 Faeroe Isl. j 19.01 0.15 2.85 12.49  15.34  454 18 778 45 Estonia 8.37 0.15 1.26 3.68  4.94  109 14 59 27 Iceland 9.88 0.18 1.78 0.16  1.94  1,981 11 852 33 Lithuania 3.04 0.15 0.46 0.00  0.46  77 5 55 10 Latvia 1.94 0.15 0.29 0.00  0.29  135 3 56 7 France 2.66 0.14 0.37 0.24  0.61  621 2 1,287 5 Total 433 - 78 74 152 15,453 400 25,972 601 a) Adapted from Tyedmers et al. (2005.); b. based on Sumaila et al. (this volume);  c) this is the product of high seas bottom trawl fuel consumption, and subsidy per liter; d)  calculated using data in Khan et al. (this  volume); e) this is the sum of (c) and (d); f ) and g) are calculated using data in Watson et al. (2004); (h) and (i) are obtained from Sumaila et al. (2006); and j) Data for Denmark reported in Sumaila et al. (this volume) is used to make the calculation here. We assumed that Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia give fuel subsidies to their fishing fleets.  RESULTS The results of the analysis are given in Table 1. The following observation can be made from that table: • Total amount of fuel consumed by the high seas bottom fleet (HSBT) of the 12 countries studied is 433 million litres a year; • Total catch by those countries by all fishing gear in all areas including the high seas stands at just over 15.5 million tonnes, while the equivalent catch by only the HSBT fleet is 400 thousand tonnes. Thus, the HSBT catch is about 2% of the total catch of the 12 countries and less than 1% of the global marine catch; • The total landed value from all fish catch of the 12 countries is about $26 billion a year. The total HSBT landed value is estimated at about $601 million, which is less than 3% of the total landed value of these countries, and about 1% of total global marine catch value; • Total fuel subsidies to this fleet are estimated at about $78 million, while the non-fuel subsidy estimate stands at $74 million per year. Therefore, fuel subsidies account for just 0ver 5o% of the total subsidy to the HSBT fleet of about $152 million a year; • Total subsidy to the HSBT fleet is about 25% of the total landed values from the catch of these fleets in the high seas, which is higher than the reported profit per landed value of not more than 10% for trawlers (Anon, 2005a; 2005b). DISCUSSION Our analysis shows that the bottom trawl fleets operating in the high seas contribute only small percentages of global marine fish catch and landed values, as was also found by Gianni (2004). The fleets consume a large quantity of fuel, which is subsidized by governments around the world.  In fact, these subsidies represent the overwhelming portion of the financial transfers received by these fleets. Expressing the numbers in percentage of the world’s catch reveals that the HSBT of the 12 countries do not contribute much, and therefore should not subject the high seas ecosystem and species to such high risk. Simply put, the risk-return equation does not favor continued exploitation in the high seas by bottom trawlers. 52                                                                  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) There is at present two fora to which these findings are relevant (see Gianni, 2004): i) WTO negotiations on global subsidies disciplines in agriculture and fisheries (see Khan et al., 2006); and ii) The ongoing debate at the U.N., where a proposal is being considered to establish a moratorium on high seas bottom trawling due to the damage to the habitats that trawlers cause. Given the current profitability of trawlers, it appears that subsidies, in particular, fuel subsidies may prove to be the Achilles’ heel of the deep sea trawl fleets: their huge fuel consumption makes them extremely sensitive to fuel price increases (Tyedmers et al., 2005). Thus, combining (i) and (ii) above, we believe that given continued increases in petroleum prices, many of the conservation goals of NGOs may be achieved by focusing their efforts on persuading governments not to increase fuel subsidies in particular, to these fleets (Pauly et al., 2003). The key argument in favor of this stance is that – given climate change driven by the burning of fossil fuels – there surely is a better way for governments to spend money than by increasing subsidies to a fleet that wastes fuel to maintain paltry catches of fish, from highly vulnerable stocks, while destroying their habitat in the process. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are grateful to the Sea Around Us Project, a Partnership of the Pew Charitable Trusts, for support. R. Sumaila also acknowledges the support of the European Community’s Program for International Scientific Co- operation (INCO) through Contract 003739 for INCOFISH project, the Lenfest Ocean Program and the Marine Conservation Biology Institute. We also thank Matt Gianni for useful comments on an earlier draft of this paper.  REFERENCES Anonymous, 2005a. Profitability in fishing and fish processing 2003. (Available at: www.statice.is/lisalib/getfile.aspx?ItemID=975)” (Statistics Iceland, 2005). Anonymous, 2005b. Operating results of whole-year operated fishing vessels 13 meters and more, by fishery. Average per vessel. 2002. Available at: www.ssb.no/english/subjects/10/05/nos_fiskeri_en/nos_d321_en/tab/tab-52.html” (Statistics Norway, 2005). Clark, C.W., 1973. The economics of overexploitation. Science 181, 630-634. Clark, C.W., Munro, G.R., Sumaila, U.R., 2005. Subsidies, buybacks, and sustainable fisheries. J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 50, 47-58. FAO, 1992. Marine Fisheries and the Law of the Sea: A Decade of Change. FAO Fisheries Circular No.853, FAO, Rome. Froese, R., Sampang, A., 2004. Taxonomy and biology of seamount fishes. In: Morato, T., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Seamounts: Biodiversity and Fisheries, pp. 25–31. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 12(5). [Available at: http://www.seaaroundus.org/report/seamounts/08_RFroese/RF_TEXT.pdf]. Gianni, M., 2004. High seas bottom fisheries and their impact on the biodiversity of vulnerable deep-sea ecosystems: Summary findings. International Union for Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources. Available at: http://www.iucn.org/themes/marine/pdf/MattGianni-CBDCOP7-Impact-HS-BottomFisheries- Complete.pdf#search=%22Gianni%20high%20seas%22. Gordon, H.S., 1954. The Economic Theory of common property resource: the fishery. J. Polit. Economy. 62, 124-143. Khan, A., Sumaila, U.R., Watson, R., Munro, G., Pauly, D., 2006. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fishery subsidies. In: Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D. (ed.) Catching more bait:  a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia. Koslow, J.A., Boehlert, G., Gordon, J.D.M., Haedrich R.L., Lorance P., Parin, N., 2000. Continental slope and deep-sea fisheries: implications for a fragile ecosystem. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57, 548–557. Milazzo, M., 1998. Subsidies in world fisheries: a re-examination. World Bank Technical Paper. No. 406. 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(eds.), Catching more bait: A bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6), pp. 35-45. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Sumaila, U.R., Walters, C., 2005. Intergenerational discounting: a new intuitive approach. Ecolog. Econ. 52, 135-142. Tyedmers, P., Watson, R., Pauly, D., 2005. Fuelling global fishing fleets. Ambio. 34, 59-62. Watson, R., Kitchingman, A., Gelchu, A., Pauly, D., 2004. Mapping global fisheries: sharpening our focus. Fish and Fish 5, 168-177.                                                                     Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 54 CHAPTER 4 OVERSEAS DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE TO FISHERIES AS A SUBSIDY1 Jackie Alder1, Helen Fox2 and Miguel Jorge3 1Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory (AERL), University of British Columbia. 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC., V6T 1Z4, Canada 2WWF-US, Washington DC 3WWF-International, Gland Switzerland ABSTRACT Overseas development assistance (ODA) serves a multitude of purposes depending on the type of aid, the perceived needs of the recipient country and the foreign policies of the donor country. This study documents that ODA, while jump-starting modern fisheries in many areas, has not helped toward countries establishing management and enforcement infrastructures for these fisheries, thus indirectly contributing to the overfishing now occurring in most developing countries. Among ODA-recipient countries the trade-off with overfishing is seen in either increasing value of exported fish or in increasing consumption of seafood, and in some regions, both benefits occur. ODA, like other fisheries subsidies, can be considered as either good, bad or ugly, depending on whether they contribute to sustainability and long-term human well-being or not.  Data extracted from the OECD development assistance online database and other sources suggest that OECD assistance contributed to the development of the industrial fisheries sectors in recipient regions throughout the world. Bad subsidies, such as capital, infrastructure and technical support, which peaked by the 1990s, facilitated growth in fishing capacity, which is a major driver of overfishing today. Despite a shift in ODA to focusing on management, the significant decline in ODA to the fisheries sector, which commenced in the early 1990s, prevents many countries from addressing the issue of overfishing – a case of too little money, too late. Policy-makers in developed countries as well as in financial institutions need to reconsider the levels of assistance to these countries if they are genuinely interested in stemming overfishing. INTRODUCTION Economic development of many fisheries in the developing world has been achieved mainly by trading off the sustainability of fish stocks, food security and foreign exchange, and has been made possible through overseas development assistance (ODA). The impetus for donor countries to assist recipient countries in developing their economies through resource extraction sectors including fisheries ranges from altruism to economic or strategic (i.e., military) advantage. Overseas development assistance (ODA) has been effective in boosting the fisheries sectors in many developing countries as well as increasing food security directly or indirectly through exports, generating foreign exchange in the process. However, it has not contributed to halting the result of the growth of the sector, i.e., the decline of fish stocks in these same countries. Overseas development assistance can be described as aid given by developed countries to support economic development in developing countries. This form of aid has been practiced by many countries with strong economies for decades and is distinct from humanitarian aid which is focused on short-term aid to relieve human suffering caused by a crisis such as war or natural disasters. ODA has been a significant component of the world economy since the 1960s, and in some countries a significant source of revenue (Berlage and Stokke, 1992).  1 Cite as: Alder, J., Fox, H., Jorge, M. 2006. Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy. In: Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D (eds.), Catching more bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies (2nd Version, 2007). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6), pp. 54-67. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.  Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy, Alder et al. 55 Colonial powers such as the United Kingdom and France provided capital to their colonies to develop selected sectors of their economies and this has led to relationships which have transcended the independence of these colonies. In other countries, especially in Europe, foreign policy included assistance to newly independent countries of what was to become the Third World for altruistic reasons in a few cases, and for economic and/or military gains in most other cases. Developed countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and more recently Japan have a history of also providing substantial assistance to developing countries (Bailey 1988). The nature and scope of ODA varies from country to country as well as from sector to sector (e.g., health, education and governance) making it difficult to generalize the nature, scope and extent of ODA. However, fisheries development and more recently and in particular, fisheries management, is often included in ODA programs because of its strong links to food security, jobs for the unskilled or poorly educated, and potential to generate foreign exchange. ODA to the fisheries sector in this paper can be described as the transfer of funds from developed to less developed countries’ capture fisheries sector, which is used to assist the recipient country to develop or manage its capture fisheries resources. The funds are generally in the form of gratis grants without any repayment obligations. These grants can be considered as subsidies and as such can be good, bad or ugly (Khan et al. this volume). Many countries have provided grants to countries to develop their fishing sectors to meet their constituency’s humanitarian aid expectations as well as for economic opportunities including gaining access to new fishing grounds (Bailey, 1988). While adequate ODA funds were provided to develop a range of fisheries over the last 30 years, recent funding levels have not been sufficient to effectively manage the fisheries they assisted in developing. This paper reviews the history of ODA with reference to the fisheries sector, presents trends in ODA and looks at the potential impacts it has had on fish stocks, food security and foreign exchange through exported fish products and evaluates ODA to determine whether it is a good, bad or ugly subsidy. BACKGROUND History of overseas development assistance Overseas development assistance has existed in one form or another since countries established colonies throughout the world. The metropolitan countries would provide capital to cover costs of establishing and maintaining various institutions and infrastructure (e.g. ports and road) and indirect support through forced labour as seen in sending convicts to Australia. ODA in its current form did not begin until the latter half of the 20th century when colonies gained independence and received direct support from formerly metropolitan or other wealthy countries (e.g. Germany, or the Scandinavian countries) as they began to consider the need to assist communities that were economically or socially disadvantaged. This has become institutionalized in the European Union, which concentrates on the former colonies of its member countries in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific, i.e., the ‘ACP countries’, with which it has numerous agreements, including fisheries aid. Similarly, the (British) Commonwealth provided a framework for the emergence of Canada and Australia as significant donor countries. In some countries, development assistance was also perceived as securing military or economic alliances regionally or internationally, as seen in the US and its support for some African and Asian countries, and in the USSR in its support of Cuba and a contrasting set of African and Asian countries (Bach 1987). The value and purpose of ODA expanded from initially supporting newly-formed countries with governance, health and welfare services such as hospitals and basic economic and infrastructure development such as banking, roads and electricity to sector specific initiatives, which often focused on natural resources extraction until the early 1990s. Although financial assistance was often provided to former colonies to assist in gaining economic independence and social development, it has not been that effective in facilitating development or reducing poverty (Alesini and Dollar 2000). Despite calls for greater altruism through development assistance from developed nations starting in the late 1980s in the Bruntland Report, and following on at the Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 in which specific calls were made for increased funding to developing nations, no significant increases in funding eventuated in the 1990s. Spin-off UN conferences on sustainable development throughout the 1990s, as well as calls for ODA in the Millennium Development Goals and at the most recent World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 have also not generated significant funding for fisheries. The reality is shrinking development funding and ‘donor fatigue’ (Amalric 2000) is same situation occurs for ODA in the fisheries sector throughout the developing world.                                                   Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 56 ODA in the Fisheries Sector While many colonies gained independence in the 1950s and 1960s, the modern era of fisheries ODA began in the early 1950s, when Norway introduced shrimp trawling in Kerala, India (Bailey 1988). However, substantial fisheries ODA did not begin until the mid 1960s, and only gained momentum in the 1970s (Figure 1). Bailey (1988) provided the first global analysis of the growth of ODA in the fisheries sector and pointed out that while ODA was successful in expanding fisheries in developing countries, it also contributed to overexploitation of fish resources and social disruptions. Intensive capitalization of the fisheries sector combined with technical assistance, which benefited industrial scale fishers and often marginalized small-scale fishers were identified as the main drivers of these changes. Where ODA included access to fish resources, it did not necessarily capture resource rents as well as it could (ICTSD 2000).   Figure 1. Overseas development assistance to the fisheries sector in four regions from 1973 to 2004, represented as a five-year moving average of the values in OECD (2006).  Fisheries ODA as a Subsidy Fisheries ODA can be described as a subsidy as defined in Khan et al. (this volume), since it is a form of financial payment from public entities (donor governments) to the fishing sector, and it helps the sector improve its profitability, more than it would otherwise. Although considerable effort has been expended to define and categorize fisheries subsidies (Cox 2003) they can be described as either impacting sustainability positively (good), negatively (bad) or unknown (ugly). Like all subsidies some ODA transfers are good, bad or ugly subsidies (Khan et al. this volume). The subsidy categories described by Cox (2003) form the framework for the categories used for ODA in this report, and include capital, infrastructure, technical assistance (i.e., to improve production), research, training and management (which includes enforcement). Capital, infrastructure, technical assistance, increased effort and fishing efficiencies are therefore considered bad subsidies. Management is considered a good subsidy since it attempts to regulate exploitation and (usually) to make it sustainable. Research and training are generally considered good subsidies because they can have a positive impact of fisheries sustainability - by improving the information base on which decisions are made, and training can improve managers’ capacity to manage fisheries. However, when research and training is then used to increase exploitation rates, they are considered bad subsidies. SOURCES OF DATA Data used in this report were derived from four publicly available sources: Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN (FAO), the United Nations (UN) and the Sea Around Us Project, as summarized in Table 1. Some processing, as  Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy, Alder et al. 57 described below, for the OECD and FAO datasets, was required to ensure datasets were harmonized as much as possible. Although the data stem from a range of sources of varying quality, within a defined database, all data were consistent across countries and regions. Nevertheless, the results presented are more representative of relative, rather than absolute, differences between regions. Table 1. Sources of data used. Agency Database Access Site Accessed OECD International Development Statistics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/50/17/5037721.htm 19 Sept ‘06 FAO Fisheries Commodities Production and Trade (FishStat) http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/static?dom=root& xml=index.xml  19 Sept ’06 FAO Food Quantity http://faostat.fao.org/site/346/default.aspx 11 Sept ‘06 FAO Protein http://faostat.fao.org/site/346/default.aspx 11 Sept ‘06 United Nations United Nations Common Database http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cdb/cdb_help/cdb_quic k_start.asp 10 Sept 2006 Sea Around Us Catches www.seaaroundus.org 02 Sept ‘06 IFS database International Monetary Fund http://www.imf.org/external/data.htm 02 Sept ‘06 Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development The OECD maintains a database of international development statistics on transfers from OECD countries to developing countries since the early 1970s. The data contains a range of information including commitment year, region, donor and recipient countries, value, description and sector. The database was initially filtered to capture only grants to the fisheries sector. Non-spurious records were then classified into the purpose categories based above, or based on the title and description provided for each project. Also, a filter was applied to distinguish capture fisheries from aquaculture projects and whether the assistance was bilateral or multilateral. This yielded a total of 4060 records that could be used in our analyses. The start and end dates of most projects were often missing, so it was assumed (as in Khan et al. this volume) that the funds committed were expended over a 5-year period starting on the commitment date. Finally, a 5-year moving average was applied to all time-series computed for and presented in this contribution. The regions used by the OECD (Table 2) formed the spatial basis for the analyses and reporting since country level information was highly variable over the last 30 years (Figure 2). Regional data was also aggregated to report on a continent basis. For the purpose of our analysis, Australia and New Zealand were excluded from Oceania. Because LME 32 spans two OECD regions, it was counted twice: West and South Asia (Table 2). Table 2. Countries, regions and continents within the OECD Development Statistics database and corresponding large marine ecosystem (LME). Continent OECD Region LME Countries Latin America 5  Caribbean and Central America 4, 11,12 All countries  6  South America 13,14,15,16,17 All countries (except land-locked Paraguay and Bolivia) Africa 2  North of Sahara 27 Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritania  2  South of Sahara 28, 29, 30, 31 Guinea, Tanzania, Cape Verde, Seychelles, Angola, Uganda, Namibia, Comoros, Guinea Bissau, Gambia, Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Madagascar, Kenya, Eritrea, Senegal Asia 11  West Asia 32, 33 Palestine, Yemen, Iran, Saudia Arabia, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Lebanon, Bahrain, Iran  South Asia 32, 34 India, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan  Southeast and East Asia 35,36,37,38,47,48 China, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Korea, Brunei, East Timor Oceania 12  Oceania No LME All states, except Australia and New Zealand                                                         Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 58  Figure 2. OECD regions and the large marine ecosystem (LMEs) selected here to correspond to these regions (see Table 2 for countries and LMEs included in each region).  FAO Stats Food quantity (pelagic and demersal [marine] fish and invertebrates) was extracted for each country, expressed on a per capita basis using population estimates from the United Nations Common Database. Import and export quantities and value were also extracted, and export values were converted to real values for the year 2003 based on the International Monetary Fund’s IFS database as described below, making them compatible with the real 2003 prices expressed in the OECD dataset. Fish food quantity and daily fish protein were used to examine food security and ODA. United Nations Common Database Annual population estimates were extracted for each of the regions to estimate the per-capita consumption of food quantity as described in Table 1. Sea Around Us Catch data from the Sea Around Us Project (Watson et al. 2004) were extracted by large marine ecosystem (Figure 2) and LME’s corresponding to the broad regions and continents. The data were used to estimate the proportion of fish stocks that were either overexploited or collapsed since 1950 based on the method described by Froese and Pauly (2004). International Monetary Fund The IFS database was used to extract consumer price index information needed to adjust export values to the year 2003 so that they could be compared to real values adjusted to year 2003 in the OECD database.    Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy, Alder et al. 59 RESULTS Global and Regional Trends ODA to the fisheries sector increased globally from the early 1970s to the late 1980s, and has declined since (Figure 1). The OECD database for fisheries related information includes aquaculture initiatives, but the value of ODA for aquaculture is much lower; generally one-tenth of the funding (Figure 3). Like ODA to capture fisheries, funding declined significantly beginning in the early 1990s and this declining trend continues today.  Figure 3. Proportion of overseas development assistance targeting aquaculture within a broadly defined ‘fisheries’ sector (%).  Although the former USSR had a significant assistance program in many developing countries (Cuba, West Africa, and Vietnam), the value of their assistance relative to OECD levels is low. In 1989, 90% of total ODA was from OECD members (Berlage and Stokke 1992). A comparison of OECD (Butterfield and Williams 2004) and the former USSR (Bach 1987) assistance in the 1970s and 1980s also supports Berlage and Stokke’s (1992) estimate. In the following, the USSR is therefore ignored. Regionally, the funding for ODA peaked at different times: in the early 1980s in Asia and Latin America, the late 1980s in Africa and the early 1990s in Oceania (Figure 1).  