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  ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 2008 Volume 16 Number 10    Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-Fish Marine Organisms     Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada   VON BERTALANFFY GROWTH PARAMETERS OF NON-FISH MARINE ORGANISMS     Edited by Maria Lourdes D. Palomares and Daniel Pauly                    Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10) 137 pages © published 2008 by  The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2202 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4       ISSN 1198-6727   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10) 2008   VON BERTALANFFY GROWTH PARAMETERS OF NON-FISH MARINE ORGANISMS   Edited by Maria Lourdes D. Palomares and Daniel Pauly   CONTENTS     PAGE  DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................. 1 Growth of marine mammals M.L. Deng Palomares, Patricia M.E. Sorongon, Andrea Hunter and Daniel Pauly .............................. 2 Life-history patterns in marine birds Vasiliki S. Karpouzi and Daniel Pauly .................................................................................................... 27 Growth of marine reptiles M.L. Deng Palomares, Christine Dar, Gary Fry ..................................................................................... 32 Growth of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in captivity  with inferences on growth in the wild T. Todd Jones, Mervin Hastings, Brian Bostrom, Daniel Pauly and David R. Jones ........................... 82 Length-weight relationships and additional growth parameters for sea turtles Colette Wabnitz and Daniel Pauly .......................................................................................................... 98 A preliminary compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates Charalampos A. Apostolidis and Konstantinos I. Stergiou.................................................................... 102 Growth estimates of the spiny lobster, Panulirus longipes (A. Milne-Edwards, 1868) in captivity Len R. Garces .......................................................................................................................................... 122 Development and growth of edible oysters (Ostreidae) in Papua New Guinea J. L. Maclean and M.L. Deng Palomares ................................................................................................ 127       A Research Report from the Fisheries Centre at UBC  137 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2008   FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-Fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  1 DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD The report presented here is ‘only’ a compilation of growth and related parameters for marine, non-fish vertebrates and invertebrates, with only brief analyses, mainly to compare, and thus partly validate, the datasets. One could ask, what is the point?  Why such compilation? In the late 1970s, I undertook a similar compilation of growth parameters in fish [Pauly, D. 1978. A preliminary compilation of fish length growth parameters. Berichte des Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität Kiel, No. 55, 200 p.], one of the first of its kind. Its purpose, among other things, was to provide colleagues with a baseline against which to compare progress in the estimation of new growth parameters, whose absence was then perceived as a major impediment to the management of tropical fisheries. Within ten years, this compilation had morphed into the beginnings of FishBase. FishBase at first existed on various diskettes and CD-ROMs, then became an online database of fish - the only such database which not only presents the names and pretty picture of the species it covers, but also important features of their biology, such as, for example, their growth parameters (see www.fishbase.org). The 7 papers of this report, which present growth parameters for marine mammals, seabirds, marine reptiles and many of the invertebrate tribes, however, will not lead to the creation of another database. This is so because a database and website have recently been created for non-fish marine metazoans. It is SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org), which is patterned after FishBase, and which can therefore accommodate, in addition to the names of marine animals, any amount of biological information, notably growth and related parameters (length-weight relationships, size at first maturity, longevity, etc.). Hence this report, in addition to its direct utility to readers, will serve as documentation for a large set of the growth parameters incorporated into SeaLifeBase.  These parameters will be of interest to theoreticians, i.e., biologists who want to compare life history strategies in a wide range of taxa, and especially to ecosystem modelers, who need to populate their models with growth parameters and/or parameters derived from these, such as production/biomass ratios, an indication of productivity. This report, therefore, endeavors to cover as wide a range of morphologies and ecological niches as possible. This was particularly successful for the non-fish vertebrates, of which all major groups are represented. For example, in the case of the reptilians, all marine families are represented, and most of the species, except for the very speciose sea snakes (Family Hydrophidae), for which, however, a very good sample of representative species is available. The invertebrates, obviously, are the group for which we have the smallest sample relative to the number of extant species. The compilation that we have here, covering mainly commercial species from the Mediterranean is a good start, however, as are the two papers from the Western Central Pacific, with growth parameters for lobsters and oysters, respectively. Jointly with the growth parameters that were already included in SeaLifeBase, this should provide a starting point for most analyses. Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 2 GROWTH OF MARINE MAMMALS1 M.L. Deng Palomares The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email: m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca  Patricia M.E. Sorongon The SeaLifeBase Project, WorldFish Center, Khush Hall, IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: p.sorongon@cgiar.org Andrea Hunter Andrea Hunter Golder Associates Ltd., 2640 Douglas Street, Victoria, BC, Canada V8T 4M1; Email: hunter@zoology.ubc.ca Daniel Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email: d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT Growth and length-weight data were obtained from the literature for 187 populations of 61 species of marine mammals ranging from sea otters to pygmy blue whales. Length-weight parameter estimates yielded a mean b value of 2.86. Estimates of the von Bertalanffy growth function indicate that smaller marine mammals, i.e., seals, sea lions, walruses and dolphins, tend to have growth performance indices between 3.5 to 4.5 and that larger marine mammals, i.e., male fur and elephant seals and whales, tend to have indices higher than 4.5. However, the auximetric plot of log K vs log W∞ shows a decreasing trend in growth performance, similar to that shown for fishes, seabirds and aquatic reptiles. INTRODUCTION Interest in marine mammals, primarily harvesting and use of products derived from them (e.g., fur/hide, oil and meat), can be traced back to ancient times (Cotté & Guinet, 2007; Allen & Keay, 2006; Christensen, 2006; Tillman & Donovan, 1983). This interest evolved through time, graduating from the need to know of their seasonal whereabouts for obvious reasons connected to the hunt (Christensen, 2006), to a need to know how much fish they consume, i.e., the extent of their competition with fisheries (Kaschner & Pauly, 2005; Kastelein & Vaughan, 1989; Goode, 1884). For some rare species, interest is also growing as to the effect of climate change on their populations (see, e.g., Laidre et al., 2006; Cotté & Guinet, 2007; Newsome et al., 2007). Studying animals living in aquatic environments has always been a challenge because of their inaccessibility to us, their observers. This inconvenience is compounded when the subject are marine mammals, many of which are highly migratory, or which can, on rare occasions, pose a threat to their human observers, as is the case with polar bears. Studying marine mammals is more difficult now that many have become in danger of extinction and, in most parts of the world, are protected species. Traditional life-history studies involve field sampling, and usually sacrificing a subset of the population being studied (see, e.g., True, 1885), or laboratory experiments following the life stages and growth of individual specimens. Nowadays, field sampling of marine mammal populations is done in the context of                                                  1 Cite as: Palomares, M.L.D., Sorongon, P.M.E., Hunter, A., Pauly, D., 2008. Growth of marine mammals. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-Fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 2-26.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 3 ‘scientific whaling’ (see, e.g., Tamura & Konishi, 2006; Amano & Miyazaki, 2004; Bryden & Harrison, 1986) or when they are caught as by-catch (see, e.g., Miller et al., 1998; Yoshida et al., 1994; Bryden & Harrison, 1986), or stranded. Marine mammal field studies, some dating back to the early 1970s (see, e.g., Stirling, 2002; Burns & Harbo, 1972), employed expensive field observation methods, e.g., helicopter observations or tagging and recapture methods, and were aimed primarily at collecting biogeographical data. There was no known method of determining ages of cetaceans and pinnipeds until the 1950s, and thus, the data required for growth analyses could not be obtained (Gaskin & Blair, 1977). This has changed, however, and length-at- age data are available and may be obtained from studies of: bones; GLG’s (growth layer groups) of dentine, e.g., in odontocete cetaceans (Scheffer & Myrick, 1980); weight of eye lenses (Gaskin & Blair, 1977); track width measurements, e.g., in harbor seals (Reijnders 1976); amino acid racemisation (Bada et al., 1980); counts of ovarian corpora albicantia (Kleinenberg & Klevezal, 1962); counts of periosteal bones (van Bree et al., 1986; Brodie, 1969; Kleinenberg & Klevezal, 1962; Laws, 1960); and skeletal and external morphology (Stuart & Morejohn, 1980), e.g., in sea otters (Schneider, 1973). Such data were used to describe the growth of marine mammals using the Gompertz equation (Laird, 1969), logistic equations and, occasionally, the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This paper assembles growth parameters for marine mammals, estimated using a variety of methods, and standardizes them using the VBGF, along with length-weight relationships. These life-history parameters are available through SeaLifeBase (www.sealifeabase.org), an information system on non-fish marine organisms patterned after the successful model for fish, FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Thus, a preliminary comparison of the growth performance of marine mammal can be presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS Growth parameter estimation Growth parameters of marine mammal populations were obtained from published literature, and cover the following: (i) the parameters of growth equations other than the VBGF, notably the logistic and Gompertz curves; (ii) age-at-length or growth increment data; and (iii) time series of size frequency distributions. The parameters of the VBGF were recalculated from age-at-length data generated from (i), and all age-at-length and growth increment data were fitted to the VBGF (see von Bertalanffy, 1957) of the form: Lt = L∞ (1 - e -K·(t-t0)) … (1) where Lt is the length at age t, L∞ is the asymptotic length, i.e., the mean length the animal would reach if it could grow forever, K is a coefficient of dimension t-1, and t0 is a parameter setting the origin of the curve on the age-axis. Size frequency distributions were fitted to the Powell-Wetherall Plot (PW-Plot; see Pauly, 1998; Wetherall, 1986; Powell, 1979) to estimate L∞, based on the assumption that the resulting distribution is representative of the population. Plotting of successive mean lengths (Lmean), computed from successive cut-off lengths (Li+1), minus the Li (i.e., Lmean- Li) against Li. The downward trend of the points were then fitted with a linear regression of the form Y = a + bX, with L∞ = a/-b) and Z/K = (1+b)/(-b), where Z is the instantaneous rate of total mortality (Pauly, 1998). This method allows the estimation of L∞ and Z/K, i.e., exploited populations, where Z is the instantaneous rate of total mortality. Z/K is equivalent to M/K in unexploited populations. In cases where only L∞ estimates are available, e.g., results of the PW-Plot, values of K were obtained using the growth performance index (Ф’) defined by Pauly & Munro (1984) as Ф’ = log10 K + 2·log10L∞, and mean values of Ф’, available from L∞ and K pairs for: (a) the same species in different localities; (b) other species in the same genus; (c) other species in the same family. Growth parameters obtained through this method are marked as such in SeaLifeBase.  Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 4 Asymptotic weight estimation Asymptotic weight, W∞, was estimated using the length-weight relationship of the form W = a · Lb … (2) where a is a multiplicative term equivalent to the y-intercept of the log- log transformed linear regression, L the length, and b the exponent, equivalent to the slope of the regression. In many cases, sufficient length-weight data pairs were not available for linear regression analyses. Thus, condition factors (c.f.) using individual length- weight pairs were estimated with c.f. = W · 100/L3, where W is the weight in grams, and L the length in centimeters (Pauly, 1984). The value of the length-weight parameter a was then obtained as a = c.f./100, assuming that b=3. Table 1. Summary of marine mammal species and populations for which data on growth, length-weight relationships (L/W) and condition factors (c.f.) were obtained from the literature. Order Family Species L/W c.f. VBGF Carnivora Mustelidae 1 - 2 12  Odobenidae 1 - 2 11  Otariidae 10 8 17 24  Phocidae 16 7 28 88  Ursidae 1 - 2 2 Cetacea Balaenidae 1 - 2 1  Balaenopteridae 8 13 32 9  Delphinidae 14 14 12 19  Eschrichtiidae 1 1 4 1  Iniidae 1 - 2 4  Monodontidae 2 3 2 2  Phocoenidae 3 3 4 11  Physeteridae  1 3 11 3  Ziphiidae 1 1 - - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Our literature search, which relied heavily on Internet sources and electronic or ‘soft’ reprints, resulted in 173 length-weight relationships covering 61 species (Table A1), 187 asymptotic size estimates for 47 species and 179 L∞ and K pairs for 46 species (Table A2). Table 1 summarizes the results obtained from this exercise. Note that only two estimates of Z/K were obtained (see Table A2 for values of Z/K calculated through the Powell- Wetherall Plot for the killer whale, Orcinus orca (Linnaeus, 1758)). The over-representation of phocids and otariids may be due to the fact that their populations remain on- or near- shore and are thus accessible for research. Among cetacean families, delphinids and balaenopterids are best represented. This may be a product of improved ageing techniques, but may also be a by product of whaling and fisheries by-catch. Few data are available for the oceanic Ziphiidae (Baird's beaked whale). 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 4.00 L/W relationship coefficient 'b' Fr eq ue n cy Pygmy blue whale Sperm whale  Figure 1. Frequency distribution of the length-weight relationship coefficient b for 53 populations of marine mammals with length- weight data pairs (see Table A1 for details). Note that the outliers (pygmy blue and sperm whales) were obtained from Lockyer (1976; see Table A2 and text for discussion). Asymptotic weights using equation (2) were obtained, based on the following criteria: i) species of the same sex, with length-weight and VBGF parameters from the same locality; ii) species from the same body of water; and iii) species with different sex/locality. Details of the methods used in solving for asymptotic weights are indicated in Table A2. Values of the parameter b of the length-weight relationship ranged from 2.31 to 3.97, with 120 estimates computed through condition factors (and the assumption of allometric growth; thus b=3), while 53 were obtained from regression analyses of several length-weight data pairs. Figure 1 shows the distribution of b  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 5 values for these 53 populations (mode at 2.74 and median at 2.86). The outliers at b=3.75 and 4.00 were obtained from Lockyer (1976, Table 1), which were based on weight of parts and not on whole individuals. Lockyer (1976) notes that fluid losses may account for the high b values and weights calculated from these L/W relationships. Discounting these outliers, we get a spread of b values between 2.50 and 3.50 with a mean at 2.86. This appears to justify our use of b=3 values to estimate the coefficient a from condition factors for other species for which several L/W data pairs are not available. Thus, we were able to obtain asymptotic weight values for all of the populations for which asymptotic length values were available (see Table A2). 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 Ф' = log K + 2* log L∞ (year -1; cm) Fr eq u en cy Humpback  whale Humpback  and pygmy blue whales Ringed seal Seals, sea lions, walruses,  purpoises,  dolphins  and killer whales Fur, elephant, crabeater,  leopard and Weddell seals Minke and sperm whales  Figure 2. Frequency distribution of the growth performance index Ф' for 179 populations of marine mammals. Asymptotic lengths ranged from 110 cm for a female Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) (sea otter) from the Aleutian Islands (Alaska) to 2,190 cm for a female Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda (pygmy blue whale) from an unspecified location. The distribution of growth performance indices calculated for these 179 populations (Figure 2) indicated that, in general, seals, sea lions, walruses and dolphins (i.e., smaller -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 W∞ (g; log10) K  ( ye ar -1 ; lo g 1 0) Elephant seals Whales Fur seal Weddell seal Killer whale Walrus Pygmy blue  whale Humpback  whale Sperm  whaleBowhead  whale Sea otterDolphins Polar bear Gray  whale Seals and  sea lions Minke  whale  Figure 3. Auximetric plot of 179 populations of marine mammals (see Table A2 for details). Note that, in this plot, the growth of killer whales (which are basically large dolphins), and that of fur and elephant seals are similar to that of minke whales. Also note that the growth of polar bears is similar to that of seals and sea lions.  Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 6 marine mammals), have indices between 3.5 and 4.5, while larger marine mammals tend to have indices higher than 4.5. These indices might be useful as a quick and easy test for the reliability of growth parameter estimates, notably in cases where the age-at-length or frequency distribution data might be biased or based on a small number of samples, not representing the population. Similarly, the auximetric plot of W∞ (log10; g) and K (log10; year-1;) in Figure 3, indicates that: a) sea otters, small species of dolphins, seals, sea lions and polar bears have similar growth patterns, typical of small marine mammals with W∞ ranging from 104 to 105 g; b) there is a medium sized group, i.e., walruses, Weddell seals, fur and elephant seals and killer whales, with W∞ ranging from 105 to 107 g; and c) the group of marine mammals, with W∞ ranging from 107 to 108 g, which include male fur and elephant seals and the great whales. Note that female fur and elephant seals grow in a fashion similar to sea otters, seals and sea lions. Figure 3 also indicates a downward trend in the growth performance of marine mammals, from smaller marine mammals with fast metabolic rates (K values around 3.2 year-1). 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A new method for estimating growth and mortality parameters from length-frequency data. Fishbyte 4(1), 12-14. Winship, A.J., Trites, A.W., Calkins, D.G., 2001. Growth in body size of the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus). J. Mammal. 82(2), 500-519. Yoshida, H., Shirakihara, M., Takemura, A., Shirakihara, K., 1994. Development, sexual dimorphism, and individual variation in the skeleton of the finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides, in the coastal waters of western Kyushu, Japan. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 10(3), 266-282. Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 10 APPENDIX Table A1. Summary of 173 populations of 61 species of marine mammals for which length-weight relationships were found (t=tonnes; kg=kilograms; m=meters). Spec. No. Species Stock Locality Method Sex b a Source 1 Arctocephalus australis  (South American fur seal) a Rio Grande, Brazil a from cf F 3.00 0.0488 Fossi et al. (1997; Tab. 1)   b Rio Grande, Brazil a from mean cf M 3.00 0.0544 idem   c San Clemente, Argentina a from cf F 3.00 0.0385 idem 2 Arctocephalus gazelle (Antarctic fur seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.0081 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 2)   b Not specified a from cf M 3.00 0.00396 Idem 3 Arctocephalus forsteri (New Zealand fur seal) a New Zealand a from cf F 3.00 0.0191 Dickie & Dawson (2003; p. 177)   b New Zealand a from cf M 3.00 0.0216 idem 4 Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Australian fur seal) a Seal Rocks, Bass Strait, Australia Recomputed kg F 3.13 0.00993 Arnould & Warneke (2002; p. 56)   b Seal Rocks, Bass Strait, Australia Recomputed from juv./adults, kg M 3.30 0.004726 idem 5 Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.00841 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 2)   b Not specified a from cf M 3.00 0.00508 idem 6 Balaena mysticetus (bowhead whale) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.00384 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab 4)   b Not specified a from cf male 3.00 0.00393 idem 7 Balaenoptera acutorostrata (minke whale) a Washington a from cf F 3.00 0.00927 Lockyer (1976; p. 272)   b Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf F 3.00 0.0112 idem   c Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf M 3.00 0.0133 idem   d Not specified Recomputed from t and m mixed 2.31 1.189 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 1)   e Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf unsexed 3.00 0.00687 Lockyer (1976; p. 272)   f Unspecified, Antarctic Recomputed from t and m unsexed 3.23 0.00264 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2) 8 Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Antarctic minke whale) a Southern Ocean a from cf (pregnant) F 3.00 0.0115 Tamura & Konishi (2006; Tab. 5)   b Southern Ocean a from cf M 3.00 0.0115 idem 9 Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda (pygmy blue whale) a Unspecified, Antarctic a from cf F 3.00 0.00666 Lockyer (1976; p. 269)   b Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf M 3.00 0.00644 idem   c Unspecified, Antarctic Recomputed from t and m mixed 3.97 0.0000046 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2)   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 11  Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality Method Sex b a Source 10 Callorhinus ursinus (northern fur seal) a Sanriku, Japan a from mean cf F 3.00 0.019 Ikemoto et al. (2004; Tab. 1)   b Sanriku, Japan a from mean cf M 3.00 0.0194 Idem   c Sanriku, Japan a from mean cf mixed 3.00 0.019 Idem   d Not specified  F 2.74 0.0608 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8)   e Not specified (pregnant)  F 2.67 0.0979 idem   f Not specified  M 2.83 0.0432 idem 11 Cystophora cristata (hooded seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.0115 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3.00 0.00471 idem 12 Delphinus delphis (common dolphin) a Hawke Bay, North Island, New Zealand a from mean cf F 3.00 0.0124 Kastelein et al. (2000; Tab. 1)   b Northeast, USA a from mean cf unsexed 3.00 0.0119 Kastelein et al. (2000; Tab. 3) 13 Enhydra lutris (sea otter) a western Alaska a from cf F 3.00 0.0119 Estes (1980, p. 2)   b western Alaska a from cf M 3.00 0.0147 Idem 14 Erignathus barbatus (bearded seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.0107 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 2)   b Not specified a from cf M 3.00 0.0128 Idem 15 Eschrichtius robustus (gray whale) a California, USA a from mean cf F 3.00 0.0107 Lockyer (1976; p. 268)   b California, USA a from mean cf M 3.00 0.00933 Idem   c California, USA a from cf unsexed 3.00 0.0108 Idem   d Bering Sea a from cf F 3.00 0.0131 Idem   e Northern Pacific Recomputed from t and m mixed 3.28 0.0014 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2) 16 Eumetopias jubatus (steller sea lion) a Not specified  F 2.92 0.0332 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8)   b Alaska Recomputed from kg and m F 2.89 0.0363 Idem   c Alaska (pregnant) Recomputed from kg and m F 2.79 0.0692 Idem 17 Grampus griseus (Risso's dolphin) a Mediterranean Sea, Italy Recomputed from kilograms F 3.00 0.0153 Storelli & Marcotrigiano (2000; Tab. 1)   b Mediterranean Sea, Italy Recomputed from kilograms F 3.00 0.0152 Idem   c Mediterranean Sea, Italy Recomputed from kilograms F 3.00 0.0146 Idem 18 Halichoerus grypus (grey seal) a Not specified  mixed 2.86 0.0522 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8)                             Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 12 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality Method Sex b a Source 19 Histriophoca fasciata (ribbon seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.0104 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3.00 0.0104 Idem 20 Hydrurga leptonyx (leopard seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.0141 Idem   b Not specified a from cf M 3.00 0.0117 Idem 21 Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser's dolphin) a Not specified a from cf mixed 3.00 0.00519 Idem 22 Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific white-sided dolphin) a Not specified  mixed 2.82 0.035 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8) 23 Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell seal) a Unspecified, Antarctic  mixed 2.53 0.202 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8) 24 Lobodon carcinophaga (crabeater seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3.00 0.0123 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.0112 Idem 25 Megaptera noveangliae (humpback whale) a California, USA a from mean cf F 3 0.0171 Lockyer (1976; p. 272)   b Unspecified, Antarctic a from cf F 3 0.0103 Idem   c Unspecified, Antarctic Recomputed from t and m F 2.95 0.0158 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2)   d Puget Sound, Washington, USA a from cf F 3 0.0104 Lockyer (1976; p. 272)   e Bering Sea a from cf F 3 0.0121 Idem   f Bering Sea a from cf M 3 0.0129 Lockyer (1976; p. 272)   g Not specified Recomputed from t and m mixed 2.95 0.062 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 1) 26 Mirounga angustirostris (northern elephant seal) a Año Nuevo State Reserve, California, USA Recomputed from kg and m M 3.02 0.0281 Haley et al. (1991; Tab. 1) 27 Mirounga leonine (southern elephant seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.0116 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 2)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.00462 Idem 28 Monachus schauinslandi (Hawaiian monk seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.0118 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.0106 Idem 29 Monodon monoceros (narwhal) a Western Greenland a from mean cf F 3 0.0161 Garde et al. (2007, p. 57-58)   b Western Greenland a from mean cf M 3 0.0168 Idem 30 Neophocaena phocaenoides (finless porpoise) a Kyushu around Nagasaki and Kanmon Pass, Japan a from mean cf F 3 0.0157 Shirakihara et al. (1993; Tab. 2)   b Kyushu around Nagasaki and Kanmon Pass, Japan a from mean cf M 3 0.0144 Shirakihara et al. (1993; Tab. 3)   c Not specified a from cf mixed 3 0.00576 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)           Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 13 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality Method Sex b a Source 31 Odobenus rosmarus (walrus) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.0175 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 2)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.0143 Idem 32 Orcinus orca (killer whale) a Not specified  mixed 3.2 0.006 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8)   b Not specified  mixed 2.58 0.208 Idem 33 Otaria flavescens (South American sea lion) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.0113 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.00469 Idem 34 Pagophilus groenlandicus (harp seal) a Not specified  mixed 2.81 0.0645 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8) 35 Phoca largha (larga seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.0095 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.0102 Idem 36 Phoca vitulina (Harbour seal) a Not specified  mixed 2.89 0.0404 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8) 37 Phocoena phocoena (harbour porpoise) a Not specified  F 2.43 0.216 Idem   b Not specified  M 2.74 0.051 Idem   c Not specified  mixed 2.63 0.083 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8) 38 Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's porpoise) a Not specified a from cf mixed 3 0.00576 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4) 39 Physeter macrocephalus (sperm whale) a Japan a from mean cf F 3 0.00893 Lockyer (1976; p. 273)   b Japan a from mean cf M 3 0.00964 Lockyer (1976; p. 272-273)   c Japan Recomputed from t and m mixed 3.18 0.0029 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 1)   d Natal, South Africa a from mean cf F 3 0.0131 Lockyer (1976; p. 273)   e Natal, South Africa Recomputed from t and m F 3.55 0.00023 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2)   f Natal, South Africa a from cf M 3 0.0131 Lockyer (1976; p. 273)   g Bering Sea a from mean cf M 3 0.00918 Idem   h Bering Sea a from mean cf unsexed 3 0.00797 Idem   i Iceland a from cf M 3 0.00997 Idem   j Canada a from cf M 3 0.0139 Idem   k Antarctic and Pacific Recomputed from t and m mixed 2.74 0.0649 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2)   l Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf unsexed 3 0.0109 Lockyer (1976; p. 273)   m Not specified  a from cf F 3 0.00584 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 2)   n Not specified  a from cf M 3 0.00462 Idem 40 Pontoporia blainvillei (franciscana dolphin) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.00626 Idem   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.00635 Idem           Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 14 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality Method Sex b a Source 41 Pusa caspica (Caspian seal) a Caspian Sea a from