The purpose of ODA has also changed over time, with funding over the last 30 years primarily targeted to technical assistance, which has focused primarily in increasing fishing efficiency (Figure 4). The levels of funding for other forms of assistance have also changed over time with funding for capital assistance was higher in the late 1970s and early 1980s and declined to current very low levels. A similar pattern emerges for infrastructure (e.g. harbour, ice plants), which peaked in the mid 1980s and then declined steadily. Funding for management began to increase until the early 1990s, peaked in 2000, and has since declined. Research funding has been low relative to other forms of assistance. Training and other unknown transfers are a small part of total ODA to the fisheries sector on a global scale.                                                      Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 60  Figure 4. Overseas development assistance to the fisheries sector, by purpose, from 1973 to 2004, expressed as a five- year moving average of data in OECD (2006).  Fish Stocks In all four regions of the world the proportion of stocks over-exploited or collapsed increased over the period of study (Figure 5). In Africa and Oceania, declining stocks track ODA quite closely until funding drops until the early 1990s, the proportion of stocks continue to increase despite much lower ODA funding levels throughout the 1990s. In Asia and Latin America the correspondence between ODA funding and degraded fish stocks is not as strong, but reflects a similar trend (Figure 5).   Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy, Alder et al. 61 Overexploited/ collapsed stocks Overexploited/ collapsed stocks Overexploited/ collapsed stocks Overexploited/ collapsed stocks  Figure 5. Trends in overseas development assistance (5–year moving averages of OECD data) and cumulative % of stocks overexploited or collapsed (as defined in Froese and Pauly (2004).  Food Security Fish (as food) available on a per-capita basis (Figure 6) and per-capita fish protein (Figure 7) consumption were used to investigate the impact of ODA on food security. Because of varying differences in cultures and food preferences, as well as levels of food security across the developing world, regional analyses were considered more appropriate. In some regions, such as Africa and Latin America, sub-regional analyses were also undertaken (Figures 6 and 7).                                                            Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 62   Figure 6. Trends in overseas development assistance (5-year moving averages of OECD data) and per-capita seafood availability (from FAO).           Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy, Alder et al. 63   Figure 7. Trends in overseas development assistance (5-year moving averages of OECD data) and per-capita fish protein consumption (based on FAO data).  South of the Sahara, food security in the form of fish food and fish protein increases with ODA increases. When ODA value declines in the 1990s, food security also declines, although not strongly; food security increases again when ODA increases (Figure 6 and 7). North of the Sahara, where fish is not the preferred protein, the pattern is quite different. The value of ODA, per capita food quantity and per-capita protein are much lower than South of the Sahara (Figures 6 and 7). Food quantity increases independent of food quantity; however, per-capita fish protein consumption increases with increasing ODA value (Figure 7). In Latin America, levels of per-capita fish food available and per-capita fish protein consumption in South America and Central America and the Caribbean are similar. However, in South America, both indicators of food security are independent of ODA value in the fisheries sector. In Central America and the Caribbean, changes in ODA value are reflected in changes in fish food availability but not in per-capita fish protein consumption (Figures 6 and 7). Per-capita fish food available and per-capita fish protein consumption are independent of the value of ODA in West Asia and Southeast and East Asia. In South Asia, changes in per-capita fish protein consumption follow changes in the value of ODA but changes in fish food availability do not follow the value of ODA (Figures 6 and 7). In Oceania, both food security indicators increase with increasing ODA until the mid 1990s when ODA levels decline and food security continues to increase (Figures 6 and 7).                                                    Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 64 Exports In all regions, the value of exports has increased since the early 1970s (Figure 8). Africa and Latin America have similar trends in the value of exports and ODA until the 1970s and 1980s. The value of fish exports is similar to the value of ODA and the value of exports increases along with increasing ODA until it begins to decline in the 1990s. Although ODA declines from the 1990s onward, exports continue to increase in both regions (Figure 8). In Asia, the value of exports is much higher than the value of ODA; much are invertebrates, with some of that value derived from aquaculture beginning in the late 1980s. Therefore, export values reported here could be overestimated, since only ODA to the fisheries sector is used in the analyses. Nevertheless, increasing export value follows increasing ODA in the 1980s, but not in the 1990s and later, when ODA declines and export values continue to increase along with the proportion of fish stocks that are overexploited or collapsed. In Oceania, export value is highly variable and does not reflect the trend in ODA to the region. Throughout much of the 1980s and 1990s, the value of ODA to the region is much higher than exports (Figure 8). Unlike the other three regions, changes in export values over the study period do not correspond to changes in the proportion of fish stocks that are overexploited until the late 1990s, when the value of exports exceeds ODA.   Figure 8. Trend in overseas development assistance (5-year moving averages of OECD data) and export value of seafood (values are ex-vessel; Sumaila et al. in press).  Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy, Alder et al. 65 DISCUSSION The analysis of the proportion of stocks overexploited or collapsed over the study period indicates that ODA has had little, if any, positive impact on declining fish stocks. The analyses suggest that the high proportion of capital, infrastructure and technical assistance in the early 1970s and 1980s (Figure 4) was effective in increasing fish catches and establishing industrial fishing sectors, also as suggested by Bailey (1988). However, the decline of ODA funding, especially for management, in the 1990s also reduced the capacity of developing countries to heed scientists’ warnings over the number of overexploited fish stocks globally and answer calls for improved fisheries management (van Santen 2005). The likelihood of developed countries providing the necessary funding to reverse the current trend (which they have contributed to bringing about) is remote based on current funding levels (Figure 4). The countries receiving ODA to develop and maintain their fisheries sectors have traded fish resources for food security directly or indirectly, and economic development. Throughout the regions changes in food security as measured by fish food availability and fish protein consumption, and exports have been observed in relation to trends in ODA and for these indicators the trade-offs with fish stocks can be assessed. The impact of ODA on food security is not consistent across the regions. North of the Sahara, which includes Morocco with its rich marine resources, fish is not the primary source of food or protein, and so it is not surprising that ODA has not had a direct impact on food security. However, it is likely that ODA has assisted in increasing catches that are destined for export and generating foreign exchange, which in theory, ultimately returns to the economy and indirectly affects food security. In South America, where fish consumption is low in many countries including Peru and Chile with some of the world’s largest fisheries ODA is also not directly linked to food security. However, it likely facilitated the development of industrial fisheries and ultimately the generation of foreign currency, which contributes to development of the national economy. ODA has impacted food security in Central America and the Caribbean, where fish consumption is higher than in South America and contributes to the economies of many countries in the region. Fish consumption in West Asia is also low and the value of fish exports is also low, suggesting that ODA has not had a direct or indirect the impact on fish food security in West Asia. ODA has been effective in South Asia, which includes India, since the value of exports has increased with increasing ODA, and after ODA declines exports continue to increase, as well food security also increased especially over the last 10 years. The impact of ODA on the food security of Southeast and East Asia has been minimal despite the high consumption of fish in the region. Assessing the impact of ODA on exports in Asia is difficult because the FAO export statistics do not differentiate between wild capture fish and farmed fish. Prior to the expansion of aquaculture in the region, exports grew as ODA increased suggesting that at least in the 1980s ODA contributed to increasing exports. ODA has also impacted positively on the food security of Oceania where fish are an important and cheap source of protein. In regions where fish resources are abundant but not consumed, increasing ODA has increased fish landings, much of it being exported since it surplus to domestic demand or the value is much higher and the foreign exchange earned on the exports is used to fund imports cheaper food, but at the cost of fish stocks. The increasing exports out of Africa and Latin America reflect increasing fish catches and most likely increasing numbers of over-exploited fish stocks as discussed above. While exporting more valuable fish in return for more, but cheaper fish, is an optimal use of a public resource, there are few cases of where this is undertaken as seen in Africa, especially West Africa, where exports are high, but imports of cheaper fish are low. As a result many West African countries are classified as low income and food deficit countries (FAO 2006). The trend in ODA and stocks, exports and food security also demonstrates a ratchet effect (Ludwig et al. 1993). In the case of ODA, the sequential changes in the type of ODA granted from capital to infrastructure and then technical assistance were incremental changes which increased fishing capacity, effort and in some cases fishing efficiency. These inputs are considered to be major drivers of the current overfished state of many stocks globally. The decline in funding, especially for management, since the early 1990s also avoids addressing the issue of reducing effort because for many fishers there are few alternative employment options or for excess vessels few other uses.                                                   Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) 66 Bailey (1988) with limited data pointed out that ODA was a major factor in declining fish stocks in developing countries. More than 10 years later and with continuing calls for better management of fisheries including monitoring and enforcement (good subsidies) throughout the world (United Nations 2002) , the establishment of global and regional fisheries agreements (Alder and Lugten 2004), the Millennium Development Goals (United Nations 2006) and other targets, little if any progress has been made. Donor countries and financial institutions have reduced ODA funding globally and regionally making it difficult for developing countries to address overfishing in their Exclusive Economic Zones. Suggestions for improved management of fisheries often includes training and building capacity within government agencies, establishing monitoring and enforcement programs and in some countries reducing capacity. All of these initiatives require funding, often from government, and beyond the budgets of most governments. Recovering these costs from industry would be difficult and subject to corruption and where there is a significant artisanal sector, it would negatively impact on fisher incomes. While it can be argued that ODA is not the only source of funding for developing countries to address their overfishing challenges, bank loans and selling access rights for their fish resources either increase government debt, or put fish resources at further risk. Donor countries, either through direct grants or through access agreements and joint ventures, are in part, responsible for the current state of fisheries and they need to also consider being part of the solution and need to reconsider levels of funding for managing fisheries as well as new models for delivering assistance. CONCLUSION Overseas development assistance, as a subsidy, is good, bad or ugly depending on the type of ODA that is delivered in the fisheries sector. An analysis of the data from the OECD and other sources suggests that OECD assistance was effective in improving the fishing capacity and efficiency of fishers in recipient regions through capital, infrastructure and technical support (bad subsidies) resulting in overfished stocks throughout many developing countries. This form of assistance peaked by the 1990s and has since declined. However, despite a shift in ODA to focusing on management (good subsidy), countries with fisheries ODA budgets have failed to stop the trend in overfishing, – a case of too little money, too late. Policy makers in developed countries as well as in financial institutions need to reconsider the levels of development assistance needed to address the challenge of overfishing in these countries and to explore new models that balance sustainable resource use, economic development and human well-being to deliver such assistance if they are genuine in stemming overfishing. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to thank Brooke Campbell and Daniel Pauly for their assistance in preparing this report. REFERENCES Alder, J, Lugten, G. 2004. Frozen fish block: how committed are North Atlantic states to accountability, conservation and management of fisheries? Marine Policy 26 345-357. Alesina, A., Dollar, D. 2000. Who gives foreign aid to whom and why? Journal of Economic Growth 101, 33-63. Amalric, F. 2000. Challenges in the governance of North-South solidarity in the age of globalization. Development, Rome, 434, 6-10. Bach, Q. V. S. 1987. Soviet economic assistance to the less developed countries: A statistical analysis. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Bailey, C. 1988. The political economy of fisheries development in the third world. Agriculture and Human Values, Winter Spring, 35-48. Berlage, L., Stokke, O. 1992. Evaluating development assistance: State of the art and main challenges ahead, pp. 1–32. In: Stokke, O., Berlage L. (eds.), Evaluating Development Assistance : Approaches and Methods, EADI Book Series 14, London. Frank Cass. Butterfield, S. H., Williams, M. 2004. U. S. development aid - An historic first. Westport, Connecticut, Praeger. Cox, A. 2003. Environmental aspects of fisheries subsidies. OECD, Directorate for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Paris. FAO. 2006. Low-Income Food-Deficit Countries (LIFDC). [Available at http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/lifdc.asp?lang=en. Accessed 21 September 2006]. Froese, R., Pauly, D. 2003. Dynamik der Überfischung. p. 288-295. In: Lozán, J.L., Rachor, E., Reise, K., Sündermann, J., von Westernhagen, H. (Hrsg.). Warnsignale aus Nordsee und Wattenmeer – eine aktuelle Umweltbilanz. GEO, Hamburg. International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD). 2000. Ensuring trade rules affecting fisheries are supportive of sustainable development International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, Geneva, Switzerland.  Overseas development assistance to fisheries as a subsidy, Alder et al. 67 Khan, A., Sumaila, U.R., Watson, R., Munro, G., Pauly, D. 2006. The nature and magnitude of global non-fuel fisheries subsidies., p. 1-34. In: Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D. (ed.) Catching more bait:  a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia. Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R., Walters, C. 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history.  Science 260, 36-37. United Nations. 2000. 55/2 United Nations Millennium Declaration. [Available at http://www.un.org/millennium/. Accessed 21 September 2006]. United Nations. 2002. Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development. United Nations, New York. van Santen, G. 2005. Governance of marine fisheries and its impact on rural poverty: past,present and future. Paper presented at Changing Currents Forum, Feb 2005. Vancouver, British Columbia. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC. [Available at http://lnweb18.worldbank.org/ESSD/ardext.nsf/26ByDocName/Workshop-Chapter1/$FILE/Workshop-Chapter1.pdf ]. Watson, R., Alder, J., Kitchingman, A., Pauly, D. 2004. Catching some needed attention. Marine Policy 29, 281-284.   68                                                  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.)  CHAPTER 5 A HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF BRAZILIAN POLICY ON FISHERIES SUBSIDIES1 Patrizia R. Abdallah1 and Ussif Rashid Sumaila2 1Department of Economics, Federal University of Rio Grande, Italia Avenue km 08, Rio Grande RS, 96201-900, Brazil 2Fisheries Economics Research Unit, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia. 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada ABSTRACT We present a historical account of Brazilian public policy on fisheries subsidies, and discuss problems and limitations resulting from this policy. From the 1960s to the mid-1980s, this policy led to a great increase in fisheries catch, but without appropriate consideration for the long-term sustainability of the resources, resulting in declining catches over the years. The goals of current Brazilian public policy on fisheries will not help towards reducing overexploitation. These policies are too optimistic about the abundance of fish in Brazil’s EEZ, and are not accompanied by a fisheries management plan that is likely to work. INTRODUCTION The fishery is one of the earliest productive activities in Brazil. Since the 1990s, a large decline and even collapse of many fish species has attracted considerable attention from the media and society. The increasing world awareness regarding the need for preservation and conservation of natural resources has pushed the fisheries sector into dedicating more research into the formulation of effective public policies. Such policies are necessary for the development of sustainable fisheries management practices. The impact of subsidies on fisheries management is a subject of frequent debate among researchers around the world (Millazzo 1998; Munro and Sumaila, 2002; Clark et al., 2005; Khan et. al., this volume). Are subsidies harmful economic instruments, contributing negatively to fisheries management and sustainability? International bodies and researchers have been paying increasing attention to the importance of this debate which is of great importance to developing countries such as Brazil. Yet, discussing the impact of subsidies on fisheries management in Brazil requires an understanding of how these subsidies work. Given the importance of fish as a natural and economically exploitable resource, evaluating Brazil’s fishing incentive program is fundamental. This paper analyzes the effect of fishing incentive policy on the evolution of Brazilian fish catch. Subsidies provided by the Federal Government to fisheries in Brazil will be characterized and described, as well as their evolution through the years (from the 1960s to the 1990s), and the possible relationship between their evolution and the evolution of the Brazilian fish catches. Finally, current Brazilian fisheries public policy will be characterized and analyzed.  1 Cite as: Abdallah, P. R., U. R. Sumaila. 2006. A historical account of Brazilian policy on fisheries subsidies. In Sumaila, U.R., Pauly, D. (eds.), Catching more bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies (2nd Version, 2007). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6), pp. 68-77. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.  A historical account of Brazilian policy on fisheries subsidies, Abdallah and Sumaila                                                                                   69 FEDERAL FISHERIES PUBLIC POLICY IN FISHERIES ACTIVITY IN BRAZIL – 1960S TO THE 1990S Beginning in the 1960s, the Fish Agro-food System (FAS), a system that unites fishery activity (catch and sale of fresh fish), provision of fishing inputs (ships and nets, mainly), and the industrial manufacture and marketing of processed fish and fish products, started to be affected by two significant public policies implemented by the Brazilian government: fiscal incentives and rural credit. These were the main support lines used for the promotion of fishery activities in Brazil. Both policies played a fundamental role in the increase of fish catch.  Other kinds of fisheries incentives were also implemented during this period, but were of little significance.  Fishery policy is understood to be an action intended to regulate and/or stimulate fishery activity. According to Abdallah (1998), there is a lack of interaction between policies that regulate the activity and policies that promote the activity in Brazil. While the legislation is concerned with regulating the access and use of the natural resource (although there is still a lack of experience to accomplish effective regulation), a policy to promote the activity intends to increase fish catch and to advance the fishing sector (FAS). As mentioned, this study explains two kinds of public policies implemented in Brazil’s fisheries (fiscal incentives and rural credit). Additional types of public policies regarding fisheries activities in Brazil can be found in Abdallah (1998), Souza (2001), Souza et al. (2001), Abdallah and Bacha (2003), Souza and Abdallah (2003), and Vasconcellos et al. (2003). The fiscal incentive policy to increase fish catch in Brazil On February 28th, 1967, the Brazilian Decree-Law No. 221/67 was promulgated. It allowed enterprises to take tax deductions for investment in fishery projects2 and remained in effect until 1972. Enterprises registered in Brazil could deduct up to 25% of their income tax burden to compensate for investment expenditures on projects to improve the capture, transport, processing, marketing, and sale of fish. The projects had to be approved by the Federal Fishing Development, which was under SUDEPE until 1989 when it was placed under IBAMA. The beneficiary firms had to provide investment capital matching one- third of the funds arising from the Government’s fiscal incentive program. The fishing fiscal incentive program was part of the Federal Government’s policy to develop regions or sectors in Brazil. Thus, fiscal incentives were not only granted to fishery enterprises, but also for activities to develop Brazil’s North-East and Amazon regions, forestry enterprises and tourism activities, among others (Bacha, 1995). From 1967 to 1973, there was no central authority exercising control over the allocation of these incentives and according to Bacha (1995), the demand for fiscal incentives was bigger than the supply. This imbalance caused two serious problems for the fishing industry: Planned investments were delayed due to the shortage of financial resources, and excessive commissions were charged for access to investment capital. In order to solve these problems, the Federal Government promulgated Decree-Law No. 1,376 on December 12, 1974, establishing the Regional and Sectional Investment Fund (FISET). The Fishing Investment Fund (FISET/Fishing) was created specially for fishery enterprises, and was to be supervised by SUDEPE, with Banco do Brasil S/A as its financial agent. Decree-Law No. 1,217 was enacted on May 09, 1972. It extended the validity of the fishing fiscal incentives to 1977. According to Neiva (1990), the validity of the incentives was further extended to 1981, and later to 1986. However, its upper tax deferment limit was reduced from 25% to 12.5%. The fishing incentive program was terminated at the end of 1986 (see Figure 1).    2 This mechanism is known in the literature as the ‘fishing fiscal incentive program’.  70                                                  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.)   0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 y e ars C a tc h  (  ' 0 0 0  t o n n e s 0 50 100 150 200 250 V a lu e  ( m il li o n  U S $ )L a n d i n g s F i sc a l  i n c e n t i v e R u r a l  c r e d i t s  Figure 1 Marine fisheries landings in Brazil, 1960-2002 (Source: www.seaaroundus.org; accessed August 2006); Fiscal Incentive (1967-1986) and Rural Credit (1969-1997) in fisheries activity in Brazil (Source: Abdallah, 1998 and BANCEN, 2002).  A sum of US$1.130 million of the volume of fiscal incentives was received by fishery enterprises from 1967 to 1986 (Abdallah, 1998). Of the total incentives, 78% were granted in the first period of the program, which lasted from 1967 to 1974. Only 22% of the resources were captured by fishery enterprises from 1975 to 1986 (period when the Fishing Investment Fund - FISET/Fishing was created). According to IPEA/COMIF (1986), this reduction in the amount of incentives received by the FISET/Fishing (22%) was caused by the lack of a development plan for fishing activities. The fact that Decree-Law No. 221 of 1967 was promulgated without planning reflected the situation. This caused several problems for the development of the fisheries from 1967 to 1974, including a shortage of research and of appropriate technology, inefficient monitoring, lack of qualified labor, and deviation of resources to businesses other than those approved by the project. In combination with other external problems, such as the increase in the price of petroleum and difficulties involving the commercialization of fish in the external market, fisheries in Brazil faced negative prospects that discouraged future investments. Rural Credit – Public Policy Since the 1960s, rural credit has been a very important public policy instrument for the promotion of agricultural development in Brazil. The policy was originally implemented with the approval of Law No. 4,829 of 1965. The rural credit was a loan provided by financial institutions to rural producers and cooperatives (Pinto, 1980). The objectives of the policy are to stimulate rural investments and to support activities, investment and commercialization. The rural credit is financed with lower nominal interest rates as compared to those rates that existed in the market. The rural credit was orientated for three main purposes: maintenance, investment and commercialization. The credit for maintenance is used for purchasing the required supplies for the fishery (such as nets, small repairs, food and ice.). The credit therefore provides the conditions necessary to support the capture and to improve the quality of the fish (on board the fishing boats). The credit for investment is used for the acquisition of boats, while the objective of the credit for commercialization is to facilitate the transaction and sale of the fish. The evolution of the implementation of rural credit policy to fisheries in Brazil is presented in Figure 1. During most of the period in question, the implementation of rural credit to fishing activities revealed a  A historical account of Brazilian policy on fisheries subsidies, Abdallah and Sumaila                                                                                   71 decreasing tendency. In the first half of the 1980s, however, high volumes of resources were invested (Figure 1). In 1983, about US$1.3 billion were allocated to fishing activities in Brazil. This was the maximum amount of resources ever invested by the country in a year in this sector. After the second half of the 1980s, there was a drastic reduction in the amount of resources allocated to fishing activities through rural credit. During the 1990s there was again a significant reduction, which maintained the annual average at US$19.5 million (Figure 1). The information in Table 1 refers to the percentage of rural credit applied to fisheries activities in Brazil, by type, in three decades (1970s, 1980s and 1990s).  In the first two decades, a larger amount of resources was targeted at investments (39% and 45%, respectively). These numbers were reduced to 24% in the 1990s. Even though there was a high volume directed to investments in both the 1970s and 1980s, in general the amount of resources allocated to fisheries activities was the largest in the 1980s (Figure 1).  Table-1: Percentage of rural credit allocated to fisheries, by type and decade, Brazil. Decade Maintenance Investment Commercialization 1970s 25.4 39.0 35.6 1980s 43.7 45.1 11.2 1990s 69.1 23.8 7.1 Source: Souza and Abdallah (2003).  Throughout the three decades, the amount of rural credit targeted at maintenance increased over time. In the 1980s, similar amounts were allocated to maintenance and to investments (44% and 45%, respectively). In the 1990s, however, as the allocation of credit for investments decreased (reaching 23.8%), the volume directed to maintenance increased to about 70% of the total amount of rural credit. It is worth mentioning that the total volume of credit during the 1990s was still much smaller than the amount that was allocated to fisheries during the 1980s. The credit for commercialization decreased throughout the three decades, representing only 7% of the total in the 1990s. Analyzing the allocation of resources to each separate target helps explain the mechanisms through which incentives may lead to an increase in fish catch. Fishery landings and public policy – an analysis Brazilian fisheries catch expanded impressively from 1960 to 2001, increasing from about 281 to 710 thousand tonnes per year. Nevertheless, large variations are observed in the pattern of catch, which indicate two opposite tendencies. The catch increased from 1960 to 1985. However since 1986, the catch followed a decreasing trend (Figure 1). The first take off in Brazilian fish catch took place from 1960 to 1962. From 1963 to 1967, fish catch remained relatively stable. A new catch growth phase began in 1968 and lasted until 1974. It was followed by fluctuations without a well-defined tendency from 1975 to 1980. Again, fish catch undertook a third growth phase from 1981 to 1985. And lastly, from 1986 to 1999 a decreasing tendency dominated. However, in the first half of the 1990s, catch showed a slight upward tendency. It remained, nonetheless, below the annual average observed in the second half of the 1990s. Fish catch growth from 1968 to 1974 was linked to the Government’s provision of fiscal incentives through the mechanism created by Decree-Law No. 221. These incentives amounted to about US$ 883 million (August 1994 as base), an annual average of US$ 110 million from 1967 to 1974. According to Neiva (1990), the incentive policy facilitated the creation of a modern industrial park devoted to fish handling, expanded the range of domestic fishery ships and contributed to increasing Brazilian fish catch during this period. Giulietti  and Assumpção (1995) found that 51% of the fishing fiscal incentives granted from 1967 to 1972 were invested in the industrial plant, 20% in fish harvesting (capture), while the remaining was invested in other FAS activities. Conversely, absolutely nothing was invested in research on native Brazilian fish, or in gathering data on native fish stocks (native fishable biomass). In other words, the subsidies were spent on activities that increase overfishing. These types of subsidies have been described in the literature as bad subsidies (e.g. Milazzo, 1998; Khan et. al., this vololume).  72                                                  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.)  From 1975 to 1980, annual fiscal incentives granted to fishery activities averaged US$31 million annually (August 1994 as base). These resources proved insufficient to support domestic fish catch growth. According to IPEA/COMIF (1986), during this period, SUDEPE prioritized the maintenance of enterprises that had received fiscal incentives in the 1967 to 1974 period. From 1981 to 1986 (mainly in 1983, 1984 and 1986), barriers erected to hinder fish importation stimulated a great jump in domestic fish catch. Gain in price due to domestic demand for fish compensated for the reduction of US$9.8 million in average annual fiscal incentives. During this period, overfishing reduced fish stocks; in 1986 fish catch began a steady decline. The resources from the rural credit policy, applied to fisheries activity also acted in the direction of increasing the capture of fish in Brazil. The rural credit destined to investment was larger than that aimed at other types of fiscal incentives in the 1970s and 1980s. Such credit was generally allocated for the purchase of boats. However, after the 1980s, investments in fisheries by rural credit were reduced. This fact is associated with declines in the stock of important fish species and, consequently, with a decreasing tendency in fish landings (Figure 1). On the other hand, the rural credit for maintenance (outlay costs) of fisheries increased through the years, and acted as a support mechanism to the dynamics of the activity. In the late 1990s, the rural credit for maintenance was very significant as a public policy. In spite of its small volume, it retained about 70% of total rural credit to the fishery activity in Brazil. The problem of overfishing has been noted by many authors interested in the exploitation of Brazil’s fisheries resources (Freire, 2005; Paez, 1993; Giulietti and Assumpção, 1995; Tremel, 1993, and Neiva, 1990). All of them share a common view, arguing that the Brazilian Government did not consider the potential effect of its fishing fiscal incentive program on the sustainability of the marine fish resources found off the Brazilian coast when the program was established in 1967. The incentive policy expedited the creation of a large fishing fleet specialized in the harvest of specific fish species (devastating specific fishery resources) and created a large infrastructure. Industrial plant capacity was enlarged to the point that it exceeded maximum sustainable domestic fish catch (Giulietti and Assumção, 1995). From the 1960s to the 1980s, Federal Economic Policy linked to fishery activities did not significantly impact freshwater fishing despite the 4th Article of Decree-law number 221/67, which authorized fiscal incentives for freshwater fish projects. The majority of the program’s financial resources went to stimulate marine fish projects (IPEA/COMIF, 1986). From 1960 to 1994, domestic marine fish catch represented around 78% of the country’s fish landings from domestic stocks while freshwater fish made up the remaining catch. Freshwater fish now make up nearly 30% Brazil’s annual fishery catch, due to the overfishing of marine fishery resources. Studying the exploitation of fishery resources, Paez (1993) gives evidence that a great part of the fish species harvested commercially along the Brazilian coast comes from overfished stocks. According to the author, the species traditionally harvested in Brazil, other than in the country’s Northern Region, are lobster, shrimp, croaker, sardine, weakfish, hake, and mullet, among others. As these species were exploited to nearly the maximum sustainable level in the early 1990s, we can infer that they now are overfished, given that the effort on them has grown widely since then (Freire, 2005). As a typical example of overfishing, Paez (1993) mentions the case of sardines. He writes that the total catch in Brazil’s Southeast Region jumped from nearly 38,000 tonnes in 1964 to nearly 114,000 tonnes in 1969, reaching a maximum of 228,000 tonnes in 1973. Since 1974, the annual sardine catch has been decreasing. In 1990, only 32,000 tonnes of sardines were harvested, less than the amount caught in 1964. According to Paez (1993, p.58): “In that case, we observe overfishing and partial use of the fishing fleet and related industrial plants, and the country is now largely dependent on imports to maintain the domestic industry and to satisfy the domestic market.”  A historical account of Brazilian policy on fisheries subsidies, Abdallah and Sumaila                                                                                   73 Brazilian lobster is another domestic resource that is being overexploited. According to IBAMA (1998), the lobster catch in the State of Ceara (the principal Brazilian lobster ground) fell 7.5% in 1997 and from 1991 to 1997 catch decreased 46%. For all of Brazil, the estimated annual sustainable harvest is around 8,900 tonnes of lobster (whole body), and 3,000 tonnes of lobster tail (exported product). Until 1993/1994, lobster catch showed a downward tendency, which stabilized at around 8,000 tonnes per year. However, in 1995, catch reached 10,838 tonnes, a harvest above the estimated sustainable level. IBAMA (1998) believes that the increase in catch is an irrational exploitation of the resource, occurring despite laws that prohibit harvest during part of the year and restrict the harvest of lobsters below a minimum size. In a recent study about fishing impact on marine ecosystems in Brazil, Freire (2005) pointed out that several species in the Brazilian northeastern ocean are currently overexploited.  She states that: “In northeastern Brazil, fisheries targeting tunas and tuna-like fishes, lobsters, southern red snapper, shrimps, and demersal fishes are very important as a result of their bulk catch or the revenue generated by their exports. Many of the stocks in this region are considered overexploited” (Freire 2005, p.178). Figure 1 illustrates a pattern of general increase in Brazilian fishery landings from 1960 to 1985, and a general catch decline beginning 1986. In the 1990s, annual fishery landings has been a little above the level observed in 1976 (nearly 660,000 tonnes). CURRENT FISHERIES POLICIES IN BRAZIL After 17 years of neglect [1986 – 2003], generated by the absence of concrete plans for Brazil’s fishing sector, the government issued an edict [July 2003] aimed at the development of the sector (see SEAP, 2003). The project "Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development of Aquaculture and Fisheries" has the following as its general objectives: • to determine key stakeholders primarily concerned with fisheries; • to improve all aspects of catch in the sector; • to promote social inclusion; • to foster awareness of food safety; • to create awareness of the sector’s contribution to the well-being of the Brazilian nation. Among the specific goals set for 2006 are: • to increase catch by 50%: from 1 to 1.5 million tonnes (aquaculture & fisheries) per year; • to increase the local per capita consumption of fish and seafood from the current 6.8 kg/person/year to  the FAO’s recommended level of 12kg/person/year; and • to triple the commercial surplus via the increase of exports in the sector. In order to achieve its objectives, the Brazilian government promulgated Law No. 10,849 on March 23rd, 2004. This Law created the National Program of Finance for the Development and Modernization of the National Fishery denoted ‘Profrota’. The ‘Profrota’ program intends to encourage investment in the acquisition, construction, conversion (from coastal to oceanic fishing), modernization and equipping of fishing vessels. The initial target was to build and equip a fleet of more than 500 vessels of medium and large scale capacity.  The government set up two funds - the Constitutional Fund and the Merchant Marine Fund – to finance the creation of the fleet. Interest rates on loans from these funds were set between 7 and 12% per year3. Entrepreneurs were offered a bonus to encourage the catching of less popular species, and of species deemed not overexploited. The proposal is to invest, over four years, around R$1.5 billion (approximately US$ 682 million or US$ 170 million per year4).  The ‘Proforta’ program relies to a large extent on high subsidies and government support, which Brazil considers essential for the development of fisheries in developing  3 These subsidized rates compare favorably to the current average market rates for farmers in Brazil of between 16 and 20% per year. The average market interest rate for business, in general, is 35% per year, well below the average rate of 62% per year for consumer credit. The terms for the subsidized agricultural credit programs also vary by length of time and commodity. 4 Exchange rate: R$2.20 = US$1.00  74                                                  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.)  2005).  countries. The ‘Profrota’ program represents the current position of the Brazilian government towards the WTO framework for disciplining fisheries subsidies, and suggest the inclusion of a ‘Green Box’ concept (denoted non-actionable subsidies), as part of special treatments by the World Trade Organization (WTO) towards developing countries (Anon., Participants in this program range from industrial fishing companies to ordinary citizens, lawyers, fishermen’s associations, cooperatives and private individuals. Under the ‘Profrota’ program, around 140 projects will be approved per year for the renewal of the national fishery fleet. In September of 2005, 49 projects had prospects of approval, according to SEAP/PR (2005). The main objective of the ‘Profrota’ program is the formation of a national oceanic fishing fleet, meant to operate in Brazil’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). According to SEAP/PR (2005), the motivation behind this approach is that in the EEZ, due to the lack of appropriate equipment, there are fish species and seafood of high economic value that are either not captured or are underexploited. For example, it is claimed that even though Brazil could potentially catch as much as 100 thousand tonnes of tuna per year, it presently catches only about 50 thousand tonnes. The new policy was necessary mainly because currently, the Brazilian fishing fleet is not appropriately equipped to operate far away from the coast (SEAP/PR, 2005). To become a dynamic player in the field of deep ocean explotation, Brazil’s fisheries industry needs to step up catch and fish processing. However, SEAP/PR’s sub-secretary of fisheries and aquaculture, David Lourenço claimed that most of the Brazilian fishing fleet vessels engaged in ocean fishing belonged to foreigners, and were being leased by Brazilian companies. Also, the Brazilian industry exported the catch largely unprocessed (“in natura”) with the consequent low financial return to Brazil. Concerns with the sustainability of the fishing resource are implicit in the presuppositions of the government's political project. When detailing the goals of the ‘Profrota’ program for renewal of the national fleet, for example, it is claimed that the execution of its goals will be accomplished while respecting the limits of sustainable effort (defined according to each fishery resource). Also, it is stated that the established criteria will be respected by competent institutions (in this case, SEAP/PR and/or MMA/IBAMA5). At the time of writing, information on the level of investments in Brazilian fisheries was not readily available. Therefore, only the outline of the potential impact of the new policies can be given with any assurance. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE OLD AND THE NEW PUBLIC POLICY FOR FISHERY ACTIVITIES IN BRAZIL  The relationships between the new and the old public policy concerning fisheries activity in Brazil are best understood by examining a time-line of the social, economic, political and environmental conditions. A summary of these relationships is presented below, considering three different historical Periods: period I, from 1967 to 1985; Period II, from 1986 to 2003; and Period III, from 2003 to the present. The fiscal incentives and rural credit designed for the fisheries were created in a developmental context, with the government's political program organized to promote the sector’s development and regional development. In this period, in spite of the existence of the Superintendency for the Development of Fisheries (SUDEPE), the institutional body responsible for the supervision of fishery activities in Brazil, there was not sufficient concern with the environmental aspect and the rational exploitation of the natural resource.  The programs of fiscal incentives and rural credit were implemented in a ‘top down’ management approach. This style of management hindered free participation and discussions on sustainable fishery resources. In fact, the political program was set up for the growth of the sector. The  5 Ministry of Environment/Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources.   A historical account of Brazilian policy on fisheries subsidies, Abdallah and Sumaila                                                                                   75 result of this political action in Period 1 was the growth of Brazilian fish catch (Abdallah (1998), Abdallah and Bacha (1999), Vasconcellos et al. (2003), Abdallah and Castello (2003). This growth occurred, however, without appropriate planning6. Rural credit was maintained as a supporting instrument to the activity, among others. Period II was marked by (i), a declining trend in fish catch in Brazil; (ii) a depreciation of the national fishery fleet; (iii) a decline in the amount of fish processed locally by the industry and, above all, (iv) by the overexploitation of some economically important species (mainly during the second half of the 1980s).  A major institutional mark in Period II was the disbanding of SUDEPE. IBAMA became the institution responsible for motivating research, enforcing regulations, control and monitoring of the environment and natural resources of Brazil. In the period managed by IBAMA, concerns with the sustainability of natural resources were more evident at the national level. This, however, was partly the result of a worldwide tendency (Pauly et. al. 2002). Nevertheless, there has been strong and rigid control of wild fisheries, mainly starting in the mid-1990s (Abdallah and Bacha, 2003). Period III, covering the current fishing policies, is marked by a significant change in the Brazilian government's ideology: consolidated with the left holding reins of authority (Partido dos Trabalhadores - PT). For the first time in Brazilian history, the government created a department specifically intended to oversee the development of fisheries and aquaculture (SEAP/PR). It is in this atmosphere that the current fishery public policy in Brazil began to be articulated and implemented. In Period III, the technician-scientific environment was more developed, with more qualified Brazilians to support fisheries management as compared to previous periods. The government has adopted the co- management process as its mark of integrated government management. The government is actively involved in the preservation and conservation of natural resources. In this period, environmental concerns from several stakeholders are taken into account - NGOs, environmentalists, the media, the scientific community, and the government. In spite of the positive outlook in Period III, many questions still remain regarding the new public policy for the fishery employed by the present Brazilian government. With actions geared towards increase in fish catch, the government has developed an incentive program for the fisheries; it has created lines of credit to finance and to equip the national fishing fleet, in a moment where technician-scientific pronouncements confirm the concern with the survival of marine fishery resources. Research done by REVIZEE fail to find any stock of fish in sufficient volume that can sustain the increase in fish catch instigated by the policies of the current government (Castello, 2005). The highly valued fish stocks, like tuna, are considered overexploited all over the world. Hence, Brazil should not expect sustainable higher yields of these species. A technical document sent by scientists to SEAP/PR claims that the current resources are subject to overexploitation, so there are no new resources that will justify the expansion of the fishing fleet advocated by the government (Novaes, 2005). Regarding the sustainability of fisheries in Brazil, simulations with an ecosystem model (Ecopath with Ecosim; see www.ecopath.org) indicate that the biomass of several fish groups will be at lower levels by 2028 if current fishing pressure is maintained (Freire, 2005). Also, some fisheries  would collapse in the not too distant future. Given these results, increasing the fishing fleets as proposed by the Brazilian government does not make sense. The goals of the current public policy relating to the fishery in Brazil, in the way it is being implemented, will tend to follow a process of similar evolution that was observed in Period I, with the aggravating factor that many stocks are already identified as overexploited. In spite of additional advantages in terms of fisheries management from Period III to the present, contemporary policies are intended to increase fish catch, and are not being accompanied by a management plan concerned with the specific species that will be captured. This is the aggravating point of the current fishing politics in Brazil. According to Novaes (2005), the documents sent by technicians  6 The studies done by Abdallah (1998), Abdallah et al. (2000), Sousa and Abdallah (2003) show that these public policies led to increasing fish catch. Other studies on fisheries activity in Brazil show the effect these public policies on the fishing industry in 1970s and the decline of the fishing industries after the 1980s. This information is in Simões and Abdallah (2003) and Vieira et al. (2004).  76                                                  Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.)  and scientists of the area demonstrate that “some promising resources, located in the deepest areas, already show alarming signs of overexploitation after three or four years of fisheries expansion, thus, demanding immediate reductions in the capture levels.” This is because these deepsea fishes are usually long-lived with very low growth rates and therefore very vulnerable (Sumaila et. al., this volume). FINAL CONSIDERATIONS On the national scale, Brazil’s fisheries sector is not important, representing only 0.2% of GDP. However, there are many isolated segments within the sector that benefit from significant returns. On the other hand, the scientific community has been calling attention to the overexploitation and even the disappearance of species that are important to the Brazilian coastal community in many ways (economically, socially and culturally). Policies for the fisheries sector, from 1960s to the mid-1980s, led to a great increase in fisheries harvest, without appropriate consideration for the long term sustainability of the marine resource. The main consequence of this short-sighted policy was the decline in fish catch in the following years, simultaneously with a decline in the output of the post-harvest sector. In the face of declining fish harvest over time, the present government instigated an incentive program to increase catches, without formulating management plans with regard to the species that were to be caught. This program drew many criticisms. The goal of having more than 500 fishing vessels without an appropriate background analysis of the availability of species is simply irrational, and it can lead to further depletion of Brazil’s fishery resources. Besides the need for scientific management of fisheries resources, there is an economic need to add value to the raw resource. This would entail the improvement of the processing of fish and the utilization of some of the parts of the resource presently being discarded. Finally, if the economic logic does not consider the biological logic of renewable natural resources, the result will be the extinction of the natural capital, resulting in terrible consequences on the nutritional requirement of generations of Brazilians to come. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Support for this research was provided by Fisheries Economics Research Unit, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia – FERU/FC/UBC, Post-doctorate program, 2005/2006, supervised by Ussif Rashid Sumaila, FERU’s Director. The authors wish to thank Dr. Daniel Pauly at the UBC Fisheries Centre for the helpful comments and suggestions on the ideas reported in this paper. REFERENCES Abdallah, P.R., 1998. Atividade pesqueira no Brasil: política e evolução. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz- Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil. PhD Thesis: 232 p. Abdallah, P.R. and Bacha, C.J.C., 1999.  A benefit-cost analysis of the Brazilian fishery fiscal incentive policy. Brazilian Review of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology.  37, 151-200. Abdallah, P.R. and Bacha, C.J.C., 2003. Las políticas de reglamentación de la pesca en Brasil. Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Pesqueras. 23, 21-25. Abdallah, P.R. and Castello, J.P., 2003. O momento de repensar a economia pesqueira no Brasil. ConCiência.  41, 1-4. Abdallah, P.R., Souza, M.A.A. and  Mielit Neto, C.C.G.A., 2000.  Impactos da política de crédito rural no segmento industrial, valor da captura e emprego da atividade pesqueira no Rio Grande do Sul.  In: XXXVIII Congresso Brasileiro de Economia e Sociologia Rural. Anais. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Anon. (2005). Contribution to the discussion on the framework for disciplines on fisheries subsidies. Paper from Brazil. TN/RL/W/176. http://docsonline.wto.org, Accessed in August 31st, 2006. Bacha, C.J.C., 1995. Análise custo-benefício dos programas federais de incentivo ao reflorestamento no Brasil. Piracicaba, Brazil. [Unpublished manuscript]. BANCEN, 2002. Bulletin of Central Bank of Brazil about rural credit statistics. Brasilia, Brazil. Castello, J.P., 2005. Uso e Apropriação dos Recursos Costeiros - Projeto Recos- Instituto do Milênio. Technical Report 01, FURG: Oceanography Department, Rio Grande.  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Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(6) , p. 1-34. Fisheries Centre, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Millazzo, M., 1998. Subsidies in world fisheries - a re-examination. World Bank Technical Paper No. 406, Washington. Munro, G., Sumaila, U.R., 2002. The impact of subsidies upon fisheries management and sustainability: the case of the North Atlantic, Fish and Fisheries. 3, 233-250. Neiva, G.S., 1990. Subsídios para a política pesqueira nacional.  Santos, Brazil. Novaes, W., 2005. Os limites do nosso mar. http://www.abdl.org.br/article, Accessed in April 27th, 2006. Paez, M.L.D., 1993. Exploração de recursos pesqueiros no Brasil. Revista de Administração. 28, 51-61. Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Guénette, S., Pitcher, T.J., Sumaila,U.R., Walters, C.J., Watson, R. and Zeller, D., 2002. Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418: 689-695. Pinto, L.C.G., 1980. Notas sobre Politica Agricola e Credito Rural, Techinical Report 01, UNICAMP: Economics Department, Campinas, Brazil. SEAP, 2003. Projeto Político-Estrutural, Secretaria Especial de Aquicultura e Pesca, Presidencia da Republica, Brasília, Brazil. SEAP, 2005. Notícias. http://www.presidencia.gov.br/seap, Accessed in March 12th, 2006. Simões, J.M., Silva, R.F.C. and Abdallah, P.R., 2003. A evolução do setor industrial pesqueiro do Rio Grande do Sul. In: III Seminário de Economia do Meio Ambiente da UNICAMP, Anais, Campinas, Brazil. Sousa, T.V. and Abdallah, P.R., 2003. Políticas Públicas e Atividade Pesqueira no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. In: XLI Congresso Brasileiro de Economia e Sociologia Rural, Anais, Passo Fundo, Brazil. Souza, M.A.A., 2001. Política e Evolução da Atividade Pesqueira no Rio Grande do Sul: 1960 a 1997. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento Rural,  Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul,  Porto Alegre, Brasil. MSc Dissertation: 252 p. Souza, M.A.A., Mielitz Neto, C.G.A. and Abdallah, P.R., 2001. Pesca no estado do Rio Grande do Sul de 1960 a 1997: política, produção e mercado. In: XXXIX Congresso Brasileiro de Economia e Sociologia Rural, Anais, Recife, Brazil. Tremel, E., 1993. Pesca, novos rumos. Ciclo de palestras sobre temas relacionados ao poder marítimo. Ministério da Marinha, Florianópolis, Brazil. IBAMA, 1998. Defesa da Lagosta, http://www.ibama.gov.br. Vasconcellos, M.C., Kalikoski, D.C., Haimovici, M. and Abdallah, P.R., 2003. Capacidad excesiva del esfuerzo pesquero en el sistema estuarino-costero del sur de Brasil: efectos y perspectivas para su gestión.  FAO, Thechinical Report (in press), Rome. Vieira, M.M.F., Silva, R.C., Darbilly, L.V.C., Simões, J.M. and Abdallah, P.R., 2004. Fatores institucionais determinantes da configuração dos campos organizacionais da indústria da pesca no Rio de Janeiro e no Rio Grande do Sul. Revista de Administração Pública. Rio de Janeiro. 38, 947-77.  78                                      Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) APPENDIX 1: REGIONAL FISHERIES SUBSIDY ESTIMATES BY CATEGORIES (US$ ‘000) Region - Asia Country 2000 HDI score 2000 LV (US$ '000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (US$ '000) Subsidy intensity (%) Bangladesh 0.51 169,274 10,493 49,319 10,354 70,166 41 Brunei Darussalam 0.87 2,595 161 641 0 802 31 Cambodia 0.57 61,528 3,814 12,614 3,763 20,192 33 China Main 0.75 11,458,631 11,999 365,851 484,599 862,450 8 Hong Kong 0.90 724 2,564 9 0 2,573 355 India 0.60 2,420,746 240,192 3,876,459 148,067 4,264,718 176 Indonesia 0.69 1,622,452 84,546 226,077 99,239 409,862 25 Japan 0.94 13,246,743 2,807,057 544,726 579,231 3,931,013 30 Korea, Rep. of 0.89 3,342,446 53,511 276,845 29,453 359,809 11 Malaysia 0.79 2,573,341 1,723 534,595 0 536,318 21 Pakistan 0.50 433,605 26,880 88,957 26,522 142,358 33 Myanmar 0.55 667,612 41,386 164,867 40,835 247,088 37 Philippines 0.75 1,650,629 102,324 413,886 100,962 617,172 37 Singapore 0.90 6,579 0 4,000 0 4,000 61 Sri Lanka 0.74 335,496 20,798 8,447 0 29,245 9 Taiwan  1,749,892 25,875 233,312 14,500 273,687 16 Thailand 0.77 1,960,883 24,625 221,285 119,939 365,849 19 Vietnam 0.69 1,449,894 48,537 268,096 0 316,633 22 Regional total   43,153,068 3,506,485 7,289,986 1,657,464 12,453,935 29                            Appendix 1: Regional fisheries subsidy estimates by categories                                                                                                                         79 Region - Europe Country 2000 HDI score 2000 LV (US$ '000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (US$ '000) Subsidy intensity (%) Albania 0.78 2,137 38 869 0 907 42 Belguim 0.94 47,876 2,341 3,012 8,503 13,855 29 Bulgaria 0.80 4,471 129 386 273 789 18 Croatia 0.83 10,963 0 0 0 0 0 Denmark 0.93 778,109 161,825 1,037,747 75,907 1,275,480 164 Estonia 0.85 59,362 12,346 7,779 5,724 25,849 44 Finland 0.94 73,741 7,072 9,560 4,042 20,675 28 France 0.93 1,286,697 61,513 195,191 16,697 273,401 21 Georgia 0.74 549 34 87 34 155 28 Germany 0.93 196,181 6,680 35,411 5,970 48,062 24 Greece 0.90 192,421 29,352 28,450 19,941 77,743 40 Iceland 0.94 851,863 23,742 29,297 127 53,166 6 Ireland 0.94 263,628 54,057 17,275 39,245 110,577 42 Italy 0.92 467,792 50,576 83,207 92,549 226,332 48 Latvia 0.81 55,826 3,461 8,833 0 12,294 22 Lithuania 0.84 54,891 3,403 0 0 3,403 6 Malta 0.88 1,039 405 481 311 1,197 115 Netherlands 0.94 370,820 3,138 20,264 9,755 33,158 9 Norway 0.96 1,186,203 84,403 17,955 75,634 177,992 15 Poland 0.85 75,304 17,421 141 0 17,562 23 Portugal 0.90 289,404 23,889 84,616 27,908 136,412 47 Romania 0.77 752 47 152 0 199 26 Russian Federation 0.80 2,762,636 574,552 470,981 149,569 1,195,102 43 Spain 0.92 1,413,688 30,847 326,667 92,729 450,243 32 Sweden 0.95 156,210 20,954 9,936 9,309 40,200 26 Turkey 0.75 791,721 1,746 57,524 144 59,413 8 UK 0.94 1,163,677 64,091 63,075 65,183 192,349 17 Ukraine 0.78 235,151 14,577 48,211 14,383 77,172 33 Regional total   12,793,110 1,252,640 2,557,107 713,938 4,523,686 35                    80                                      Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Region - Latin America and the Caribbean Country 2000 HDI score 2000 LV (US$ '000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (US$ '000) Subsidy intensity (%) Antigua and Barbuda 0.80 5,753 357 10,419 0 10,776 187 Argentina 0.85 2,211,345 52,576 333,908 213,242 599,727 27 Bahamas 0.82 76,962 4,771 18,649 0 23,420 30 Barbados 0.89 8,324 516 13,724 509 14,749 177 Belize 0.74 51,369 3,184 8,343 21 11,548 22 Brazil 0.78 1,209,149 74,956 1,910,554 3,708 1,989,218 165 Chile 0.84 973,136 7,204 70,163 0 77,367 8 Colombia 0.77 109,868 6,811 4,607 6,720 18,138 17 Costa Rica 0.83 52,166 3,234 12,757 876 16,867 32 Cuba 0.81 140,553 4,057 22,238 0 26,295 19 Domincan Rep. 0.74 28,766 3,335 5,757 0 9,092 32 Dominica 0.74 2,429 151 595 149 894 37 Ecuador 0.74 309,061 19,159 50,400 0 69,559 23 El salvador 0.72 18,152 1,125 2,872 0 3,997 22 Grenada 0.75 3,565 221 6,180 0 6,401 180 Guatemala 0.65 62,426 2,068 12,649 3,818 18,535 30 Guyana 0.72 135,205 8,381 21,392 8,270 38,044 28 Haiti 0.46 11,549 716 284 0 1,000 9 Honduras 0.67 48,743 3,022 12,158 2,981 18,161 37 Jamaica 0.76 12,673 366 1,124 775 2,265 18 Nicaragua 0.67 89,196 2,467 6,635 0 9,102 10 Panama 0.79 192,777 5,564 47,145 11,791 64,500 33 Peru 0.75 1,407,481 54,626 10,702 86,090 151,417 11 St. Kitts & Nevis 0.84 1,337 39 271 0 310 23 Saint Lucia 0.78 3,528 219 863 216 1,297 37 St. Vin & Grenadines 0.75 15,256 946 3,805 933 5,684 37 Suriname 0.78 66,648 1,924 4,154 4,077 10,154 15 Trini. & Tobago 0.80 17,827 515 5,194 0 5,708 32 Uruguay 0.83 171,369 4,946 0 0 4,946 3 Venezuela 0.78 238,857 6,894 58,413 14,610 79,918 33 Regional total   7,675,470 274,349 2,655,956 358,787 3,289,091 43                    Appendix 1: Regional fisheries subsidy estimates by categories                                                                                                                         81 Region - North Africa and Mediterranean Country 2000 HDI score 2000 LV (US$ '000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (US$ '000) Subsidy intensity (%) Algeria 0.70 30,664 1,901 54,589 1,876 58,365 190 Bahrain 0.84 27,625 469 3,382 1,168 5,020 18 Cyprus 0.88 49,966 872 6,861 440 8,173 16 Egypt 0.65 139,105 8,623 22,009 0 30,632 22 Iran 0.73 371,865 23,052 91,832 22,745 137,630 37 Israel 0.91 5,408 1,125 387 0 1,512 28 Jordan 0.75 132 4 21 0 25 19 Kuwait 0.84 8,746 1,819 1,146 0 2,965 34 Lebanon 0.76 3,591 0 0 0 0 0 Libya 0.79 27,439 1,701 0 0 1,701 6 Morocco 0.62 331,769 20,567 81,931 20,293 122,790 37 Oman 0.77 110,707 10,997 27,339 6,772 45,108 41 Qatar 0.83 6,238 1,191 450 264 1,905 31 Saudi Arabia 0.77 71,098 4,407 3,327 4,349 12,084 17 Syria 0.71 2,375 69 0 0 69 3 Tunisia 0.75 67,533 1,949 16,515 0 18,465 27 UAE 0.82 102,747 21,369 0 0 21,369 21 Yemen 0.48 96,560 2,787 23,614 0 26,401 27 Regional total   1,453,567 102,902 333,405 57,906 494,214 34     Region - North America Country 2000 HDI score 2000 LV (US$ '000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (US$ '000) Subsidy intensity (%) Canada  0.94 2,922,195 202,550 162,550 267,498 632,598 22 Mexico 0.80 1,301,094 41,719 113,748 0 155,467 12 United States 0.94 4,546,673 936,600 92,210 29,900 1,058,710 23 Regional total   8,769,962 1,180,869 368,508 297,398 1,846,775 21                         82                                      Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Region – Oceania Country 2000 HDI score 2000 LV (US$ '000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (US$ '000) Subsidy intensity (%) Australia 0.95 1,672,498 54,374 56,318 199,000 309,692 19 Fiji 0.76 152,779 4,410 24,173 9,345 37,927 25 Kiribati NA  73,639 2,126 7,397 0 9,523 13 Maldives 0.75 226,045 6,725 39,258 0 45,982 20 Marshall Islands NA  89,695 5,560 146,157 0 151,717 169 Micronesia NA  260,143 16,126 563,681 0 579,808 223 Nauru NA  74 5 132 0 137 184 New Zealand 0.93 804,310 33,246 0 0 33,246 4 Palau NA  2,412 70 483 0 552 23 Papua New Guinea 0.54 828,246 51,344 241,313 50,660 343,317 41 Samoa (Western) 0.77 75,649 4,690 18,500 4,627 27,817 37 Solomon Islands 0.62 162,453 4,689 27,679 9,937 42,304 26 Tonga 0.79 16,836 1,044 2,144 0 3,188 19 Vanuatu 0.57 788,457 22,758 161,649 0 184,407 23 Regional total   5,153,237 207,165 1,288,884 273,569 1,769,618 34                                           Appendix 1: Regional fisheries subsidy estimates by categories                                                                                                                         83 Region - Sub Saharan Africa Country 2000 HDI score 2000 LV (US$ '000) Good subsidies Bad subsidies Ugly subsidies Total amounts (US$ '000) Subsidy intensity (%) Angola 0.38 127,578 7,909 8,871 1,235 18,014 14 Benin 0.42 4,668 1,108 803 3,177 5,088 109 Cameroon 0.50 40,268 2,496 1,885 0 4,381 11 Cape Verde 0.72 8,655 1,271 6,184 0 7,455 86 Comoros 0.53 4,840 198 59 140 397 8 Congo 0.49 2,015 125 319 0 444 22 Congo D.R. 0.37 12,887 0 0 0 0 0 Cote d'Ivoire 0.40 51,800 3,211 92,345 0 95,556 184 Djibouti 0.45 438 13 18 27 58 13 Equat. Guinea 0.70 682 20 108 42 169 25 Eritrea 0.44 16,334 1,604 4,315 999 6,918 42 Gabon 0.65 60,135 4,267 740,787 132 745,186 1,239 Gambia 0.45 24,595 866 6,015 1,504 8,385 34 Ghana 0.57 114,855 7,120 31,705 7,025 45,850 40 Guninea 0.43 73,817 2,631 9,531 366 12,528 17 Guinea-Biss. 0.35 6,957 431 0 426 857 12 Kenya 0.49 6,001 372 9,144 0 9,516 159 Liberia NA 4,435 128 197 271 596 13 Madagascar 0.47 142,192 4,104 0 0 4,104 3 Mauritania 0.47 105,300 3,748 192,134 6,441 202,323 192 Mauritius 0.79 12,915 373 2,043 0 2,416 19 Mozambique 0.35 27,753 801 10,088 887 11,776 42 Namibia 0.61 222,358 13,784 44,505 0 58,289 26 Nigeria 0.47 292,006 9,793 600 1,200 11,593 4 Sao T. & Prin. 0.65 2,806 81 444 172 697 25 Senegal 0.44 176,547 5,959 10,635 411 17,005 10 Seychelles 0.85 11,172 693 1,523 683 2,899 26 Sierra Leone 0.27 56,368 1,627 11,421 563 13,612 24 Somalia NA 37,274 1,076 5,897 2,280 9,253 25 South Africa 0.67 192,916 11,959 0 0 11,959 6 Sudan 0.51 8,229 510 2,012 503 3,026 37 Tanzania 0.41 36,690 2,274 7,344 0 9,618 26 Togo 0.50 6,549 189 1,327 401 1,917 29 Regional total   1,892,036 90,741 1,202,259 28,885 1,321,885 70            84                                      Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) APPENDIX 2: GLOBAL COMPENDIUM OF NATIONAL FISHERIES SUBSIDY PROGRAMS. INTRODUCTION The information herein is a summary of subsidy support programs reported from 1995 to 2005, the information is reported by fishery subsidy types, as summarized below. A. ‘Good subsidies’ A.1 Fisheries management programs and services; A.2 Fishery research and development.  B. ‘Bad subsidies’ B.1 Boat construction renewal and modernization programs; B.2 Fishery development projects and support services; B.3 Fishing port construction and renovation programs; B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs; B.5 Tax exemption programs; B.6 Foreign access agreements.  C. ‘Ugly subsidies’ C.1 Fisher assistance programs; C.2 Vessel buyback programs,  and; C.3 Rural fisheries community development programs C.4 Others. Reported subsidy amounts are given where available, annualized and adjusted for the year 2000 as explained in the text; estimates in brackets were obtained using the method outlined in the text. They are provided only for countries for which there was positive indication that the type of subsidy in question existed. Subsidy types not listed in the country inventory means that information was not available, even after a thorough search. This absence of information was interpreted as meaning the subsidy type in question does not exist in that country. This implies that the global estimate of subsidies given to marine fisheries is an underestimate. Information from web links such as the FAO web resources are provided, and reference is made to the date the links were last accessed, at the end of the country report.        Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       85 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Group I: Argentina 599,727 A.1 Fisheries management and services.  15,000  UNEP, 2003. A.1 UNDP/GEF/WB project for the technical preparation for ITQ management system.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/body.htm A.1 FAO provided technical expertise for fishery data statistical analysis.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/body.htm A.1 Naval patrol and surveillance programs .   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/body.htm A.2 Funds from Japan to the fisheries research institute EL INIDEP for research on fish stocks.     http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/profile.htm A. 2 Funds for research and technology development funded by JICA, WB and OFCF.   UNEP, 2003.        Fishery research and development. (37,576) B.1 Subsidies towards industrial boat construction and development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/profile.htm        Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs  (130,361) B. 2 Financial support through trade missions and public- private partnership projects, partly funded by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development bank.   UNEP, 2003.         Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (28,017) B.4 Government support with credit lines in order to promote exports.    UNEP, 2003. B.4 Subsidies programs for the reimbursements of  exported fisheries products.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/body.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs.  (159,438) B.5 Tax exemption programs.   UNEP, 2003.        Tax exemption programs.  (16,092) C.1 Employment and other social benefits.   UNEP, 2003. C.1 Worker retraining programs.   UNEP, 2003.        Fisher assistance programs.  (93,520) C.2 Capacity reduction programs.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ARG/body.htm        Vessel buyback programs.  (119,722)      FAO Web links last accessed 28/03/06. Group I: Australia 309,692 A.1 Stock enhancement programs.    http://www.daff.gov.au/ A.1 MPA programs.    Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. A.1 Fisheries management and services.   25,954        OECD, 2004. A.2 R and D programs to develop new fisheries technology; business Rand D programs.    APEC, 2000.        Fishery research and development programs. (28,420) B.1 Lending support programs such as loan guarantees to Australia’s Commonwealth fishery program.   APEC, 2000. B.1 Cost reducing transfers excluding the Agribiz package and the shipbuilding bounty. 56,318  OECD, 2004. C.1 Community grants to boost economic activity after fishing adjustment programs. 20,000  Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. C.1 Fishing business restructuring assistance programs.  30,000  Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. C.1 Assistance for skippers and crews.   http://www.affa.gov.au/ C.2 Vessel buyback programs. 149,000  Australian Commodity Vol. 13 no. 1/03/05. C.2 Support for permanent withdrawal of fishing vessels.   OECD, 2004.  Australian govt. fisheries web pages, last accessed 02/06/06. Group I: Bahrain 5,020 A.2 Support towards fishery management programs from Japanese government.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/profile.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (469) B.1 Fishing equipment subsidies, equipment repair and bank loans.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/profile.htm        Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs.  (1,629) B.3 Maintenance of fishing vessels facilities.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/profile.htm         Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (1,553) B.5 Fishing equipment tax exemption programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/profile.htm        Tax exemption programs.  (201) C.1 Various aid programs and government loan programs to assist local fishermen.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BHR/body.htm        Fisher assistance programs.  (1,168)      FAO Web links last accessed 02/06/06.    86                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Group I: Belgium 13,855 A.1 Flemish government contribution to fishery management programs. 1,527  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BEL/body.htm A.1 EU and Belgian government fishery recovery plans.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BEL/body.htm A.2 R&D towards research and support to the Foundation Sustainable Fisheries Program.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BEL/body.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (814) B.4 Direct payments for marketing and processing programs. 689  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998. MRAG, 2000.       Foreign access agreements. (2,323) C.1 Direct payments for fisher assistance packages. C.2 Direct payments for vessel buyback programs. C.2 Fishing capacity reduction programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BEL/body.htm        Vessel buyback programs. (2,592) C.4 Direct payments for marine capture fisheries programs including C.1 & C.2 5,911  OECD, 2004      FAO Web links last accessed 02/06/06 Group I: Canada 632,598 A.1 Provincial funds for fishery enhancement and renewal programs. Examples includes: the Pacific salmonid enhancement program, the Atlantic groundfish strategy, etc.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CAN/body.htm A.1 Annual stock assessment programs undertaken by DFO (not included in estimate). 57,700  APEC, 2000 A.1 Annual fisheries enforcement programs undertaken by DFO (not included in estimates). 52,500  APEC, 2000 A.1 User charges  32,214 A.1 Fisheries management programs and services. 121,074  OECD, 2004 A.2 R&D towards research and development. 49,262  OECD, 2004 B.1 Annual loan guarantee payment. 4,228  OECD, 2004 B.1 Loan guarantees and other lending support programs on coastal Quebec and Atlantic Canada.   APEC, 2000 B.1 Contributions under cost reducing transfer. 64,966  OECD, 2004 B.3 Payments towards fishing harbor facilities. 59,060  OECD, 2004 B.4 Direct payments under marketing and processing programs. 34,296  OECD, 2004 C.1 Unemployment insurance programs 168,188  OECD, 2004 C.1 Older worker adjustment schemes and other retraining programs  2,550  OECD, 2004 C.1 Other assistance programs 23,960  OECD, 2004 C.1 Annual support program towards the Atlantic fishery assistance payments in mid 90s (not included in estimates) 239,048  APEC, 2000 C.1 Payments per license fisher per year, CAD $ 30,000 per year irrespective of other earnings, provided they fish for 12 wks of the year (not included in estimates). 20,204  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CAN/body.htm C.1 Payments made per year from 1990 to 1998 to minimize disruption by the cod fishery collapse (not included in estimates). 253,053  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CAN/body.htm C.2 DFO payments for license & vessel retirement programs overall in Canada  72,800  APEC, 2000      FAO Web links last accessed 05/06/06 Group I: Chile 77,367  A.1 Fishery enhancement and management programs excluding aquaculture. 3,204  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CHL/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research fund. 4,000  APEC, 2000 A.2 Fisheries research collaboration (by the provision of technical assistance) between Chile and Japan, Denmark, Norway, Iceland and Spain.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CHL/profile.htm B.4 Export oriented market programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CHL/profile.htm         Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (70,163)   FAO Web links last accessed 14/04/06        Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       87 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Group I: China 862,450 A.1 & A.2 Cooperative research and fisheries management programs (11,999)   FAO country web page & APEC, 2000. B.1 & B.3 Support programs towards boat construction, sea port construction from the Hainan Province Marine Fishery Development Program.   APEC, 2000 B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises (Fujian Province Fishery Pillar Industry Development Program).   APEC, 2000 B.2 Chinese national development fishery projects towards vision 2000-2005.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CHN/body.htm B.2 Capacity training programs. 125  APEC, 2000 B.3 Funds from both the central and local provincial governments for fishing port construction and modernization. 64,625  APEC, 2000 B.4 Fish processing and marketing programs for Hainan Province alone. 100  APEC, 2000 B.5 Tax preferences for foreign fisheries investment, and favorable tax rates on inputs. B.5 Fujian Province interest subsidy.   APEC, 2000 B.5 Tax exemption programs.  (83,384)  APEC, 2000 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements.   Milazzo, 1998.      Foreign access agreements. (193,418) C.1 'Fishing holiday' relief fund as income support programs in some provinces including Guangdong.   APEC, 2000 C.1 Fisher assistance packages. (484,599) C.4 Other central financial authority budget program funds (claasified under B.1 as state investments).  24,200  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CHN/body.htm      FAO Web links last accessed 14/04/06 Group I: Cyprus 8,173 A.1 EU Special conservation areas (Habitat Directive, 92/43/EEC) in Cyprus.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm A.1 Program funds for monitoring using VMS and special boats for monitoring fishing capacity.   http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/Agriculture.nsf/ A.1 EU Project MedMPA on the development of MPAs in the Mediterranean region.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm A.2 Structural funds for technical assistance to the fishery sector. 23  EC, 2003 Document.       Fishery research and development programs. (849) B.1 EU structural funds under the single programming document. 450  EC, 2003 Document. B.3 Fishery harbor infrastructure and storage/processing project.   http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/Agriculture.nsf/ B.4 Support towards fishing shelters and quality control   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm       Fishing port construction and renovation programs.   (2,809)       Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs    (3,603) C.2 Structural funds for buy-backs. 440  EC, 2003 Document. C.2  Total fishing vessels capped at 500 as EU initiative.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CYP/profile.htm C.4 Structural funds for buybacks,  fishing infrastructures, processing and marketing.   EC, 2003 Document.      Web links last accessed 05/06/06 Group I: Denmark 1,275,480 A.1 General fisheries management programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DNK/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services.  (148,603) A.2 National fisheries R&D programs and initiatives.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DNK/profile.htm       Fishery research and development programs. (13,222) B.1 FIFG and national renewal and modernization programs. 487,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DNK/body.htm B.1 FIFG and national programs for technical assistance. 8,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DNK/body.htm B.4 FIFG and national programs in processing and marketing programs, and ports renovations. 