cf F 3 0.0341 Ikemoto et al. (2004; Tab. 1)   b Caspian Sea a from cf M 3 0.0285 Idem   c Caspian Sea a from cf mixed 3 0.033 Idem   d northern Caspian Sea a from mean cf F 3 0.031 Watanabe et al. (2002;Tab. 1)   e northern Caspian Sea a from mean cf (pregnant) F 3 0.0362 Idem   f northern Caspian Sea a from mean cf (non- pregnant) F 3 0.027 Idem   g northern Caspian Sea a from mean cf M 3 0.0327 Idem          42 Pusa hispida (ringed seal) a Svalbard Recomputed from kg and m F 3.15 0.0145 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8)   b Svalbard Recomputed from kg and m M 3.26 0.00832 Idem   c Kongsfjorden, Svalbard Recomputed from kilograms F 3 0.0257 Krafft et al. (2007; Tab. 2)   d Kongsfjorden, Svalbard Recomputed from kilograms male 3 0.0350 Idem 43 Pusa sibirica (Baikal seal) a Lake Baikal a from mean cf F 3 0.0248 Ikemoto et al. (2004; Tab. 1)   b Lake Baikal a from mean cf M 3 0.021 Idem   c Lake Baikal a from mean cf mixed 3 0.023 Idem 44 Stenella frontalis (Atlantic spotted dolphin) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.00562 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.00567 Idem 45 Steno bredanensis (rough-toothed dolphin) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.00529 Idem   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.00518 Idem 46 Tursiops truncates (bottlenose dolphin) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.00348 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 2)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.00367 Idem 47 Ursus maritimus (polar bear) a Svalbard a from cf F 3 0.0253 Derocher & Wiig (2002; Tab. 1)   b Svalbard a from cf M 3 0.0342 Idem 48 Arctocephalus pusillus (South African fur seal) a Not specified a from cf F 3 0.0101 Trites & Pauly (1998; Tab. 4)   b Not specified a from cf M 3 0.00444 Idem 49 Arctocephalus townsendi (Guadalupe fur seal)  a Guadalupe, Mexico a from mean cf F 3 0.0151 Gallo-Reynoso et al. (1996; Table 1)                             Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 15 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality Method Sex b a Source 50 Balaenoptera borealis (sei whale) a Japan a from mean cf F 3 0.00559 Lockyer (1976; p. 271)   b Japan a from mean cf M 3 0.00617 Lockyer (1976; p. 270)   c Japan Recomputed from t and m mixed 2.43 0.356 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 1)   d Japan Recomputed from t and m unsexed 2.43 0.334 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2)   e Natal, South Africa a from cf F 3 0.00856 Lockyer (1976; p. 271)   f Unspecified, Antarctic a from cf M 3 0.00639 Idem 51 Balaenoptera brydei (Bryde's whale) a Japan a from mean cf F 3 0.00622 Idem   b Japan a from mean cf M 3 0.00623 Idem   c Japan Recomputed from t and m mixed 2.74 0.0429 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 1)   d Japan Recomputed from t and m unsexed 2.74 0.0404 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2) 52 Balaenoptera musculus (blue whale) a Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf F 3 0.00612 Lockyer (1976; p. 269)   b Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf M 3 0.00636 Lockyer (1976; p. 268-269)   c Unspecified, Antarctic Recomputed from t and m mixed 3.09 0.00304 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2)   d Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf unsexed 3 0.00593 Lockyer (1976; p. 269)   e Not specified Recomputed from t and m mixed 3.25 0.000917 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 1)   f Newfoundland, Canada a from cf unsexed 3 0.00473 Lockyer (1976; p. 269) 53 Balaenoptera physalus (fin whale) a Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf F 3 0.00554 Lockyer (1976; p. 270)   b Unspecified, Antarctic a from mean cf M 3 0.0056 Lockyer (1976; p. 270)   c Unspecified, Antarctic Recomputed from t and m unsexed 2.53 0.207 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 2)   d California, USA a from cf F 3 0.00581 Lockyer (1976; p. 270)   e Korf Bay, Kamchatka, Russia a from cf F 3 0.00598 Idem   f Natal'ya Bay, Russia a from cf F 3 0.00617 Idem   g Far East a from cf F 3 0.00619 Idem   h Far East a from cf M 3 0.00583 Lockyer (1976; p. 269)   i Iceland a from mean cf M 3 0.00573 Idem   j Commander Island, Russia a from cf M 3 0.00504 Idem   k Not specified Recomputed from t and m mixed 2.9 0.0127 Lockyer (1976; Tab. 1) 54 Berardius bairdii (Baird's beaked whale) a Japan  mixed 3.08 0.00634 Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8)                    Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 16 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality Method Sex b a Source 55 Cephalorhynchus hectori (Hector's dolphin) a Not specified  mixed 2.53 0.1689 Idem 56 Delphinapterus leucas (white whale) a St. Lawrence, Canada  mixed 2.61 0.156 Idem   b Hudson Bay, Canada  mixed 2.56 0.182 Idem   c Hudson Bay, Canada  mixed 2.54 0.452 Idem 57 Globicephala melas (long-finned pilot whale) a Faeroe Island (postnatal)  mixed 2.5 0.23 Idem 58 Pseudorca crassidens (false killer whale) a Not specified  mixed 2.44 0.216 Idem          59 Stenella attenuate (Pantropical spotted dolphin) a Not specified  F 2.61 0.0696 Idem   b Not specified  M 2.87 0.0193 Idem   c Not specified  mixed 2.93 0.0126 Idem 60 Stenella coeruleoalba (striped dolphin) a Not specified (postnatal)  F 2.91 0.0183 Idem   b Not specified (postnatal)  M 2.98 0.0139 Idem   c Not specified  mixed 2.93 0.0171 Idem 61 Stenella longirostris (long-snouted spinner dolphin) a Not specified  F 2.61 0.0696 Idem   b Not specified  M 2.87 0.0193 Idem   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 17  Table A2. Summary of 179 populations of 47 marine mammal species for which von Bertalanffy growth parameters were found. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 1 Arctocephalus australis  (South American fur seal) a Isla de Lobos, Uruguay 253 F 118 72 0.30 -0.67 Length-at-age; 0-28.5 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (1a, 1c). Lima & Paez (1995; Fig. 1). 2 Arctocephalus gazelle (Antarctic fur seal) a Not specified - F 220 87 0.44 -0.68 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1(2b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 331 143 0.13 -0.66 Idem 3 Arctocephalus forsteri (New Zealand fur seal) a New Zealand 57 F 119 32 0.41 - W∞ from Tab. 1 (3a). Dickie & Dawson (2003; Tab. 1).   b Kangaroo Island, South Australia - F 137 50 0.33 -1.55 W∞ from Tab. 1(3a). McKenzie et al. (2007; Tab. 2).   c Idem - M 184 135 0.17 -8.18 W∞ from Tab. 1 (3b). McKenzie et al.(2007; Tab. 2). 4 Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus (Australian fur seal) a Seal Rocks, Bass Strait, Australia 163 F 163 84 0.36 -1.91 W∞ from Tab. 1 (4a). Arnould &Warneke (2002; Tab. 1)   b Idem 69 M 600 7072 0.30 -0.88 From logistic curve. W∞ from Tab. 1(4b). Arnould & Warneke (2002, Abstract); Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8). 5 Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal) a Amsterdam Island, southern Indian Ocean 108 F 139 23 0.62 - From Gompertz equation. W∞ from Tab. 1 (5a). Dabin et al. (2004; p. 1045). 6 Balaena mysticetus (bowhead whale) a Alaska - unsexed 1602 16000 0.032 -22.2 Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (6a, 6b). George et al. (1999; p. 575) 7 Balaenoptera acutorostrata (minke whale) a Not specified - M 833 7688 0.17 -4.30 W∞ from Tab. 1 (7c). Hunter (2005, Tab. A.8). 8 Balaenoptera bonaerensis (Antarctic minke whale) a Idem - F 907 8581 0.14 -4.30 W∞ from Tab. 1 (8a). Hunter (2005, Tab. A.8).   b Idem - ♂ 833 6647 0.17 -4.30 W∞ from Tab. 1(8b). Hunter (2005, Tab. A.8). 9 Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda (pygmy blue whale) a Idem 170 F 2190 70000 0.08 -16.2 From m to cm. W∞ from Tab. 1 (9a). Branch (2008, Tab. 3).   b Idem 218 M 2110 60500 0.09 -15.5 From m to cm. W∞ from Tab. 1 (9b). Branch (2008, Tab. 3). 10 Callorhinus ursinus (northern fur seal) a Eastern Bering Sea, California 6493 F 128 36 0.31 -2.06 Length at age; non-pregnant females; 0-15 years.Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (10a, 10d-e). Trites & Bigg (1996; Tab. 1).   b Idem 9630 F 130 42 0.19 -7.32 Length at age; pregnant females; 4-23 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (10a, 10d-e). Trites & Bigg (1996; Tab. 1).   Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 18 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 10 Callorhinus ursinus (northern fur seal) c Idem 2008 M 266 303 0.08 -3.69 Length at age; 0-16 years. W∞ from Tab. (10b, 10f). Trites & Bigg (1996; Tab. 1).   d Pribilof Island, Alaska 137 F 127 39 0.38 -1.83 Length at age; 0-10 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (10a, 10d-e). Scheffer & Wilke (1953; Tabs. 1-2).   e Idem 306 M 308 818 0.08 -3.13 Length at age; 0-10 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (10b, 10f). Scheffer & Wilke (1953; Tabs. 1-2).   f Not specified - F 198 124 0.26 -0.67 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (10d-e). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   g Idem - M 396 942 0.03 -0.42 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab.1 (10f). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1) 11 Cystophora cristata (hooded seal) a Idem - F 280 252 0.20 -0.62 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (11a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 311 141 0.16 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab.1 (11b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 12 Delphinus delphis (common dolphin) a Hawke Bay, North Island, New Zealand 4 F 196 93 0.20 -6.99 Length at age; 2-27 years. W∞ from Tab. 1 (12a). Kastelein et al. (2000; Fig. 3). 13 Enhydra lutris (sea otter) a Not specified - F 148 39 0.20 - L∞ from Lmax; K from theta of female pups (13c). W∞ from Tab. 1 (13a). Jefferson et al. (1993).   b Idem - M 148 48 0.22 - L∞ from maximum length; K from theta of female pups (13c). W∞ from Tab. 1 (13b). Jefferson et al. (1993).   c Western Aleutian Islands, Alaska 102 F 118 20 2.49 -0.22 Length at age; female pups; 0-3 years. W∞ from Tab. 1 (13a). Schneider (1973; Tab. 3).   d Idem 90 M 117 24 2.63 -0.21 Length at age; male pups; 0-3 years. W∞ from Tab. 1 (13b). Schneider (1973; Tab. 3).   e Aleutian Islands, Alaska - F 110 16 0.53 -2.35 W∞ from Tab. 1 (13a). Laidre et al. (2006; Tab. 2).   f Idem - F 123 22 0.82 -1.55 Idem   g Idem - M 119 25 0.38 -2.51 W∞ from Tab. 1 (13b). Laidre et al.(2006; Tab. 2).   h Idem - M 132 33 0.61 -2.05 Idem   i California, USA - F 128 25 - - W∞ from Tab. 1 (13a). Laidre et al. (2006; p. 985).   j Idem - F 127 24 - - Idem  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 19 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 13 Enhydra lutris (sea otter) k Idem - M 119 25 - - W∞ from Tab. 1 (13b). Laidre et al. (2006; p. 985).   l Idem - M 118 24 - - Idem 14 Erignathus barbatus (bearded seal) a Barents Sea - mixed 306 338 0.21 -0.70 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (14a-b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Sea of Okhotsk - mixed 271 233 0.29 -0.74 Idem   c Bering-Chukchi Sea - mixed 300 319 0.25 -0.71 Idem   d Eastern Canada - mixed 326 516 0.18 -0.73 Idem 15 Eschrichtius robustus (gray whale) a California and Washington, USA - F 1297 23346 0.25 -2.84 W∞ from Tab. 1 (15a). Kastelle et al.(2003; p. 26). 16 Eumetopias jubatus (steller sea lion) a Gulf of Alaska - F 360 913 0.34 -0.65 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (16b-c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 486 2137 0.17 -0.65 Idem   c Shelikof Alaska - F 304 567 0.20 -0.66 Idem   d Idem - M 454 1766 0.17 -0.64 Idem   e Alaska 201 F 230 255 0.54 -1.05 Length at age; 0-24 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (16b-c). Winship et al. (2001; Tab. 3).   f Idem 235 M 307 579 0.26 -1.50 Length at age; 0-18 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (16b-c). Winship et al. (2001; Tab. 3). 17 Grampus griseus (Risso's dolphin) a Taiji, Japan - F 271 298 0.49 -2.09 Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (17a-c). Amano & Miyazaki (2004; Fig. 2).   b Idem - M 273 305 0.57 -1.62 Idem 18 Halichoerus grypus (grey seal) a Eastern Canada - F 271 475 0.18 -0.60 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (18a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 328 821 0.14 -0.58 Idem   c Farne Islands, England - F 241 338 0.18 -0.53 Idem   d Idem - M 290 573 0.16 -0.54 Idem 19 Histriophoca fasciata (ribbon seal) a Sea of Okhotsk - F 245 153 0.47 -0.62 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (19a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 261 185 0.57 -0.62 Idem   c Idem - mixed 254 17 0.52 -0.64 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (19a-b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   d Bering Sea - F 242 148 0.37 -0.63 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab.1 (19a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   e Idem - M 262 187 0.46 -0.64 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab.1 (19b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).             Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 20 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 19 Histriophoca fasciata (ribbon seal) f Idem - mixed 253 168 0.42 -0.63 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (19a-b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 20 Hydrurga leptonyx (leopard seal) a Antarctic - F 539 221 0.36 -0.69 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (20a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 497 1434 0.47 -0.69 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab.1 (20b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 21 Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser's dolphin) a Southeast Brazil 11 mixed 236 69 0.48 -1.05 Length at age; 0-19 years. W∞ from Tab. 1 (21a). Siciliano et al. (2007; Tab. 6). 22 Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific white-sided dolphin) a North Pacific - F 186 88 0.71 -1.29 W∞ from Tab. 1 (22a). Heise (1997; Tab. 2).   b Idem - M 195 100 0.38 -2.06 Idem   c Idem - mixed 191 95 0.46 -1.75 W∞ from Tab. 1 (22a). Hunter (2005; Tab. A8). 23 Leptonychotes weddellii (Weddell seal) a South Orkney Island - F 558 1795 0.62 -0.73 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (23a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b McMurdo Sound, Antarctica - F 399 770 0.37 -0.73 Idem   c Idem - F 394 743 0.21 -0.74 Idem   d Idem - M 410 824 0.46 -0.73 Idem   e Idem - M 382 687 0.30 -0.73 Idem   f Idem - mixed 396 756 0.38 -0.72 Idem   g Idem - mixed 383 692 0.27 -0.74 Idem 24 Lobodon carcinophaga (crabeater seal) a Not specified - F 393 747 0.66 -0.73 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (24a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 389 659 0.61 -0.74 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab.1 (24b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   c Idem - mixed 391 702 0.64 -0.72 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (24a-b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 25 Megaptera novaeangliae (humpback whale) a Northwest Atlantic - mixed 1050 51000 1.96 -0.26 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (25g). Stevick (1999; Fig. 4).   b Idem - mixed 1145 65410 0.98 -0.46 Idem   c Northern Atlantic 11 F 1394 33000 0.25 -3.18 Length at age; not a good fit. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (25a, 25f). Stevick (1999; Tab. 1).   d Idem 12 M 1124 18327 0.84 -1.00 Length at age; not a good fit. W∞ from Tab. 1 (25f). Stevick (1999; Tab. 1). 26 Mirounga angustirostris (northern elephant seal) a Not specified - F 492 3851 0.15 -0.67 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (26a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem - M 911 250000 0.16 -0.68 Idem             Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 21 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 27 Mirounga leonine (southern elephant seal) a Macquarie Island - F 410 802 0.18 -0.68 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (27a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b South Georgia - F 471 12147 0.27 -0.67 Idem   c Idem - M 1444 14000 0.17 -0.68 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab.1 (27b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 28 Monachus schauinslandi (Hawaiian monk seal) a Not specified - mixed 354 497 0.15 -0.73 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (28a-b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 29 Monodon monoceros (narwhal) a West Greenland 24 F 396 1000 - - W∞ from Tab. 1 (29a). Garde et al. (2007; p. 52).   b Idem 38 M 457 1603 - - W∞ from Tab. 1 (29b). Garde et al. (2007; p. 52). 30 Neophocaena phocaenoides (finless porpoise) a Kyushu, Japan 46 F 148 51 0.74 -1.00 Length at age. W∞ from Tab. 1 (30a). Shirakihara et al. (1993; Tab. 1).   b Idem 51 M 150 48 0.71 -1.00 Length at age. W∞ from Tab. 1 (30b). Shirakihara et al. (1993; Tab. 1). 31 Odobenus rosmarus (walrus) a Foxe Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada 90 F 275 364 0.31 -1.86 W∞ from Tab. 1 (31a). Garlich-Miller &Stewart (1998; Tab. 1).   b Idem 103 M 312 433 0.20 -2.71 W∞ from Tab. 1 (31b). Garlich-Miller & Stewart (1998; Tab. 1).   c Foxe Basin, Nunavut, Canada - M 576 2735 0.25 -0.86 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (31b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   d Hudson Bay, Canada - F 402 1137 0.26 -0.87 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (31a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   e Idem - M 432 1153 0.12 -0.87 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (31b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   f Unspecified, Alaska - F 422 1311 0.22 -0.87 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (31a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   g Idem - M 470 1481 0.10 -0.87 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (31b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   h Unspecified, Russia - F 475 1879 0.16 -0.88 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (31a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   i Idem - M 552 2411 0.10 -0.87 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (31b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 31 Odobenus rosmarus (walrus) j Northwest Greenland 34 F 269 341 - - W∞ from Tab. 1 (31a). Knutsen & Born (1994).   k Idem 54 M 314 443 - - W∞ from Tab. 1 (31b). Knutsen & Born (1994). 32 Orcinus orca (killer whale) a Norway, coastal waters 173 F 564 3196 0.17 -4.17 Length at age. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (32a-b). Christensen (1984; Fig. 4).   b Idem 143 M 650 4854 0.10 -5.81 Idem             Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 22 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 32 Orcinus orca (killer whale) c British Columbia and Washington 27 F 618 4180 0.15 - L∞ from Powell-Wetherall Plot; K from theta (32e). Z/K=0.628. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (32a-b). Bigg & Wolman (1975).   d Idem 29 M 704 6151 0.12 - L∞ from Powell-Wetherall Plot; K from theta (32e). Z/K=1.05. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (32a-b). Bigg & Wolman (1975).   e Holland, Netherlands 1 F 618 4180 0.15 - Growth increments; Gulland and Holt Plot; 1-12 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (32a-b). Kastelein & Vaughan (1989; Tab. 1). 33 Otaria flavescens (South American sea lion) a Southern Brazil 32 F 194 83 0.31 -2.00 W∞ from Tab. 1 (33a). Rosas et al. (1993; p. 141, 143).   b Idem 94 M 254 77 0.30 -1.60 W∞ from Tab. 1 (33b). Rosas et al.(1993; p. 141, 143). 34 Pagophilus groenlandicus (harp seal) a Not specified - mixed 240 315 0.31 -0.57 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (34a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 35 Phoca largha (larga seal) a Bering-Okhotsk Sea - F 225 109 0.36 -0.56 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (35a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 35 Phoca largha (larga seal) b Idem - M 246 152 0.44 -0.53 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (35b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   c Hokkaido, Japan - F 209 87 0.19 -0.57 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (35a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   d Idem - M 216 103 0.16 -0.55 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (35b). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 36 Phoca vitulina (Harbour seal) a Commander, Aleutian and Pribilof Islands - F 167 107 0.20 -4.49 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (36a). McLaren (1993; Fig. 40).   b Idem - M 175 123 0.23 -3.80 Idem   c Norway - F 210 207 0.24 -0.63 Idem   d Idem  M 226 256 0.22 -0.65 Idem   e Gulf of Alaska - F 203 189 0.22 -0.64 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (36a). McLaren (1993; Fig. 39).   f Idem - F 150 78 0.31 -3.03 Idem   g Idem - M 162 98 0.30 -2.76 Idem   h Idem - M 226 257 0.22 -0.62 Idem   i Aleutian, Alaska - F 218 231 0.09 -0.66 Idem   j Idem - M 245 323 0.17 -0.65 Idem   k Denmark/Sweden - F 207 200 0.26 -0.62 Idem   l Idem - M 228 263 0.26 -0.63 Idem   m Nova Scotia, Canada - F 223 247 0.36 -0.63 Idem   n Idem - M 249 340 0.40 -0.63 Idem             Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 23 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 36 Phoca vitulina (Harbour seal) o British Columbia - F 217 227 0.23 -0.64 From generalized VBGF. W∞ from Tab. 1 (36a). McLaren (1993; Fig. 38).   p Idem - F 236 292 0.12 -0.65 Idem   q Idem - F 151 79 0.37 -2.52 Idem   r Idem - M 167 108 0.24 -3.69 Idem   s Hokkaido, Japan - F 224 249 0.22 -0.62 Idem   t Idem - M 250 345 0.16 -0.64 Idem 37 Phocoena phocoena (Harbour porpoise) a Sea of Azov 45 F 145 39 0.76 - W∞ from Tab. 1(37a). Gol’din (2004; Tab. 1).   b Idem 53 M 132 32 0.91 - W∞ from Tab. 1(37b). Gol’din (2004; Tab. 1).   c Black Sea 41 F 132 32 0.71 - W∞ from Tab. 1(37a). Gol’din (2004; Tab. 1).   d Idem 48 M 123 26 1.21 - W∞ from Tab. 1(37b). Gol’din (2004; Tab. 1).   e Western Greenland - F 155 46 0.48 - W∞ from Tab. 1(37a). Lockyer et al.(2001; Tab. 3).   f Idem - M 143 40 0.46 - W∞ from Tab. 1(37b). Lockyer et al.(2001; Tab. 3). 38 Phocoenoides dalli (Dall’s porpoise) a Western Aleutian Islands - F 186 37 0.58 -1.39 Length-at-age. W∞ from Tab. 1 (38a). Ferrero & Walker (1999; Figs. 8-9).   b Idem - F 188 38 0.40 -2.78 Idem   c Idem - M 192 41 0.50 -1.60 Idem 39 Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm whale) a Tasmania, Australia - F 1082 15100 0.16 -2.58 Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (39d-e). Evans et al. (2004; p. 248).   b Western Australia - mixed 1052 14300 0.12 -4.12 Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (39d-e). Bannister (1969).   c Not specified - M 1858 65100 0.05 -5.37 Length-at-age. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (39a-n). Lockyer (1981; Abstract). 40 Pontoporia blainvillei (Franciscana dolphin) a Paraná and Sao Paulo (25°00' - 25°58'S), Brazil 18 F 129 13 0.33 -3.07 W∞ from Tab. 1 (40a). Barreto & Rosas (2006; Tab. 3).   b Idem 23 M 113 9 1.00 -0.90 W∞ from Tab. 1 (40b). Barreto & Rosas (2006; Tab. 3).   c Rio Grande do Sul (29°20' - 33°45'S), Brazil 48 F 146 20 0.57 -1.71 W∞ from Tab. 1 (40a). Barreto & Rosas (2006; Tab. 3).   d Idem 59 M 130 14 1.14 -0.71 W∞ from Tab. 1 (40b). Barreto & Rosas (2006; Tab. 3). 41 Pusa caspica (Caspian seal) a Not specified  F 185 202 0.25 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (41a, 41d-f). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).             Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 24 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 42 Pusa hispida (ringed seal) a Sea of Okhotsk  F 161 118 0.11 -0.62 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   aa High Canada, Arctic  mixed 181 184 0.1 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   b Sea of Okhotsk  M 164 146 0.15 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   c Idem  mixed 162 130 0.12 -0.63 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   d Chukchi Sea  F 172 144 0.27 -0.58 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)   e Idem  M 167 154 0.21 -0.6 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)   f Idem  mixed 169 149 0.24 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)   g Baltic Sea  F 198 222 0.23 -0.63 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)   h Baltic Sea  M 205 294 0.23 -0.62 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   i Idem  mixed 204 265 0.25 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   j Barents Sea  F 178 160 0.22 -0.62 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)   k Idem  M 186 215 0.29 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   l Idem  mixed 181 185 0.26 -0.63 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   m Bering Sea  F 180 167 0.17 -0.6 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)             Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 25 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 42 Pusa hispida (ringed seal) n Idem  M 184 210 0.08 -0.61 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   o Idem  mixed 180 183 0.11 -0.56 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   p Svalbard  F 166 129 0.15 -0.58 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)   q Idem 144 F 130 61 0.17  Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c).Krafft et al. (2006; Tab 1).   r Idem 102 F 128 58 0.18  Idem   s Idem 131 M 130 70 0.34  Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d).Krafft et al. (2006; Tab 1).   t Idem 170 M 128 67 0.43  Idem   u Idem  M 186 216 0.31 -0.62 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   v Idem  mixed 172 157 0.22 -0.6 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   w Western Canada, Arctic  F 160 116 0.14 -0.65 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a, 42c). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1)   x Western Canada, Arctic  M 169 161 0.13 -0.67 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42b, 42d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   y Idem  mixed 164 136 0.15 -0.68 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (42a-d). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1).   z Southeast Canada, Arctic  mixed 154 112 0.1 -0.59 Idem 43 Pusa sibirica (Baikal seal) a Not specified  F 178 140 0.42 -0.62 From generalized VBGF. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (43a). McLaren (1993; Tab. 1). 44 Stenella frontalis (Atlantic spotted dolphin) a Southeast Brazil 27 mixed 225 64 0.14 -5.56 Length at age; 0-23 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (44a-b). Siciliano et al. (2007; Tab. 1). 45 Steno bredanensis (rough-toothed dolphin) a Idem 13 mixed 259 91 0.32 -2.97 Length at age; 0.5-24 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (45a-b). Siciliano et al. (2007; Tab. 5).             Growth of marine mammals, Palomares, M.L.D., et al.  26 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Species Stock Locality N Sex L∞ (cm) W∞ (kg) K (year-1) to (year) Comments/Source 46 Tursiops truncates (bottlenose dolphin) a Idem 21 mixed 305 101 0.14 -6.24 Length at age; 0-26 years. Average W∞ from Tab. 1 (46a-b). Siciliano et al. (2007; Tab. 3).   b North-Central Gulf of Mexico  F 242 49 0.48 -1.19 From Gompertz curve; <1-30 years. W∞ from Tab. 1 (46a). Mattson et al. (2006; Fig. 6).   c Idem  M 253 59 0.36 -1.77 From Gompertz curve; <1-30 years. W∞ from Tab. 1 (46b). Mattson et al. (2006; Fig. 6).   d Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA 72 F 114 5 0.45  From Gompertz equation. W∞ from Tab. 1 (46a). Stolen et al. (2002; Tab. 1).   e Idem 118 M 124 7 0.36 -0.01 From Gompertz equation. W∞ from Tab. 1 (46b). Stolen et al. (2002; Tab. 1). 47 Ursus maritimus (polar bear) a Svalbard  F 194 185 0.75 -0.27 W∞ from Tab. 1 (47a). Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8).   b Idem  M 225 390 0.537 -0.4 W∞ from Tab. 1 (47b). Hunter (2005; Tab. A.8)  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 27 LIFE-HISTORY PATTERNS IN MARINE BIRDS1 Vasiliki S. Karpouzi Former address: The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email: v.karpouzi@fisheries.ubc.ca Current address: BC Ministry of Environment, Environmental Stewardship Division, Ecosystems Branch, 2nd floor, 10470 - 152nd St, Surrey BC, V3R 0Y3, Canada Daniel Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email: d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation for seabirds were estimated from previously published growth curves to allow within and between group comparisons of their life-history patterns. Overall, growth data were available for 447 seabird populations breeding around the globe, corresponding to 137 species, 13 families and four orders. A negative relationship between the logarithmic values of W∞ and K was identified for the orders of Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, Procellariiformes, and Sphenisciformes, as well as all seabird species combined. The values of the slope b ranged from -0.32 for the Sphenisciformes, to -0.12 for the Pelecaniformes, with a mean slope of -0.21, when all seabirds were considered. INTRODUCTION Seabirds can be broadly characterized as long-lived species, with delayed sexual maturation and breeding, as well as low annual reproductive rates. Many species have a life span well over 30 years (e.g., most species of albatrosses; Schreiber & Burger, 2002). In addition, most species start breeding when they are three years or older (e.g., over ten years in some albatross species; Schreiber and Burger, 2002). Most species lay not more than three eggs, and in some instances chick rearing lasts for a long time (e.g., 380 days in the Wandering albatross; Schreiber & Burger, 2002). These life-history characteristics have been shaped as an evolutionary response to conditions of living in the marine environment, i.e, reflecting the patchy and unpredictable distribution of marine resources (Ricklefs, 1990; Hamer et al., 2002; Weimerskirch, 2002), which poses challenges to seabirds in finding food and provisioning chicks. Nonetheless, Weimerskirch (2007) has recently suggested that prey dispersal may not be as unpredictable as we once thought. As a result, specialization of seabirds for use of a particular marine habitat may be the driving force for the evolution of a particular life history strategy (Weimerskirch, 2007). Life-history strategies have been studied for a number of marine organisms (fish: e.g., Adams, 1980; Froese & Pauly, 1998; Pauly, 1998; Stergiou, 2000; marine mammals: e.g., Herzing, 1997; Trites & Pauly, 1998; sea turtles: e.g., Fraser & Ehrhart, 1985; van Buskirk & Crowder, 1994; marine birds: e.g., Ricklefs, 1990; Visser, 2002; Weimerskirch, 2007). In addition, examining relationships between life history traits and developing empirical equations has been proven useful for comparisons among different taxonomic groups (e.g., Peters, 1983; Froese & Pauly, 1998; Visser, 2002). Growth, in particular, has been described in seabirds with the use of several mathematical equations. Three of the most popular ones are listed in Table 1 (see also Table 8.1 in Peters, 1983). For all three equations, parameters are estimated by fitting the selected model to size-at-age data for each individual or population under study. These equations allow                                                  1 Cite as: Karpouzi, V.S., Pauly, D. 2008. Life history patterns in marine birds. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-Fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 27-53.  Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 28 the estimation of the key parameters of chick growth, such as the growth constant, K, and the asymptotic weight, W∞ and a measure of how rapidly this approached (K1, KG, K). In the present study, we compiled information on growth parameters of seabird chicks, in an attempt to explore their life-history patterns. In addition, we established empirical relationships between life-history traits, in order to investigate potential differences in growth rates for a few seabird orders. Table 1: Three equations most frequently used to describe chick growth in marine birds.  Growth curve Equation Description 1) Logistic Wt = W∞ / (1 + e -KL·(t-tL) ) W∞: asymptotic weight; KL: logistic growth rate constant; tL: the time of inflection point, which corresponds to the age of 50% of asymptotic weight of chicks. 2) Gompertz Wt = W∞ · e -e -KG·(t-tG) W∞: asymptotic weight; KG: Gompertz growth rate constant; tG: the time of inflection point. 3) Von Bertalanffy (VB) Wt = W∞ · (1 - e -K·(t-t0) )b W∞: asymptotic weight; K: VB growth rate constant; to: the theoretical ‘age’ the chick would have at weight zero; b: exponent indicating isometric growth pattern, when its value is 3. METHODOLOGY In the present study, we gathered all available information pertinent to growth patterns in seabird chicks, from studies conducted since 1937. Overall, growth data were available for 447 seabird populations, corresponding to 137 species, 13 families and four orders (Tables 2 to 4). For the purpose of this paper, we defined as seabird population a number of seabirds belonging to the same species and breeding at a certain location at a certain year (Tables 2 to 4). We gathered information using the following databases: (a) Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts; (b) Web of Science - Thomson Scientific; (c) BioSciences Information Service of Biological Abstracts; and (d) the Searchable Ornithological Research Archive, which cover peer-reviewed journals and other literature sources. We also used some unpublished theses and technical reports that were available to us, and extracted information from the online database of Birds of North America, Cornell University (http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/). The form of the VBGF used here is: Wt = W∞ · (1-e-K·(t-t0))3 …1) where Wt is the weight at age t, W∞ the asymptotic size (here the size of a chick if it were to continue growing forever in the manner described by the equation), K is a parameter of dimension time-1 (here: year-1), and to adjusts the function such that Wt=0 at t=to. In case where the original graph of chick body weight-at-age was not available, we obtained data for the following life-history parameters, to fit the VBGF: (a) the asymptotic weight, W∞ (g), the growth constant, KL (in days-1), and the inflection point, tL (in days), of the logistic growth curve (Table 2); and (b) the asymptotic weight, W∞ (in g), the growth constant, KG (in days-1), and the inflection point, tG (in days), of the Gompertz growth curve (Table 3). When information on KL and tL was not available, we used the following equations respectively to estimate the missing values: KL = 0.962· W∞-0.31 ... 2 (Visser, 2002); and  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 29 tL = ln (W∞/W0 - 1) / KL … 3) where Wo is the initial weight of the chicks at hatching (Navarro and Bucher, 1990). For each seabird population, we calculated seven data points of time when chick body weight is equal to 1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 90%, 95%, and 99% of W∞, using the growth curve published by the corresponding study, and then used these data points to re-express growth parameters in terms of the VBGF (see Figure 1 for examples). As the VBGF and the other growth functions share one parameter (W∞), we kept this constant, and used the least square optimization technique to estimate the other VBGF parameters (K, to), given the data points. An example is given in Figure 1, for the growth of the Crested auklet (Aethia cristatella) chicks of the Okhotsk Sea (Figure 1a), and of the Least auklet (Aethia pussila) chicks of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska (Figure 1b).  -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 -25 0 25 50 W ei g h t ( g ) When the chick body weight-at-age graph was provided in the original studies, data was traced and re-analyzed using the least square optimization technique to get growth parameter estimates in terms of the VBGF. An example is given in Figure 2, for the growth of Little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis) chicks of New Zealand. The standard deviation (SD) was also estimated as a measure of effectiveness of the least-squares optimization. For all seabird populations, SD was then re-expressed as a % deviation (%D), i.e., relative to Wt=0.5* W∞. Pauly et al. (1996) proposed the auximetric plot as another tool for the comparison of within- and between- species growth patterns. The auximetric plot is a double logarithmic plot of the parameters K and the asymptotic size (W∞ or L∞) (Pauly et al., 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2000). In such a plot, each set of growth parameters represents a point, with the different points for a species or higher taxon forming an ellipsoid cluster of points, whose surface area is related to the ‘growth space’ occupied by a given species or higher taxon (Pauly et al., 1996; Froese and Pauly, 2000). VBGF Logistic 0 2500 5000 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 Time (days) W ei g h t ( g ) (a) (b) Gompertz VBGF  Figure 1. Comparison of the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF; black dot, solid line) with the growth curve originally used (open dot, dotted line) to describe weight-at-age data (not shown). (a) Crested auklet (Aethia cristatella) from the Okhotsk Sea, described with the logistic growth function (Kitaysky, 1999). (b) Light-mantled albatross (Phoebetria palpebrata) from Macquarie Island, Southern Ocean, described with the Gompertz growth function (Terauds and Gales, 2006).  Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 30  Table 2. Growth parameters of seabird chicks from the logistic growth curve (in normal font), and also estimated for this paper (in bold), using the von Bertalanffy (VB) growth model. W∞ (in g): asymptotic weight of chicks for both the logistic and VB growth models; tl (in days): inflection point of logistic curve; to (in years): hypothetical ‘age’ chicks would have had at zero weight; Kl (in days-1) and K (in years-1): growth coefficients for the logistic and VB models respectively. AK: Alaska; CA: California; WA: Washington State; and NY: New York State. Species Area (Year) tl Kl W∞ K to Source Alcidae        Aethia cristatella Okhotsk Sea (1994) 14.17 0.129 233 20.96 -0.043 Kitaysky (1999) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, AK (1989) *14.01 ¤0.150 401 24.37 -0.032 Shultz and Sydeman (1997) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, AK (1990) *12.75 ¤0.155 359 25.19 -0.033 Shultz and Sydeman (1997) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, AK (1991) *15.86 ¤0.143 466 23.24 -0.031 Shultz and Sydeman (1997) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, AK (1992) *15.90 ¤0.143 468 23.24 -0.031 Shultz and Sydeman (1997) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, AK (1993) *15.91 ¤0.143 469 23.24 -0.031 Shultz and Sydeman (1997) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, AK (1994) *13.95 ¤0.150 398 24.37 -0.032 Shultz and Sydeman (1997) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, AK (1995) *15.26 ¤0.145 443 23.56 -0.031 Shultz and Sydeman (1997) Cerorhinca monocerata Destruction Is, WA (1974) *23.20 0.074 335 12.02 -0.080 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Destruction Is, WA (1975) *27.74 0.068 395 11.05 -0.080 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Destruction Is, WA (1979) *32.78 0.058 400  9.43 -0.093 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Destruction Is, WA (1980) *38.44 0.049 394  7.96 -0.111 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Destruction Is, WA (1981) *39.49 0.049 412  7.96 -0.108 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Protection Is, WA (1975) *24.61 0.076 412 12.35 -0.072 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Protection Is, WA (1976) *27.71 0.071 432 11.54 -0.073 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Protection Is, WA (1979) *25.88 0.076 432 12.35 -0.069 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Protection Is, WA (1980) *25.15 0.078 430 12.67 -0.067 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Cerorhinca monocerata Protection Is, WA (1981) *32.59 0.061 440  9.91 -0.085 Wilson and Manuwal (1986) Fratercula cirrhata Okhotsk Sea (1994) 20.41 0.118 621 19.17 -0.034 Kitaysky (1999) Fratercula cirrhata Buldir Is, AK (1975) *19.35 0.074 360 12.02 -0.090 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Ugaiushak Is, AK (1976) *16.27 0.125 600 20.31 -0.040 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Barren Is, AK (1976) *18.53 0.111 600 18.04 -0.045 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Chowiet Is, AK (1976) *14.54 0.091 330 14.79 -0.077 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Shumagin Is, AK (1976) *12.90 0.145 520 23.56 -0.038 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Wooded Is, AK (1976) *16.13 0.120 550 19.50 -0.044 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Ugaiushak Is, AK (1977) *12.72 0.153 555 24.86 -0.034 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Barren Is, AK (1977) *18.62 0.110 595 17.87 -0.045 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Sitkalidak, AK (1977) *15.88 0.126 590 20.47 -0.041 Wehle (1983) Fratercula cirrhata Cathedral Is, AK (1977) *15.71 0.127 580 20.64 -0.040 Wehle (1983) Fratercula corniculata Buldir Is, AK (1975) *20.13 0.075 300 12.18 -0.086 Wehle (1983) Fratercula corniculata Barren Is, AK (1976) *16.07 0.122 440 19.82 -0.043 Wehle (1983) Fratercula corniculata Chowiet Is, AK (1976) *12.61 0.113 280 18.36 -0.059 Wehle (1983) Fratercula corniculata Shumagin Is, AK (1976) *12.95 0.144 405 23.40 -0.038 Wehle (1983) Fratercula corniculata Ugaiushak Is, AK (1977) *12.89 0.139 380 22.59 -0.041 Wehle (1983) Fratercula corniculata Barren Is, AK (1977) *17.31 0.114 445 18.52 -0.046 Wehle (1983) Hydrobatidae        Oceanodroma homochroa Farallon Is, CA (1985) *13.56 0.108 49 17.55 -0.061 Ainley et al. (1990) Laridae        Larus atricilla Florida (1972) *13.45 ¤0.162 310 26.32 -0.029 Dinsmore and Schreiber (1974) Larus ridibundus The Netherlands (2000) 9.90 0.200 237 32.50 -0.026 Eising and Groothuis (2003) Sterna hirundo Great Gull Is, NY (1968) 8.22 0.246 113 39.97 -0.021 LeCroy and Collins (1972) Sterna paradisaea Shetland Is (1975) 7.50 0.288 111 46.80 -0.016 Furness (1978) Pelecanoididae        Pelecanoides georgicus S Georgia (1982) 14.90 0.145 148 23.56 -0.032 Roby (1991) Pelecanoides urinatrix S Georgia (1982) 15.60 0.146 139 23.72 -0.030 Roby (1991) Phaethontidae        Phaethon lepturus Seychelles (2002) 35.00 ¤0.155 362 25.19  0.027 Ramos and Pacheco (2003)   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 31  Table 2 continued. Species Area (Year) tl Kl W∞ K to Source Spheniscidae        Eudyptula minor Victoria, Australia (1980) 20.00 0.104 951 16.90 -0.047 Montague (1982)  Victoria, Australia (1981) 21.40 0.168 793 27.30 -0.004 Montague (1982)  Tasmania (1970) 17.10 0.152 836 24.70 -0.023 Hodgson (1975)  New Zealand (1975) 16.10 0.158 642 25.67 -0.023 Jones (1978)  New Zealand (1958) 21.40 0.123 1110 19.99 -0.028 Kinsky (1960)  New Zealand (1938) 18.10 0.122 1148 19.82 -0.037 Richdale (1940)  New Zealand (1983) 19.60 0.125 1154 20.31 -0.031 Gales (1987) Stercorariidae        Catharacta skua Shetland Is. (1975) 16.96 0.176 1167 28.60 -0.014 Furness (1978) * Estimated using equation 2 described in the methodology. ¤ Estimated using equation 3 described in the methodology. RESULTS Table 2 summarizes the logistic growth parameters as extracted from the corresponding studies, as well as the growth parameters we re-expressed using the VBGF. Similarly, Table 3 summarizes growth parameters derived from the Gompertz growth model, which we then re-expressed using the VBGF. Lastly, Table 4 summarizes VBGF parameters re-estimated after tracing and re-analyzing originally published weight-at-age data. W∞ values ranged from 36 g for the Wilson’s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus) chicks (Table 4), to 15,243 g for the Wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) chicks both from the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean (Table 4). 0 100 200 300 -20 0 20 40 60 80 Time (days) W ei gh t ( g) The most intensively studied species were the Pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), the Rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), the Tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), the Horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata), the Common tern (Sterna hirundo), the Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), the Thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), and the Blue penguin (Eudyptula minor). They were represented by more than 10 seabird populations each (Tables 2 to 4), and comprised 31% of all seabird populations compiled (138 out of 447; Tables 2 to 4). All the above-mentioned seabird species, with the exception of the Blue penguin, belong to the order Charadriiformes (Tables 2 to 4).  Figure 2. Von Bertalanffy growth function (solid line) for Little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis) chicks from Lady Alice Island, New Zealand, re-estimated using original weight-at-age data (black dot) published by Booth et al. (2000). KL values ranged from 0.049 days-1 for the Rhinoceros auklet chicks of Destruction Island, off the coast of Washington State (Table 2), to 0.288 days-1 for the Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) chicks of Shetland Islands, UK (Table 2). KL values were not available for nine seabird populations (Table 2). These were estimated using equation 2 described above. The values of tL ranged from 7.5 days for the Arctic tern chicks of Shetland Islands, UK (Table 2), to 39.5 days for the Rhinoceros auklet chicks of Destruction Island, off the coast of Washington State (Table 2). Values of tL were lacking for 35 seabird populations (Table 2). These were estimated using equation 3 described in the methodology section.   Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 32 Table 3. Growth parameters of seabird chicks from the Gompertz growth curve (in normal font), and also estimated for this paper (in bold), using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). W∞ (in g): the asymptotic weight of chicks for both the Gompertz curve and VBGF; tG (in days) and KG (in days-1): the inflection point and the growth constant for the Gompertz curve respectively; to (in years) and K (in years-1): the hypothetical ‘age’ chicks would have at zero weight and the growth constant for VBGF respectively. AK: Alaska. Species Area (Year) tG KG W∞ K to Source Diomedeidae        Phoebastria immutabilis Hawaii (1987) 19.00 0.050 2836 14.84 -0.037 Sievert and Sileo (1993) Phoebastria nigripes Hawaii (1987) 17.90 0.056 2714 16.62 -0.010 Sievert and Sileo (1993) Phoebetria palpebrata Macquarie Is (2000) 32.40 0.047 4760 13.95 -0.006 Terauds and Gales (2006) KG values ranged from 0.047 days-1 for the Light-mantled albatross (Phoebetria palpebrata) chicks of Macquarie Island, Southern Ocean (Table 3), to 0.056 days-1 for the Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) chicks of Hawaii (Table 3). In addition, tG ranged from 17.9 days for the Black-footed albatross chicks of Hawaii (Table 3), to 32.4 days for the Light-mantled albatross chicks of Macquarie Island, Southern Ocean (Table 3). When re-expressed through VBGF, the logistic growth curve deviated from VBGF by 13%, while the Gompertz curve deviated by only 3%. This suggests that the VBGF and the Gompertz curves are equivalent. Computed K values ranged from 3.22 years-1 for the Wandering albatross chicks of the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean (Table A1), to 61.46 years-1 for the Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) chicks of Selvagem Grande, of the Madeira archipelago (Table A1). Moreover, to values ranged from - 0.111 years for the Rhinoceros auklet chicks of Destruction Island, off the coast of Washington State (Table 2), to - 0.001 years for the Whiskered auklet (Aethia pygmaea) chicks of Buldir Island, Alaska (Table A1), the Rhinoceros auklet chicks of Teuri Island, Japan (Table A1), and the Masked booby (Sula dactylatra) chicks, of Kure Atoll, Hawaii (Table A1). Table 4. Regression equations between the von Bertalanffy growth parameters K and W∞, for four orders and all seabird species combined. SE(b): Standard error of the slope. r: The correlation coefficient. N: The number of seabird populations representing each order. All regressions were statistically significant (P<0.05). Order Regression SE(b) r N P Charadriiformes LogK=2.18-0.31LogW∞ 0.03 -0.53 239 P<0.05 Pelecaniformes LogK=1.63-0.12LogW∞ 0.05 -0.35 50 P<0.05 Procellariiformes LogK=1.79-0.18LogW∞ 0.02 -0.61 111 P<0.05 Sphenisciformes LogK=2.35-0.32LogW∞ 0.05 -0.70 47 P<0.05 All seabirds LogK=1.93-0.21LogW∞ 0.01 -0.62 445 P<0.05 A negative relationship between the logarithmic values of W∞ and K was identified for the orders of Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, Procellariiformes, and Sphenisciformes as well as for all seabird species combined (Table 4, Figure 3). Each order was represented by 239, 50, 111 and 47 seabird populations respectively (Table 4, Figure 3). The values of the slope ranged 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 W∞ (log; g) K  (l o g ; y ea r- 1 ) Charadriiformes, n=239 Pelecaniformes, n=50 Procellariiformes, n=111 Sphenisciformes, n=47 Figure 3. Auximetric plot for the four orders of Charadriiformes, Sphenisciformes, Procellariiformes and Pelecaniformes (see text).  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 33 from -0.32 for Sphenisciformes, to -0.12 for Pelecaniformes (Table 4). All regressions were statistically significant (P<0.05; Table 4). This justifies the use of auximetric plots in seabirds. DISCUSSION In the present study, relationships were established between the life-history parameters K and W∞, for a number of seabird populations around the globe. However, these relationships were based on information available for about 39% of the world’s seabirds (137 out of 351 in Karpouzi et al., 2007). Thus, these relationships are provisional and subject to change when additional information becomes available. Nonetheless, they can be particularly useful in estimating approximate values of K from W∞, and hence to obtain a preliminary growth curve for species without growth data. In addition, they allow us to compare growth patterns of seabirds to those from other groups of organisms, whose growth has also been described using the VBGF.  Similar studies that investigate the relationship between the growth parameters K and asymptotic size have also been conducted mainly for fish species of marine and freshwater ecosystems. In particular, Winemiller and Rose (1992) analyzed life-history patterns of 216 North American marine and freshwater fish species, belonging to 57 families. Pauly (1998) analyzed growth parameters for 4826 fish populations listed in FishBase (www.fishbase.org; Froese and Pauly, 2000). Stergiou (2000) explored life-history patterns for 40 fish species from Greek waters, belonging to 20 families, and compared them with those from Pauly (1998). Starck and Ricklefs (1998) compiled information on the growth parameters KL, KG and W∞ for 1117 populations, belonging to 557 bird species, from both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Out of these, 366 belonged to marine birds and represented 114 seabird species, and 13 families (Starck and Ricklefs, 1998). Ricklefs et al. (1998) and later Visser (2002) used these data to examine the relationship between KL and W∞. Their analyses revealed that growth rates are particularly low for many pelagic seabird species, and tend to be higher in species that feed close to shore, such as the larid species. In addition, highest growth rates are observed among penguin species (Ricklefs et al., 1998; Visser, 2002).  The VBGF parameters can be linked by the relation W∞=a*K-b (e.g., Beverton and Holt, 1959; Adams, 1980; Pauly, 1980; Charnov, 1993; Pauly, 1998; Froese and Pauly, 2000). For fish, the exponent b takes values that generally range from -0.27 to -0.80 (Charnov, 1993; Stergiou, 2000). The value of b for all Greek fish stocks is equal to -0.32 (Stergiou, 2000). In contrast, the value of b equals -0.57 for the 4826 populations analyzed by Pauly (1998). When all seabird populations were taken into account, the slope on the auximetric plot was equal to -0.21 (Table 5). This value was heavily influenced by 53% of the K and W∞ values of Charadriiformes (239 out of 447 seabird populations; Table 5). Hence, it may be subject to change when growth parameter estimates from other seabird species belonging to the other three orders becomes available. The auximetric plot revealed differences in the growth potential of the seabird species included in this study (Figure 3). Indeed, the growth spaces occupied by the four orders of seabirds seem to reflect differences in the seabirds’ breeding biology (e.g., adult foraging behaviour during chick-rearing; e.g., Fernández et al., 2001; parental feeding strategies; e.g., Ydenberg, 1989). In particular, tern and gull species with generally smaller body size exhibited faster growth rates (Figure 3). These are species that produce large clutches, which tend to transport food from areas close to shore to feed their young (e.g., Hulsman and Smith, 1988). On the other hand, alcid species, also characterized by small body size, grow more slowly (Figure 3). Alcid species produce single-egg clutches, and exhibit a more pelagic, nocturnal foraging behaviour (e.g., Sealy, 1973; Ricklefs, 1982, 1990). As a result, provisioning rates, and consequently growth rates of chicks, are reduced (e.g., Sealy, 1973; Ricklefs, 1982, 1990). Some procellariiform species (e.g., storm petrels of the family Hydrobatidae) also displayed a growth pattern similar to that of the alcid species (Table 4; Figure 3). Storm petrels are small in size. However, the growth rates of their chicks are relatively low (Table 4; Figure 3). Storm petrels feed far from nesting colonies on prey that is sparse and unpredictably distributed. The single-clutch size may suggest that their ability to deliver energy to the brood is severely limited (e.g., Place et al., 1989). Slow growth may be an adaptation to reduce the rate at which chicks require energy for development, thus making it easier for parents to utilize more distant and sparse food resources for breeding (e.g., Ricklefs et al., 1980; Place et al., 1989).  Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 34 The large-bodied Sphenisciformes (i.e., penguins) exhibited high growth rates (Tables 2 and 4; Figure 3). A similar growth pattern was also observed by Visser (2002). This has been interpreted as an adaptation to the severe Antarctic conditions that shorten the breeding season. Indeed, faster growth rates enable chicks to leave the colony before the beginning of the winter (Volkman and Trivelpiece, 1980; Visser, 2002). Lastly, albatross species with large body size exhibited slow growth rates (Tables 3 and 4; Figure 3). 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Growth parameters of seabird chicks re-estimated for this paper using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF), from body weight-at-age data published in the original studies. W∞ (g): the asymptotic weight of chicks; K (years-1) and to (in years): the growth constant and the hypothetical ‘age’ chicks would have at zero weight respectively. Species Area (Year) W∞ K to Source Alcidae      Aethia cristatella Buldir Is, Alaska (1996) 376 20.47 -0.011 Fraser et al. (1999)  Buldir Is, Alaska (1997) 358 20.62 -0.011 Fraser et al. (1999)  St Lawrence Is, Alaska (1987) 299 32.75 -0.018 Piatt et al. (1990) Aethia pusilla Kiska Is, Alaska (2003) 80 33.60 -0.018 Major et al. (2006)  Pribilof Is, Alaska (1982) 114 34.41 -0.018 Roby and Brink (1986)  St Lawrence Is, Alaska (1987) 95 35.40 -0.019 Piatt et al. (1990) Aethia pygmaea Buldir Is Alaska (1998) 113 32.92 -0.018 Hunter et al. (2002) Alca torda Machias Seal Is (1995) 189 44.81 -0.022 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (2003) 208 54.25 -0.022 Bond et al. (2006) Alle alle Franz Josef Land (1993) 152 44.37 -0.021 Stempniewicz et al. (1996)  Svalbard (1978) 138 41.05 -0.015 Clark and Ydenberg (1990)  Svalbard (1984) 136 37.53 -0.019 Clark and Ydenberg (1990)  Svalbard (1987) 178 30.53 -0.019 Konarzewski and Taylor (1989)  Svalbard (1992) 138 37.80 -0.019 Stempniewicz et al. (1996) Brachyramphus marmoratus Barren Is, Alaska (1978) 152 42.84 -0.021 Simons (1980)  Barren Is, Alaska (1979) 167 37.16 -0.020 Hirsch et al. (1981) Cepphus carbo Teuri Is, Japan (1989) 806 19.45 -0.017 Minami et al. (1995) Cepphus columba Farallon Is, California (1985) 447 28.59 -0.016 Ainley and Boekelheide (1990)  Mandarte Is, British Columbia (1960) 476 27.19 -0.017 Drent (1965)  Mitlenatch Is, British Columbia (1985) 421 29.61 -0.015 Emms and Verbeek (1991)  Prince William Sound, Alaska (1978) 607 26.04 -0.015 Oakley (1981)  Queen Charlotte Is, British Columbia (1991) 412 29.82 -0.016 Vermeer et al. (1993) Cepphus grylle Piqiuliit, Nunavut (1983) 404 28.10 -0.016 Cairns (1987)  Pitsiulak, Nunavut (1981) 386 28.53 -0.017 Cairns (1987)  Pitsiulak, Nunavut (1982) 408 26.76 -0.018 Cairns (1987)  Pitsiulak, Nunavut (1983) 447 26.09 -0.017 Cairns (1987)  Québec (1977) 448 25.60 -0.018 Cairns (1981) Cerorhinca monocerata Cleland Is, British Columbia (1969) 455 10.00 -0.054 Summers and Drent (1979)  Protection Is, Washington (1989) 355 7.15 -0.076 Wilson (1993)  Protection Is, Washington (1990) 392 6.01 -0.091 Wilson (1993)  Protection Is, Washington (1991) 455 5.69 -0.104 Wilson (1993)  Teuri Is, Japan (1994) 593 10.78 -0.005 Takahashi et al. (2001)  Teuri Is, Japan (1995) 615 10.20 -0.001 Takahashi et al. (2001)  Teuri Is, Japan (1996) 550 9.35 -0.006 Takahashi et al. (2001)  Teuri Is, Japan (1997) 329 7.10 -0.072 Takahashi et al. (2001)  Teuri Is, Japan (1998) 439 12.07 -0.004 Takahashi et al. (2001)  Triangle Is, British Columbia (1978) 406 22.04 -0.026 Vermeer and Cullen (1982) Cyclorrhynchus psittacula Buldir Is, Alaska (1991) 266 26.47 -0.017 Hipfner and Byrd (1993)    Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 45 Appendix 1. Continued      Species Area (Year) W∞ K to Source Fratercula arctica Bleiksøy, Norway (1982) 280 19.00 -0.039 Barrett et al. (1987)  Bleiksøy, Norway (1986) 118 36.54 -0.030 Barrett and Rikardsen (1992)  Bleiksøy, Norway (1987) 221 14.86 -0.053 Barrett and Rikardsen (1992)  Farne Is, UK (1963) 195 27.51 -0.028 Pearson (1968)  Gannet Is, Newfoundland (1996) 317 22.11 -0.028 Baillie and Jones (2003)  Gannet Is, Newfoundland (1997) 442 18.01 -0.032 Baillie and Jones (2003)  Gannet Is, Newfoundland (1998) 438 20.00 -0.029 Baillie and Jones (2003)  Gull Is, Newfoundland (1998) 236 26.61 -0.028 Baillie and Jones (2003)  Hornøy, Norway (1980) 387 29.49 -0.018 Barrett et al. (1987)  Hornøy, Norway (1981) 372 32.72 -0.020 Barrett and Rikardsen (1992)  Is May, UK (1975) 334 28.87 -0.018 Harris (1978)  Is May, UK (1992) 265 31.23 -0.024 Wernham and Bryant (1998)  Is May, UK (1995) 310 31.28 -0.019 Cook and Hamer (1997)  Machias Seal Is (1997) 367 26.58 -0.019 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (1999) 221 28.49 -0.029 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (2003) 379 19.74 -0.029 Bond et al. (2006)  Røst, Norway (1983) 377 27.15 -0.017 Barrett et al. (1987)  Røst, Norway (1984) 222 35.49 -0.020 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1985) 292 16.10 -0.040 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1988) 182 26.37 -0.030 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1989) 326 33.76 -0.019 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1990) 304 31.81 -0.018 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1991) 306 29.50 -0.018 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1992) 368 32.27 -0.018 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1993) 228 43.54 -0.019 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1996) 219 37.92 -0.021 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (1999) 260 43.68 -0.020 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  Røst, Norway (2000) 188 53.82 -0.022 Anker-Nilssen and Aarvak (2002)  W Scotland, UK (1975) 339 21.81 -0.025 Harris (1978)  Wales, UK (1977) 353 27.07 -0.016 Ashcroft (1979)  Wales, UK (1978) 337 23.81 -0.017 Hudson (1979) Fratercula cirrhata Destruction Is, Washington (1975) 528 25.50 -0.017 Burrell (1980)  Prince William Sound, Alaska (1995) 604 25.82 -0.017 Piatt et al. (1997)  Triangle Is, British Columbia (2000) 517 29.38 -0.027 Gjerdrum (2004) Fratercula corniculata Duck Is, Alaska (1995) 511 20.31 -0.033 Harding et al. (2003)  Duck Is, Alaska (1996) 371 26.23 -0.025 Harding et al. (2003)  Duck Is, Alaska (1997) 472 20.43 -0.039 Harding et al. (2003)  Duck Is, Alaska (1998) 303 33.01 -0.026 Harding et al. (2003)  Duck Is, Alaska (1999) 402 31.80 -0.021 Harding et al. (2003)                                Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 46 Appendix 1. Continued     Species Area (Year) W  ∞ K to Source Ptychoramphus aleuticus California Channel Is (2001) 150 26.45 -0.027 Ackerman et al. (2004)  California (1959) 155 30.42 -0.016 Thoresen (1964)  Farallon Is, California (1971) 192 21.59 -0.014 Manuwal (1974)  Triangle Is, British Columbia (1996) 118 32.70 -0.018 Hedd et al. (2002a)  Triangle Is, British Columbia (1997) 149 31.15 -0.018 Hedd et al. (2002a)  Triangle Is, British Columbia (1998) 136 27.99 -0.021 Hedd et al. (2002a)  Triangle Is, British Columbia (1999) 187 25.48 -0.019 Hedd et al. (2002a) Uria aalge Farne Is, UK (1963) 169 55.21 -0.023 Pearson (1968)  Is May, UK (1992) 267 54.34 -0.022 Harris and Wanless (1995)  St Lawrence Is, Alaska (1972) 229 38.73 -0.026 Johnson and West (1975)  Sweden (1974) 320 36.74 -0.021 Hedgren and Linnman (1979)  Sweden (1975) 278 43.02 -0.021 Hedgren and Linnman (1979)  Sweden (1976) 291 37.97 -0.022 Hedgren and Linnman (1979)  Sweden (1977) 292 39.64 -0.021 Hedgren and Linnman (1979)  Wales, UK (1987) 234 45.19 -0.022 Hatchwell (1991) Uria lomvia Cape Hay, Northwest Territories (1979) 215 44.67 -0.021 Birkhead and Nettleship (1981)  Coats Is, Nunavut (1991) 268 41.66 -0.021 de Forest and Gaston (1996)  Coats Is, Nunavut (1994) 268 37.92 -0.024 Hipfner et al. (2006)  Coats Is, Nunavut (1995) 231 41.69 -0.023 Hipfner et al. (2006)  Coburg Is, Northwest Territories (1979) 247 41.48 -0.021 Birkhead and Nettleship (1981)  Digges Is, Nunavut (1999) 137 56.41 -0.023 Hipfner et al. (2006)  Prince Leopold Is, Nunavut (2000) 305 33.09 -0.019 Gaston et al. (2005)  Prince Leopold Is, Nunavut (2001) 200 36.92 -0.021 Gaston et al. (2005)  Prince Leopold Is, Nunavut (2002) 117 41.05 -0.024 Gaston et al. (2005)  St Lawrence Is, Alaska (1972) 211 48.51 -0.023 Johnson and West (1975) Diomedeidae      Diomedea amsterdamensis Amsterdam Is (1984) 8818 7.58 -0.028 Jouventin et al. (1989) Diomedea exulans Crozet Is (1986) 12249 7.06 -0.033 Lequette and Weimerskirch (1990)  Crozet Is (1994) 11557 8.35 -0.038 Weimerskirch and Lys (2000)  Crozet Is (2000) 15243 3.22 -0.006 Mabille et al. (2004) Phoebastria immutabilis Midway Atoll, Hawaii (1965) 2478 15.72 -0.037 Fisher (1967) Phoebetria palpebrata Macquarie Is (2001) 3741 16.58 -0.011 Terauds and Gales (2006)  S Georgia (1977) 3247 16.46 -0.017 Thomas et al. (1983) Thalassarche cauta Albatross Is, Australia (1998) 5986 10.84 -0.060 Hedd et al. (2002b) Thalassarche chlororhynchos Amsterdam Is (1996) 2921 22.29 -0.041 Weimerskirch et al. (2001)  Amsterdam Is (1997) 2492 14.42 -0.086 Weimerskirch et al. (2001)  Amsterdam Is (2001) 2732 31.01 -0.029 Pinaud et al. (2005) Thalassarche chrysostoma S Georgia (1976) 5090 12.02 -0.025 Ricketts and Prince (1981)  S Georgia (1996) 3755 17.18 -0.003 Huin and Prince (2000) Thalassarche melanophris S Georgia (1976) 5540 12.92 -0.023 Ricketts and Prince (1981)  S Georgia (1996) 4002 17.93 -0.006 Huin and Prince (2000) Fregatidae      Fregata magnificens Baja California, Mexico (1988) 1424 10.58 -0.021 Carmona et al. (1995)  Barbuda (1971) 1369 9.15 -0.042 Diamond (1973)  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 47 Appendix 1. Continued     Species Area (Year) W  ∞ K to Source Hydrobatidae      Fregetta tropica Crozet Is (1982) 50 32.70 -0.023 Jouventin et al. (1985)  S Shetland Is (1996) 118 20.74 -0.022 Hahn (1998) Garrodia nereis Chatham Is, New Zealand (1987) 74 22.53 -0.019 Plant (1989) Hydrobates pelagicus Shetland Is, UK (1992) 40 23.69 -0.024 Bolton (1995) Oceanites oceanicus Crozet Is (1982) 36 32.36 -0.023 Jouventin et al. (1985)  S Shetland Is (1996) 59 33.99 -0.017 Quillfeldt and Peter (2000)  W Antarctic Peninsula (1986) 58 26.92 -0.025 Obst and Nagy (1993)       Oceanodroma furcata Barren Is, Alaska (1976) 87 26.24 -0.021 Boersma et al. (1980)  Barren Is, Alaska (1977) 80 21.67 -0.028 Boersma et al. (1980)  Barren Is, Alaska (1978) 86 28.28 -0.018 Simons (1981)  Queen Charlotte Is, British Columbia (1983) 76 30.29 -0.020 Vermeer et al. (1988) Oceanodroma leucorhoa Kent Is, New Brunswick (1962) 73 27.30 -0.018 Ricklefs et al. (1985)  Kent Is, New Brunswick (1972) 58 24.26 -0.023 Ricklefs et al. (1980)  Kent Is, New Brunswick (1983) 72 24.29 -0.022 Ricklefs et al. (1985)  Kent Is, New Brunswick (1988) 76 17.50 -0.041 Ricklefs and Schew (1994)  Queen Charlotte Is, British Columbia (1983) 65 27.30 -0.020 Vermeer et al. (1988) Oceanodroma tristrami Laysan Is, Hawaii (1991) 90 26.89 -0.009 Marks and Leasure (1992) Pelagodroma marina Selvagem Grande (1996) 58 42.52 -0.019 Campos and Granadeiro (1999)  Victoria, Australia (2003) 74 34.22 -0.017 Underwood and Bunce (2004)  Victoria, Australia (2003) 63 16.12 -0.042 Underwood and Bunce (2004) Laridae      Anous minutus Hawaii (1981) 117 33.44 -0.019 Pettit et al. (1984a) Anous stolidus Manana Is, Hawaii (1972) 171 31.73 -0.018 Brown (1976a)  Puerto Rico (1989) 180 33.19 -0.018 Morris and Chardine (1992)  Seychelles (1995) 214 21.94 -0.027 Ramos et al. (2006)  Seychelles (1996) 187 27.39 -0.017 Ramos et al. (2006)  Seychelles (2001) 226 19.06 -0.020 Ramos et al. (2006)  Tern Is, Hawaii (1989) 222 25.36 -0.024 Megyesi and Griffin (1996) Anous tenuirostris Houtman Abrolhos, Australia (1991) 110 34.26 -0.020 Surman and Wooller (1995)  Seychelles (1995) 100 34.61 -0.019 Ramos et al. (2006)  Seychelles (1996) 106 37.33 -0.019 Ramos et al. (2006)  Seychelles (1997) 104 28.84 -0.026 Ramos et al. (2006)  Seychelles (2001) 100 38.66 -0.019 Ramos et al. (2006)  Seychelles (2002) 83 44.31 -0.019 Ramos et al. (2006) Chlidonias niger The Netherlands (1995) 78 41.13 -0.019 Beintema (1997) Creagrus furcatus Galápagos (1966) 701 20.37 -0.015 Harris (1970a)  Galápagos (1967) 752 16.55 -0.027 Harris (1970a) Gygis alba Hawaii (1981) 117 18.58 -0.021 Pettit et al. (1984a) Larus argentatus Appledore Is, New Hampshire (1973) 1084 18.87 -0.017 Dunn and Brisbin (1980)  Germany (1996) 746 30.91 -0.012 Wilkens and Exo (1998) Larus atricilla Florida (1976) 353 25.89 -0.017 Schreiber and Schreiber (1980)        Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 48 Appendix 1. Continued     Species Area (Year) W  ∞ K to Source Larus audouini Columbretes Is, Spain (2000) 620 30.40 -0.007 Villuendas and Sarzo (2003)  Turkey (1974) 743 21.24 -0.018 Witt (1977) Larus californicus California (1986) 897 19.40 -0.010 Jehl et al. (1990) Larus fuscus Farne Is, UK (1963) 717 15.56 -0.030 Pearson (1968) Larus glaucescens Mandarte Is, British Columbia (1978) 1308 19.38 -0.013 Verbeek and Morgan (1980)  Squab Is, Alaska (1979) 1326 22.25 -0.017 Murphy et al. (1984)  Squab Is, Alaska (1980) 2189 12.43 -0.026 Murphy et al. (1984) Larus modestus Chile (1986) 302 19.11 -0.005 Guerra et al. (1988) Larus occidentalis Farallon Is, California (1970) 902 23.70 -0.016 Coulter (1979)  San Nicolas Is, California (1968) 904 24.65 -0.016 Schreiber (1970) Larus ridibundus Germany (1986) 325 26.58 -0.018 Nelsen and Brandl (1987) er  The Netherlands (2002) 395 20.28 -0.023 Müll et al. (2005) Larus schistisagus Teuri Is, Japan (1984) 1612 16.67 -0.015 Watanuki (1992)  Teuri Is, Japan (1985) 1668 16.38 -0.013 Watanuki (1992) Procelsterna cerulea Nihoa Is, Hawaii (1981) 63 28.54 -0.008 Rauzon et al. (1984) Rissa brevirostris St George Is, Alaska (1993) 422 29.68 -0.018 Lance and Roby (2000) Rissa tridactyla Bleiksøy, Norway (1986) 503 24.97 -0.017 Barrett (1989)  Farne Is, UK (1963) 218 35.00 -0.020 Pearson (1968)  Middleton Is, Alaska (1996) 402 31.26 -0.018 Gill et al. (2002)  Middleton Is, Alaska (1997) 430 25.53 -0.023 Gill et al. (2002)  Newfoundland (1970) 415 35.85 -0.018 Maunder and Threlfall (1972)  Norway (1973) 518 25.50 -0.018 Barrett and Runde (1980)  Norway (1974) 474 30.58 -0.017 Barrett and Runde (1980)  Norway (1976) 476 30.90 -0.018 Barrett and Runde (1980)  Prince William Sound, Alaska (1996) 497 29.46 -0.017 Suryan et al. (2002)  Prince William Sound, Alaska (1997) 534 25.96 -0.016 Suryan et al. (2002)  Prince William Sound, Alaska (1998) 451 28.70 -0.018 Suryan et al. (2002)  Prince William Sound, Alaska (1999) 459 30.08 -0.017 Suryan et al. (2002)  St George Is, Alaska (1993) 544 26.44 -0.017 Lance and Roby (2000) Sterna albifrons Portugal (2003) 61 30.60 -0.018 Paiva et al. (2006) Sterna anaethetus Great Barrier Reef (1980) 128 23.08 -0.031 Hulsman and Langham (1985)  Penguin Is, Australia (1990) 119 27.28 -0.024 Garavanta and Wooller (2000) Sterna caspia California (1978) 624 30.25 -0.015 Schew et al. (1994)  New Zealand (1993) 622 27.58 -0.018 Barlow and Dowding (2002) Sterna dougallii Great Barrier Reef (1986) 92 24.12 -0.029 Milton et al. (1996)  Rhode Is (1967) 124 34.79 -0.018 LeCroy and Collins (1972)  Rhode Is Sound (1990) 107 42.46 -0.018 Nisbet et al. (1995) Sterna elegans California (1999) 221 26.67 -0.020 Dahdul and Horn (2003) Sterna fuscata Hawaii (1972) 193 24.01 -0.025 Brown (1976b)                                Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 49 Appendix 1. Continued     Species Area (Year) W  ∞ K to Source Sterna hirundo Bird Is, Massachusetts (1999) 136 37.74 -0.019 Apanius and Nisbet (2006)  Couquet Is, UK (1966) 181 27.70 -0.017 Langham (1972)  Farne Is, UK (1963) 86 38.96 -0.021 Pearson (1968)  Germany (1999) 150 33.83 -0.019 Becker and Wink (2003)  Machias Seal Is (1995) 149 31.18 -0.018 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (1996) 185 23.99 -0.017 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (1997) 127 33.96 -0.019 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (1999) 142 36.34 -0.018 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (2000) 125 34.90 -0.019 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (2001) 109 41.60 -0.019 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (2002) 134 33.91 -0.017 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (2003) 170 26.11 -0.016 Bond et al. (2006)  Québec (1983) 145 37.28 -0.018 Chapdelaine et al. (1985)  Rhode Is (1967) 102 35.24 -0.020 LeCroy and Collins (1972)  The Netherlands (1989) 108 39.27 -0.018 Klaassen et al. (1994)  The Netherlands (1990) 124 37.44 -0.017 Klaassen (1994)                   Sterna paradisaea Farne Is, UK (1963) 73 38.42 -0.021 Pearson (1968)  Machias Seal Is (1996) 90 44.12 -0.019 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (1997) 119 40.63 -0.019 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (1998) 151 27.39 -0.017 Bond et al. (2006)  Machias Seal Is (2002) 104 40.25 -0.018 Bond et al. (2006)  Québec (1983) 125 38.74 -0.018 Chapdelaine et al. (1985)  Svalbard (1986) 143 34.68 -0.018 Klaassen et al. (1989)  The Netherlands (1989) 103 40.63 -0.018 Klaassen et al. (1994)  The Netherlands (1990) 140 37.90 -0.017 Klaassen (1994) Sterna sandvicensis Farne Is, UK (1963) 114 43.36 -0.022 Pearson (1968)  The Netherlands (1998) 245 34.80 -0.018 Stienen and Brenninkmeijer (2002) Sterna sumatrana Great Barrier Reef (1986) 133 26.55 -0.018 Hulsman and Smith (1988) Sterna virgata Crozet Is (1982) 94 44.17 -0.017 Weimerskirch and Stahl (1988)  S Shetland Is (1979) 166 32.50 -0.017 Jabłoński (1995)  S Shetland Is (1981) 216 34.48 -0.016 Jabłoński (1995)  S Shetland Is (1991) 159 32.91 -0.018 Klaassen (1994) Pelecanidae      Pelecanus occidentalis Florida (1972) 3812 20.72 -0.006 Schreiber (1976) Pelecanoididae      Pelecanoides georgicus Crozet Is (1982) 126 25.09 -0.028 Jouventin et al. (1985) Pelecanoides urinatrix Crozet Is (1982) 134 31.40 -0.015 Jouventin et al. (1985)                          Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 50 Appendix 1. Continued      Species Area (Year) W∞ K to Source Phaethontidae      Phaethon lepturus Aldabra Atoll (1968) 433 18.40 -0.029 Diamond (1975)  Aldabra Atoll (1969) 387 20.84 -0.027 Diamond (1975)  Puerto Rico (1986) 442 25.12 -0.012 Schaffner (1990)  Seychelles (2002) 360 21.53 -0.015 Ramos and Pacheco (2003) Phaethon rubricauda Aldabra Atoll (1968) 985 15.11 -0.031 Diamond (1975)  Aldabra Atoll (1969) 988 11.64 -0.038 Diamond (1975)  Christmas Is (1967) 813 23.85 -0.016 Schreiber (1994)  Christmas Is (1991) 624 15.80 -0.030 Schreiber (1994)  Green Is, Hawaii (1965) 781 22.05 -0.015 Fleet (1974)  Johnston Atoll (1986) 726 21.57 -0.011 Schreiber (1994)  Johnston Atoll (1991) 801 20.88 -0.014 Schreiber (1994)  Johnston Atoll (1992) 746 19.99 -0.017 Schreiber (1994) Phalacrocoracidae      Hypoleucos auritus E Bic Reef, Québec (1978) 1997 21.88 -0.013 DesGranges (1982)  E Bicquette Is, Québec (1978) 2446 19.09 -0.009 DesGranges (1982)  Grand Metis Is, Québec (1978) 2131 21.33 -0.011 DesGranges (1982)  Shoals Is, New Hampshire (1972) 3188 19.32 -0.009 Dunn (1975)  SW Razade Reef, Québec (1978) 2288 22.07 -0.011 DesGranges (1982)  W Bicquette Reef, Québec (1978) 3462 14.45 -0.007 DesGranges (1982) Hypoleucos brasiliensis Chile (1997) 1565 12.13 -0.007 Kalmbach and Becker (2005) Microcarbo africanus S Africa (1993) 477 33.14 -0.015 Kopij (1996) Microcarbo pygmaeus Israel (2001) 514 32.43 -0.012 Shmueli et al. (2003)             Notocarbo atriceps Argentina (1993) 2475 19.58 -0.012 Punta et al. (2003)  Heard and McDonald Is (1993) 3312 19.93 -0.012 Green (1997)  S Georgia (1989) 2944 17.92 -0.027 Wanless and Harris (1993) Phalacrocorax carbo Greece (1994) 2735 21.18 -0.012 Goutner et al. (1997)  Israel (2001) 2282 21.26 -0.004 Shmueli et al. (2003) Strictocarbo aristotelis Bleiksøy, Norway (1986) 2712 15.85 -0.011 Barrett (1989)  Farne Is, UK (1963) 1027 20.60 -0.013 Pearson (1968)  Is May, UK (1998) 1854 22.77 -0.011 Daunt et al. (2001)  Norway (1995) 2046 22.19 -0.007 Østnes et al. (2001) Procellariidae      Bulweria bulwerii Madeira (1995) 142 34.45 -0.017 Nunes and Vicente (1998) Calonectris diomedea Azores (1995) 1040 22.59 -0.016 Ramos et al. (2003)  Portugal (1987) 1042 25.59 -0.015 Granadeiro (1991)  Selvagem Grande (1969) 895 20.83 -0.026 Zino (1971)  Selvagem Grande (1991) 977 61.46 -0.023 Hamer and Hill (1993) Daption capense S Shetland Is (1992) 582 20.61 -0.026 Weidinger (1998) Fulmarus glacialis Shetland Is, UK (1997) 959 29.38 -0.008 Phillips and Hamer (2000)  Shetland Is, UK (1997) 879 26.20 -0.017 Gray et al. (2003)  Shetland Is, UK (1998) 993 25.12 -0.017 Gray et al. (2003)  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 51 Appendix 1. Continued      Species Area (Year) W∞ K to Source Fulmarus glacialoides Prydz Bay, Antarctica (1989) 1059 28.59 -0.018 Norman and Ward (1992) Halobaena caerulea Crozet Is (1982) 222 28.72 -0.019 Jouventin et al. (1985)  Prince Edward Is (1983) 198 34.51 -0.020 Fugler et al. (1987) Lugensa brevirostris Crozet Is (1982) 308 19.76 -0.052 Jouventin et al. (1985)  Prince Edward Is (1980) 356 29.66 -0.022 Schramm (1983) Macronectes giganteus Prince Edward Is (1977) 4505 15.30 -0.008 Cooper et al. (2001) Macronectes halli Prince Edward Is (1977) 5194 14.43 -0.011 Cooper et al. (2001) Pachyptila belcheri Falkland Is (1978) 239 29.44 -0.016 Strange (1980)  Falkland Is (2003) 263 19.12 -0.028 Quillfeldt et al. (2007)  Falkland Is (2004) 181 29.15 -0.018 Quillfeldt et al. (2007)  Falkland Is (2005) 155 31.60 -0.016 Quillfeldt et al. (2007) Pachyptila desolata S Georgia (1992) 225 35.35 -0.013 Reid et al. (1999) Pachyptila salvini Crozet Is (1982) 164 19.51 -0.035 Jouventin et al. (1985)  Prince Edward Is (1981) 158 36.08 -0.020 Berruti and Hunter (1986) Pachyptila turtur S Georgia (1983) 182 33.60 -0.016 Prince and Copestake (1990) Pagodroma nivea Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (1985) 322 17.51 -0.036 Røv (1990) Procellaria aequinoctialis Prince Edward Is (1981) 1429 20.36 -0.016 Berruti et al. (1985)  S Georgia (1986) 1496 18.99 -0.013 Hall (1987) Procellaria cinerea Kerguelen Is (1988) 1394 13.14 -0.038 Zotier (1990a)  Prince Edward Is (1982) 1247 17.31 -0.015 Newton and Fugler (1989) Pseudobulweria rostrata New Caledonia (2004) 583 15.52 -0.047 Villard et al. (2006) Pterodroma arminjoniana Mauritius (1978) 513 22.83 -0.024 Gardner et al. (1985) Pterodroma atrata Pitcairn Is (1990) 379 25.86 -0.015 de L. Brooke (1995) Pterodroma axillaris Chatham Is, New Zealand (1997) 328 26.44 -0.013 Gardner (1999) Pterodroma hypoleuca Midway Atoll, Hawaii (1981) 239 24.75 -0.022 Pettit et al. (1982) Pterodroma incerta Gough Is (2001) 762 5.89 -0.118 Cuthbert (2004) Pterodroma lessoni Kerguelen Is (1987) 108 16.13 -0.023 Zotier (1990b) Pterodroma leucoptera New South Wales, Australia (2001) 279 17.07 -0.038 O’Dwyer et al. (2006) Pterodroma macroptera Prince Edward Is (1980) 444 20.41 -0.022 Schramm (1983)  Prince Edward Is (1982) 621 12.84 -0.037 Newton and Fugler (1989) Pterodroma mollis Crozet Is (1982) 295 18.60 -0.038 Jouventin et al. (1985)  Prince Edward Is (1980) 341 22.44 -0.024 Schramm (1983) Pterodroma nigripennis Lord Howe Is, Australia (1990) 237 21.31 -0.024 Hutton and Priddel (2002) Pterodroma phaeopygia Galápagos (1986) 536 18.03 -0.032 Cruz and Cruz (1990)  Galápagos (1966) 423 22.04 -0.034 Harris (1970b)  Hawaii (1981) 540 19.84 -0.018 Simons (1985) Pterodroma pycrofti New Zealand (2001) 227 50.45 -0.025 Gangloff and Wilson (2004) Puffinus assimilis Lord Howe Is, Australia (1989) 222 28.83 -0.014 Priddel et al. (2003)  New Zealand (1994) 278 24.13 -0.016 Booth et al. (2000) Puffinus gravis Gough Is (2001) 1157 21.12 -0.020 Cuthbert (2005) Puffinus griseus New Zealand (1944) 1147 11.50 -0.035 Richdale (1945) Puffinus huttoni New Zealand (1999) 507 23.17 -0.023 Cuthbert and Davis (2002) Puffinus opisthomelas Natividad Is, Mexico (1998) 395 25.96 -0.019 Keitt et al. (2003)        Life-history patterns in marine birds, Karpouzi, V., Pauly, D. 52 Appendix 1. Continued      Species Area (Year) W∞ K to Source Puffinus pacificus Kilauea Point, Hawaii (1978) 489 14.00 -0.039 Pettit et al. (1984b)  Kilauea Point, Hawaii (1979) 479 21.89 -0.025 Pettit et al. (1984b)  Kilauea Point, Hawaii (1980) 456 18.10 -0.031 Pettit et al. (1984b)  Manana Is, Hawaii (1978) 427 19.19 -0.029 Pettit et al. (1984b)  Manana Is, Hawaii (1979) 441 18.88 -0.030 Pettit et al. (1984b)  Manana Is, Hawaii (1984) 476 14.50 -0.044 Fry et al. (1986)  Tern Is, Hawaii (1979) 503 15.86 -0.033 Pettit et al. (1984b) Puffinus puffinus Faeroe Is (1981) 427 28.02 -0.015 Bech et al. (1982)  Wales, UK (1995) 559 23.71 -0.016 Hamer and Hill (1997)  Wales, UK (1996) 525 22.96 -0.018 Hamer et al. (1998)  Wales, UK (1999) 680 20.55 -0.010 Gray et al. (2005) Puffinus tenuirostris Great Dog Is, Australia (1995) 930 12.85 -0.032 Hamer et al. (1997) Thalassoica antarctica Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (1984) 640 23.89 -0.022 Røv (1990)  Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (1985) 1058 15.57 -0.027 Haftorn et al. (1991)  Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (1992) 852 22.14 -0.023 Lorentsen (1996)  Prydz Bay, Antarctica (1989) 1057 30.53 -0.017 Norman and Ward (1992) Spheniscidae      Aptenodytes patagonicus Crozet Is (2000) 5797 12.22 -0.024 de Margerie et al. (2004)  Heard and McDonald Is (1992) 11010 9.38 -0.007 Moore et al. (1998)  Prince Edward Is (1989) 10033 7.56 -0.037 van Heezik et al. (1993) Eudyptes chrysocome Macquarie Is (1956) 2786 17.35 -0.010 Warham (1963)  Macquarie Is (1994) 2763 14.87 -0.004 Hull et al. (2004)  Macquarie Is (1995) 2551 11.67 -0.013 Hull et al. (2004)  Macquarie Is (1996) 2808 14.96 -0.010 Hull et al. (2004)  Prince Edward Is (1985) 1902 20.26 -0.015 Brown (1987) Eudyptes chrysolophus Prince Edward Is (1985) 2609 15.57 -0.035 Brown (1987)  S Georgia (1986) 4739 14.56 -0.017 Williams (1990)  S Georgia (1998) 4369 11.89 -0.030 Barlow and Croxall (2002)  S Georgia (1999) 3502 18.00 -0.015 Barlow and Croxall (2002)  S Georgia (2000) 4302 14.00 -0.026 Barlow and Croxall (2002) Eudyptula minor Penguin Is, Australia (1989) 1018 25.46 -0.016 Wienecke et al. (2000)  Penguin Is, Australia (1990) 1190 23.54 -0.017 Wienecke et al. (2000)  Penguin Is, Australia (1991) 1242 21.77 -0.016 Wienecke et al. (2000) Megadyptes antipodes New Zealand (1937) 6026 13.37 -0.004 van Heezik (1991)  New Zealand (1938) 7563 9.74 -0.020 van Heezik (1991)  New Zealand (1940) 5640 13.10 -0.012 van Heezik (1991)  New Zealand (1984) 6543 14.11 -0.003 van Heezik (1990)  New Zealand (1985) 6078 13.76 -0.013 van Heezik (1990)  New Zealand (1986) 4184 17.69 -0.010 van Heezik (1990)                                Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  53 Appendix 1. Continued      Species Area (Year) W∞ K to Source Pygoscelis adeliae Humble Is, Antarctica (1989) 4134 17.47 -0.016 Salihoglu et al. (2001)  Humble Is, Antarctica (1990) 5749 8.67 -0.072 Salihoglu et al. (2001)  Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica (1989) 5107 16.52 -0.032 Watanuki et al. (1992)  Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica (1990) 3983 20.84 -0.021 Watanuki et al. (1992)  Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica (1991) 2567 32.00 -0.020 Watanuki et al. (1992)  Ross Is, Antarctica (1970) 3420 22.97 -0.015 Ainley and Schlatter (1972)  Torgersen Is, Antarctica (1989) 3651 16.77 -0.042 Salihoglu et al. (2001)  Torgersen Is, Antarctica (1990) 5190 9.57 -0.064 Salihoglu et al. (2001) Pygoscelis antarctica S Shetland Is (1980) 3914 22.55 -0.012 Taylor (1985)  S Shetland Is (1990) 4058 22.33 -0.020 Croll et al. (2006)  S Shetland Is (1991) 4643 17.05 -0.014 Croll et al. (2006)  S Shetland Is (1992) 4621 19.06 -0.015 Croll et al. (2006)  S Shetland Is (1993) 3170 21.54 -0.013 Moreno et al. (1994) Pygoscelis papua S Shetland Is (1980) 6739 13.55 -0.012 Taylor (1985) Spheniscus demersus S Africa (1974) 1930 14.62 -0.026 Cooper (1977) Spheniscus magellanicus Argentina (1991) 3840 12.63 -0.018 Frere et al. (1998)  Argentina (1992) 5030 9.53 -0.028 Frere et al. (1998)  S Chile (1997) 3667 18.18 -0.008 Radl and Culik (1999) Stercorariidae      Catharacta antarctica S Georgia (2001) 2199 16.89 -0.013 Phillips et al. (2004)  S Georgia (2002) 1808 20.53 -0.012 Phillips et al. (2004)  S Georgia (2003) 1938 20.55 -0.011 Phillips et al. (2004) Catharacta maccormicki Prydz Bay, Antarctica (1990) 1726 14.86 -0.030 Wang and Norman (1993)  S Shetland Is (2001) 1347 23.05 -0.012 Ritz et al. (2005) Stercorarius longicaudus E Greenland (1975) 306 31.88 -0.015 de Korte (1986) Sulidae      Morus bassanus Baccalieu Is, Newfoundland (1979) 4123 17.54 -0.006 Montevecchi et al. (1984)  Magdalen Is, Québec (1979) 4477 15.48 -0.011 Kirkham and Montevecchi (1982)  Québec (1965) 4708 15.15 -0.011 Poulin (1968)  Scotland, UK (1962) 4746 15.39 -0.008 Nelson (1964)  Scotland, UK (1976) 4732 15.33 -0.008 Wanless (1984) Morus capensis S Africa (1967) 3390 15.81 -0.009 Jarvis (1974)  S Africa (1974) 3671 14.81 -0.007 Cooper (1978)  S Africa (1988) 3461 15.41 -0.009 Navarro (1991) Morus serrator Victoria, Australia (1995) 3668 15.82 -0.006 Gibbs et al. (2000)  Victoria, Australia (1999) 3457 16.58 -0.007 Bunce (2001)       Sula dactylatra Ascension Is (1960) 1952 17.60 -0.009 Dorward (1962)  Kure Atoll, Hawaii (1965) 2107 18.25 -0.001 Kepler (1969)  Lord Howe Is, Australia (2002) 2260 17.74 -0.011 Priddel et al. (2005) Sula nebouxii Galápagos (1964) 1939 14.74 -0.005 Duffy and Ricklefs (1981)  Lobos de Tierra Is, Peru (1979) 1669 19.54 -0.020 Duffy and Ricklefs (1981) Sula sula Galápagos (1963) 956 9.63 -0.014 Nelson (1969)  Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 54 GROWTH OF MARINE REPTILES1 M.L. Deng Palomares The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email:m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca Christine Dar The SeaLifeBase Project, WorldFish Center, Khush Hall, IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: c.dar@cgiar.org Gary Fry CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, PO Box 120, Cleveland Qld Australia 4163; Email: gary.fry@csiro.au ABSTRACT Growth data were obtained from the scientific literature and re-expressed according to the von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) using a variety of methods. This resulted in 103 population estimates of VBGF parameters for 27 species of marine reptiles, i.e., marine iguana, saltwater crocodile, 8 species of sea turtles and 16 species of aquatic snakes. A frequency distribution of the growth performance index (Ф’) values indicate two peaks, i.e., index values at 2.75 for sea turtles and marine iguana and at 3.75 for sea snakes, while saltwater crocodiles have index values at the tail of the distribution (4.75-5.25). The auximetric plot of log10K against log10W∞ indicates that like marine mammals, seabirds and invertebrates, marine reptiles exhibit the same growth patterns as those of fish and thus, their growth can be expressed according to the VBGF. INTRODUCTION Marine reptiles consist of 77 species belonging to 4 major groups, i.e., marine iguana (1 species), saltwater crocodile (1), sea turtles (8) and sea snakes (67; Kharin, 2008, see Bell, 1843). Sea turtles are circumglobal whereas sea snakes are distributed mostly around the eastern Indo-Pacific region. The marine iguana, Crocodylus porosus, is endemic to the Galapagos Islands (Kruuk & Snell, 1981). The crocodile, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is the only crocodile inhabiting marine and freshwaters in the Indo-Pacific (Mead et al., 2002). There are 9 reptile species included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2007), which include 7 species of sea turtles, i.e., 3 are listed as critically endangered (Dermochelys coriacea, Eretmochelys imbricata, Lepidochelys kempii), 3 as endangered (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Lepidochelys olivacea) and Natator depressus as data defficient, the marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus is listed as vulnerable, and the Atlantic salt marsh snake, Nerodia clarkii as of least concern (see also Ineich & Laboute 2002). These 9 species represent 12% of all species of marine reptiles existing in the world, which is a high percentage; it is due to the fact that these animals grow to large sizes and have slower metabolic and turn over rates. In spite of reptiles’ vulnerability to extinction, studies on reptilian life history are few and usually serological in nature (e.g., Rogers, 1902-1903) and are usually on terrestrial species, e.g., on sexual dimorphism and diet (e.g., Shine et al., 2002; Camilleri & Shine, 1990), reproductive strategies (e.g., Shine, 1988; Lemen & Voris, 1981), body size (e.g., Boback & Guyer, 2003) and patterns of growth (e.g., Shine & Charnov, 1992). Most studies focusing on sea snakes lack discussions on the growth of these                                                  1 Cite as: Palomares, M.L.D., Dar, C., Fry, G., 2008. Growth of marine reptiles. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 54-81.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 55 animals and even the review of sea snake biology by Dunson (1975), though comprehensive, did not include growth. Recent interest, notably on the effect of trawl fisheries to sea snake populations, e.g., in Australia (Ward, 2001; Fry et al., 2001; Ward, 2000) indicate a need for growth parameters for sea snakes. In response to this, growth data were compiled from various published references. In addition, these were used to confirm that the von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) can indeed describe the growth of marine reptiles as suggested for snakes and lizards in Shine & Charnov (1992) and for sea turtles in Jones et al. (2008) even though they have body shapes, i.e., elongate or box-like, different from fish, for which the VBGF has been largely used. The data assembled here and the VBGF parameters estimated will be made available via the online information system, SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org) in the hope that they could be used in the assessment and management of marine reptilian stocks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Growth parameter estimation Growth data for species in their natural environment (wild) representing a reasonable range of sizes were assembled from various published literature, i.e., (i) growth parameter estimates; (ii) length-at age or growth increment data; and (iii) length-frequency distributions (carapace length (CL) for sea turtles and snout-vent length (SVL) for sea snakes, marine crocodile and iguana). Data in (i), if expressed in functions other than the von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF), e.g., Gompetz and logistic curves, were re- expressed as VBGF parameters. Data in (ii) were fitted directly to the von Bertalanffy growth function (von Bertalanffy, 1957): Lt = L∞(1-e-K(t-t0)) … 1) where Lt is the length at age t, L∞ is the asymptotic length, K is a growth coefficient (growth rate towards the maximum), and t0 is the age at which length is zero. Data in (iii) were fitted to the Powell-Wetherall Plot (PW-Plot; see Pauly, 1998; Wetherall, 1986; Powell, 1979) to estimate L∞, based on the assumption that the resulting distribution is representative of the population. The PW-Plot consists of pointer parameters, i.e., mean (Lmean) and cut off (Li) lengths. A series of mean lengths (Lmean), computed from successive cut-off lengths (Li+1), minus the Li (i.e., Lmean-Li) are plotted against Li. The resulting downward trend of points were fitted to a linear regression where L∞ is estimated as a/-b and Z/K as (1+b)/(-b), Z being the total instantaneous mortality of an exploited population, and conversely, is equivalent to M (natural mortality) if the population being studied is not exploited (see below). In cases where the data in (iii) were comprised of successive length-frequency distributions, the data were fitted to the VBGF using a non-parametric, robust approach known as ELEFAN (Pauly, 1987; 1998), implemented in the FiSAT software package (Gayanilo et al., 1996). In cases where only L∞ estimates were available, e.g., results of the PW-Plot, values of K were obtained using the growth performance index (Ф’) defined by Pauly & Munro (1984) as Ф’ = log10 K + 2·log10L∞, and mean values of Ф’, available from L∞ and K pairs for: (a) the same species in different localities; (b) other species in the same genus; (c) other species in the same family. Estimates of K obtained in this fashion are marked as such in SeaLifeBase and thus can be ignored when only independent estimates are sought. Asymptotic weight estimation Asymptotic weight, W∞, was estimated using the length-weight relationship of the form W = a · Lb … (2) where a is a multiplicative term equivalent to the y-intercept of the log-log transformed linear regression, L the asymptotic length, and b the isometric weight growth parameter, equivalent to the slope of the regression. In cases where sufficient length-weight data pairs were not available for linear regression analyses, condition factors (c.f.) using individual length-weight pairs were estimated with  Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 56 c.f. = W · 100/L3, where W is the weight in grams, and L the length in centimeters (Pauly, 1984b). The value of the length-weight parameter a was then obtained as a = c.f./100, assuming that b=3. All lengths are expressed in centimeters and weights in grams. Mortality estimation The total instantaneous mortality (Z) of a given population is defined as: Nt2 = Nt1·e -Z·(t2-t1)  … 3) where Nt1 and Nt2 is the population size at time t1 and t2, respectively (Koch et al., 2007). The parameter Z is the sum of natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality (F). As marine reptiles are exploited, either by a target fishery or as by-catch, we can assume that the mortalities inferred from equation (3) refer to total mortality. The data in (iii), as discussed above, were plotted with the Powell-Wetherall Plot to infer Z/K assuming that the samples are representative of the population in the juvenile and adult phases (Wetherall, 1986; Wetherall et al., 1987). Where applicable, length-frequency samples were converted to catch curves, using the growth parameters obtained from FiSAT ((Pauly, 1987; 1998; Gayanilo et al., 1996) to obtain estimates of total mortality. All mortalities are expressed in years-1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Growth data were found for 92 populations of 26 marine reptile species. Sea turtles represent half of this available data, perhaps due to the fact that they are endangered and thus the need to study and understand their biology instigates baseline studies. Sea snakes, the other group which is well-represented in this study, are an important by-catch in Australian trawl fisheries protected under Schedule 1 of the National Parks and Wildlife Regulations since 1994 (Milton, 2005; 2001) and are thus the subject of research programs in Australia. Here, survey data, graciously provided by the Australian Fisheries Research and Development Corporation and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in collaboration with fishers from the Australian Northern Prawn Fishery were used to obtain length-frequency distributions analyzed with ELEFAN to estimate L∞ for 13 species of sea snakes from the Gulf of Carpentaria. Table 1. Summary of marine reptile growth data obtained from the scientific literature. Details of growth data are included in Table A1. Order Family No. spp No. stocks L∞ K L∞ Z/K L/W c.f. Z Lm Crocodilia Crocodylidae 1 3 2 - 1 - 1 - Squamata Acrochordidae 1 2 2 2 - 2 - -  Colubridae 1 2 2 - 1 - 2 -  Hydrophiidae 15 20 10 21 36 102 4 53  Iguanidae 1 4 1 2 - 5 1 - Testudines Cheloniidae 7 58 26 31 11 4 4 2  Dermochelyidae 1 3 1 3 3 5 - - Total ‐  27 92 43 69 52 103 12 55  The results of this study, summarized in Table 1, show that life history data on marine reptiles do exist, though not standardized in a format that could be readily used for management purposes. The standardization performed here included the following: (i) converting length units in centimeters (cm), weight units in grams (g) and age units in years; (ii) expressing lengths in the same length type, i.e., snout- vent length for most marine reptiles and carapace length for sea turtles; (iii) re-expressing growth through the VBGF; and (iv) converting L/W relationships to cm and g. All conversions were straighforward except for item (ii), notably for sea turtles where curved and straight carapace lengths (CCL and SCL, respectively) are used. Empirical equations based on simple linear regression of paired SCL and CCL data were adapted from Teas (1993; p. 3) and used to convert values of CCL∞ to SCL∞ (see details in Table A1) and vice versa depending on the length type used in the length-weight relationships. The frequency histogram of the L/W relationship coefficient b values obtained for 52 populations using linear regressions of length and weight data pairs (Figure 1) shows a clear peak at size class b=3 (median  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 57 value is 2.96 and the mode is at 3.00; s.d.