505,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DNK/body.htm B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access agreements. (37,747) C.1    National support programs for young fishers. (32,907) C.2 EU and national fishing capacity reduction programs - fishing fleet adjustment. 43,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DNK/body.htm   FAO Web links last accessed 04/06/06   88                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information   Group I: Estonia 25,849 A.1 National fisheries management programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EST/body.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (11,337) A.2 Multidisciplinary scientific research including ICES related  stock assessment work, etc.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EST/profile.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (1,009) B.1 FIFG modernization and renewal of fishing fleet programs.    Estonia-EU SPD, 2003.        Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs.  (3,499) B.4 FIFG Investment support measures for fisheries chain.   Estonia-EU SPD, 2003.        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (4,280) C.1 FIFG measures for restructuring of the fisheries sector from unfavorable socio-economic impacts.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EST/body.htm        Fisher assistance packages. (2,510) C.2 Fishing capacity reduction under the FIFG scheme.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EST/profile.htm        Vessel buyback programs. (3,214) C.4 Other fisheries related measures, which include social and market research (FIFG).   Estonia-EU SPD, 2003.      FAO Web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Finland 20,675 A.1 Monitoring control & surveillance program. 926  OECD, 2004 A.1 Protection of marine areas for the rearing of juvenile salmon smolts. 235  OECD, 2004 A.1 Support towards management programs. 2,161  OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 2,623  OECD, 2004 B.1 Vessel construction and modernization 477  OECD, 2004 B.2 Fisheries transportation subsidies. 442  OECD, 2004 B.3 Support for fishing ports. 2,000  OECD, 2004 B.4 Export promotion programs.  1,127  OECD, 2004 B.4 Investment in marketing and processing programs. 1,953  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access agreements. (3,577) B.5 Insurance towards the Aland County scheme. 1,111  OECD, 2004 C.1 Compensation to salmon fishers (in Aland County) from damage caused by seals. 50  OECD, 2004 C.2 Fishing capacity adjustment programs in tune with the EU fisheries common policy.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FIN/body.htm        Vessel buyback programs. (3,992)  Group I: France 273,401 A.1 Management and administrative cost including enforcement. 11,972  OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 49,541  OECD, 2004 B.1 Renewal and modernization of fleets in the form of direct payments to the fishing sector. 9,908  OECD, 2004 B.2 Funds for rebuilding the fishery after storm Erika. 38,807  OECD, 2004 B.3 Fishing port & harbor construction, &  renovation programs 1,835  OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs  28,716  OECD, 2004 B.5 Interest rebates 8,716  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access agreements. (107,209) C.1 Unemployment insurance programs 5,229  OECD, 2004 C.1 Compensation for geographic remoteness. 5,688  OECD, 2004 C.2 Vessel buyback programs in tune with EU fisheries common policy. 5,780  OECD, 2004  Group I: Germany 48,062 A.1 Federal depleted fishery recovery program. 3,347  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DEU/profile.htm A.2 German and EU research and conservation policy and programs. 3,334 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DEU/profile.htm B.1 Annual lending programs towards purchase and renewal of fishing vessels. 1,079  OECD, 2004 B.1 Grants for the purchase and modernization of fishing vessels. 6,427  OECD, 2004  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       89 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information B.4 Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs 18,013  OECD, 2004 B.5 Interest subsidies. 375  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.      Foreign access agreements. (9,517) C.1 Federal capacity aid program to ameliorate the fishing sector difficulties. 5,172  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DEU/profile.htm C.2 Payments for both the temporary and permanent withdrawal of fishing vessels. 798  OECD, 2004      FAO Web links last accessed 05/06/06 Group I: Greece 77,743 A.1 Control, monitoring and surveillance programs. 28,900  OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 452  OECD, 2004 B.2 Administrative support. 1,277  OECD, 2004 B.3 Fishing port/ harbor construction, &  renovation programs 5,404  OECD, 2004 B.4 Miscellaneous market intervention programs. 11,034  OECD, 2004 B.5 Tax exemptions programs excluding  fuel amounts. (1,400) OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access agreements.          (9,335) C.1 Fishermen assistance programs. (8,138)   http://www.eurofish.dk/indexSub.php?id=210 C.2 Direct payments for fleet reduction programs. 11,803  OECD, 2004     Eurofish web link, last visited 05/06/06. Group I: Hong Kong 2,573 A.1 Habitat enhancement project including artificial reefs. 2,564  APEC, 200 B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises.   APEC, 2000        Fishery development projects and support services. (9)  Group I: Iceland 53,166 A.1 Total amounts towards fisheries monitoring, control & surveillance programs. 11,617  OECD, 2004 A.2 Total of fisheries research transfers 12,125  OECD, 2004 B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises. 7,990  OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs 5,796  OECD, 2004 B.5 Income tax deductions for fishers. 15,511  OECD, 2004 C.1 Fisher training programs. 127  OECD, 2004  Group I: Ireland 110,577 A.1 Total amount for administrative, research and fish stock sustainability programs (2002). 54,057  OECD, 2005 B.1 Irish and EU grant-aid to promote the renewal of whitefish fleet investments (2003). 3,297  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRL/profile.htm B.4 Direct total payments for marketing and processing programs (2002). 1,189  OECD, 2005 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998        Foreign access agreements. (12,789) C.1 Direct payments taken for fisher assistant programs, may include other descriptions. 39,245  OECD, 2005      FAO Web links last accessed 06/06/06 Group I: Israel 1,512 A.1 National fisheries management programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ISR/body.htm        Fisheries management programs and services . (1,033) A.2 Government funded fishery research and development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ISR/profile.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (92) B.1 Vessel renewal programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ISR/body.htm        Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs.  (319) B.2 Government investment grants towards fishing equipments for fishing fleets.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ISR/body.htm        Development grants for fisheries enterprises. (69)      FAO Web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Italy 226,332 A.1 General fisheries management programs and services. 50,576  OECD, 2004 B.4 Market intervention programs.  53,407  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access agreements. (22,693) C.1 Payments for fisher assistance packages and other unspecified programs. 92,549  OECD, 2004  90                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information C.4 Contributions under cost reducing transfers (not specified). 7,107  OECD, 2004   Group I: Japan  3,931,013 A.1 General fisheries management programs and services. 2,807,057  OECD, 2004 B.1 Financial support for setting up new fishing vessels. 37,491 B.1 Subsidized lending programs.   APEC, 2000 B.2 Development grants towards fishery enterprises.   APEC, 2000        Fishery development projects and support services. (167,831) B.4 Market intervention programs.  43,008  OECD, 2004 B.5 Tax preferences and insurance programs.    APEC, 2000        Tax exemptions programs. (96,396) B.6 Foreign access payments 200,000  Milazzo, 1998 C.1 Assistance to fish workers (Fishery Trust Fund Subsidy)   APEC, 2000 C.1 Fisher assistance programs.   Milazzo, 1998        Fisher assistance programs. (560,221) C.2 Vessel buyback programs. 19,010  OECD, 2004  Group I: Republic of Korea 359,809 A.1 Stock enhancement programs. 48,558  OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 4,953  OECD, 2004 B.1 Cost reducing transfer for renewal and modernization of fishing vessels. 7,695  OECD, 2004 B.1 Subsidized lending programs.   APEC, 2000 B.3 Fishing port/ harbor construction, & renovation programs. 160,977  OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs. 4,422  OECD, 2004 B.5 Support for crew insurance. 4,157  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements.   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access agreements. (43,606) C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs. 29,453  OECD, 2004 C.4 Other cost reducing transfers 55,988  OECD, 2004  Group I: Kuwait 2,965 A.1 Government subsidization programs to the management of the fishery sector.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KWT/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (1670) A.2 Kuwaiti government support towards fishery research and development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KWT/profile.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (149) B.1 Subsidy programs towards the development of the fishery sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KWT/profile.htm       Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs.  (516) B.4 Marketing support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KWT/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing & storage infrastructure programs (631)      FAO Web links last accessed 10/06/06 Group I: Malta 1,197 A.1 EU Financial cooperation and Pre-accession assistance towards the fisheries sector for monitoring and control programs 387 http://europa.eu.int/eur- lex/budget/data/D2004_EUR25_VOL4/EN/nm c-titleN1A447/nmc-chapterN1A79E/index.html A.2 Externally funded research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MLT/profile.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (18) B.1 Financial support towards fleet renewal programs 272  http://www.maltafisheries.gov.mt/news.asp B.4 Marketing and processing support programs 209  http://www.maltafisheries.gov.mt/news.asp C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs. 311  http://www.maltafisheries.gov.mt/news.asp     Web links last accessed 10/06/06 Group I: Mexico 155,467 A.1 Fisheries management expenditures. 6,944  OECD, 2000 A.1 Enforcement expenditures. 868  OECD, 2000 A.2 Fisheries research expenditures. 33,907  OECD, 2000 B.1 Financing fisheries investment projects FIRA-FOPESCA. 61,100  APEC, 2000 B.1 Fishing fleet modernization program. 40,848  APEC, 2000 B.4 BANCOMEXT export subsidies. 11,800  APEC, 2000  Group I: Netherlands 33,158 A.1 Fisheries management expenditure. 508  OECD, 2004  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       91 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information A.2 Innovative actions in fisheries management. 2,630  OECD, 2004 B.4 Direct payments towards marketing and processing programs. 2,275  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access agreements. (17,989) C.2 Decommissioning programs. 6,273  OECD, 2004 C.2 Payments for voluntary temporary stops. 3,482  OECD, 2004  Group I: New Zealand 33,246 A.1 Regulatory management, fishing access and administration programs. 7,728  OECD, 2004 A.1 Program support towards fisheries monitoring, enforcement and prosecution. 10,973  OECD, 2004 A.1 User charges 12,272  OECD, 2004 A.1 General services towards policy framework 2,273  OECD, 2004  Group I: Norway 177,992 A.1 Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 45,666  OECD, 2004 A.1 Departmental and agency costs. 16,330  OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 22,407  OECD, 2004 B.2 Transport subsidies. 3,750  OECD, 2004 B.5 Interest subsidies and investment support for vessel building. 8,523  OECD, 2004 C.1 Income support programs. 1,591  OECD, 2004 C.1 Worker adjustment programs. 9,822  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NOR/body.htm C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NOR/body.htm        Fishing fleet reduction programs. (64,221) C.4 Other cost reducing subsidies 5,682  OECD, 2004      Web links last accessed 10/06/06  Group I: Poland 17, 562 A.1 Fisheries habitat enhancement and management programs.    OECD, 2000.        Fisheries management programs and services (14,381) A.2 National fisheries R&D programs and initiatives. 30,40    OECD, 2000. B.1 Subsidies towards industrial boat construction and development. 14 http://www.paiz.gov.pl/index/ B.4 Subsidies for processing and storage infrastructure towards fisheries exports.   127        http://www.paiz.gov.pl/index/   Web pages last visited 11/06/06  Group I: Portugal  136,412 A.1 General fisheries management and enhancement programs.  12,137  OECD, 2004. A.2 Fishery research and development programs.              11,752   OECD, 2004. B.1 Vessel modernization and construction programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PRT/profile.htm        Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs. (17,061) B.2 Small scale fishery development aid and support services. 1,689 OECD, 2004 B.4 Fishing ports maintenance, processing and marketing development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PRT/profile.htm       Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (20,866) B.6 Foreign fishing access agreements.   Milazzo, 1998.       Foreign access agreements. (45,000) C.1 Fisher compensation programs, and socio-economic innovative projects  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PRT/profile.htm        Fisher assistance programs.  (12,239) C.2 Fleet reduction programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PRT/profile.htm       Vessel buyback programs (15,668)   FAO web pages last visited 11/06/06.  Group I: Qatar 1,905 A.1 Support towards fishery management programs.     http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/QAT/body.htm       Fisheries management programs and services. (1,191) B.4 Government fishery production subsidies towards fishing port, marketing and processing facilities.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/QAT/body.htm       Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (450)  92                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information C.1 Government funded fishermen assistant programs.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/QAT/body.htm        Fisher assistance programs.  (264)   FAO web pages last visited 11/06/06. Group I: Russia 1,195,102 A.1 Enforcement and control programs.   Milazzo, 1998        Fisheries management programs and services. (527,608) A.2 Government research and development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/RUS/profile.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (46,944) B.1 The 'Ryba' program for fleet renewal and modernization. 100,000  APEC, 2000 B.1 Developing and reviving ship building facilities.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/RUS/profile.htm B.1 Government ship building facilities and programs. B.3 The Ryba program: fisheries infrastructure support, maintenance and repairs. 280,000  APEC, 2000 B.4 Russian state grants to the Murmansk fish processing factories. http://www.sr.se/cgi- bin/euroarctic/amnessida.asp?programID=246 0&Nyheter=0&grupp=2604&artikel=813284 B.5 Tax incentives endorsed by the Russian Committee on Fisheries.   Milazzo, 1998        Tax exemption programs (20,104) B.6 International fishing agreements.   Pashkova, 2001. Milazzo, 1998. B.6 State committee for fisheries' partner fishing agreements    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/RUS/profile.htm       Fishing access payments (70,878) C.2 Fishing fleet reduction programs.   Pashkova, 2001        Vessel buyback programs. (149,569)      Web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Singapore 4,000 B.3 Fishing port infrastructure enhancement programs. 2,000  APEC, 2000 B.4 Fish product promotion programs. 2,000  APEC, 2000  Group I: Spain 450,243 A.1 General fisheries management programs and services. 12,136  OECD, 2004 A.1 Innovative measure and pilot projects. 328  OECD, 2004 A.1 Exploratory fishing. 809  OECD, 2004 A.1 Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 8,812  OECD, 2004 A.1 MPA programs 1,713  OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs, both regional and national. 7,049  OECD, 2004 B.1 PESCA initiative. 50,562  OECD, 2004 B.1 Vessel modernization programs. 16,691  OECD, 2004 B.2 New vessel construction. 63,761  OECD, 2004 B.2 Technical assistance and educational support. 3,058  OECD, 2004 B.3 & B.4 Fishing port renovation, processing and marketing support programs. 12,349  OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing and processing programs. 62,455  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access payments. (117,791) C.1 Socioeconomic measures. 260  OECD, 2004 C.2 Permanent vessel withdrawals. 8,525  OECD, 2004 C.2 Regional aids for temporary stops and permanent withdrawals. 83,944  OECD, 2004  Group I: Sweden 40,200 A.1 General fisheries management programs and services. 17,893  OECD, 2004 A.1 User charges 407 A.2 Fisheries management and research.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SWE/body.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (2,654) B.1 Grants towards vessel modernization and renewal from both state and EU sources.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SWE/body.htm B.1 Cost reducing transfers 2,358  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.      Foreign access payments. (7,578) C.1 Direct payments including fisher assistance packages 852  OECD, 2004 C.2 EU capacity reduction programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SWE/body.htm        Vessel buyback programs. (8,457)      FAO web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: Taiwan 273,687 A.1 Stock Enhancement program. 4,829  APEC, 2000 A.1 Stock assessment programs. 2,800  APEC, 2000  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       93 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information A.1 General fisheries management programs. 14,165  APEC, 2000 A.2 Fishery research and development programs towards marine capture fisheries. 4,081  APEC, 2000 B.1 State investment in capital and infrastructural support towards fishing fleets. 79,400  APEC, 2000 B.3 Funds towards fishing ports infrastructure and fishery development programs.  126,514  APEC, 2000 B.4 Fish product market promotion programs. 6,300  APEC, 2000 B.6 Foreign access agreements   Milazzo, 1998        Foreign access payments  (21,098) C.1 Marine insurance to fishing vessels and fishermen. 4,800  APEC, 2000 C.1 Worker adjustments and retraining programs. 9,700  APEC, 2000  Group I: United Arab Emirates 21,369 A.1 & A.2 Government fisheries management support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ARE/body.htm A.1 Government fisheries MPA programs in place.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ARE/body.htm       Fisheries management programs and services. (19,623)       Fishery research and development programs. (1,746)      FAO web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: United Kingdom 192,349 A.1 Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 42,727  OECD, 2004 A.2 Fishery research and development programs. 21,364  OECD, 2004 B.1 Boat construction, renewal and modernization programs.  364  OECD, 2004 B.3 Fishing port construction, &  renovation programs. 1,546  OECD, 2004 B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. 4,713  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access agreements (EU).   Milazzo, 1998.        Foreign access payments. (56,452) C.1 PESCA Program. 2,182  OECD, 2004 C.2 EU common fishery policy on capacity reduction.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GBR/profile.htm        Vessel buyback programs. (63,001)      FAO web links last accessed 16/06/06 Group I: United States 1,058,710 A.1 Conservation and management programs. 168,700  OECD, 2004 A.1 Fishery data collection support programs. 225,900  OECD, 2004 A.1 Monitoring, control and surveillance programs. 542,000  OECD, 2004 B.1 NMFS industrial fisheries financed programs. 2,250  OECD, 2004 B.2 Fisheries development program funds and grants. 25,380  OECD, 2004 B.4 Promotion programs under marketing and processing.  41,080  OECD, 2004 B.5 NMFS Capital Construction Fund tax deferral programs. 2,500  OECD, 2004 B.6 Foreign access payments. 21,000  Mwikya, 2006 C.1 NMFS Fishermen’s contingency funds. 1,000  OECD, 2004 C.1 Fisheries disaster relief. 28,900  OECD, 2004  Group II: Albania            907 A.1 Stock enhancement programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm A.1 ADRIAMED project funded by the Italian government for monitoring, control and surveillance.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm A.1 Coastal zone management programs including artificial reefs and other management programs. 38  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm B.2 INTEREG Project funded by the EU towards marine resources research and environmental protection.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm B.2 World Bank fishery development project 670  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm B.3 The rehabilitation and improvement of nine marine fishing ports.  69 Albania Government Project Appraisal Doc., 2001. B.2 Technical assistance through the World Bank pilot fishery development project. 41 Albania Government Project Appraisal Doc., 2001. B.4 The EU Phare Sector Operative Project funds and technical assistance for marketing and fishery infrastructures   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ALB/profile.htm       Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (90)      FAO web links last accessed 15/03/06 Group II: Algeria  58,365 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/DZA/body.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (885) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/DZA/body.htm  94                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Fishery research and development. (1,016) B.1 Government support to fishery investment and development programs. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/DZA/body.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (1,435) B.2 International donor assistance programs towards fishery development, such as the UNDP Ambriz Project. 4,852 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/DZA/body.htm B.3 Fishing port and landing facilities  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/DZA/body.htm         Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (47,016) B.4 Storage and processing support programs from state aid.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/DZA/body.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,286)  C.1 Government funded fishermen development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/DZA/body.htm        Fisher assistance programs.  (1,876)   FAO Web links last accessed 02/06/06.  Group II: Angola 18,015 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/AGO/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (3,683) A.2 Fisheries research and resource survey programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/AGO/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (4,226) B.1 Fleet support and other infrastructure development programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/AGO/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (5,971) B.2 International donor assistance programs towards fishery development (ADB & UNDP assistances). 2,900 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/AGO/profile.htm C.1 Government funded fishermen development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/AGO/profile.htm        Fisher assistance programs.  (1,235)   FAO Web links last accessed 02/06/06. Group II: Antigua and Barbuda 10,776 A.1 Stock enhancement programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (166) A.2 Fisheries research and development   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm        Fishery research and development programs. (191) B.1 Subsidized lending from the Antigua and Barbados Development Bank and the National Development Foundation. 191  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/body.htm B.2 Assistance from JICA in berthing and harbor facilities.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm B.2 Capacity building projects by CIDA and the Commonwealth fund for technical cooperation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (910) B.3 Fishing port construction and renovation programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm        Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (8,821) B.4 Assistance from JICA for processing and gear technology.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (241) B.5 Tax and duty-free concessions for new vessels, engines, fishing gear and other related fishing equipment.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ATG/body.htm        Tax exemption programs. (255)      Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Bahamas 23,421 A.1 Fishery management programs.   http://www.breef.org/fisheries.pdf       Fisheries management programs and services. (2,222) A.2 Fisheries R&D programs   http://www.breef.org/fisheries.pdf        Fishery research and development. (2,550) B.1 Subsidized lendings for fishery investments and a small boat loan program towards the lobster fishery. http://filaman.ifm- geomar.de/Training/Reports/Belize/mr_crb01. htm       Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (3,602) B.2 Subsidized loan programs towards fishing input such as boats   http://www.breef.org/fisheries.pdf       Fishery development projects and support services. (12,177) B.5 Duty exemption on fishing equipments and inputs. 2,871  http://www.breef.org/fisheries.pdf      Web links last accessed 24/03/06. Group II: Bangladesh 70,167 A.1 Support provided towards resource surveys and stock assessment.