=0.36; sample variance of 0.13). This suggests that marine reptiles grow like marine mammals (see Palomares et al., 2008), seabirds (see Karpouzi & Pauly, 2008) and fish (see Carlander, 1969; 1977). The asymptotic lengths obtained ranged from 28.6 cm (Amblyrhynchus cristatus, Galapagos Islands) to 323 cm (Crocodylus porosus, Northern Territory, Australia). Sea snakes ranged in size from 66.8 cm (Emydocephalus ijimae, Zamamijima, Ryukyu Island) to 257 cm (Hydrophis elegans, Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia) while sea turtles ranged in size from 56.2 cm (Lepidochelys kempii, Sambine Pass, Gulf of Meixco, USA) to 168 cm (Chelonia mydas, Great Inagua, Bahamas). The auximetric grid plotting log K against log W∞ (Figure 2) indicates that marine iguanas grow similarly to sea snakes, while saltwater crocodiles, though clearly a group apart, grow more similarly to sea turtles. Note however, three outliers, i.e., Chelonia mydas (Table A2, 21g), Lepidochelys kempii (see Table A2, 24a) and Dermochelys coriacea (Table A2, 27d). Though the sample size range (26-72 cm) of the C. mydas population is wide enough to include juveniles and adults, this range probably represent sub-adult populations given that the largest length in the sample is only 70% of Lmax (Lmax = 105 cm CL; Schneider, 1990) and only 43% of the largest L∞ reported for this species (i.e., 168 cm SCL; see Table A2, 21k). The same could be argued for the L. kempii population (sample length range=20-60 cm) which grow to Lmax=75 cm CL (Carr and Caldwell, 1956). However, note that the growth parameters for this population were obtained from a single length-frequency histogram using the Powell-Wetherall Plot and K from Ф’. The last sea turtle outlier, D. coriacea came from measurements of turtles sampled from tropical areas (see Jones et al., 2008) and reared in captivity in Vancouver, Canada to more than 2 years of age, i.e., to only 60% of the recorded Lmax (257 cm CL; Márquez, 1990). The growth parameters of the outlier sea snake population of Astrotia stokesii were obtained from survey samples of the AFRDC, CSIRO and NPF (Australia) and the Powell- Wetherall Plot. Though the L∞ estimate may be viable, the K estimate, obtained from the average Ф’ for species in the family 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50 3.75 L/W relationship coefficient 'b' Fr eq u en cy Saltwater crocodile, sea turtles and sea snakes Sea turtles and sea snakes Figure 1. Distribution of length-weight relationship coefficient b of 53 populations of marine reptiles (see TableA1 for details). -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 -2 -1 -1 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 W∞ (kg; log10) K  ( ye ar -1 ; lo g 1 0) Chelonia mydas (21g) Dermochelys coriacea (27d) Sea turtles Lepidochelys kempii (24a) Sea snakes Marine iguanas Astrotia stokesii (8a) Saltwater crocodiles  Figure 2. Auximetric plot of von Bertalanffy growth parameters for 92 populations of 26 species of marine reptiles (see Table A2 for details). Note similarity of growth performance of sea snakes with marine iguanas and saltwater crocodiles with sea turtles. The 3 outlier populations of sea turtles are based on length-frequency samples with narrow length ranges, i.e., juveniles, while the outlier snake population’s K was estimated from the average Φ' of species in the family Hydrophiidae.  Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 58 Hydrophiidae and is not an independent estimate. Average values of Z/K for sea snakes and sea turtles are 2.07 (s.e. = 0.231) and 1.4 (s.e. = 0.115), respectively (see Figure 3). These values are comparable with those reported for fishes, i.e., 1.00-2.00 (Beverton and Holt 1956, Pauly 1998). The Z/K values available for marine iguanas are 1.24 and 1.76, also within the range given for fishes. Values of natural mortality for 12 species of marine reptiles ranged from 0.16 (Chelonia mydas, Bahia Magdalena, Mexico) to 4.83 (Amblyrhynchus cristatus, Genovesa, Galapagos Island). 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 2 3 4 5 Z/K Fr eq u en cy  Figure 3. Frequency distribution of Z/K values obtained for sea snakes and sea turtles with average values of 2.07 (s.e. = 0.231) and 1.4 (s.e. = 0.115), respectively (see Table A2 for details). Length at maturity assembled for sea snakes ranged from 42.5 cm (Thalassophis anomalus, Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia) to 145 cm (Disteira kingii, northern Australia). This data set was used with the available growth parameter estimates for the same population to obtain a frequency histogram of the reproductive load for sea snakes, i.e., Lm/L∞ values (Figure 4), which ranged from 0.400 (Astrotia stokesii, northern Australia) to 0.832 (Disteira kingii, northern Australia), with a mean value of 0.582 (s.e. = 0.0221). Only two populations of sea turtles, i.e., Lepidochelys kempii, have available Lm data and for which reproductive load were calculated (see Figure 4). Figure 4 emulates the negative trend found for fish (Pauly 1984a) and reiterates the result that marine reptiles grow like fish. This study is the first to compile data on growth of marine reptiles. Only 16 percent of the total species stated in the introduction were covered in this study. However, more work is necessary in order to further understand the biology of marine reptiles and help prevent marine reptile species, e.g., sea turtles, from being farther endangered. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to thank the Australian Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and the Northern Prawn Fishery fishers for providing the sea snake survey data used here. This study was made possible by the generous support of the Oak Foundation (Geneva, Switzerland), Dr. Andrew Wright (Vancouver, Canada) and The Pew Charitable Trusts (Philadelphia, USA). 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Asymptotic length (log; cm) R ep ro du ct iv e lo ad (L m * 10 0/ L ∞ ) Lepidochelys kempii  Figure 4. Reproductive load plotted against asymptotic length of 35 populations of sea snakes (12 species) and 2 populations of sea turtles, Lepidochelys kempii. Note negative trend emulating what has been found for fish (see details in Table A3).  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 59 REFERENCES Beggs, J.A., Horrocks, J.A., Krueger, B.H., 2007. Increase in hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata nesting in Barbados, West Indies. Endangered Species Res. 3, 159-168. Bell, T., 1843. Reptiles. In: The Zoology of the Voyage of the H.M.S. 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Body size and sexual dimorphism in marine iguanas fluctuate as a result of opposing natural and sexual selection, an island comparison. Evolution 51(3), 922-936.  Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 62 Table A1. Length-weight data for marine reptiles used to obtain Figure 1. TL=total length; SVL=snout-vent length; SCL=straight carapace length; CCL=curved carapace length; CL=carapace length. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 1 a Crocodylus porosus (Crocodilla, Crocrodylidae) Cape York Peninsula, Australia 11 M TL 3.60 0.0001 - 0.998 Grigg et al. (1998; Tab. 1 p. 1793).  2 a Acrochordus granulatus (Squamata, Acrochordidae) Phangnga Bay, Thailand 45 F SVL 3.00 0.0005 0.0521 - a from c.f. of data from Wangkulangkul et al. (2005; Fig. 2, p. 259).   b  Phangnga Bay, Thailand 19 M SVL 3.00 0.0004 0.0384 - a from c.f. of data from Wangkulangkul et al. (2005; Fig. 2, p. 259).  3 a Cerberus rynchops (Squamata, Colubridae) Muar River, Malaysia 14 unsexed SVL 3.01 0.0006 - 0.992 Jayne et al. (1988; Tab. 5, p. 10). Results maybe biased because N is small. 4 a Acalyptophis peronii (Squamata, Hydrophiidae) East coast, northern Australia - unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0011 0.1095 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  Groote, northern Australia 1 M SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0797 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 22 F SVL 3.29 0.0002 - 0.974 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 24 M SVL 2.70 0.0028 - 0.937 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 50 unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0007 - 0.851 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  f  Mornington, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0007 0.0670 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   g  Weipa, northern Australia 9 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0765 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  5 a Aipysurus apraefrontalis northwestern Shelf, Australia 1 M SVL 3.00 0.0007 0.0700 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  6 a Aipysurus duboisii East coast, northern Australia - M SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0814 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  Groote, northern Australia 3 F SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0612 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 8 F SVL 3.00 0.0006 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 11 M SVL 3.00 0.0005 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 20 unsexed SVL 2.90 0.0009 - 0.720 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  f  Mornington, northern Australia 2 M SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0583 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   g  Weipa, northern Australia 3 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0005 0.0486 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).    Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 63  Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 7 a Aipysurus eydouxii East coast, northern Australia - F SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1156 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  Groote, northern Australia 12 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1236 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 75 F SVL 2.48 0.0099 - 0.843 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.    Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 28 F SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0845 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 24 M SVL 2.50 0.0096 - 0.786 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 30 M SVL 3.00 0.0010 0.0973 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   g  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 104 unsexed SVL 2.60 0.0061 - 0.866 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  h  Mornington, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0014 0.1364 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   i  Weipa, northern Australia 18 F SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1233 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  8 a Aipysurus laevis East coast, northern Australia - unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0010 0.1008 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  Groote, northern Australia 7 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0015 0.1485 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 36 F SVL 3.62 0.0001 - 0.954 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 19 F SVL 3.00 0.0013 0.1281 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 36 M SVL 3.00 0.0011 - 0.881 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 12 M SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1233 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).  8 g Aipysurus laevis Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 74 unsexed SVL 3.52 0.0001 - 0.900 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  h  Mornington, northern Australia 2 F SVL 3.00 0.0013 0.1316 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   i  Torres Strait, Australia 1 M SVL 3.00 0.0011 0.1136 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   j  Weipa, northern Australia 14 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1188 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  9 a Astrotia stokesii Darwin, northern Australia 1 M SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1231 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  East coast, northern Australia - unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0011 0.1081 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 64 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 9 c Astrotia stokesii Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 71 F SVL 3.58 0.0001 - 0.895 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 16 F SVL 3.00 0.0015 0.1547 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 57 M SVL 3.07 0.0008 - 0.856 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 10 M SVL 3.00 0.0010 0.1016 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   g  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 128 unsexed SVL 3.58 0.0001 - 0.881 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  h  Mornington, northern Australia 21 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0013 0.1327 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   i  Weipa, northern Australia 33 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0011 0.1149 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  10 a Disteira kingii East coast, northern Australia 2 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0002 0.0150 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 27 F SVL 3.09 0.0001 - 0.946 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 23 F SVL 3.00 0.0002 0.0173 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 14 M SVL 2.38 0.0046 - 0.810 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 12 M SVL 3.00 0.0002 0.0169 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 47 unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0002 - 0.899 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  g  Mornington, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0002 0.0246 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   h  Torres Strait, Australia - F SVL 3.00 0.0002 0.0233 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   i  Weipa, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0003 0.0260 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  11 a Disteira major East coast, northern Australia 1 M SVL 3.00 0.0050 0.5011 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  East coast, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0618 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Groote, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0618 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 153 F SVL 2.40 0.0101 - 0.710 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 94 F SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0553 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 84 M SVL 2.64 0.0031 - 0.815 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 65 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 11 g Disteira major Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 55 M SVL 3.00 0.0005 0.0508 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   h  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 240 unsexed SVL 2.54 0.0052 - 0.765 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  i  northwest Australia 3 Unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0006 - - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  j  northwest Australia 1 Female SVL 3.00 0.0007 0.0690 - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  k  northwest Australia 2 Male SVL 3.00 0.0006 - - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  l  Torres Strait, Australia 1 F SVL 3.00 0.0009 0.0880 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   m  Weipa, northern Australia 17 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0579 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  12 a Emydocephalus annulatus Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 1 M SVL 3.00 0.0010 0.1032 - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF. 13 a Emydocephalus ijimae Zamamijima, Ryukyu Island 58 F SVL 2.94 0.0012 - 0.976 Masunaga et al. (2003; Fig. 2 & 4). a, p. 464 & 467).   b  Zamamijima, Ryukyu Island 52 M SVL 2.53 0.0050 - 0.970 Masunaga et al. (2003; Fig. 2 & 4). b, p. 464 & 466).  14 a Enhydrina schistosa Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 33 F SVL 3.26 0.0002 - 0.922 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  b  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 24 M SVL 3.15 0.0003 - 0.884 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 69 unsexed SVL 3.33 0.0001 - 0.9400 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Mornington, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0556 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   e  Weipa, northern Australia 39 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0621 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  15 a Hydrophis caerulescens Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 2 F SVL 3.00 0.0005 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  b  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 5 M SVL 3.00 0.0057 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 7 unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0006 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Mornington, northern Australia 2 M SVL 3.00 0.0005 0.0545 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   e  Weipa, northern Australia 5 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0621 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  16 a Hydrophis czeblukovi northwestern Shelf, Australia 1 F SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0817 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  17 a Hydrophis elegans East coast, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0004 0.0353 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 66 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 17 b Hydrophis elegans Groote, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0004 0.0444 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 230 F SVL 3.26 0.0001 - 0.898 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 231 F SVL 3.00 0.0003 0.0314 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 207 M SVL 3.01 0.0003 - 0.915 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 283 M SVL 3.00 0.0003 0.0293 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   g  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 490 unsexed SVL 3.17 0.0001 - 0.929 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  h  Mornington, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0003 0.0308 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   i  northwest Australia 6 Unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0003 - - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  j  northwest Australia 3 Female SVL 3.00 0.0003 - - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  k  northwest Australia 3 Male SVL 3.00 0.0003 - - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  l  Weipa, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0003 0.0291 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  18 a Hydrophis inornatus Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 1 F SVL 3.00 0.0005 0.0525 - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF. 19 a Hydrophis macdowelli Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 11 F SVL 3.22 0.0002 - 0.904 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  b  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 3 M SVL 3.00 0.0005 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF. Results maybe biased because N is small.  c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 14 unsexed SVL 2.97 0.0007 - 0.846 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF. Results maybe biased because N is small.  d  Mornington, northern Australia 7 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0550 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   e  northwestern Shelf, Australia 1 M SVL 3.00 0.0005 0.0478 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   f  Weipa, northern Australia 1 F SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0637 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  20 a Hydrophis ornatus East coast, northern Australia - unsexed SVL 3.00 0.0010 0.1018 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  Groote, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0010 0.0976 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 73 F SVL 2.88 0.0016 - 0.640 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 67 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 20 d Hydrophis ornatus Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 42 F SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0765 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 82 M SVL 2.23 0.0316 - 0.5610 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 45 M SVL 3.00 0.0007 0.0699 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   g  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 166 unsexed SVL 2.51 0.0085 - 0.568 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  h  Mornington, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0007 0.0701 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   i  northwestern Shelf, Australia 2 M SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0756 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   j  Torres Strait, Australia - F SVL 3.00 0.0006 0.0625 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   k  Weipa, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0007 0.0656 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  21 a Hydrophis pacificus Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 24 F SVL 3.00 0.0003 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  b  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 8 M SVL 3.00 0.0004 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  c  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 32 unsexed SVL 2.45 0.0053 - 0.758 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  d  Mornington, northern Australia 4 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0004 0.0393 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  22 a Lapemis hardwickii Darwin, northern Australia 1 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0016 0.1592 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   b  East coast, northern Australia 70 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0016 0.1637 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   c  Groote, northern Australia 7 mixed SVL 3.00 0.0013 0.1292 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   d  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 309 F SVL 2.99 0.0011 - 0.903 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  e  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 220 F SVL 3.00 0.0013 0.1297 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   f  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 175 M SVL 2.82 0.0024 - 0.927 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  g  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 177 M SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1156 - a from c.f. of data from Ward (2000; Tab. 2, p. 158).   h  Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 535 unsexed SVL 2.97 0.0012 - 0.933 Survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  i  Mornington, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0012 0.1190 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).   j  northwest Australia 1 Male SVL 3.00 0.0009 - - a from c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 68 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 22 k Lapemis hardwickii Sabah, Malaysia 391 F SVL 3.00 0.0016 0.1560 - a from c.f. of data from Hin et al. (1991; Tab. 2, p. 466).   l  Sabah, Malaysia 363 M SVL 3.00 0.0015 0.1451 - a from c.f. of data from Hin et al. (1991; Tab. 2, p. 466).   m  Weipa, northern Australia - mixed SVL 3.00 0.0011 0.1109 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  23 a Laticauda colubrina Fiji - F SVL 2.64 0.0031 0.8150 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).   b  Fiji - M SVL 2.40 0.0101 0.7100 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).   c  Vanuatu - F SVL 2.54 0.0052 0.7650 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).   d  Vanuatu - M SVL 2.38 0.0046 0.8100 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).  24 a Laticauda frontalis unknown - F SVL 3.07 0.0008 0.8560 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).   b  unknown 49 M SVL 3.58 0.0001 0.8950 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).  25 a Laticauda saintgironsi unknown - F SVL 3.09 0.0001 0.9460 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).   b  unknown - M SVL 3.00 0.0002 0.8990 - a from c.f. of data from Cogger and Heatwole (2006; Tab. 1, p. 248).  26 a Laticauda semifasciata near Orchid Island, Taiwan 70 F SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0841 - a from c.f. of data from Tu et al. (1990; Tab. 1, p. 120).   b  near Orchid Island, Taiwan 141 M SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0775 - a from c.f. of data from Tu et al. (1990; Tab. 1, p. 120).  27 a Pelamis platurus Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia 2 F SVL 3.00 0.0008 - - a from mean c.f. of survey data from AFRDC, CSIRO, NPF.  b  Weipa, northern Australia 2 F SVL 3.00 0.0008 0.0807 - a from c.f. of data from Fry et al. (2001; Tab. 2, p. 59).  28 a Amblyrhynchus cristatus (Squamata, Iguanidae) Genovesa, Galapagos Island 41 M SVL 3.00 0.0458 4.579 - a from c.f. of territorial males from Wikelski et al. (1996; Tab. 1, p. 587).   b  Genovesa, Galapagos Island 15 M SVL 3.00 0.0424 4.244 - a from c.f. of marginal males from Wikelski et al. (1996; Tab. 1, p. 587).   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 69 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 28 c Amblyrhynchus cristatus Genovesa, Galapagos Island 16 M SVL 3.00 0.0458 4.578 - a from c.f. of small males from Wikelski et al. (1996; Tab. 1, p. 587).   d  Genovesa, Galapagos Island 11 M SVL 3.00 0.0448 4.476 - a from c.f. of single territories from Wikelski et al. (1996; Tab. 3, p. 589).   e  Genovesa, Galapagos Island 30 M SVL 3.00 0.0463 4.628 - a from c.f. of leks from Wikelski et al. (1996; Tab. 3, p. 589).  .29 a Caretta caretta (Testudines, Cheloniidae) Curacao 23 unsexed SCL 2.95 0.1655 - 0.986 Nagelkerken et al  (2003; Tab. 1, p. 186). Not a good representative of the population.  b  USA (Cheasapeake, Florida), UK, France, Japan 431 unsexed SCL 2.82 0.000282  0.970 Wabnitz (2008; Tab. 1 p. xx); weight in kg. 30 a Chelonia mydas Gulf coast of Florida, USA 208 unsexed CL 2.91 0.1674 - 0.993 Carr & Cadwell (1956; Tab. 2, p. 15).   b  Saurashtra Coast, Gujarat, India 69 unsexed CCL 3.00 0.1145 11.45 - a from c.f. of data from Kannan et al. (2005; Tab. 2, p. 5).   c  USA (Florida), Mexico (Baja California), Tortuguero, Ascension, Suriname,  426 unsexed SCL 2.90 0.000206  0.990 Wabnitz (2008; Tab. 1 p. xx); weight in kg. 31 a Eretmochelys imbricata Baja California, Mexico 200 unsexed SCL 3.00 0.1519 14.99 - Seminoff et al. (2003; p. 1355).   b  Milman, Great Barrier Reef, Australia - F CCL 3.00 0.0922 9.224 - Loop et al. (1995; Tab. 2, p. 247).   c  Persian Gulf (Shidvar, Ommolkaran, Nakhillo and Queshm Islands), Iran 25 unsexed CCL 2.96 0.1275 - 0.844 Morabaki & Elmi (2005; Tab. 1, p. 7).   d  Honduras, Cayman, Barbados, Suriname 112 unsexed SCL 2.74 0.000278  0.990 Wabnitz (2008; Tab. 1 p. xx); weight in kg. 32 a Lepidochelys kempi Florida, USA 78 unsexed CL 2.49 0.8919 - 0.951 Carr & Cadwell (1956; Tab. 2, p. 15).   b  USA (Cheasapeake, Florida), UK, France 145 unsexed SCL 2.84 0.000247  0.960 Wabnitz (2008; Tab. 1 p. xx); weight in kg. 33 a Lepidochelys olivacea Northern Territory, Australia 85 F CCL 3.00 0.0001 0.0111 - a from c.f. of data from Whiting et al. (2007; Tab. 3, p. 205); weight in kg.   b  Primeira Islands, Mocambique 1 unsexed CL 3.00 0.1166 11.66 - a from c.f. of data from Hughes (1972; Tab. 1, p. 129).   c  Hawaii, Brazil, Suriname, Mozambique 40 unsexed SCL 2.68 0.000479  0.840 Wabnitz (2008; Tab. 1 p. xx); weight in kg. 34 a Natator depressus Field Island, Australia 205 unsexed CCL 3.00 0.0001 0.0105 - a from c.f. of data from Schäuble et al. (2006; Tab. 2, p. 192); weight in kg. 35 a Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines, Dermochelydae) Florida, USA 2 unsexed SCL 3.00 0.0897 - - a from mean c.f. of data from Jones et al. (2008; Tab. 3).   b  Nova Scotia, Canada 16 unsexed CCL 3.67 0.0044 - 0.853 James et al. (2007; Fig. 3, p. 248).   c  St. Croix, US Virgin islands 102 F CCL 2.41 1.8253 - 0.746 James et al. (2005; Fig. 3, p. 199).   Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 70 Table A1. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality n Sex Type b a c.f. r 2 Method/Source 35 d Dermochelys coriacea University of British Colombia, Vancouver, Canada 101 unsexed SCL 2.81 0.2640 - - Jones et al. (2008; Tab. 3).   e  Unknown, American Samoa 1 unsexed SCL 3.00 0.1180 11.80 - a from c.f. of data from Jones et al. (2008; Tab. 3).   f  Unknown, Hawaii 3 unsexed SCL 3.00 0.1149 - - a from mean c.f. of data from Jones et al. (2008; Tab. 3).   g  Unknown 1 unsexed SCL 3.00 0.1118 11.18 - a from c.f. of data from Jones et al. (2008; Tab. 3).   h  western Australia, Australia 2 unsexed SCL 3.00 0.0656 - - a from mean c.f. of data from Jones et al. (2008; Tab. 3).    Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 71  Table A2. Growth parameter estimates assembled for marine reptiles and used to obtain Figure 2. Sex: U=unsexed or mixed; F=females; M=males. Type: TL=total length; SVL=snout-vent length; SCL=straight carapace length; CCL=curved carapace length; CL=carapace length. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source 1 a Crocodylus porosus (Crocodilia, Crocodylidae) N. Territory, Australia 7665 U 323.1 TL 144 - 0.710 4.87 - L∞ & K from length frequency analysis of data from Messel and Vorlicek (1986; Tab. 1a, p. 76- 84). Unexploited; 61-305 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (1a).   b  Queensland, Australia 907 U 265.2 TL 70.5 - 2.500 5.25 - L∞ & K from length frequency analysis of data from Messel and Vorlicek (1986; Tab. 1a, p. 76- 84). Unexploited; 61-244 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (1a).   c  W. Australia 736 U 262.1 TL 67.6 - 0.750 4.71 - L∞ & K from length frequency analysis of data from Messel and Vorlicek (1986; Tab. 1a, p. 76- 84). Unexploited; 61-244 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (1a).  2 a Acrochordus granulatus (Squamata, Acrochordidae) Phangnga Bay, Thailand 77 F 93.4 SVL 0.425 4.04 - - 0.829 L∞ from single length frequency histogram from Wangkulangkul et al. (2005; Fig. 2, p. 260). Exploited; 35-81 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (2a). K=ave. Φ'; all sea snakes.  b  Phangnga Bay, Thailand 42 M 72.2 SVL 0.145 1.61 - - 1.386 L∞ from single length frequency histogram from Wangkulangkul et al. (2005; Fig. 2, p. 259). Exploited 35-65 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (2b).  K=ave. Φ'; all sea snakes. 3 a Cerberus rynchops (Squamata, Colubridae) Muar River, Malaysia 181 U 85.0 SVL 0.360 (0.99) 0.270 3.29 - L∞ & K from length frequency analysis of data from Jayne et al. (1988; Tab. 1, p. 5 rows 1-2). Unexploited; 24-64 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (3a).  b  Muar River, Malaysia 597 U 76.8 SVL 0.265 (1.53) 0.410 3.38 - L∞ & K from length frequency analysis of data from Jayne et al. (1988; Tab. 1, p. 5 rows 3-6). Unexploited; 1984-1987; 24-64 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (3a).  4 a Acalyptophis peronii (Squamata, Hydrophiidae) G. Carpentaria, Australia 50 U 137.7 SVL 1.79 3.29 - - 0.382 L∞ from single length frequency histogram from FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 70- 126 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (4e). K=ave. Φ' Hydrophiidae. 5 a Aipysurus duboisii G. Carpentaria, Australia 20 U 114.6 SVL 0.796 0.990 - - 0.551 L∞ from single length frequency histogram from FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 80- 110 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (6e). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae. 6 a Aipysurus eydouxii G. Carpentaria, Australia 106 U 112.8 SVL 1.32 3.05 - - 0.569 L∞ from single length frequency histogram from FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 35-96 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (7g). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae.   Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 72 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source 7 a Aipysurus laevis G. Carpentaria, Australia 74 U 138.8 SVL 4.00 2.16 - - 0.375 L∞ from single L/F histogram; FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 60-130cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (8g). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae. 8 a Astrotia stokesii G. Carpentaria, Australia 131 U 180.1 SVL 10.0 0.020 - - 0.223 L∞ from single L/F histogram; FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 55-176 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (9g). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae. 9 a Disteira kingii G. Carpentaria, Australia 48 U 174.2 SVL 1.07 2.44 - - 0.239 L∞ from single L/F histogram; FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 60-170 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (10f). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae. 10 a Disteira major G. Carpentaria, Australia 248 U 176.4 SVL 2.63 1.23 - - 0.233 L∞ from single L/F histogram; FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 60-160 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (11h). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae. 11 a Emydocephalus ijimae Zamamijima, Ryukyu Island - F 79.8 SVL 0.449 - 3.820 4.39 - Direct fitting of VBGF to age at length from Masunaga and Ota (2003; Fig. (2,4)a, p. 464,467); t0= 0; unexploited; 42-83 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (13a).   b  Zamamijima, Ryukyu Island - M 66.8 SVL 0.210 - 2.540 4.05 - Direct fitting of VBGF to age at length from Masunaga and Ota (2003; Fig. (2,4)b, p. 464 & 466). t0=-0.42; unexploited; 30-68 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (13b).  12 a Enhydrina schistosa G. Carpentaria, Australia 69 U 102.1 SVL 0.628 1.38 - - 0.752 L∞ from single L/F histogram from FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 35-96 cm. W∞ from Tab 1(14c). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  b  Muar, Malaysia 295 F 113.9 SVL 0.890 (1.13) 0.600 3.89 - L∞ & K from L/F analysis of data from Voris and Jayne (1979; Fig. 1(b,d,f,h), p. 311). Exploited; 21-102 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (14a).   c  Muar, Malaysia 359 M 103.4 SVL 0.583 (1.52) 0.740 3.90 - L∞ & K from L/F analysis of data from Voris and Jayne (1979; Fig. 1(a,c,e,g), p. 310). Exploited; 21-100 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (14b).  13 a Hydrophis elegans Australian continental shelf 306 M 170.1 SVL 1.33 - 0.310 3.95 - VBGF parameters from Ward (2001; Tab. 3, p. 196); t0=-0.93; T=28-29°C; exploited; 75-193 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (17e).  b  Australian continental shelf 276 F 221.3 SVL 3.09 - 0.170 3.92 - VBGF parameters from Ward (2001; Tab. 3, p. 196); t0=-2.1; T=28-29°C; exploited; 82-218 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (17c).   c  G. Carpentaria, Australia 525 U 257.0 SVL 5.01 (0.590) 0.170 4.05 - L∞ & K from L/F analysis; FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 40-221 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (17g).   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 73 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source 14 a Hydrophis ornatus G. Carpentaria, Australia 178 U 129.4 SVL 1.70 1.40 - - 0.432 L∞ from single L/F histogram from FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 60- 120 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (20g). K=ave. Φ';Hydrophis. 15 a Hydrophis pacificus G. Carpentaria, Australia 32 U 188.8 SVL 2.01 1.42 - - 0.203 L∞ from single L/F histogram from FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 120- 180 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (21c). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophis. 16 a Lapemis hardwickii Australian continental shelf 227 F 112.2 SVL 1.51 - 0.410 3.71 - VBGF parameters from Ward (2001; Tab. 3, p. 196); t0=-0.86; exploited; 42-120 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (22d).   b  Australian continental shelf 184 M 113.0 SVL 1.48 - 0.440 3.75 - VBGF parameters from Ward (2001; Tab. 3, p. 196); t0=-0.57; exploited; 50-126 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (22f).   c  G. Carpentaria, Australia 549 U 132.0 SVL 2.45 (2.98) 0.750 4.12 - L∞ & K from L/F analysis of data from FRDC/CSIRO/NPF survey data. Exploited; 30- 121 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (22h).   d  Sabah, Malaysia 391 F 94.4 SVL 1.31 3.06 - - 0.812 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Hin et al. (1991; Fig. 1, p. 467). Exploited; 30-80 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (22k). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  e  Sabah, Malaysia 363 M 86.2 SVL 0.929 2.38 - - 0.974 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Hin et al. (1991; Fig. 1, p. 468). Exploited; 34-84 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (22l). K=ave. Φ'; same species. 17 a Laticauda colubrina Indo-Pacific - F 170.4 SVL 2.39 2.55 - - 0.249 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Heatwole et al. (2005; Fig. 24, p. 44). Exploited; 25-156 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (23a). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae.  b  Indo-Pacific - M 136.6 SVL 1.34 1.89 - - 0.388 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Heatwole et al. (2005; Fig. 24, p. 44). Exploited; 30-125 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (23b). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae.  c  Indo-Pacific 1294 U 125.8 SVL 0.454 1.47 - - 0.457 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Heatwole et al. (2005; Fig. 24, p. 44). Exploited; 15-165 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (23d). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae.  d  Mabualau and Toberua, Fiji 352 F 150.8 SVL 1.73 2.97 - - 0.318 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Shetty and Shine (2002; Fig. 1b, p. 48). Unexploited; 30- 140 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (23a). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae.  e  Mabualau and Toberua, Fiji 648 M 90.8 SVL 0.504 0.763 - - 0.878 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Shetty and Shine (2002; Fig. 1a, p. 48). Unexploited; 30-91 cm. W∞ averaged from Tab 1 (23b). K=ave. Φ; Hydrophiidae.  Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 74 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source 18 a Laticauda saintgironsi Indo-Pacific - F 122.7 SVL 0.359 1.68 - - 0.480 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Heatwole et al. (2005; Fig. 25, p. 45). Exploited; 30-111 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (25a). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae.  b  Indo-Pacific - M 96.5 SVL 1.82 4.44 - - 0.776 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Heatwole et al. (2005; Fig. 25, p. 45). Exploited; 35-86 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (25b). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae.  c  Indo-Pacific 192 U 130.6 SVL 0.443 1.38 - - 0.424 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Heatwole et al. (2005; Fig. 25, p. 45). Exploited; 20-120 cm. W∞ averaged from Tab 1 (25a and b). K=ave. Φ'; Hydrophiidae. 19 a Amblyrhynchus cristatus (Squamata, Iguanidae) Genovesa, Galapagos Island 41 M 28.6 SVL 1.08 1.24 - - 1.516 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Wikelski et al. (1996; Fig. 6, p. 590). Unexploited; territorial males; 21-29 cm W∞ from Tab 1 (28a). K=Φ'; same species.  b  Genovesa, Galapagos Island 318 U 29.8 SVL 1.12 (4.83) 1.400 3.09 - L∞ & K from L/F analysis of data from Wikelski and Trillmich (1997; Fig. 8, p. 928). Unexploited; 11-27 cm; narrow size range may not be a good representative of the population. W∞ from Tab 1 (28b).   c  Sta.Fe, Galapagos Island 8000 U 41.1 SVL 3.17 1.76 - - 0.737 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Wikelski and Trillmich (1997; Fig. 2, p. 926). Unexploited; 11- 37 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (28c). K=Φ'; same species. 20 a Caretta caretta (Testudines, Cheloniidae) Azores 1600 U 73.4 SCL 55.5 2.09 - - 0.102 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Bjorndal et al. (2003; Tab. 1, p. 735). Unexploited; 10-70 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  b  Florida, Georgia, S. Carolina,  USA 118 U 110.0 SCL 175 - 0.031 2.58 - VBGF parameters from Epperly et al. (2001; Tab. 8 p. 46). Unexploited; 45-110 cm; mark- recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   c  Cayman Islands 250 U 110.3 SCL 174 1.34 - - 0.048 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Epperly and Teas (2002; Tab. 1, p. 468). Unexploited; 1-101 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  d  Florida, USA 1234 U 110.9 SCL 178 - 0.044 2.79 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (2001; Fig. 1, p. 242). Unexploited; stranded sea turtles; 46-87 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   e  Florida, USA 41 U 94.7 SCL 114 - 0.115 3.01 - VBGF parameters from Epperly et al. (2001; Tab. 8 p. 46). Unexploited; 53-77 cm; mark- recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   f  Florida, USA 51 U 96.1 SCL 119 - 0.059 2.73 - VBGF parameters from Epperly et al. (2001; Tab. 8 p. 46). Unexploited; 38-110 cm; mark- recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 75 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source 20 g Caretta caretta Florida, USA 19 U 96.1 SCL 119 - 0.057 2.72 - VBGF parameters from Epperly et al. (2001; Tab. 8 p. 46). Unexploited population; 28-110 cm; mark-recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   h  G. Mexico, USA 570 U 105.7 SCL 155 - 0.051 2.81 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (2001; Fig. 2, p. 243). Unexploited; stranded sea turtles; 46-87 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   i  G. Mexico, USA 1639 U 125.1 SCL 250 3.32 - - 0.037 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 6-7, p. 16-18). Unexploited; 0-121 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  j  N. Carolina, USA 57 U 106.9 SCL 160 - 0.052 2.77 - VBGF parameters from Epperly et al. (2001; Tab. 8 p. 46). Unexploited; with 45-76 cm; mark-recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   k  S.E. USA 54 U 96.7 SCL 121 - 0.064 2.78 - VBGF parameters from Epperly et al. (2001; Tab. 8 p. 46). Unexploited; 62-104 cm; mark- recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b).   l  W. Atlantic 6727 U 120.0 SCL 222 2.57 - - 0.041 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 5-7, p. 14-18). Unexploited; 0-121 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (29b). K=ave. Φ'; same species. 21 a Chelonia mydas Alagadi beach, Cyprus 92 F 101.1 SCL 127 1.78 - - 0.083 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Broderick et al. (2003; Fig. 2a, p. 98). Growth rate: 11 cm CCL year-1; 0.27 cm CCW year-1; unexploited; 76-106 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  b  Bahia Magdalena, Mexico 718 U 102.5 SCL 132 2.60 - - 0.094 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Koch et al. (2006; Fig. 3, p. 331). Unexploited; juveniles; 35-91 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  c  Bahia Magdalena, Mexico 212 U 101.0 SCL 127 (0.160) 0.040 2.61 - Seasonalized VBGF parameters C= 0, ts= 0.75, t0= 0 from Koch et al. (2007; p. 35). Unexploited; 43-73 cm. Growth 3x higher in summer (0.28 cm month-1) than winter 0.09 cm month-1; ave. growth rate 1.62 cm year-1. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   d  Baja California, Mexico 200 U 106.1 SCL 146 2.87 - - 0.088 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Seminoff et al. (2003; Fig. 4, p. 1359). Unexploited; 46-100 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K= ave. Φ' for same species.  e  Cayman Islands 176 U 88.2 SCL 85.8 0.704 - - 0.127 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Epperly and Teas (2002; Tab. 1, p. 468). Unexploited; 1-81 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 76 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source 21 f Chelonia mydas Pamlico, N. Carolina, USA 226 U 87.7 SCL 84.4 (0.760) 0.320 3.39 - L∞ & K from L/F analysis of data from Epperly et al. (2007; Fig. 6, p. 590). Unexploited; 20-80 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   g  Great Inagua, Bahamas 964 U 98.3 SCL 117 - 0.740 3.85 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992; 26-72 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   h  Great Inagua, Bahamas 884 U 98.3 SCL 117 - 0.074 2.85 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   i  Great Inagua, Bahamas 839 U 99.4 SCL 121 - 0.072 2.85 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   j  Great Inagua, Bahamas 772 U 92.6 SCL 98.7 - 0.082 2.85 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).  k  Great Inagua, Bahamas 691 U 168.0 SCL 554 - 0.025 2.85 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   l  Great Inagua, Bahamas 571 U 82.2 SCL 69.9 - 0.122 2.92 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   m  Great Inagua, Bahamas 509 U 158.6 SCL 469 - 0.035 2.94 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   n  Great Inagua, Bahamas 363 U 162.8 SCL 506 - 0.033 2.94 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   o  Great Inagua, Bahamas 211 U 84.4 SCL 75.5 - 0.114 2.91 - VBGF parameters from Bjorndal et al. (1995; Tab. 1, p. 74). Unexploited; 1983-1992. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   p  Gulf of Mexico, USA 357 U 96.5 SCL 111 0.611 - - 0.106 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; tab. 9-10, p. 22-24). Unexploited; 0-91 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  q  Queensland, Australia 94 U 98.8 SCL 119 0.628 - - 0.087 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Robins (2007; Fig. 2, p. 163). Exploited; 20-101 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  r  Watamu, Kenya 1666 U 110.3 SCL 164 - 0.070 2.98 - Direct fitting of VBGF to age at length from Watson (2006; Fig. 5.7, p. 45). Unexploited; 33- 115 cm; t0=-0.75; growth rates 0.468-10.67 cm (CCL) year-1, average growth 5.18 cm year-1. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 77 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source 21 s Chelonia mydas W. Atlantic 1393 U 118.8 SCL 203 1.73 - - 0.070 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 8-10, p. 20-24). Unexploited; 0-111 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  t  Yaeyama, Okinawa, Japan 50 U 88.8 SCL 87.4 1.84 - - 0.126 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Sakai et al. (2000; Fig. 2a, p. 379). Exploited; 32-81 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c). K=ave. Φ'; same species. 22 a Chelonia mydas agassizii Bahia Magdalena, Mexico 52 U 100.0 SCL 123 - - 2.70 0.050 VBGF parameters from Lyons et al. (2002; Fig. 2). C=0.65, ts=0.72; unexploited; 43-72 cm; mark-recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (30c).  23 a Eretmochelys imbricata Great Barrier Reef, Australia 106 U 85.7 SCL 58.3 1.82 - - 0.119 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Limpus (1992; Fig. 4, p. 498). Unexploited; 35-88 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (31d). K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae.  b  Cuban Archipelago 6789 F 99.0 SCL 89.6 2.01 - - 0.101 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Moncada et al. (1999; Tab. 1, p. 258). Unexploited; 31-92 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (31b). K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae.  c  G. Mexico, USA 117 U 61.7 SCL 35.7 2.71 - - 0.260 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 15-16, p. 34-36). Unexploited; juveniles; 0- 50 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (31a). K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae.  d  NeedHam's Point, Barbados 1310 F 99.4 SCL 90.7 1.39 - - 0.089 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Beggs et al. (2007; Fig. 3, p. 162). Unexploited; 77-103 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (31b). K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae.  e  W. Atlantic 169 U 86.0 SCL 58.9 1.61 - - 0.134 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 14-16, p. 32-36). Unexploited; 0-81 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (31d). K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae. 24 a Lepidochelys kempii Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA 147 U 66.2 SCL 31.1 (3.09) 1.30 3.76 - L∞ from single L/F histogram from Schmid (2000; Fig. 1-3, p. 10). Unexploited; 20-60 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32a).   b  Cayman Islands 631 U 61.5 SCL 23.5 1.22 - - 0.408 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Epperly and Teas (2002; Tab. 1, p. 468). Unexploited; 1-51 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  c  Cedar Keys, USA 253 U 61.1 SCL 23.1 1.22 - - 0.413 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Schmid (2000; Fig. 1-3, p. 10). Unexploited; 25-60 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  d  Chesapeake Bay, USA 38 U 61.6 SCL 23.6 1.86 - - 0.406 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Schmid (2000; Fig. 1-3, p. 10). Unexploited; 20-56 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  e  E. Pamlico, N. Carolina, USA 67 U 61.6 SCL 23.5 (0.720) 0.770 3.46 - L∞ & K from L/F analysis of data from Epperly et al. (2007; Fig. 7, p. 288). Unexploited; 25-59 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b).   Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 78 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' 24 f Lepidochelys kempii Florida, USA 36 U 69.4 SCL 33.0 - 0.129 2.79 - VBGF parameters from Coyne (2000; Tab. 4, p. 59). Unexploited; recaptured wild and head-start turtles; W∞ from Tab 1 (32a).   g  G. Mexico, USA 114 U 62.3 SCL 24.3 - 0.317 3.09 - VBGF parameters from Coyne (2000; Tab. 4, p. 59). Unexploited; stranded head-start turtles; W∞ from Tab 1 (32b).   h  G. Mexico, USA 722 U 74.3 SCL 40.1 1.42 - - 0.280 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 12-13, p. 28-30). Unexploited; 0-71 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  i  NMFS Statistical Zone, USA 256 U 68.5 SCL 31.9 1.96 - - 0.329 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Coyne (2000; Fig. 21, p. 45). Unexploited; stranded sea turtles; 15-61 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  j  N G. Mexico, Atlantic coast, USA 96 U 70.7 SCL 34.9 - 0.200 3.00 - Fitted VBGF from Schmid and Woodhead (1998; Eq. 2, p. 96). To= -0.32; Unexploited; 22-67 cm; mark-recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b).   k  N. G. Mexico, USA 58 U 71.1 SCL 35.4 - 0.210 3.03 - Fitted VBGF from Schmid and Woodhead (1998; Eq. 1, p. 96); t0=-0.31; unexploited; 22-68 cm; tag-recapture. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b).   l  Sambine Pass, G. Meixco, USA 189 U 56.2 SCL 18.2 2.12 - - 0.488 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Coyne (2000; Fig. 21, p. 45). Unexploited; 20-51 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  m  Apalachee Bay, USA 102 U 62.7 SCL 24.8 2.07 - - 0.392 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Schmid (2000; Fig. 1-3, p. 10). Unexploited; 20-56 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  n  W Atlantic 1028 U 77.6 SCL 45.4 1.93 - - 0.256 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 11-13, p. 26-30). Unexploited; 0-71 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species.  o  Withlacoochee and Crystal Rivers, USA 76 U 56.7 SCL 18.7 2.09 - - 0.479 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Schmid (2000; Fig. 1-3, p. 10). Unexploited; 25-50 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (32b). K=ave. Φ'; same species. 25 a Lepidochelys olivacea G. Mannar, India 99 U 73.8 CCL 49.2 0.758 - - 0.177 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Bhupathy and Saravanan (2006; Fig. 2, p. 140). Exploited; 46- 72 cm; narrow range, may not be a good representative of the population. W∞ from Tab 1 (33c). L∞ assummed as SCL; K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae.  b  N. Territory, Australia 85 F 77.0 CCL 50.6 2.87 - - 0.163 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Whiting et al. (2007; Fig. 4, p. 205). Unexploited; 64-76 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (33a). L∞ assummed as SCL; K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. 79 Table A2. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species K from Φ' Method/Comments/Source Locality N Sex L∞ cm Type W∞ kg Z/K (or Z) K years-1 Φ' 25 c Lepidochelys olivacea Queensland, Australia 31 U 84.3 CCL 69.8 1.99 - - 0.136 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Robins (2007; Fig. 2, p. 163). Exploited; 20-71 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (33b). L∞ assummed as SCL; K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae. 26 a Natator depressus Curtis Island, Australia 48 F 100.5 CCL 107 2.68 - - 0.095 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Limpus et al. (2006 ; Fig. 2, p. 10). Unexploited; nesting females; 89-99 c; Woongarra coast not included. W∞ from Tab 1 (34a). L∞ assummed as SCL; K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae.  b  Queensland, Australia 76 U 114.2 CCL 156 2.12 - - 0.074 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Robins (2007; Fig. 2, p. 163). Exploited; 20 to 101 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (34a). L∞ assummed as SCL; K=ave. Φ'; Cheloniidae. 27 a Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines, Dermochelydae) G. Mexico, USA 41 U 164.1 SCL 521 1.17 - - 0.057 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 18-19, p. 40-42). Unexploited; 100-160 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (35d). K=Φ'; same species.  b  Nova Scotia, Canada 120 U 162.2 SCL 420 1.94 - - 0.033 L∞ from single L/F histogram from James et al. (2007; Fig. 1, p. 248). Unexploited; 125-166 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (35d). K=Φ'; same species.  c  off coast, France 82 U 150.1 SCL 338 1.57 - - 0.039 L∞ from single L/F histogram from James et al. (2007; Fig. 1, p. 248). Unexploited; 100-156 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (35d). K=Φ'; same species.  d  Vancouver, Canada 101 U 155.0 SCL 370 - 0.270 3.81 - VBGF parameters from Jones et al. (2008; Tab. 1). To= -0.12; unexploited; maintained in captivity from hatchlings to > 2-years; W∞ from Tab 1 (35d).   e  W. Atlantic 243 U 105.0 SCL 124 ‐ - - 0.140 L∞ from single L/F histogram from Teas (1993; Tab. 17-19, p. 38-42). Unexploited; 10-101 cm. W∞ from Tab 1 (35d). K=Φ'; same species.   Growth of marine reptiles, Palomares, M.L.D., et al. 80  Table A3. Maturity data assembled for sea snakes and sea turtles used to obtain Figure 4. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality Sex Lm  (cm) Comments/Remarks 1 a Acalyptophis peronii (Squamata, Hydrophiidae) northern Australia unsexed 71.6 Lm max 114 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 89 Lm range 70.3 - 113.9 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F 71.6 Lm range 70.2 - 110.8 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 2 a Aipysurus apraefrontalis northern Australia M - Lm min 92 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 3 a Aipysurus duboisii northern Australia unsexed 91 Lm max 117 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia F 91 Lm range 91 - 116.2 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia M - Lm range 57 - 116.5 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 4 a Aipysurus eydouxii northern Australia unsexed 47.2 Lm max 85 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 64 Lm range 54.7 - 78 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F 47.2 Lm range 39.2 - 85 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 5 a Aipysurus laevis northern Australia unsexed 103 Lm max 130 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 102 Lm range 64 - 106 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F 103 Lm range 71.2 - 130 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 6 a Astrotia stokesii northern Australia M 72 Lm range 59.5 - 122 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  b  northern Australia F 81.7 Lm range 71.4 - 138 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia unsexed 81.7 Lm max 138 cm from Milton (2001). 7 a Disteira kingii northern Australia unsexed 82.3 Lm max 165 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 145 Lm range 66.1 - 162 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F 82.3 Lm range 78.9 - 157.2 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 8 a Disteira major northern Australia unsexed 71 Lm max 165 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 84 Lm range 53 - 163.5 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F 71 Lm range 61.5 - 143.1 cm from Fry et al. (2001). .9 a Emydocephalus annulatus northern Australia M - Lm min 880 cm from Fry et al  (2001) 10 a Enhydrina schistosa Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia M 70 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  b  Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia F 70 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  c  northern Australia unsexed 79 Lm max 102.4 cm from Milton (2001).  d  northern Australia F 79 Lm range 47.1 - 101.5 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  e  northern Australia M - Lm range 56 - 88.1 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 11 a Hydrophis  brookii Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia M 65 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  b  Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia F 65 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943). 12 a Hydrophis caerulescens northern Australia F 84 Lm range 71 - 84 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  b  northern Australia M - Lm range 76 - 94.7 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 13 a Hydrophis cyanocinctus Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia M 70 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  b  Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia F Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943). 70   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  81  Table A3. Continued. Spec. No. Stock No. Species Locality Sex Lm (cm) Comments/Remarks 14 a Hydrophis czeblukovi northern Australia F 98 Lm min 98 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 15 a Hydrophis elegans northern Australia unsexed 118 Lm max 227 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 89 Lm range 51.2 - 172 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F 118 Lm range 90.4 - 22.7 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 16 a Hydrophis fasciatus Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia F 65 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  b  Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia M 60 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943). 17 a Hydrophis inornatus northern Australia F 92 Lm min 92 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 18 b  northern Australia unsexed 63.5 Lm max 91.2 cm from Milton (2001).  c  northern Australia M 78 Lm range 76 - 91.2 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  d  northern Australia F 63.5 Lm range 35.1 - 82 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 19 a Hydrophis ornatus northern Australia unsexed 80 Lm max 163 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 85 Lm range 81.2 - 126 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F 80 Lm range 70 - 157.4 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 20 a Hydrophis pacificus northern Australia unsexed 135 Lm max 165 cm from Milton (2001).  b  northern Australia M 141 Lm min 141 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  c  northern Australia F - Lm range 135 - 165 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 21 a Lapemis hardwickii Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia M 44 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  b  Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia F 44 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  c  northern Australia unsexed 67.7 Lm max 125 cm from Milton (2001).  d  northern Australia M 54 Lm range 44.2 - 118 cm from Fry et al. (2001).  e  northern Australia F 67.7 Lm range 33 - 113 cm from Fry et al. (2001). 