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGD/profile.htm  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       95 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information A.1 GEF support towards biodiversity and marine conservation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGD/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4,887) A.2 Fisheries R&D programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGD/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (5,608) B.1 State assistance towards fishery inputs for fishery enterprises   Khatun et al.  2004. Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (7,922) B.2 Institutional support to the fisheries sector by UNDP, World Bank, DFID amongst others.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGD/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance and infrastructure support for fishery development from EU, DANIDA etc.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGD/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (26,782) B.4 Support for HACCP programs by the FAO, i.e., export subsidies.   Khatun et al. 2004.        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (7,098) B.5 Duty free imports of capital machinery and fishing inputs, custom clearance for fish exports and other tax rebates.   Khatun et al. 2004. B.5 Financial incentives provided by the government       UNEP, 2000. Tax exemption programs. (7,516) C.3 Rural fishers’ community programs and projects funded by DFID, ICLARM, World Bank and UNDP.   UNEP, 2000. Rural fisheries community development programs. (10,354)      Web links last accessed 19/03/06. Group II: Barbados 14,789 A.1 Support towards stock assessment, monitoring and control programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (240) A.1 & A.2 Fishery management, research and development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (276) B.1 Subsidized loans for fisheries enterprises including the support from the Rural Enterprise Fund. 243   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/profile.htm B.3 Inter American Development support for the Bridgetown fisheries complex.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (12,763) B.4 European Development Fund (EDF) for fisheries marketing infrastructure.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRB/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (349) B.5 Duty free concessions on fishing inputs. http://www.agriculture.gov.bb/default.asp?V_D OC_ID=786 Tax exemption programs. (370) C.3 Assistance to fisher organizations. http://www.agriculture.gov.bb/default.asp?V_D OC_ID=788 Rural fishers community development programs. (509)      Web links last accessed 17/06/06. Group II: Belize 11,549 A.1 Government fisheries MPA programs in place.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm A.1 Overseas development agencies (ODA) technical assistance programs towards fishery management.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,483) A.2 GEF funded projects and CARICOM research projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,702) B.1 Subsidized benefits from loans towards the fishery sector. 2,117 http://www.belize.gov.bz/cabinet/d_silva/welco me.shtml B.5 Belize enjoys export subsidies to the U.S.A. under the Caribbean Basin Initiative  6,226  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm C.3 Assistance to fisher organizations. 21  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BLZ/profile.htm      Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Benin 5,088 A.1 Fisheries management programs towards stock replenishment and assessment. 120  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm A.1 Fisheries management programs the coastal zone, funded by the Netherlands. 833  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries management, research and development programs    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm  96                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information        Fishery research and development. (155) B.2 JICA project funds for the provision of fishing equipments. 803  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm C.3 Subsidies towards the artisanal fishery development project funded by AfDB 3,177   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/BEN/profile.htm      Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Brazil 1,989,218 A.1 Government funded fishery management programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRA/body.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (34,901) A.2 Research towards appraisal of fishery resources, socio- economics, fishery statistics etc.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRA/body.htm Fishery research and development. (40,055) B.1 Enhancing and renovating ocean fleets with support from the government and the banks.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRA/body.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (56,588) B.3 Modernizing port infrastructures with support from the government and the banks.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BRA/body.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (1,853,965) B.5 Fiscal incentives are provided including about 25% tax reduction in fishery investment projects. Abdallah and Sumaila, this volume; Bank of Brazil C.3 Subsidized rural credit programs towards fishing activities. 3,708 Abdallah and Sumaila, this volume; Bank of Brazil     Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Brunei Darussalam 802 A.1 General fisheries mngt programs including enhancement. http://www.fisheries.gov.bn/potentials/index.ht m Fisheries management programs and services. (75) A.2 Stock appraisal and surveys for tuna and other capture fisheries. http://www.fisheries.gov.bn/potentials/index.ht m Fishery research and development. (86) B.1 & B.2 General government incentive and support programs towards the fishery sector.  http://www.fisheries.gov.bn/potentials/index.h tm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (121) Fishery development projects and support services. (411) B.4 Government incentive and support programs towards the processing sector.  http://www.fisheries.gov.bn/potentials/index.h tm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (109)     Web links last accessed 18/06/06. Group II: Bulgaria             789 A.1 Stock enhancement programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm A.1 Fishery management programs with EU assistance in information and statistical installations.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm A.1 Monitoring and surveillance programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (129) B.4 Provision of marketing infrastructure.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (189) B.5 Tax exemptions on fishery inputs and outputs.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (199) C.3 Rural fisher development programs.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/BGR/profile.htm Rural fishers’ community development programs. (273)     FAO web links last accessed 17/06/06. Group II: Cambodia 20,192 A.1 SEAFDEC regional projects  through training, research and information services.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,776) A.2 Research towards appraisal of fishery resources, etc.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,038) B.1 Fisheries enterprise development through economic incentives through the state monopoly company, KAMFIMEX.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (2,880) B.2 World Bank funded projects in various areas of fisheries with loans and grants in biodiversity protection programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (9,735) C.3 Government support of rural fisheries development and the implementation of cooperative management.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KHM/profile.htm  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       97 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Rural fishers’ community development programs. (3,763)  FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06.  Group II: Cameroon 4,381 A.1 General fisheries management programs including enhancement.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CMR/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (1,162) A.2 Oceanographic, ecological and socio-economic research activities.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CMR/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (1,334) B.1 Microfinance towards local fishery investments   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CMR/profile.htm        Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (1,885)     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Cape Verde 7,455 A.1 The government of the Netherlands financed a marine resource conservation project.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm A.1 LUXDEV surveillance project 188  http://www.fao.org/fi/projects/722lux.asp A.2 European development funds towards research in computer system information and fisheries analysis. 1,083  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm B.1 The Cape Verde fishery is a beneficiary of lot of assistance from bilateral co operations and multilaterals. Within 1997 to 2001, 87% of the investment is towards vessels, of which half of the funds is provided through overseas development agencies.     http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm B.1 The fishery sector benefits from grants and aid from international development assistance. 2,258  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/body.htm B.1 The African Development Bank financed a development project (BAD/BADEA) towards industrial boat construction (of about 10 in number) with lengths up to 26 meters. 954  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm B.2 Fisheries development projects including: FAO, DFID ICEIDA, EU, and GTZ particularly at the islands of de Fogo and Brava. 2,609  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/body.htm B.4 The African Development Bank financed 5 cold storage facilities the Islands of Santiago, S.Nicolau and S. Antao and office infrastructure at the INDP office at Mindelo.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CPV/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (363)     FAO web links last accessed 29/06/06. Group II: Col0mbia 18,138 A.1& A.2 State funded management and research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/COL/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (3,172)        Fishery research and development. (3,640) B.4 Processing and marketing support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/COL/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (4,607) C.3 UN funded rural fisher community development programs towards food security.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/COL/profile.htm       Rural fishers’ community development programs. (6,720)     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Comoros 397 A.1 EU funded monitoring and surveillance programs. 38  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm A.2 Fishery research and development support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (160) B.2 Technical assistance programs funded by the WB, FAO, JICA, and AfDB.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance from the EU. 59  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm C.3 EU artisanal fishery funded programs    140 http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COM/profile.htm     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Congo 444 A.1 Fishery management support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COG/profile.htm       Fisheries management programs and services. (58) A.2 R&D funded programs in socio-economics and maritime fisheries.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COG/profile.htm       Fishery research and development. (67) B.2 Externally ODA funded projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/COG/profile.htm       Fishery development projects and support services. (319)     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Congo Democratic Republic 0  98                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information        Subsidies assumed to be absent.    Information not available. Group II: Costa Rica 16,867 A.1 Fishery management support programs through INCOPESCA.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CRI/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (1,506) A.2 Both domestic and international support (e.g. Taiwan Project '04) programs towards R&D.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/CRI/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (1,728) B.2 Externally ODA funded projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CRI/body.htm       Fishery development projects and support services. (8,254) B.4 Processing and marketing support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CRI/body.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (2,187) B.5 Tax exemptions and rebates on fishing inputs including fuel.   La Nation newspaper, 12/03/06.        Tax exemption programs. (2,316) C.3 Social development fund.  876 La Nation newspaper, 12/03/06.     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Cote d'Ivoire 95,556 A.1 Fisheries management support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CIV/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,495) A.2 Fisheries research and development support programs with both domestic and international funds.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CIV/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,716) B.1 & B. 2 Fisheries development project support programs mostly funded by ODAs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CIV/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (2,424) Fishery development projects and support services. (8,196) B.3 Fishing port construction with funds from JICA.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CIV/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (79,425) B.5 Tax waivers for fishery inputs and outputs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/CIV/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (2,300)     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Croatia 0 Subsidies are assumed to be absent.   Information not available. Group II: Cuba 26,296 A.1 Fishery management support programs both from domestic and international sources (FAO and UNDP).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CUB/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4,058) B.2 Fishery research and development funded programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CUB/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance from bilateral cooperation since the 1960s. Until 1990, as the USSR disintegrated, more infrastructural support is provided by the FAO and the UNDP.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/CUB/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (22,238)     FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Djibouti 58 A.1 Fisheries management support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DJI/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (13) B.4 AfDB funded export support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DJI/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (18) C.3 Program support funds from the Djibouti Agriculture Integrated Fisheries Development Project.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/DJI/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (27)     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Dominican Republic 9,092 A.1 Government support towards the National Directorate for Fisheries for management purposes. 2,353  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm A.1 Support programs towards CARICOM 29  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm A.2 Fishery research and development funded programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (953) B.2 Externally funded fishery projects (JICA, FAO etc).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (4,551) B.4 Marketing support programs towards value addition and standards.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,206)     FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06.  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       99 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Group II: Dominica 894 A.1 Resource surveys and external cooperation and support from the FAO.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (70) A.2 Fishery research and development funded programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (80) B.2 JICA Project towards the financing of CARICOM initiatives and technical assistance for fisheries management. 493   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm B.3 JICA funded fishing port construction programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm B.4 JICA funded storage repairs and marketing programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (102) C.3 Rural fisheries infrastructure development & micro finance programs by IFAD & the government.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/DOM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (149)     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Ecuador 69,560 A.1 Provision of naval patrol vessels from Norway for monitoring and control of marine resources.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ECU/profile.htm A.1 & A.2 FAO continue to coordinate and implement projects dealing with fisheries resource management.     http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ECU/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (8,922) Fishery research and development. (10,238) Fisheries enterprise project in the Galapagos. 1,500  Globefish databank, 13/04/06. B.2 Provision of support programs towards fishing equipments and boats from Japan and previous aid from the EU towards the artisanal sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ECU/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance for capacity building in the small scale fisheries and technical resources/facilities from Belgium.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/ECU/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (48,900)     FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Egypt 30,633 A.1 Fisheries management programs funded both locally and internationally (e.g. the PERSGA program).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EGY/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (4,016) A.2 Maritime and fisheries funded research programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EGY/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (4,608) B.2 JICA project funds for fishing harbor modernization and institutional support.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/EGY/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services.  (22,009)     FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: El Salvador 3,997 A.1 Fisheries management support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/SLV/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (524) A.2 Central America regional fishery resource evaluations (with biological and socio-economic recommendations) under the PREPAC/OSPESCA project (2001-2005).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/SLV/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (601) B.2 Technical assistance provided by FAO, JICA, Chinese and other overseas development agencies towards fisheries development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/SLV/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (2,872)     FAO web links last accessed 28/03/06. Group II: Equatorial Guinea 169 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/GNQ/body.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (20) B.2 International cooperation and support programs including FAO, UNDP, CUBA, etc.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/GNQ/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (108) C.3 Rural small scale fishery development support programs (including Arab Bank support programs).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/GNQ/body.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (42)     FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Eritrea 6,918 A.2 UNDP funded project for coastal and marine biodiversity conservation of total budget US$ 6.1 million. 1,165  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm  100                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information A.1 Government support programs in fishery management.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm A.1 French government funded stock assessment program. 439  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm B.3 Support programs from ODAs and the AfDB in fishing harbor infrastructures. 3,630  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm B.4 Government support programs in processing, marketing and HACCP standards.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm         Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (685) C.3 Government support programs in rural credit and artisanal fishery development.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ERI/profile.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (999)     FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Fiji 37,928 A.1 & B.1 Fisheries management, development and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm A.1 Monitoring and surveillance programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (4,411) B.2 Fisheries development support projects from FAO, ODAs and NGOs. (24,173) C.3 Government support programs in rural artisanal fisher development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (9,345)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Gabon 745,186 A.1 ADB fishery management and development project. 2,247  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm A.1 JICA project high speed naval boat for coastal patrol and surveillance. 28  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm A.2 Marine fisheries research programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (1,992) B.1 JICA Project towards fishing inputs and equipments. 105  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm B.2 Fisheries development projects from ODAs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/GAB/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (9,515) B.3 JICA fisheries harbor project per year, non refundable 728,646  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm B.4 IDAF Project (GCP/RAF/198/DEN) funded by DANIDA and implemented by FAO. Subsequently continued by DFID as the SFLP project (GCP/INT/735/UK). (2,522) C.3 Japanese project funds for rural artisanal fishery development. 132  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FJI/profile.htm     FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Gambia 8,385 A.1 LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 51  http://www.fao.org/fi/projects/722lux.asp A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (815) B.2 Project funded by various ODAs and the EU.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm       Fishery development projects and support services. (3,891) B.3 ADB funded fishery port construction and development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm B.4 DFID project on post harvest spoilage, and other govt. support programs in the provision of ice and oven infrastructure   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,031) B.5 Duty waiver on fishery inputs and exports   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm        Tax exemption programs. (1,092) C.3 Support for cooperative credits and rural artisanal fishery development.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GMB/profile.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (1,504)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Georgia 155 A.1 World Bank GEF Project on fisheries and ICZM.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GEO/profile.htm       Fisheries management programs and services. (16) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GEO/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (18) B.2 EU Project for fishery resource development. (87)        Fishery development projects and support services.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GEO/profile.htm C.3 FAO TCP Project TCP/GEO/2904 (A). Support for fishery sector rehabilitation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GEO/profile.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (34)     FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06.   Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       101 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Group II: Ghana 45,851 A.1 Resource surveys by the Marine Fisheries Research Division with support from the FAO and ICCAT.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm A.1 Fridtjof Nansen resource surveys.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm A.1 FAO assistance in the implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (3,316) A.2 DFID funded fisheries research with the National Resources Institute .   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm        Fishery research and development. (3,805) B.1 Support to the fishery sector through fishing input with a total grant of US$ $ 5 million from China. Fishing vessel restructuring program partly funded by DANIDA and the Ghanaian government. Dutch grant of 500,000 Euros towards fiberglass boats. 5,662  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm B.1 Special government development funding for fishing input acquisition. 151  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm B.2 Development projects funded by various ODAs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/profile.htm B.2 World Bank fisheries sector's capacity and institutional projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (18,172) B.3 Infrastructure development subsidies towards the Albert Bosomtwe Sam Fishing Harbor Complex funded by Japan. 2,600  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm B.4 UNDP pilot project sponsorship towards smoke fish exporting strategy 20  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm B.4 EU funded initiatives with the fish export sector with storage facilities etc (not included in analysis).   Business news, Ghana web April 4th 2006. B.5 Ghanaian government tax breaks about 40% towards fishing inputs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm B.5 Subsidies premix fuel to fishers (not included in analysis).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm        Tax exemption programs. (5,100) C.3 Support for rural artisanal fishery development.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GHA/body.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (7,025)     FAO web links last accessed 02/04/06. Group II: Grenada 6,401 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (103) A.2 CARICOM fisheries research support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (118) B.2 Technical assistance programs and projects such as those from the FAO.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (564) B.3 JICA fishery jetty construction programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (5,467) B.4 JICA funded fishery processing and preservation infrastructure.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GRD/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (149)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Guatemala 18,535 A.2 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GTM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,068) B.2 Technical assistance programs and projects such as those from the FAO.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GTM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (9,877) B.5 Tax breaks for fishery inputs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GTM/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (2,772) C.3 Technical assistance to artisanal fishery development   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GTM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (3,818)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Guinea 12,528 A.1 LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 170  http://www.fao.org/fi/projects/722lux.asp A.1 Training in maritime surveillance, funded by DFID & FAO. 16   N’dia, 2004. A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/GIN/profile.htm  102                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Fishery research and development. (2,445) B.2 Fisheries Community development project funded by World Bank. 202   N’dia, 2004. B.3 Wharf and jetty construction funded by JICA and from Cooperation Canadien.  1,721   N’dia, 2004. B.4 Support programs for post harvest spoilage from ADB and JICA. 4,330   N’dia, 2004. B.5 Vessel motorization rebates (both vessels and outboard engines).    N’dia, 2004. Tax exemption programs. (3,278) C.3 Rural credit facilities to processors provided by FAO. 366   N’dia, 2004.     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Guinea Bissau 857 A.1 LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 1  http://www.fao.org/fi/projects/722lux.asp A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GNB/profile.htm       Fisheries management programs and services. (201) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GNB/profile.htm       Fishery research and development. (230) C.3 Technical assistance towards rural artisanal fishing sector.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GNB/profile.htm       Rural fishers' community development programs. (426)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Guyana 38,044 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm       Fisheries management programs and services. (3,903) A.2 Collaboration and support from CARICOM on fishery research.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm       Fishery research and development. (4,479) B.2 Fishery development projects mostly funded by ODA and the multilaterals (FAO and UNDP).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm       Fishery development projects and support services. (21,392) C.3 Technical assistance from overseas development agencies to rural fisheries.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/GUY/profile.htm       Rural fishers' community development programs. (8,270)     FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Haiti 1000 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm A.1 The provision of technical resources under marine environment management by UNDP.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm       Fisheries management programs and services. (333) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm       Fishery research and development. (383) B.1 Capacity building programs from Japan, Taiwan and USA/Canada LASPAU Program   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm B.1 Sum of project contributions towards CARICOM mandates, EU fishery project at both Grande Anse and Chardonnieres. 284  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/HTI/profile.htm     FAO web links last accessed 02/04/06. Group II: India 4,264,718 A.1 World Bank support project of for fishery management, research and conservation programs. 160,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm A.1 Grants for safety equipments and disaster preparedness.   Salagrama, 2004. A.1 Support programs towards marine reserves and artisanal reefs.   Salagrama, 2004. A.1 Fishery management programs including regulations and scientific advice.   Salagrama, 2004. A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (80,192) B.1 State investment in fisheries enterprises-Fisheries Development Cooperation.   Salagrama, 2004. B.1 Grants for buying or modernizing boats and fishing equipments.   Salagrama, 2004. B.1 Subsidized lending support for trawler development funds.   Salagrama, 2004. B.1 Subsidized loans from commercial and cooperative banks   Salagrama, 2004.  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       103 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (113,291) B.2 Support programs toward fisheries development funds. 27,838  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm B.3 Support for fishing harbors and processing infrastructure   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm B.3 Interest subsidies for modernization of processing plants to achieve conformity with international standards.    Salagrama, 2004. Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (3,711,682) B.4 subsidies for infrastructural development including roads, jetties, fuel stations, markets etc.       Salagrama, 2004. B.4 Export marketing supporting programs 23,350  Salagrama, 2004. B.5 Income and sales tax exemption for seafood exporters and fishery products and for cooperative societies.  298  Salagrama, 2004. B.5 Increase in fuel price from 1991-1996 led to massive fuel subsidies (not included in analysis).   Salagrama, 2004. C.3 Bay of Bengal artisanal fishery development project + welfare programs for local fishers.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IND/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (148,067)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Indonesia 409,862 A.1 WB, ADB & GEF program funds for fisheries management and enhancement. 24,100  APEC, 2000. A.1 Stock assessment programs 46,500  APEC, 2000. A.1 Aid from Australia towards illegal fishing. 13,946  Globefish databank, 16/03/06. B.2 Development grants towards fisheries enterprise. 36,677  APEC, 2000. B.3 Infrastructure developments and other miscellaneous support programs.  91,200  APEC, 2000. B.4 Investment in cooperatives for fish product promotion and price support. 98,200   APEC, 2000. C.3 Integrated small scale fishery development.   APEC, 2000.        Rural fishers' community development programs. (99,239)  Group II: Iran 137,632 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (10,735) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (12,319) B.1 Development support programs towards fisheries enterprise.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (17,403) B.2 Technical assistance for fishery development from the JICA, FAO and UNDP.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (58,836) B.4 Support for fish processing and marketing programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (15,593) C.3 Support for rural artisanal fishery development.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/IRN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (22,746)     FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Jamaica 2,266 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/JAM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (366) B.1 Development support programs towards fisheries enterprise.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/JAM/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (593) B.4 Technical assistance towards jetties, cold storage and marketing programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/JAM/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (531) C.3 Assistance and support programs towards rural artisanal fishery development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/JAM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (775)     FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Jordan 25 A.1 Fishery management support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/JOR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4) B.2 Technical assistance such as the USAID marine park.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/JOR/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (21)  104                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information     FAO web links last accessed 20/06/06. Group II: Kenya  9,516 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KEN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (173) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KEN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (199) B.1 Development support programs towards fisheries enterprise.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KEN/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (281) B.2 Technical and financial assistance projects from ODA and the UN agencies. 8,863  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KEN/profile.htm     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Kiribati 9,523 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,126) B.1 National aid to fishing parastatals  (Le Matauri Ltd).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (3,446) B.2 International donor assistance programs towards fishery development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm B.2 Oversea aid towards training in fisheries research programs. 863  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm B.4 Storage and processing support programs from state aid.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KIR/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (3,088)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Latvia 12,294 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LVA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,612) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LVA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,849) B.2 EU pre-accession support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LVA/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (8,833)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Lebanon 0 Subsidies are assumed to be absent   Information not available.  Group II: Liberia             596 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (128) B.5 Fishing input duty waivers.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBR/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (197) C.3 Technical assistance to artisanal fisheries from the FAO.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBR/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (271)     FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Libya 1,701 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBY/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (792) A.2 COPEMED research surveys   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LBY/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (909)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Lithuania 3,403 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LTU/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,585) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LTU/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,818)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Madagascar 4,105 A.1 National government and international collaboration in fishery management. (4,105) http://www.wcs.org/international/marine/mari neafrica/madagascarmarine     Web link last accessed 21/11/05. Group II: Malaysia 536,318 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs. 467  APEC, 2000.  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       105 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information A.1 MPA support programs 735  APEC, 2000. A.2 Fisheries research programs. 521  APEC, 2000. B.1 Subsidized lending to the fishery sector particular for fleet support 11,720  APEC, 2000. B.2 Bilateral and ODA project support assistance.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MYS/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (407,153) B.4 Subsidized lending towards marketing programs. 1,456  APEC, 2000. B.5 Tax waivers and investment incentives to the fishery sector.   Ahmed et al. 2002. B.5 Tax rebates to the fishery sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MYS/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (114,266)     FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Maldives 45,983 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MDV/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (6,526) A.2 Support programs in R&D (FAD) from national government international donor agencies and Banks (ADB, IFAD, OPEC funds etc). 200  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MDV/profile.htm B.2 Development support projects from DFID and FAO.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MDV/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (35,765) B.3 Support programs in fishing port facilities from national government, international donor agencies and Banks (ADB, IFAD, OPEC funds etc). 1,623  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MDV/profile.htm B.4 Support programs in processing and marketing from national government, international donor agencies and Banks (ADB, IFAD, OPEC funds etc). 1,870  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MDV/profile.htm     FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Marshall Islands 151,717 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MHL/body.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (2,589) A.2 FAO marine resources management project with birds and sharks in the longline fishery.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MHL/body.htm        Fishery research and development. (2,971) B.2 Fishery development projects such as the Arno Atoll project funded by JICA; monitoring vessel support by the US government, NMFS grant of US$ 80,000 per year from 1992-1997; JICA overseas fisheries funds US$ 1.5 million  2,050  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MHL/body.htm B.2 ADB institutional support program (aid of US$ 2.4 million). US provision of patrol vessels amounting to US$ 370,000 through the Compact Free Association. NZ training and institutional support programs amounting to US$ 48,000. 2,818  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MHL/body.htm B.3 Government funded fishery loin infrastructures, and JICA aid for fisheries infrastructure funding.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MHL/body.htm        Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (137,528) B.4 Support programs towards marketing programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (3,761)     FAO web links last accessed 29/07/06. Group II: Mauritania 202,323 A.1 Japanese funds for two naval patrol and research boats: the 'Amrigue' and the El Awam'   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm A.1 German project towards maritime fishery surveillance and enforcement.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm A.1 LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 260  http://www.fao.org/fi/projects/722lux.asp A.2 Project assistance towards R&D from ORSTROM and Russia with the Centre for Research Marine Research Mauritania.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (3,488) B.1 The CEAO bank subsidized financing and support to the fishing sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (4,928) B.2 DANIDA and JICA fishery development projects for the small scale sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (16,661)  106                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information B.3 French l'AFD Project (port infrastructure) at Nouakchott-du Port Autome de Nouadhibou.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (161,454) B.4 JICA projects with fish marketing infrastructure at Nouakchott, and other sites   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (4,415) B.5 Tax exemptions and fuel subsidies.   Milazzo, 1998. Tax exemption programs. (4,676) C.3 Technical assistance to rural artisanal fisheries.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MRT/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (6,441)     FAO web links last accessed 02/04/06. Group II: Micronesia 579,808 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/body.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (7,510) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (8,618) B.1 Government fisheries enterprise programs  23,000   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/body.htm B.1 ADB US$ 6.5 million subsidized loan for fleet development 650  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/profile.htm B.2 Development aid from Governments of Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and through the Compact arrangements with the United States. In addition to multilateral aid packages.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/body.htm B.2 Technical cooperation has included the provision of four technical experts and supporting grant-aid to the Fisheries and Maritime Institute in Yap.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/body.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (41,160) B.3 Extension and renovation of fishing ports in Pohnpei and Chuuk.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/body.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (398,872) B.4 International fish marketing freight programs supported by government of Japan and FS of Micronesia. 100,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/FSM/body.htm     FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06. Group II: Mauritius 2,416 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MUS/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (373) B.2 Aid towards the fishing sector from ODAs.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MUS/profile.htm       Fishery development projects and support services. (2,043)     FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Morocco 122,790 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (9,578) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (10,990) B.1 Government fisheries enterprise programs, with support from FAO.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm        Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (15,525) B.2 World bank fishery projects and support from other ODAs or bilateral assistance.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm       Fishery development projects and support services. (52,492) B.4 Value adding and export support programs from the World Bank.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (13,911) C.3 National support programs towards rural fisheries development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/MAR/profile.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (20,293)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Mozambique 11,776 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MOZ/profile.htm      Fisheries management programs and services. (801) B.2 Bilateral (JICA, ICEIDA, DANIDA etc) and multilateral assistance (EU, IFAD etc) programs to the fishery sector. 10,088  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MOZ/profile.htm B.3 Support program for fishing harbor renovation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MOZ/profile.htm  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       107 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MOZ/profile.htm C.3 Artisanal fishery development project funded by AfDB 887  http://www.onefish.org/global/index.jsp     Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Myanmar 247,088 A.1 National fishery management programs with technical support from FAO and other ODAs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (19,270) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (22,116) B.1 Government fisheries enterprise programs.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (31,244) B.2 Technical assistance from ODAs and aid packages towards fishery development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (105,629) B.4 FAO funded quality control and marketing programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (27,994) C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/MMR/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (40,835)     FAO web links last accessed 21/06/06. Group II: Namibia 58,290 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (6,419) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (7,366) B.2 ODA and multilateral technical assistance programs in fisheries development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (35,181) B.4 Government support programs in quality control and marketing.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NAM/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (9,324)     FAO web links last accessed 19/06/06. Group II: Nauru 137 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRU/body.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRU/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2) B.1 Government investment in fishery enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRU/body.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (3) B.2 Japanese projects funded through the Japan Overseas Fish Cooperation Foundation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRU/body.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (12) B.3 Support program for fishing harbor renovation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRU/body.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (114) B.4 Support programs fish marketing programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NRU/body.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (3)     FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06. Group II: Nicaragua 9,102 A.1 Financial assistance through bilateral overseas development agencies and multilateral organizations for marine conservation (including MPAs). 708  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/NIC/profile.htm A.1 Technical assistance for monitoring, control and surveillance provided by DANIDA. 200  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/NIC/profile.htm A.2 Financial assistance through bilateral overseas development agencies and multilateral organizations for fisheries research and development, including pilot projects. 1,559  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/NIC/profile.htm B.4 Infrastructure support through bilateral overseas development agencies including Japanese JICA and Spanish FAD. 2,674  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/NIC/profile.htm B.5 Tax waivers and duty free import of fishery inputs and equipments including value adding, fuel and diesel tax. Exemption tax on fishery products of about 1.5%.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/NIC/body.htm Tax exemption programs. (3,961)     FAO web links last accessed 23/03/06.  108                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Group II: Nigeria 11,593 A.1 ADB subsidized loan for fisheries management program. 120  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm A.1 Subsidized lending for monitoring, control and surveillance programs from the World Bank.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (9,673) B.2 UN coordinated fishery development projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm B.2 Federal project support towards quality control and assurance for fishery products. 600  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NGA/body.htm C.3 IFAD and ECOWAS support programs for rural artisanal fishery development. 1,200  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/NGA/profile.htm     FAO web links last accessed 22/06/06. Group II: Oman 45,109 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (3,196) A.2 The national Fisheries Research Funds for projects in fisheries research.  7,802  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm B.1 Government support in fishery enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (5,181) B.3 Support program for fishing harbor renovation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Fishing port construction and renovation programs. (17,516) B.4 Support programs fish marketing programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (4,642) C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/OMN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (6,772)     FAO web links last accessed 24/06/06. Group II: Pakistan 142,358 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (12,516) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (14,364) B.1 Government support in fishery enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm        Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (20,293) B.2 ODA  and multilateral technical assistance programs in fisheries development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (68,605) B.4 Support programs fish marketing programs. 59  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm C.3 Artisanal rural fishery development support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAK/profile.htm         Rural fishers' community development programs. (26,522)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: Palau 553 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PLW/profile.htm         Fisheries management programs and services. (70) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral assistance to the fishing sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PLW/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (382) B.3 State aid towards fishing wharves construction and renovation.