22 a Laticauda semifasciata near Orchid Island, Taiwan M 70 Minimun SVL at sexual maturity; Ave. water temperature of Kuroshio current 26°C (21-29°C). Lm range 70-80 cm from Tu et al. (1990).  b  near Orchid Island, Taiwan F 80 Tu et al. (1990) 23 a Thalassophis anomalus Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia M 42.5 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943).  b  Sourabaya, Java, Indonesia F 42.5 Length at the beginning of maturity from Bergman (1943). 24 a Caretta caretta (Testudines, Cheloniidae) Merritt Island, Florida, USA unsexed - Estimated VBGF range of age at maturity; tm= 12-30. Lm range 74-92 cm from Frazer and Ehrhart (1985). 25 a Chelonia mydas Merritt Island, Florida, USA unsexed - Estimated VBGF range of age at maturity; tm= 18-27. Lm range 88-99 cm from Frazer and Ehrhart (1985). 26 a Lepidochelys kempii Gulf of Mexico, USA unsexed 60 Stranded head-starts; tm= 10 from Coyne (2000).  b  Florida, USA unsexed 62.5 Recaptured wild and head-started turtles; tm= 9 from Coyne (2000).  Growth of leatherback sea turtles, Jones, T.T. et al. 82 GROWTH OF LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA) IN CAPTIVITY, WITH INFERENCES ON GROWTH IN THE WILD1 T. Todd Jones Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,  6270 University Boulevard., Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada; E-mail: tjones@zoology.ubc.ca Mervin Hastings Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,  6270 University Boulevard., Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada and Conservation and Fisheries Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Labour, Government of the British Virgin Islands, Road Town, Tortola, BVI Brian Bostrom Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,  6270 University Boulevard., Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada Daniel Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada David R. Jones Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,  6270 University Boulevard., Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada ABSTRACT Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered with current population trends in the Pacific indicating that they are nearing extinction. Their recovery will depend on coupling strong conservation measures with knowledge of their life history, particularly growth. Until now, however, there was considerable uncertainty on the growth on both juvenile and adults in the wild. The research reported here marks the first time that several leatherback juveniles have been maintained for over two years in captivity, and we discuss our experiences raising these leatherbacks from hatchlings (50 g) to juveniles (> 40 kg) for studies on their early growth. We derived a length-weight relationship of the form W (kg) = 0.000264 · SCL (cm)^2.806, which fitted both ours, and 10 turtles sampled from the wild. Also, a von Bertalanffy growth curve was derived whose parameters (SCL∞ = 155 cm; K = 0.266 year-1 and t0 = - 0.12 year) predicts, for a length at first maturity of 135 cm, an age of 7 years, in agreement with earlier studies of the hard parts of leatherbacks. These results are in agreement with the known biology of leatherbacks; some of their implications for the study of leatherback biology are discussed.                                                  1 Cite as: Jones, T.T., Hastings, M., Bostrom, B., Pauly, D., Jones, D.R., 2008. Growth of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in captivity, with inferences on growth in the wild. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Paramters of Non-fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 82-91.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  83 INTRODUCTION All seven species of marine turtle are threatened, with several species listed as endangered or critically endangered (IUCN, 2007). Detailed knowledge of their life-history, notably the time they spend in various feeding grounds and their age at first maturity is essential for conservation (Seminoff et al., 2002; Chaloupka & Musick 1997). This requires a knowledge of growth rate at all stages (or of size-at-age), which is best summarized by the parameters of a growth equation, e.g., the von Bertalanffy Growth Function (VBGF) for length and weight (von Bertalanffy, 1938). Once a ‘standard growth curve’ has been established, it is then straightforward to evaluate growth in different populations, which should aid in our understanding of the variability in geographically separated foraging grounds and allow quantitative and qualitative comparisons of the foraging areas, based on the ability of a habitat to meet the ecological requirements of marine turtles (Bjorndal & Jackson, 2003; Bjorndal et al., 2000; Bjorndal & Bolten, 1988). Most studies of marine turtle growth have focused on the cheloniid species (see Chaloupka & Musick, 1997, Palomares et al., 2008) while relatively few have focused on leatherbacks. This is not surprising when considering the near-exclusive oceanic lifestyle of leatherbacks, of which the female go on land only for nesting, and the near impossibility of maintaining them in captivity (Jones et al., 2000). Yet, leatherbacks are listed as critically endangered (IUCN, 2007) and may be nearing extinction in the Pacific (Spotila et al., 2000). Within two decades the number of adult females in the Pacific declined from ~ 91,000 to under 3,000 (Spotila et al., 2000; 1996). We need to have information on the basic biology of leatherbacks, including demographics and life-history patterns, if we are to stop, and hopefully reverse, their decline. Leatherbacks are the largest (Buskirk & Crowder, 1994) of the marine turtles, but there are few reports on adult growth rates (Price et al., 2004; Zug & Parham, 1996). The growth of juvenile leatherbacks in the wild, moreover, is completely unknown, due to their distribution being largely unknown, thus precluding marking-recapture studies of their growth. Marking-recapture studies with marine turtles other than leatherbacks suggest they reach sexual maturity at an age of 20-30 years (Chaloupka & Musick, 1997), but recent evidence based on the study of hard parts in wild leatherbacks suggests an early attainment of minimum nesting sizes, i.e., as early as 3-6 years (Rhodin, 1985), or 6 years (Zug & Parham, 1996). Herein, we describe how we derived the parameters of the VBGF for length and weight growth in leatherback, by combining and harmonizing the results of several studies, notably our own growth experiment on captive leatherbacks, i.e., 20 hatchlings raised from emergence to > 2 years of age in the laboratory. We then suggest, in the light of the coherence of the results obtained, that the growth curves presented below can serve as standard growth curves for leatherback turtles. MATERIALS AND METHODS Captive rearing experiments Leatherback turtles were obtained on Canada CITES import permit CA05CWIM0039 and British Virgin Islands CITES Export certificate CFD062005. These animals are housed and maintained for research purposes and we meet all the ethical animal care standards as put forth by the Canadian Council for Animal Care (CCAC) and the UBC Animal Care Committee (UBC Animal Care Protocol: A04-0323). Twenty hatchlings (emergence July 2nd, 2005) were transported from Tortola, BVI to the Animal Care Center, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia. Animals were reared at the South Campus Animal Care facility using protocols developed by Jones et al. (2000). The three main obstacles to overcome in rearing leatherbacks are (i) their oceanic-pelagic nature (no recognition of barriers), (ii) designing a food matching their gelatinous food in the wild, and (iii) water quality. As leatherbacks are oceanic-pelagic animals, which do not recognize vertical (tank walls) and horizontal barriers (tank bottom), the animals were tethered to PVCTM pipes secured across the tops of the tanks. Animals < 10 kg were attached to the tether using VelcroTM and cyanoacrylate cement attaching the tether  Growth of leatherback sea turtles, Jones, T.T. et al. 84 to the posterior portion of their carapace, thus confining them to a section of the tank. Each hatchling could swim or dive in any direction, but was unable to contact other turtles or the tank’s bottom and walls. Upon reaching ≥ 10 kg the juveniles were secured to the tether with a harness made of TygonTM tubing. The harness circled each shoulder like a backpack and then looped around the caudal peduncle of the animal. Harnessing the leatherbacks is necessary as they swim continuously and, failing to recognize physical barriers, would abrade their skin against such barriers, which would lead to infections and usually death (Jones et al., 2000). The turtles were fed 3 to 5 times daily to satiation during the first 2-months of age and 3 times daily to satiation when > 2 months of age on a squid gelatin diet. The diet consists of squid (Pacific Ocean squid; mantle and tentacles only), vitamins (ReptaviteTM) and calcium (Rep-CalTM), blended with flavorless gelatin and hot water. As the wild diet of leatherbacks consists solely of gelatinous zooplankton (i.e., jellyfish; see Pauly et al. 2008), it is necessary for the food to have the proper texture and consistency. The food was weighed (Ek-1200 A; Stites Scale Inc., 3424 Beekman Street, Cincinnati, OH 45223) prior to feeding and notes were made as to individual food mass intake per day. The food had a water content of 90 % water, and an energy content of 20.16 ± 0.39 kJg-1 (dry weight). Random food samples were dried in a desiccating oven at 60°C for 24 to 72 hours to determine the dry to wet weight ratio. The dried homogenized samples were then sent to the Southwest Fisheries Science Center of NOAA (La Jolla, California, USA) for analysis with a bomb calorimeter (Parr Instrument Co.). The turtles were maintained in large oval tanks (5 m long x 1.5 m wide x 0.3 m deep) containing ~ 2,500 l of re-circulated/filtered salt water. Water temperature was maintained at 24 ± 1 oC. Four fluorescent fixtures (40 W UVA/B; Repti-Glow 8) suspended 0.5 m above each pool provided full spectrum radiation on a 12/12 hour cycle; also, each tank received ambient light. Water quality was maintained to the following levels pH = 8.0 to 8.3; salinity = 28-33, and ammonia < 0.1 mg-1. Water quality for each pool was maintained by four systems: a biological filter, a sand filter (Triton II™), an ultraviolet filter (Aqua Ultraviolet™ 114 W UV water sterilizer) and a protein skimmer. The turtles were weighed and measured on emergence, at 3 and 7 days of age, then weekly. Straight carapace length (SCL), the distance from the center of the nuchal notch to the caudal peduncle (posterior of the carapace), was used for all length measurements, and performed with a digital caliper to the nearest 0.1 mm. The turtles were weighted using an Ek-1200 A scale (Stites Scale Inc., 3424 Beekman Street, Cincinnati, OH 45223) from hatching to weights of 1.2 kg (± 0.1g), and an ADAM CPW-60 scale (Dynamic Scales, 1466 South 8th Street, Terre Haute, IN 47802) for weights ≥ 1.2 kg (± 0.02 kg). Length-weight relationships and growth curves We fitted the available length-weight data pairs (Table 1 and 2) with a length weight relationship of the form: W = a·Lb … 1) where W is the weight in kg, L the SCL in cm, a is a multiplicative parameter of dimension L·W-1, and b is an exponent usually taking values near 3 (which then indicates isometric growth, and allows interpretation of ‘a’ as a condition factor; Pauly, 1984). Equation (1) was fitted by first transforming the data of Table 1 into log10Wi - log10Li pairs, and fitting these by a linear regression of the form: log10Wi = α+b·log10Li … 2) where antilog α = a, and all other parameters are as defined previously. The VBGF for length has the form: Lt = L∞(1 - e-K(t-t0)) … 3)  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  85 where Lt is the predicted length at age t, L∞ is the mean the adults of the population in question would reach if they were to grow for a very long time (indefinitely, in fact), K is a growth parameter (not a growth rate) of dimension time-1, and t0 is the age of the turtles at length=0. It is a property of the VBGF that its first derivative (dl/dt) declines linearly with length, reaching zero at L∞. Hence, its parameter K can be estimated by plotting observed growth increments (Δl/Δt) against the mid-lengths of the increments (Pauly, 1984; Gulland & Holt, 1959), or iXYi = a - K  … 4) iXwhere Yi = Li2-Li1/t2-ti1, = Li1+Li2/2, and Li1 and Li2 are length measurements taken at the start and end of an arbitrary time interval ti1 to ti2. Also, we have L∞ = a/K. This method leads to robust estimate of K, provided that the intervals ti1 to ti2 are relatively short, as in this case (Gulland & Holt, 1959). Its main advantage is that it provides for visualization of the data, and thus to identify outliers or incompatible data sets (Pauly, 1984). The method can also be modified to allow for estimation of K even when growth increments are available only for juveniles. In such cases, a forcing value of L∞ is used, and K = Y¯ i/(L∞ - X¯ i) (Pauly, 1984). We used 155 cm SCL (mean length of nesting females) as forcing value of L∞, based on studies in both the Atlantic (Boulon et al., 1996) and the Pacific (Price et al., 2004). Another approach to fitting the VBGF is iterative, non-linear fitting (e.g., Fabens, 1965). Here, this was performed using the Sigma Plot software, with L∞=155 cm as constraint, given that the narrow range of the length-at age data fitted (Table 1) would not have otherwise lead to convergence. The VBGF for weight has the form: Wt = W∞(1 - e-K(t-t0))b … 5) where W∞ is the weight corresponding to L∞, e.g., as estimated by Equation (1), b the exponent of that same length-weight relationship, and all other parameters are defined as for the VBFG for length (Equation 3). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The hatchlings averaged 0.046 ± 0.001 kg body mass and 6.32 ± 0.13 cm SCL (straight carapace length) upon emergence. All hatchlings began feeding on the formulated squid gelatin by 3-5 days post emergence. Four turtles survived 18 months post emergence, with only 2 surviving more than 2 years. The largest animal was 42.65 kg and 72.0 cm SCL at 26 months old (age at death). Due to space constraints, we give here only a subset of the length and weight measurements taken during the life span of all 20 hatchlings (Table 2). Despite the deaths, the feeding regime seemed adequate, as assessed by the fact that our captive animals matched the condition of wild leatherbacks (Figure 1). The  0 10 20 30 0 20 40 60 80 10 B od y w Straight carapace length (cm) this study 40 50 60 70 80 0 ei gh t (k g) American Samoa Western Australia Hawaii longline Florida 2006 Florida 2005 unknown Western Australia  Figure 1. Plot of weight vs. length in 20 leatherbacks turtles maintained in captivity, from hatchlings to > 2-years (this study, Table 1) compared with weight vs. length from strandings and by-catch (Table 2).  The overlap between the two data sets suggests that conditions for the captive turtles corresponded to those in the wild (c.f. with Figure 2).  Growth of leatherback sea turtles, Jones, T.T. et al. 86 relationship we obtained from the N = 101 log-transformed length and weight data pairs in Tables 1 and 3 (r2 = 0.998) is: W = 0.000264·L2.806 … 6) where W is the weight in kg and L the SCL in cm.  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 20 40 60 80 B o d y w ei g h t ( kg ) Straight carapace length (cm) The length and weight data pairs from our study match those of leatherback taken from the wild (Figure 1), and hence equation (4) may be proposed as standard L-W relationship for leatherback turtles. On the other hand, the data in Figure 1, and Equation (4) suggest that the turtles raised by Deraniyagala (1939) and Bels et al. (1988) suffered from sub-optimal condition, notably inadequate nutrition (i.e., algae, beef heart, and French bread; see Table 2), resulting in elevated mortality (Table 2), emaciation (Figure 2), and reduced growth (see below).  Figure 3 contrasts the growth rates obtained in this study (Table 1) with those reported by Deraniyagala (1939) and Bels et al. (1988). Despite much variability, our turtles exhibited higher growth rates than theirs. Moreover, the juvenile growth rates we obtained appear compatible with the adult growth rates reported by Price et al. (2004). Figure 3 also demonstrates the compatibility of our results with those Zug and Parham (1996), who found that juvenile leatherback growth rates were 31.6 cm year-1 for juveniles 8-37 cm SCL and 23.1 cm year-1 for juveniles 37-65 cm SCL [data converted from curved-carapace lengths using the equation of Tucker & Frazer (1991)]. Figure 2. Length-weight relationships of leatherback turtles. Solid black line: relationship based on length and weight (open dots) of the turtles we maintained in captivity from hatchlings to > 2-years (this study, Table 1). Thin black line: relationship based on the turtles (black squares) reared by Bels et al. (1988). Dotted line: relationship based on the turtles (black triangles) reared by Deraniyagala (1939). The low weight at length of the turtles reared by Bels et al. and Deraniyagala suggest that they suffered from less than optimal conditions (c.f. with Figure 1). Our growth rate data, combined with a value of L∞ set at 155 cm allows estimation of a preliminary value of K = 0.232 from the slope of the plot in Figure 3. Fitted non-linearly, the same inputs yielded the VBGF for length: Lt = 155(1-e-0.266(t+0.12)) … 7) The resulting curve is shown in Figure 4, and contrasted with a curve based on the length-at-age data of Deraniyagala (1939) and Bels et al. (1988). As might be seen, our juvenile growth data suggest faster growth than theirs, as also shown in Figure 3. Using 135 cm SCL as the minimum size at nesting, based on Boulon et al. (1996) for the Atlantic and Price et al. (2004) for the Pacific, Equation (8) suggests that it would take leatherbacks 7 years to reach sexual maturity, in agreement with the 6 years proposed by Zug & Parham (1996). Combining Equation (6) with (7) leads, finally, to a VBGF for the growth in weight in leatherbacks, i.e.: Wt= 370(1-e-0.266 (t+0.12))2.806 ... 8)  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  87 which can be used to predict mean weight at any age. Major assumptions have been made in the experimental design of this study and for the results to have any validity they must be addressed. Firstly, the VBGF requires that growth be monotonic throughout postnatal development, as it displays no inflection points (Choulpka & Musick, 1997). Therefore, polyphasic growth data, or displaying an initial lag phase, would require another growth function, e.g., the Gompertz, logistic or others. However, the leatherback turtles we raised, and our longitudinal sampling (repeated sampling on the same individuals; Choulpka & Musick, 1997) resulted in growth data exhibiting neither polyphasic growth, nor a lag phase. Therefore, the use of the VBGF is justified in our case, and by extension, in leatherbacks as a whole. We also suspect this to be the case in other species of marine turtles, as well. Captive growth does not necessarily reflect wild growth. However, our captive specimens exhibited the same length-weight relationships as wild juvenile leatherbacks (stranded or by- catch; Fig 1.), suggesting appropriate rearing conditions - at least compared with earlier captive growth studies. On the other hand, the problem of accelerated growth in captivity, seem to be limited to cheloniids (Swingle et al., 1993;Wood & Wood, 1980), and may not occur in leatherbacks, whose chondro- osseous development characteristic suggests rapid growth (Rhodin et al., 1996; Rhodin, 1985). Also, Zug & Parham (1996), whose growth data match ours almost perfectly (Figure 3), found rapid growth rates in wild leatherbacks (15 adults and 2 juveniles) and stated that the early captive growth pattern of leatherbacks closely matches the growth curves of wild individuals.  -5 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 0 50 100 150 G ro w th  in cr em en t (c m  y ea r- 1 ) Straight carapace length (mid-length, cm) 0  Figure 3. Plot of growth rates (Δl/Δt) against the corresponding mid- lengths of the growth increments in leatherback turtles, computed from Table 1 (open dots, our study), the studies of Deraniyagala (1939) and Bels et al. (1988) (black triangles), Zug & Parham (1996) (2 black dot) and adult growth rates from Price et al. (2004) (open squares). The solid line links the means of the values from our study (open dots) and L∞ = 155 cm (SCL); its slope allows a preliminary estimation of K = 0.232 year-1. The data points from Deraniyagala (1939) and Bels et al. (1988) were omitted, as their turtles probably experienced suboptimal condition (c.f. Fig. 2, and see text).  0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 5 10 15 20 Age (years) S tr ai g h t c ar ap ac e le n g th  (c m )  Figure 4. Von Bertalanffy Growth Functions for leatherback turtles: Solid line: VBGF with a fixed value of L∞ = 155 cm, K = 0.266 year-1and t0 = -0.12 year, based on length-at-age data in Table 1 (this study, open dots) fitted with SigmaPlot™ version 10. Dotted line: same L∞ and fitting method, with K = 0.185 year-1 and t0 = -0.03 year, derived from the length-at-age data in Table 3 (i.e., from studies of Deraniyagala, 1939 and Bels et al., 1988, black triangles). The sub-optimal conditions suggested to have occurred in these studies affected the growth of the turtles.  Growth of leatherback sea turtles, Jones, T.T. et al. 88 Our findings confirm that leatherbacks mature a younger age (6-7 years, see above), but at a larger size than cheloniid turtles. For example, loggerheads take > 15 years to reach a sexually mature size of about 90 cm carapace length (Frazer & Ehrhart, 1985; Mendoca, 1981), whereas green turtles take > 20-30 years to reach sexual maturity at a carapace length of about 100 cm (Frazer & Ladner, 1986; Frazer & Ehrhart, 1985; Mendoca, 1981; Limpus & Walter, 1980). Similarly, green turtles with size of 30 cm spend nearly 20 years in juvenile habitats, before they acquire adult features (Seminoff et al., 2002; Bjorndal & Bolten, 1988). Table 1. Length and weight of 20 turtles raised in captivity from hatchling to ages of over 2 years, using the protocol and feed described in the text. N = 20 ≤ 12 months; 4 from 12 to 18 months; 2 from 18 months to > 24 months. Turtle ID Age (days) Weight (kg) SCL (cm) Turtle ID Age (days) Weight (kg) SCL (cm) Turtle ID Age (days) Weight (kg) SCL (cm) Dc 7 1 0.048 6.37 Dc 13 31 0.115 8.61 Dc 19 500 20.360 55.40 Dc 7 31 0.139 9.25 Dc 13 73 0.305 12.59 Dc 20 1 0.047 6.55 Dc 7 73 0.355 13.17 Dc 13 157 1.260 20.04 Dc 20 31 0.131 9.26 Dc 8 1 0.046 6.10 Dc 13 206 2.140 23.67 Dc 20 73 0.349 13.49 Dc 8 31 0.129 8.78 Dc 14 1 0.048 6.32 Dc 20 150 1.180 20.00 Dc 8 73 0.342 13.29 Dc 14 31 0.115 8.75 Dc 20 206 2.480 26.33 Dc 9 1 0.047 6.41 Dc 14 101 0.489 14.99 Dc 20 297 5.440 34.74 Dc 9 31 0.123 8.82 Dc 14 157 1.180 20.29 Dc 21 1 0.045 6.29 Dc 9 73 0.326 12.85 Dc 14 206 2.160 24.93 Dc 21 31 0.119 8.81 Dc 9 157 1.280 20.69 Dc 14 304 5.460 34.27 Dc 21 87 0.300 12.05 Dc 10 1 0.046 6.42 Dc 14 402 11.000 44.14 Dc 22 1 0.047 6.37 Dc 10 31 0.124 9.03 Dc 14 507 17.280 52.60 Dc 22 31 0.127 9.11 Dc 10 73 0.335 12.99 Dc 14 611 25.600 61.50 Dc 22 129 0.701 16.00 Dc 10 157 1.220 20.20 Dc 15 1 0.046 6.43 Dc 23 1 0.047 6.24 Dc 10 206 2.180 25.10 Dc 15 31 0.133 9.05 Dc 23 31 0.140 9.29 Dc 10 304 5.420 34.46 Dc 15 122 0.580 15.01 Dc 23 122 0.754 17.15 Dc 10 402 10.900 44.57 Dc 16 1 0.045 6.13 Dc 24 1 0.048 6.43 Dc 10 500 12.060 47.50 Dc 16 31 0.119 8.52 Dc 24 31 0.117 8.72 Dc 10 628 21.240 55.80 Dc 16 73 0.360 13.16 Dc 24 73 0.301 12.24 Dc 11 1 0.046 6.04 Dc 16 157 1.320 20.67 Dc 24 150 1.020 19.21 Dc 11 31 0.105 8.23 Dc 16 248 3.420 28.38 Dc 24 206 2.360 25.78 Dc 11 73 0.264 11.90 Dc 17 1 0.046 6.41 Dc 24 332 5.580 35.13 Dc 11 150 0.943 18.38 Dc 17 31 0.144 9.32 Dc 25 1 0.046 6.16 Dc 11 206 2.000 23.65 Dc 17 73 0.367 13.79 Dc 25 31 0.117 8.83 Dc 11 255 2.960 26.74 Dc 18 1 0.047 6.38 Dc 25 108 0.375 13.61 Dc 12 1 0.046 6.44 Dc 18 31 0.131 9.19 Dc 26 1 0.046 6.33 Dc 12 31 0.111 8.55 Dc 18 66 0.263 11.57 Dc 26 31 0.132 9.24 Dc 12 73 0.303 12.59 Dc 19 1 0.046 6.34 Dc 26 108 0.496 15.03 Dc 12 150 1.146 19.71 Dc 19 31 0.135 9.20 Dc 27 1 0.045 6.35 Dc 12 206 2.460 25.73 Dc 19 73 0.346 13.06 Dc 27 31 0.125 8.91 Dc 12 304 5.620 34.47 Dc 19 157 1.280 20.39 Dc 27 101 0.558 14.85 Dc 12 402 10.420 43.87 Dc 19 206 2.400 25.73 Dc 27 150 0.900 17.98 Dc 12 479 13.040 48.40 Dc 19 304 6.360 35.03 Dc 27 213 1.520 21.50 Dc 13 1 0.046 6.19 Dc 19 402 13.780 47.31 - - - Turtles experience strong ontogenic habitat shifts. Thus, green turtles enter the oceanic- pelagic habitat as post- hatchling, and then turn into coastal-benthic feeders as juveniles (Bjorndal & Bolten, 1988), which probably induce a shift from an omnivorous to a herbivorous diet. These ontogenic habitat, diet and hence niche shifts may be the reason why the somatic growth of marine turtles often appears to be polyphasic (Hendrickson, 1980; Chaloupka & Musick, 1997). Leatherbacks, however, - Table 2. Length and weight of 10 loggerhead turtles taken from the wild (stranded or as by-catch). Date, location and source are given for each turtle, except one, for which only the length and weight are known. Date Location Weight (kg) SCL (cm) Source Aug-93 American Samoa 7.00 39.0 MTN (1994; no 66, p. 3-5) Sep-05 Florida (2005) 0.19 10.4 J. Wyneken (pers. comm.) Mar-06 Florida (2006) 3.10 25.0 J. Wyneken (pers. comm.) Apr-98 Hawaii 44.50 70.4 NOAA (NMFS/PIFSC) Apr-99 Hawaii 74.10 85.3 NOAA (NMFS/PIFSC) Apr-06 Hawaii 35.45 70.0 NOAA (NMFS/PIFSC) Jul-06 Hawaii 33.60 67.5 NOAA (NMFS/PIFSC) Jul-02 W. Australia 1.85 20.0 MTN (2004; no. 104, p. 3-5) 1983 W. Australia 3.30 31.0 MTN (2004; no.104, p. 3-5) Unknown Unknown 0.17 11.5 M. Conti (pers. comm.)  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  89 are oceanic-pelagic animals throughout their life-history (Bolten, 2003) and do not exhibit an ontogenetic diet shift; the diet consists solely of gelatinous zooplankton, throughout all life-history stages (Salmon et al., 2004; Bjorndal, 1997). This, then, would justify the use of the VBGF. Table 3. Length and weight at age of leatherback turtles raised from the hatchling stage to ages of over 1 year Deraniyagala (1939; initial N = 10; food: algae, beef hearts and French bread) and Bels et al. (1988; initial N = 14; food: mussels). Deraniyagala lost 90% his turtles in the first month, with 2 lasting 169 days, and 1 from day 169 to 662. Bels et al. lost 70% of their turtle within 2-months, with 1 lasting from day 183 to 1351. Eckert (2002) used reports of visual sightings and incidental captures in north Atlantic to show that leatherbacks do not move above ~30̊ N and into water < 26 ̊C until they are over 100 cm in carapace length, corresponding given Equation (6) and (7), to an age of 3.8 years, and a weight of 108 kg, respectively. The latter value, used as an input for the leatherback thermoregulatory model of Bostrom & Jones (2007), suggest that these leatherbacks could maintain body temperatures 1.63 to 8.15 ̊C above ambient temperatures. This would allow them to move into colder waters where they can exploit different assemblages and perhaps greater abundance of gelatinous zooplankton, without their metabolism and growth being much reduced by the lower ambient temperatures. A review of reptilian growth by Avery (1994) showed that growth was not affected by cooler temperatures when the organisms were allowed to behaviorally thermoregulate. Although leatherback thermoregulation is endogenously driven, it is also a consequence of a large mass and locomotion (Bostrom & Jones, 2007). Thus, the benefit of higher body temperatures with regards to growth rates would not be lost to increased thermoregulatory costs. Deraniyagala (1939) Bels et al. (1988) Age  (days) Weight  (kg) SCL (cm) Age (days) Weight (kg) SCL (cm) 1 0.033 5.9 1 0.046 6.1 21 0.096 8.5 41 0.047 6.2 22 -- 7.3 85 0.075 9.6 32 -- 8.5 239 0.312 14.7 32 -- 8.9 478 0.950 21.2 46 -- 10.2 506 1.125 22.8 91 -- 13.7 726 3.720 -- 169 -- 16.0 847 4.500 -- 183 -- 25.4 928 8.020 47.0 195 -- 25.5 1140 20.000 61.7 203 2.438 -- 1200 28.500 82.0 218 3.005 30.2 1351 49.500 85.0 308 -- 35.0 -- -- -- 344 -- 35.6 -- -- -- 466 4.536 36.8 -- -- -- 562 6.804 43.3 -- -- -- 586 7.258 43.3 -- -- -- 624 7.265 43.5 -- -- -- 662 -- 42.0 -- -- -- The decline in the Pacific leatherback population is daunting. The presumed cause is decades of intense egg harvest at most nesting beaches, exacerbated by widespread incidental by-catch from fisheries practices (Eckert & Sarti, 1997). Although the numbers of adults are higher in the Atlantic (~30,000), fishing practices continue to take their toll and the numbers from artisanal fisheries is unknown but probably severe (Peckham et al., 2007). The good news is that with 7 years time to first nesting, leatherbacks still have a chance, as there is potential for a rapid rebound (at least compared with the slow- growing cheloniids) if fisheries by-catch can be reduced through moratoria and regulation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work would not have been possible without the help and cooperation of Gaverson ‘Gary’ Frett and Arlington ‘Zeke’ Pickering of the Conservation and Fisheries Department (CFD), British Virgin Islands. As well, we thank the CFD, BVI for granting us permission to study and rear leatherbacks. Our gratitude also goes to Ms Colette Wabnitz (Fisheries Centre, UBC) for invaluable assistance, and Dieta Lund (Zoology, UBC) for keeping track of our rearing data. We thank Jeanette Wyneken, Bob Prince, M. Conti and NOAA, National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center for data on stranded, and by- caught juvenile leatherbacks. We also thank Ashley Houlihan, Katerina Kwon, Amir Shamlou, Dieta Lund, Erika Kume, AndrewYamada, Thea Sellman, Oliver Claque, Brian Woo, Angela Stevenson and Dana Miller, all UBC undergraduate students for their care of the leatherbacks housed at the Animal Care  Center, Department of Zoology, UBC as well as Art Vanderhorst and Sam Gopaul (Turtle emergency care), Bruce Gillespie and Vincent Grant (for everything mechanical) and Chris Harvey-Clark, Bob George and Tamara Godbey for clinical assistance. This work was funded by a Canadian NSERC-Discovery Grant to DRJ and by the US NOAA/NMFS (SWFSC & PIFSC).   Growth of leatherback sea turtles, Jones, T.T. et al. 90 REFERENCES Avery, R.A., 1994. Growth in reptiles. Gerontology 40, 193-199. Bels, V., Rimblot-Baly, F., Lescure, J., 1988. Croissance et maintain en captivité de la tortue luth, Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli 1761). Revue Française d'Aquariologie 15(2), 59-64. Bertalanffy, L. von., 1938. 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Length-weight relationship and growth of sea turtles, Wabnitz, C. & Pauly, D. 92 LENGTH–WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS AND ADDITIONAL GROWTH PARAMETERS FOR SEA TURTLES1 Colette Wabnitz The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email:c.wabnitz@fisheries.ubc.ca Daniel Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email:m.