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PLW/profile.htm B.4 State aid towards processing and storage facilities.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PLW/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (101)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Panama 64,501 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAN/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (5,565) B.2 ODA fishery development  projects   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAN/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (30,501) B.4 Fishery products export support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/PAN/body.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (8,083) B.5 Tax rebates to the fishery sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/PAN/body.htm        Tax exemption programs. (8,560) C.3 JICA rural fisher community development projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PAN/profile.htm       Rural fishers' community development programs. (11,791)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06.  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       109 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Group II: Papua New Guinea 343,317 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (23,907) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm        Fishery research and development. (27,437) B.1 Government support in fishery enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm        Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (38,762) B.2 ODA fishery development programs and donor assistance from IFAD, UN agencies, EU and WB.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (131,045) B.4 INFOFISH support programs in fish product assurance.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm B.4 Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (34,729) B.5 Duty free imports of fishery inputs/ infrastructure items.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PNG/body.htm        Tax exemption programs. (36,777) C.3 GEF-UNDP project on community based fishery management.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PNG/profile.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (50,660)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: Peru 151,417 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PER/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (40,626) A.2 Fisheries research programs, and the provision of a research vessel. 14,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PER/profile.htm A.2 Fisheries research programs, and the provision of a research cruises.   APEC, 2000. B.1 Fishery development programs towards modernizing small scale fishery enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PER/profile.htm B.1 Fleet renewal and modernization programs.   APEC, 2000. B.1 Subsidized lending support programs to the fishery sector, from FONDEPES. 1,188  APEC, 2000. B.2 Development grants for fisheries enterprises. 1,364  APEC, 2000. B.3 National fund for fisheries port development and renovation programs 6,000  APEC, 2000. B.4 Development grant for fish processing infrastructures. 2,150  APEC, 2000. C.3 Rural artisanal fisher community development programs. APEC, 2000. http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PER/profile.htm        Rural fishers' community development programs. (86,090)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: Philippines 617,172 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PHL/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (47,644) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PHL/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (54,680) B.1 Subsidized state loan and credit programs towards the fishing sector for mostly equipments.   Ahmed et al. 2002. Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (77,250) B.2 Grants and loans towards fishery development from ODA support and other foreign donor contributions.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/PHL/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (261,162) B.4 Infrastructure support programs towards ports, markets and price support promotions. 2,180  APEC, 2000. B.5 Tax exemptions towards fishing activities and enterprise development. Tax exemption programs. (73,294) C.3 Small scale fisher integrated development support programs.   Ahmed et al. 2002. Rural fishers' community development programs. (100,962)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: Romania 199 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ROM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (22) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ROM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (25) B.2 EU Phare funds for fisheries development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ROM/profile.htm  110                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information Fishery development projects and support services. (119)        Tax (VAT) exemptions for fishing fleets within the Baltic sea.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ROM/body.htm B.5 Tax exemption programs. (33)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: St. Kitts and Nevis 310 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KNA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (39) B.2 ODA projects and other donor assistance to fishery development, including CARICOM regional program funds.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KNA/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (212) B.5 Duty free concessions on fishery inputs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/KNA/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (59)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: St. Lucia 1,297 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (102) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (117) B.2 ODA (Japan, Canada and France) provides technical assistance to the fishing sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (558) B.4 Fish marketing support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (148) B.5 Duty free concessions on fishery inputs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (157) C.3 Cooperative fishers support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LCA/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (216)     FAO web links last accessed 25/06/06. Group II: St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 5,684 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VCT/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (440) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VCT/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (505) B.1 Subsidized loans towards fishery investments and enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VCT/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (714) B.2 ODA projects and other donor assistance to fishery development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VCT/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (2,414) B.5 Duty free concessions on fishery inputs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VCT/body.htm Tax exemption programs. (677) C.3 Artisanal cooperative fisher support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VCT/body.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (933)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06.  Group II: Samoa (Western) 27,817 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,184) A.2 Tuna research and marine reserve studies.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,506) B.2 ODA projects and other donor assistance to fishery development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (11,969) B.3 Chinese aid towards fishery harbor complex construction.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm B.4 Japanese aid towards processing, marketing and the rehabilitation of jetties.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (3,172) B.5 Tax exemption programs on the export of fishery products.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (3,359)  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       111 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information C.3 FAO/DANIDA rural community fisheries development project.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/WSM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (4,627)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Sao Tome and Principe. 697 A.1 Stock assessment projects was funded by the EU in the early 1990s and later by Canada.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/STP/profile.htm A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/STP/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (81) B.2 Beneficiary of the FAO implemented IDAF Project in West Africa (ended in 1998), funded by DANIDA and the on-going DFID SFLP project. JICA provided fishing inputs and services to the fishing sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/STP/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (444) C.3 Artisanal cooperative fisher support programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/STP/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (172)     FAO web links last accessed 29/03/06. Group II: Saudi Arabia 12,084 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SAU/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (2,052) A.2 Marine and fishery research in collaboration with the national fishery agency (Fisheries Affairs Directorate).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SAU/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (2,355) B.1 National support for fishery development (loans, modernization etc) to the Saudi Fisher company (parastatals).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SAU/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (3,327) C.3 Soft loans, grants and technical assistance to the artisanal fishers community sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SAU/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (4,349)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Senegal 17,005 A.1 LUXDEV surveillance project funds, pro rated by LV. 111  http://www.fao.org/fi/projects/722lux.asp A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/SEN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (5,848) B.1 Support to the restructuring of the Senegalese fishery industry to EU standards. 725     UNEP, 2003. B.2 Fond de Promotion Economique in collaboration with AfDB finances industrial fisheries under medium size enterprises.      UNEP, 2003. B.2 Aid towards the fishery sector from bilateral and multilateral assistances. 4,846  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/SEN/profile.htm B.4 Export subsidy to the trawling fishing industry and fish market renovation programs  1,711     UNEP, 2002; UNEP, 2003. B.5 Tax reduction for outboards engines, purse seines, and other fishing inputs.  3,353      UNEP, 2003. C.3 Financial support to rural fishers and fishing cooperatives. 411      UNEP, 2003.     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Seychelles 2,899 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYC/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (323) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYC/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (370) B.1 FAO technical assistance projects towards fishery development. (523)  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYC/profile.htm B.2 JICA grant in aid project towards fishery infrastructure enhancement programs. 1,000  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYC/profile.htm C.3 Rural artisanal fisher assistance programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYC/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (683)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Sierra Leone 13,612 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SLE/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,627)  112                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information B.2 Bilateral (such as GTZ) and multilateral (FAO) technical assistance to the fishery sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SLE/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (8,919) B.5 Tax exemptions on boat and gear supplied by the EU AFCOD (Artisanal Fisheries and Community Development) Project.   Khan, 1998. Tax exemption programs. (2,503) C.3 Artisanal fishery development project funded by AfDB   http://www.onefish.org/global/index.jsp C.3 EU AFCOD artisanal fisher assistance programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SLE/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs.   563     Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Solomon Islands 42,305 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SLB/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4,690) B.1 Financial support to parastatals for fishing enterprise development 1,975  Globefish databank, 13/04/06. B.2 Fishery project with assistance from ODA and multilaterals.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SLB/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (25,703) C.3 National support programs and EU funded projects towards rural fishers and livelihood programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SLB/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (9,937)     Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Somalia 9,253 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,076) B.2 UNDP/FAO funded development projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (5,897) B.4 & B.5 The Las Korey canning factory rehabilitation project by UNDP (not included in analysis).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm C.3 UNDP artisanal fisher development programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SOM/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (2280)     Web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: South Africa 11,960 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ZAF/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (5,569) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/ZAF/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (6,391)     Web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Sri Lanka 29,246 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LKA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (9,685) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LKA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (11,114) B.2 ADB fishery resources development project funds. 1,933  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LKA/profile.htm B.2 Fishery harbor rehabilitation aid programs funded by China, Japan, USA and ADB. 5,034  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LKA/profile.htm B.4 Japanese funded program towards storage facilities. 1,480  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/LKA/profile.htm     Web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Sudan 3,026 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (238) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (273) B.2 ODA (IDRC, JICA etc) and multilateral (FAO, UNDP, etc) assistance support programs.     http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (1,302) B.4 OPEC/UNDP funded programs in fish storage and transport facilities.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (345) B.5 Fisheries investment incentive programs including duty waivers and tax exemptions on exports.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (365)  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       113 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information C.3 UN technical assistance towards food security and rural fishery development   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SDN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (503)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Suriname 10,154 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SUR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,924) B.3 Central fishing harbor construction with Belgian assistance 2,454  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SUR/profile.htm B.4 JICA assistance programs towards storage and processing. 1,700  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SUR/body.htm C.3 EU support programs towards artisanal fishermen.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SUR/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (4,077)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Syria 69 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/SYR/body.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (69)     FAO web link last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Tanzania 9,618 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,059) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (1,215) B.2 ODA and multilateral development assistance to the fishery sector (fishing inputs mostly)   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (5,805) B.4 Post harvest support programs (Holland, Denmark and FAO).   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TZA/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (1,538)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Thailand 365,849 A.1 Stock assessment and fishery resource surveys 11,200  APEC, 2000. A.1 Fish conservation and coral management programs 5,082  APEC, 2000. A.1 Fish stock enhancement programs 5,964  APEC, 2000. A.2 Fisheries research programs. 2,379  APEC, 2000. B.2 Subsidized loans towards  industrial fishery development 67,254  APEC, 2000. B.4 Post harvest and quality control programs. 66,960 B.5 Duty tax exemption on fishery inputs and outputs.   Ahmed et al. 2002. Tax exemption programs. (87,071) C.3 Programs to assist small scale fisher communities.   Ahmed et al. 2002. Rural fishers' community development programs. (119,940)  Group II: Togo 1,917 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (189) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral development assistance to the fishery sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (1,036) B.5 Fishery inputs and export waivers and concessions.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (291) C.3 FED artisanal fishery development project.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TGO/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (401)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Tonga 3,188 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TON/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (486) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TON/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (558) B.1 Fishery enterprise and parastatals development    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TON/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (788)  114                                       Catching More Bait: a bottom-up re-estimation of global fisheries subsidies, Sumaila and Pauly (eds.) Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information B.2 Aid and assistance from FAO, UNDP, EU, USAID, JICA, AUSAID and CIDA. Aids have variously been concerned with the provision of technical assistance and capital aid. Amount represents Australian Tonga fishery development project. 650  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TON/body.htm B.4 Fish marketing support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TON/body.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (706)     FAO web links last accessed 31/07/06.   Group II: Trinidad and Tobago 5,709 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (515) B.1 Loans, fishing equipments and other economic incentives towards fisheries enterprise development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (834) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral development assistance to the fishery sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (2,821) B.4 JICA support programs for fish processing facilities.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (747) B.5 Fishing input duty waivers and exemption   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TTO/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (792)     FAO web links last accessed 26/06/06. Group II: Tunisia 18,465 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TUN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (1,950) B.2 FAO/UNDP technical assistance to the fishery sector.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TUN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (10,685) B.3 Support programs to major fishing ports.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TUN/profile.htm B.4 National development programs for fishery product quality assurance.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/fr/TUN/profile.htm         Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (2,832) B.5 Fiscal incentives including waivers and tax concessions according to national investment code. http://www.utap.org.tn/htmlang/pech_agr/bas _1_6.htm Tax exemption programs. (2,999)     Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Turkey 59,413 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm A.1 Fisheries monitoring support programs. 561  OECD, 2004. A.2 Fisheries research programs. 1,185  OECD, 2004. B.2 Japanese grants in aid project 500  http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm B.2 Technical assistance from multilaterals agencies.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm B.2 State fishing port development programs   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm B.2 Fisheries infrastructure support programs 23,826  OECD, 2004. B.4 State programs towards fishery products quality assurance.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/TUR/profile.htm        Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (33,198) C.3 Social welfare programs for fishermen. 144 www.abgs.gov.tr/tarama/tarama_files/08/08AT _Annotated.htm     Web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Ukraine 77,172 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (6,788) A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (7,790) B.1 Public investment in fisheries enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (11,005) B.2 Multilateral assistance from FAO and UNDP in fishery development projects.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (37,205)  Appendix 2: Global compendium of national fisheries subsidy programs                                                                                                       115 Subsidy program description Amounts (US$000) Source(s) of information C.3 State funds towards fishing cooperatives.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/UKR/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (14,383)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Uruguay 4,947 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/URY/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (4,947)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Vanuatu 184,407 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VUT/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (22,758) B.1 State support programs towards fishery enterprise development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VUT/body.htm Boat construction renewal and modernization programs. (36,900) B.2 Bilateral and multilateral assistance (FAO, UNDP, etc.) programs in fisheries development and management.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VUT/body.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (124,749)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Venezuela 79,919 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Fisheries management programs and services. (6,895) B.2 ODA support programs and other donor contributions (EU, FAO) towards fishery development   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (37,792) B.4 INFOPESCA programs in fish quality control and marketing.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm         Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (10,015) B.5 Tax exemption programs towards fishing investments.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (10,606) C.3 Support programs towards rural fisher cooperatives.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/es/VEN/profile.htm Rural fishers' community development programs. (14,610)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Vietnam 316,633 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm A.1 Fisheries management programs and services. 507  APEC, 2000. A.2 Fisheries research programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm Fishery research and development. (48,030) B.1 Public investment in fisheries enterprises.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm B.1 State fishery enterprise development and promotional investment programs. 33,663  APEC, 2000. B.1 Preferential loan programs towards fishery investment enterprises.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm B.2 ODA (NORAD, DANIDA, AusAID, etc) and multilateral assistance (EU, FAO, WB etc) programs in fishery development.    http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm        Fishery development projects and support services. (229,402) B.3 State support in fishing harbor infrastructure programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/VNM/profile.htm B.3 Support programs to major fishing ports. 5,031  APEC, 2000.     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06. Group II: Yemen 26,402 A.1 Fisheries management and conservation support programs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/YEM/profile.htm        Fisheries management programs and services. (2,788) B.2 Support programs with technical assistance from ODAs (JICA) and donor agencies (UN, EU, Islamic Bank, WB etc) for fishery development.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/YEM/body.htm Fishery development projects and support services. (15,278) B.4 Support programs with technical assistance for processing and storage facilities.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/YEM/body.htm         Marketing support, processing and storage infrastructure programs. (4,049) B.5 Tax exemptions for the fisheries inputs and outputs.   http://www.fao.org/fi/fcp/en/YEM/profile.htm Tax exemption programs. (4,288)     FAO web links last accessed 27/06/06.  

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