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT To facilitate field and other work on sea turtles, composite length-weight relationships, based on a wide range of sizes sampled by various authors, are presented for five species, viz. Kemp’s ridleys (Lepidochelys kempi), olive ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea), loggerheads (Caretta caretta), greens (Chelonia mydas), and hawkbills (Eretmochelys imbricata). Also, 38 pairs of growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF; K; L∞ and W∞) are presented for four species, leaving only the growth of the olive ridley undocumented. INTRODUCTION There are seven living species of sea turtles: flatback (Natator depressus), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempi), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea). Populations of all these species are threatened throughout the world because of overexploitation, disease, incidental capture by fishers, and destruction of critical nesting habitat (Lutcavage et al., 1997; Mortimer et al., 2000; Lewison et al., 2004; Peckham et al., 2008). Intensive, and sometimes sophisticated research has been conducted to quantify these impacts and inform management practices (e.g., Chaloupka & Balazs, 2007; Bailey et al., 2008; e.g., Sims et al., 2008). In the process, however, basic biological data are frequently overlooked. This applies particularly to morphometric relationships, whose validity is often taken for granted, although they tend to be based on too small a range of sizes to be of any use in building more elaborate models, e.g., turtle growth studies. This contribution presents key morphometric data for 5 species of sea turtles, namely Kemp’s ridleys (L. kempi), olive ridleys (L. olivacea), loggerheads (C. caretta), greens (C. mydas), and hawkbills (E. imbricata), and complements two other works in this volume, Jones et al. (2008) for leatherbacks and Palomares et al. (2008) for reptiles (including sea turtles). MATERIAL AND METHODS The relationship between total length (L) and weight (W) for most animals is expressed by the equation: W = a•Lb …1) whose parameters (a, b) are estimated by the antilog of the intercept, and the slope, respectively, of a regression of the log10 W against log10 L. The value of b is generally close to 3, implying ‘isometry’, i.e., the shape of the animal in question remaining the same as they get older and gain in size.                                                  1 Cite as: Wabnitz, C., Pauly, D., 2008. Length–weight relationships and additional growth parameters for sea turtles. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 92-101.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  93 Table 1. Empirical equations used to convert curved carapace length (CCL; cm) into straight carapace length (SCL;  cm) measurements for individual species. Species Equation R2 Reference Lepidochelys kempi SCL = 0.957 * CCL - 0.696 0.99 Plotkin (2007) Lepidochelys olivacea SCL = 0.818 * CCL + 9.244 0.91 Whiting et al. (2007) Caretta caretta SCL = 0.948 * CCL – 1.442 0.97 Teas (1993) Chelonia mydas SCL = 0.932 * CCL + 0.369 0.93 Peckham et al. (2008) Eretmochelys imbricata SCL= 0.939 * CCL - 0.154 n.a. CITES (2002) Eretmochelys imbricata SCL = 0.935 * CCL + 0.449 0.99 Limpus (1992) – for Australia  Sea turtles can be measured in a number of ways, requiring standardisation before datasets can be compared. Straight carapace length (SCL) and curved carapace length (CCL) are the most commonly used measurements taken of sea turtles. As their name implies, CCL measurements are taken over the curve of the carapace whereas straight measurements are taken with a set of callipers. Although variations exist in how these measurements can be taken (e.g., notch to notch [NN] or notch to tip [NT]), authors most often do not detail the specific technique used in measuring individuals beyond curved or straight. For the purposes of this analysis, we assumed discrepancies to be minimal. Where necessary, data were converted to SCL using empirical equations listed in Table 1, based on linear regression of paired CCL and SCL data for the species in question. To ensure that the parameters of length-weight relationships are estimated properly (Safran, 1992), length-weight data pairs from different studies were compiled to cover the widest possible range of sizes, and all developmental stages, i.e., juveniles, subadults, and adults (Table 2). Table 2. Length weight relationships for 5 species of sea turtles; a and b are parameters in the equation of the type W=a L3. Species Location a b r2 N Size range (SCL; cm) References Lepidochelys kempi Chesapeake, Florida, UK & France 0.000247 2.834 0.958 145 19-67 Carr & Caldwell (1956); Byles (1988); Campbell & Sulak (1997); Coles (1999); Witt et al. (2007) Caretta caretta Chesapeake, Florida, UK & France, Japan 0.000282 2.823 0.966 431 12-105 Byles (1988); Sato et al. (1995); Barichivich et al. (1997); Campbell & Sulak (1997); Coles (1999); Witt et al. (2007) Chelonia mydas Florida, Tortuguero, Ascension, Suriname, Baja, Solomon Islands 0.000206 2.895 0.992 449 5-124 Carr & Caldwell (1956); Pritchard et al. (1969); Barichivich et al. (1997); Campbell & Sulak (1997); (2000); Gilbert (2005); Seminoff et al. (2006); CCC (Unpublished); Krueger (unpublished); Seminoff & Jones (Seminoff & Jones) Lepidochelys olivacea Hawaii, Brazil, Suriname, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia 0.000479 2.673 0.9955 46 4-74 Pritchard et al. (1969); Hughes (1972); Chantrapornsyl (1992); Work & Balazs (2002); de Castilhos & Tiwari (2007); WWF-Australia (WWF-Australia) Eretmochelys imbricata Honduras, Cayman, Barbados, Suriname 0.000278 2.736 0.988 112 22-99 Pritchard et al. (1969); Beggs et al. (2007); Blumenthal et al. (2008); Dunbar et al. (2008)   Length-weight relationship and growth of sea turtles, Wabnitz, C. & Pauly, D. 94 Although other growth curves exist to describe the growth of sea turtle (e.g. Bjorndal & Bolten, 1988; Chaloupka, 1998; Bjorndal et al., 2000a; Chaloupka et al., 2004), we have used the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF; von Bertalanffy, 1938) to ensure compatibility with the other growth parameters in this report. The VBGF for length has the form: Lt = L∞(1 – e-K(t-t0)) …2) where Lt is the predicted length at age t, L∞ (also Linf) is the mean the adults of the population in question would reach if they were to grow for a very long time (indefinitely, in fact), K is a growth parameter (not a growth rate) of dimension time-1, and t0 is the age the turtles at length = 0. Using the parameters K (quantifying the curvature of the VBGF), and L∞ (or W∞, Winf) one can then summarize and compare growth data by means of so called auximetric plots (Pauly, 1998). The parameters K and L∞ used for this analysis were taken from the published literature (see Table 3). Length-weight (L/W) relationships for each species, as described in Table 2, were then used to calculate W∞ (Table 3). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 summarizes available relationships between SCL and CCL, while Table 2 summarizes the L/W relationships and related data. The r2 values for all L/W relationships were greater than 0.95. Estimates of parameter b ranged from 2.673 for olive ridleys to 2.895 for green turtles. When split into individual ‘populations’ for each species b spanned values between 2.495 and 3.134. This increased range in estimates reflected differences in ‘population’ sample sizes and length ranges. The L/W relationships for all 5 species, and the ‘population’ data used to derive them, are presented in Figure 1. One potential application of such length-weight relationships is the computation of biomass estimates from length-frequency distributions. This is of great value when, for example, site and season-specific weights have not been collected due to logistical difficulties and/or lack of time required to record weight in the field. Although weight can be reliably estimated from length using equations such as those presented here, it should be noted that the exact relationship between length and weight may differ depending on the ‘condition’ of individual animals. Condition may reflect differences in food availability and population densities at individual sites (Bjorndal et al., 2000a), and is likely to vary between seasons and years for a given population. In instances where the individuals of a population remain below the average curve, its individuals can be considered comparatively ‘skinny’; conversely, when individuals lie above the curve, they can be considered ‘stout’. Notably, the compiled data presented here highlight the importance of obtaining ‘true’ estimates of population parameters through comprehensive sampling of a species size range. Relationships derived from morphometric data for a location-specific population may be biased by being representative of only a narrow size range. For example, because the majority of sea turtle programs operate on nesting beaches, length-weight data pairs are likely to be primarily, if not solely, collected from mature females. This can lead to erroneous population-level L/W relationships, as the juvenile-subadult phase is missing.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  95 W = 0.000247 SCL2.834 R2 = 0.96; n=145 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Straight Carapace Length (cm) W ei gh t (k g) UK/France Chesapeake Florida  A W = 0.000282 SCL2.823 R2 = 0.97; n=431 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 20 40 60 80 100 Straight Carapace Length (cm) W ei gh t (k g) 120 UK/France Chesapeake Florida Japan  B W = 0.000206 SCL2.896 R2 = 0.99; n=449 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Straight Carapace Length (cm) W ei gh t (k g) Suriname Tortuguero Florida Baja Ascension Solomons  C W = 0.000479 SCL2.678 R2 = 0.99; n=46 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 20 40 60 80 Straight Carapace Length (cm) W ei gh t (k g) 100 Suriname Hawaii Brazil Mozambique Australia Thailand  D W = 0.000278 SCL2.736 R2 = 0.99; N=112 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Straight Carapace Length (cm) W ei gh t (k g) Suriname Barbados Cayman Honduras  Figure 1. Correlations between straight carapace length (SCL, cm) and weight (W, kg) for five species of sea turtles: A. Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempi); B. loggerhead (Caretta caretta); C. green (Chelonia mydas); D. olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea); E. hawksbill (Erytmochelys imbricata) discussed here.  E   Length-weight relationship and growth of sea turtles, Wabnitz, C. & Pauly, D. 96 Table A1 summarizes the growth parameters (K, L∞ and W∞), while the auximetric plot of Figure 2, which does not include outliers, shows that these growth parameters are mutually consistent. y = -0.762x + 0.458 R2 = 0.70 -2.0 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 W∞ (kg; log10) K  ( ye ar -1 ; lo g 1 0 ) ACKNOWLEDGMENTS CW would like to thank E. Harrison, B. 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Human Biology 10, 181-213. Watson, D.M., 2006. Growth rates of sea turtles in Watamu, Kenya. Earth & Environment 2, 29-53. Whiting, S., Long, J., Hadden, K., Lauder, A., Koch, A., 2007. Insights into size, seasonality and biology of a nesting population of the Olive Ridley turtle in northern Australia. Wildlife Research 34, 200-210. Witt, M.J., Penrose, R., Godley, B.J., 2007. Spatio-temporal patterns of juvenile marine turtle occurrence in waters of the European continental shelf. Marine Biology 151, 873-885. Work, T., Balazs, G.H., 2002. Necropsy findings in sea turtles taken as bycatch in the North Pacific longline fishery. Fishery Bulletin 100, 876-880. WWF-Australia, 2008. Olive ridley turtle tracking: Turtle bios. Accessed 2008. http://www.wwf.org.au/ourwork/oceans/ oliveridleytrackingbios/#milika. Zug, G.R., Kalb, H.J., Luzar, S.J., 1997. Age and growth in wild Kemp's ridley seaturtles Lepidochelys kempii from skeletochronological data. Biological Conservation 80, 261-268.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  99 Table A1. Additional growth parameter estimates for 4 species of sea turtles. Method: MR=Mark recapture; SC=Skeletochronology; LF=Length frequency. All data are from wild sea turtles except for data by Caillouet (1995) for L. kempii. Reported average lengths from http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/species/turtles /loggerhead.htm. Species (reported average length; cm) Area K (year-1) L∞ (SCL; cm) W∞ (kg) Sample size Size range (cm) Comments; reference [method] Lepidochelys kempii (56-79) Gulf of Mexico 0.317 62.3 24.4 117a  Caillouet et al. (1995) [MR]  Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico 0.129 80.0 49.5 36 21.5–60.3 Schmid & Witzell (1997) [MR]  Atlantic: Cape Canaveral 0.577 61.1 23.0 12c 21.5-60.3 Probably underestimated due to lack of adult sized Kemp’s ridley turtles in the database; Schmid (1995) [MR]  Atlantic: Cape Canaveral 0.594 60.8 22.7 10 21.5-60.3 60% 20-40cm; probably underestimated due to lack of adult sized Kemp’s ridley turtles in the database; Schmid (1995) [MR]  Atlantic 0.215 58.9 20.8 56  Zug et al. (1997) [SC]  Gulf of Mexico 0.219 70.5 34.6 15  Zug et al. (1997) [SC]  Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico 0.079 87.7 64.2 70  Zug et al. (1997) [SC]  Gulf of Mexico: Cedar Keys 0.085 91.4 72.2 24  Schmid (1998) [SC]  Atlantic 0.167 73.2 38.5 38  Turtle Expert Working Group (2000)b [SC, MR]  Gulf of Mexico 0.210 71.1 35.4 58  Turtle Expert Working Group (2000) [SC, MR]  Atlantic 0.115 74.9 41.0 109 21.7–50.5 Snover et al. (2007) [SC]  Gulf of Mexico 0.053 97.0 85.4 660 20-61 Bjorndal & Bolten (1997) [LF]         Caretta caretta (92) Atlantic: Cape Canaveral 0.059 96.1 118 51c 38.2-110 80%<80 cm SCL; 20%>80cm; Schmid (1995) [MR - Adults include males and females]  Atlantic: Cape Canaveral 0.037 112 185 17 38.2–110  Growth model for captures and recaptures by the contract vessel; size range for study but not specified for N=19; Schmid (1995) [MR]  Chesapeake Bay 0.076 112 182 83 13-42 Klinger & Musick (1995) [SC]  Atlantic  (Florida, Georgia & South Carolina) 0.031 110 174 118 45–110  Size range for study, no specified for N=118; Henwood (1987) [MR]  Azores, North Atlantic 0.072 98.9 129 574 10-64 Assuming 105.5 CCL, where CCL=1.388+(1.053)(SCLnt); Bjorndal et al. (2000b) [LF]  Florida, Mosquito lagoon 0.120 94.6 114 28 53.3-77.3 Frazer & Ehrhart (1985) [MR]  Florida  0.115 94.7 114 41 53.3–77. Size range based on 8 individuals with specified lengths, 20 adults with lengths not specified, and 13 individuals with no specified lengths but assumed <82 cm; Frazer (1987) [MR]  North Carolina 0.052 107 160 57 45.1–75.8 Braun-McNeill et al. 2002 in Epperly et al.(2001) [MR]    Length-weight relationship and growth of sea turtles, Wabnitz, C. & Pauly, D. 100 Table A1. Continued. Species (reported average length; cm) Area K (year-1) L∞ (SCL; cm) W∞ (kg) Sample size Size range (cm) Comments; reference [method] Caretta caretta (92) Florida 0.064 96.7 121 54 62.2–104.2 Foster (1994) [MR]  Georgia, Cumberland island 0.096 96.8 121 69 >49.76-103 Reported in CCL and converted to SCL using SCL=(0.948×CCL)–1.442 ; Teas (1993); Parham & Zug (1997) [SC–1979 ; regression growth protocol]  Georgia, Cumberland island 0.098 102 138 25 >49.76–103 Reported in CCL and converted to SCL using SCL=(0.948×CCL)–1.442 ; Teas (1993); Parham & Zug (1997) [SC–resampled 1979 data–correction factor protocol]  Georgia, Cumberland island 0.086 95.4 116 25 >49.76–103 Reported in CCL and converted to SCL using SCL=(0.948×CCL)–1.442 ; Teas (1993); Parham & Zug (1997) [SC–resampled 1979 data–regression growth protocol   Georgia, Cumberland island 0.106 108 163 26 >36.04–103 Parham & Zug (1997) [SC – 1980 correction factor protocol]  Georgia, Cumberland island 0.074 109 170 26 >36.04–103 Parham & Zug (1997) [SC – 1980 regression growth protocol]  Gulf of Mexico 0.051 106 155 570 >36.04–103 Bjorndal et al .(2001) [LF]  Florida, Atlantic coast 0.044 111 178 1234 42.2-81.03 Reported in CCL and converted to SCL using SCL=(0.948×CCL)–1.442 ; Teas (1993); Bjorndal et al. (2001) [LF]  Texas 0.030 144 372 819 46-87 Bjorndal & Bolten (1997) [LF]  Great Barrier Reef, Australia 0.060 105 151 172 63–90.3 Reported in CCL and converted to SCL using SCL=(0.948×CCL)–1.442 ; Teas (1993); Frazer et al. (1994) [MR]         Chelonia mydas (91) Florida, Mosquito lagoon 0.089 109 157 11 27.7->69.6 Frazer & Ehrhart (1985) [MR]  Florida, Atlantic 0.026 182 694 976 25-70 Bjorndal & Bolten (1997) [LF]  Inagua, Bahamas 0.072 99.7 122 964 25-70 Bjorndal & Bolten (1995) [LF]  US Virgin Islands 0.048 148 379 41 25.6–62.3 Size range at first capture; Boulon & Frazer (1990) [MR]  Watamu, Kenya 0.068 117 195 563 31-108 Reported in CCL and converted to SCL using SCL=0.932*CCL+0.369 ; Peckham et al. (2008) ; Watson (2006) [MR]                                                  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.   101 Table A1. Continued. Species (reported average length; cm) Area K (year-1) L∞ (SCL; cm) W∞ (kg) Sample size Size range (cm) Comments; reference [method] Eretmochelys imbricata (63-90) St Thomas, Virgin islands 0.071 100 88.9 9 36-43 Boulon (1994) as in Heppell & Crowder (1996) [MR]  Mona Island, Puerto Rico 0.036 100 88.9 15 - Van Dam and Diez (1994) as in Heppell & Crowder (1996) [MR]  Queensland, Australia 0.048 100 88.9 41 33-82 Reported in CCL and converted to SCL using SCL=SCL=0.935*CCL+0.449; Limpus (1992) as in Heppell & Crowder (1996)  Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 102 A PRELIMINARY COMPILATION OF LIFE-HISTORY DATA FOR MEDITERRANEAN MARINE INVERTEBRATES1 Charalampos A. Apostolidis Konstantinos I. Stergiou Department of Zoology,  School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, UP Box 134, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece; E-mail: chapost@gmail.com, kstergio@bio.auth.gr ABSTRACT Quantitative information on the life-history traits of fish is available online through FishBase (www.fishbase.org). This is not the case for marine invertebrates, although these organisms are of primary importance to marine ecosystems and are being heavily exploited. In order to fill this gap for the Mediterranean at least, we surveyed the primary and grey scientific literature and collected the following type of information on Mediterranean marine invertebrates: (i) length-weight relationships; (ii) maximum length (Lmax) and age (Tmax); (iii) length conversion relationships; (iv) von Bertalanffy growth parameters; and (v) length at maturity (Lm). Overall, we collected data for 246 stocks of 48 species belonging to 5 major groups (Decapoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Holothuroidea and Anthozoa). We established empirical relationships to predict asymptotic length (L∞) from Lmax and Lm from L∞. Finally, we analyzed growth parameters using the auximetric plot at the group (Decapoda and Bivalves) and species level (Aristaemorpha foliacea, Nephrops norvegicus and Plesionika martia). INTRODUCTION Growth parameters and length-weight relationships are important not only for theoretical aspects, e.g., life-history trade-offs (Binohlan & Pauly, 2000; Charnov, 1993), but for practical reasons as well, e.g., conservation and management. In addition, compilations of historical growth data are of paramount importance for establishing baselines (Pauly, 1995). Compared to fish, invertebrate stocks are expected to be less vulnerable to overfishing, primarily due to their small body size (Jennings et al., 1998). Yet, their high economic value, and thus the high fishing effort they experience, combined with the absence or low mobility of most invertebrate species, can change this (Thorpe et al., 2006). In addition, many benthic invertebrates are keystone components for the Mediterranean ecosystems (Coll et al., 2006; 2007). Growth parameters and length-weight relationships have been assembled for fishes from different aquatic ecosystems of the world and are available online through FishBase (www.fishbase.org, Froese & Pauly, 2008). Though various compilations exist for marine invertebrates (e.g., Relini et al., 1999; Ramirez Llorda, 2002), they were done in a less systematic fashion than presented here, and are not available online (as the data presented here will be through SeaLifeBase, www.sealifebase.org). In this report, we present a preliminary compilation of life-history data (i.e., maximum length and age, length-weight relationships, von Bertalanffy growth parameters and length at first maturity) for Mediterranean marine invertebrates (Decapoda, Cephalopoda, Bivalvia, Holothuroidea and Anthozoa). This complements previous collections of life-history data for Mediterranean fishes (see Stergiou & Karpouzi, 2002; Stergiou et al., 2006), and will (i) allow the study and comparison of the patterns and propensities in the life-history of main organisms embedded in the Mediterranean; and (ii) facilitate the construction of ecosystem models of the Mediterranean Sea.                                                  1 Cite as: Apostolidis, C.A., Stergiou, K.I., 2008. A preliminary compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 102-121.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  103 MATERIALS AND METHODS We gathered peer-reviewed and grey literature (i.e., local journals, national and international conference proceedings, technical reports and theses) reporting growth parameters for Mediterranean marine invertebrates using the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), the Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We collected the following type of information (Table 1): (i) maximum age and length, Tmax (years) and Lmax (cm), respectively; (ii) length type reported (i.e., carapace length (CL); total length (TL); shell length (SHL); shell height (SHH); mantle length (ML); vertical length (VL)); (iii) morphometric relationships between CL and TL for Decapoda and SHL and SHH for Bivalvia; (iv) the parameters a and b of the length-weight relationship (W=aLb) and length at maturity, Lm (cm); and (v) the von Bertalanffy growth parameters, L∞ (cm), K (year-1) and t0 (year), and the method used to estimate them. We also collected auxiliary information on the sampling characteristics (i.e., sampling gear, frequency, date and region and sample size). In all cases, the parameter a of the length-weight relationship was originally estimated by the authors using millimeters as length unit. We converted all estimates to cm using the formula a’ (cm) = a (mm)*10b (Binohlan & Pauly, 1998; Stergiou & Moutopoulos, 2001). We presented Tmax only when it was estimated from growth rings (presumed to be annual), which applied to 11 bivalve stocks. When multiple methods were used by the original authors for the estimation of growth parameters, we selected the results of the method with the best fit. We estimated the Lmax/L∞ and Lm/L∞ ratios and established empirical relationships to predict L∞ from Lmax and Lm from L∞. Growth parameters were plotted with a double logarithmic scale (i.e., through an auximetric plot, Pauly et al., 1996) in order to view the relationships between K and L∞ and compare growth patterns among different Mediterranean groups and species. For 11 records, L∞ was expressed in TL or SHH. For 3 out of these 11 records, we used the known morphometric relationships to convert from one length type to another. For 8 cases, no conversion equation was found; we excluded them from the analysis. RESULTS Overall, our dataset is based on 102 publications, of which 60 (59%) were published in sources not covered by the Science Citation Index (SCI). Most of the information gathered refers to Spain (86 stocks), Italy (83 stocks) and Greece (45 stocks), followed by Algeria (14 stocks), Croatia and Tunisia (6 stocks each) and France and Portugal (3 stocks each) (Figure 1). In total, 92% of the collected information refers to the northern Mediterranean. We collected growth parameters for 246 invertebrate stocks belonging to 48 species and 29 families (Table A1), representing 5 major groups: (i) Decapoda: 28 species (57%) and 202 stocks (82%); (ii) Bivalvia: 10 species (24%) and 27 stocks (12%); (iii) Cephalopoda: 5 species (10%) and 11 stocks (4%); (iv) Holothuroidea: 3 species (6%) and 3 stocks (1%); and (v) Anthozoa: 1 species (2%) and 1 stock. The best-studied species in terms of growth were Aristeus antennatus (43 stocks), followed by Nephrops norvegicus (30 stocks), and Aristaeomorpha foliacea (25 stocks) (Figure 2), all of which are highly- commercial species. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Portugal France Croatia Tunisia Algeria Greece Italy Spain C ou n tr y Number of stocks Sample size ranged from 10 individuals for Holothuria sanctori (Algeria) to 31,082 individuals for Donax trunculus (Southern Adriatic Sea) (Table A1). For 54% of the stocks for which there was available information on sampling frequency such information was derived from monthly (61%), seasonal (17%), yearly (2%) and bimonthly (2%)  Figure 1. Distribution of growth information per Mediterranean country.  Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 104 sampling. For the remaining cases, either the sampling was irregular (16%), or the analysis was based on a single sample (3%). Information on the sampling gear was not available for 40% of the populations. For the remaining 60%, samples were mainly collected by trawling (79%) followed by other gears (22%) (i.e., scuba diving, hand dredges, lift nets, trammel nets, trawling box, etc.). Information on the ageing method was unavailable for 12% of the stocks (Table A1). For the remaining stocks, growth was studied using length-frequency analysis (91%), shell rings reading (7%) and tag-recapture data (2%). Length- frequency analysis was the only method used for the Decapoda, Cephalopoda and Holothuroidea. For the estimation of VBGF parameters, the ELEFAN software (Pauly, 1987) was used in 70% of the stocks followed by non-linear fitting of age-at-length data (24%). The method used for estimating the parameters of the VBGF was not available for 37% of the 246 cases. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Others P. nobilis M. kerathurus P. martia P. longirostris A. foliacea N. norvegicus A. antennatus Sp ec ie s Number of stocks  Figure 2. The best studied invertebrate species in the Mediterranean Sea. The K parameter varied between 0.03 year-1 for Nephrops norvegicus (Catalan Sea) and 2.06 year-1 for Palaemon adspersus (Balearic Islands) (Figure 3). The mean K value for Decapoda and Bivalvia was 0.51 year-1 (s.e. = 0.02; n = 31) and 0.52 year-1 (s.e. = 0.02; n = 210) respectively, with the two means being significantly different (t-test; t = -2.957; P = 0.003). Longevity (Tmax) from growth readings reported for 11 Bivalve stocks (Table A1) ranged between 4 and 28 years for Pinna nobilis in Carboneras (Spain) and the Thermaikos Gulf (Greece) respectively. Lmax was reported for 146 invertebrate stocks (Decapoda: 126 stocks; Bivalves: 11 stocks; Cephalopoda: 6 stocks; and Holothuria: 3 stocks). The Lmax/L∞ ratio ranged between 0.39 for N. norvegicus (Catalan sea) and 1.19 for A. antennatus (Ionian Sea), with a mean value of 0.88 (s.e. = 0.01). The relationship between L∞ and Lmax was established for: (a) Decapoda: logCL∞ = 0.0471+1.0266logCLmax (r2 = 0.93; n = 126; s.e.slope = 0.025; P < 0.001), (b) Bivalvia: logSHL∞ = 0.0708+0.9611logSHLmax (r2 = 0.99; n = 11; s.e.slope = 0.038; P < 0.001), and (c) all stocks combined: logL∞ = 0.0653+0.9920logLmax (r2 = 0.96; n = 146; s.e.slope = 0.016; P < 0.001). Values of Lm were also obtained for 29 Decapoda stocks (7 species), 2 Bivalvia stocks (2 species), and 3 Cephalopoda stocks (2 species). The Lm/L∞ ratio ranged between 0.30 for A. antennatus (Ibiza Channel, Spain) and 0.66 for Melicertus kerathurus (Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece), with a mean value 0f 0.48 (s.e. = 0.017). The relationship between Lm and L∞ is presented in Figure 4. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 Growth coefficient (K; year-1) N u m be r of  s to ck s n=246  Figure 3. Distribution of K values for Mediterranean invertebrates.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  105 Length-weight relationships were reported only for Decapoda (82 stocks and 23 species) and Bivalvia (10 stocks and 6 species). Length-weight relationships were reported only for 36% of the stocks (and 59% of the species) for which VBGF parameters were available. For Decapoda, b ranged between 1.4 for female Sergestes arcticus (Catalan Sea) and 3.82 for female Polycheles typhlops (Catalan Sea) (mean = 2.83; s.e. = 0.043). For bivalves, b ranged between 2.78 for Chamelea gallina (Adriatic Sea) and 3.33 for Venus verrucosa (Italy) (mean = 3.02; s.e. = 0.072). Lm = 0.487·L∞ - 0.054 R2 = 0.92; s.e.slope = 0.026 n=34; P<0.001 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Asymptotic length (L∞; cm) Le n gt h  a t m at u ri ty  ( L m ; cm )  We also gathered 7 morphometric relationships for 7 stocks and 5 species of Mediterranean invertebrates, useful for the conversion of SHL and TL into SHH and CL, respectively, and vice versa (Table A1). Auximetric analysis was based on 194 and 29 sets of growth parameters for Decapoda and Bivalvia, respectively, but was not performed for groups represented by few cases (i.e., Cephalopoda, Holothuroidea, and Anthozoa) (Figure 5). Table 1. Auximetric relationships for 3 Mediterranean invertebrate species. Species n Relationship Figure 4. The relationship between length at maturity (Lm) and asymptotic length (L∞) for 34 Mediterranean marine invertebrate stocks r2 s.e.slope P Aristaeomorpha foliacea 25 logk=0.124-0.533logCL∞ 0.207 0.218 0.022 Nephrops norvegicus 30 logk=0.225-1.336logCL∞ 0.664 0.180 <0.001 Plesionika martia 8 logk=0.416-1.590logCL∞ 0.758 0.367 0.005  The same was true for Mytilus galloprovincialis (L∞ = 12.5, K = 0.048, Ligurian Sea) and P. nobilis (L∞ = 67.13, K = 0.006, Mar Menor Lagoon). The plots revealed a significant negative linear relationship for both Decapoda and Bivalvia, the former with a steeper slope (Figure 5). The two slopes were significantly different at the 0.05 level (ANCOVA, P=0.0175). Auximetric relationships were estimated for A. foliacea, N. norvegicus and Plesionika martia (Table 1). This was not done for the rest where a low number of growth parameters were available (n<4) or the relationship was statistically not significant (P>0.05). DISCUSSION Most of the species presented in our compilation are either of high commercial value or are discards of Mediterranean fisheries (Machias et al., 2001; Sanchez et al., 2004; Gokce et al., 2007). Concerning the articles collected, 41% were derived from SCI journals and the remaining from grey literature sources. This is very close to what was reported by Stergiou & Tsikliras (2006) for Mediterranean fishes, indicating the importance of the grey literature in the study of Mediterranean marine ecosystems. In addition, biological information on Mediterranean invertebrates is not equally distributed geographically, i.e., southern Mediterranean countries are strongly underrepresented. Marine invertebrates are a very diverse group. This diversity is also reflected in the various length types reported (i.e., CL, ML, SHL), which highlights the importance of conversion equations in order for comparisons to be done. All empirical relationships presented here displayed a strong fit and were in accordance with similar relationships estimated for fish (e.g., Froese & Binohlan, 2000). The only exception was the high slope (1.027) of the L∞-Lmax relationship for Decapoda, probably reflecting the underestimation of L∞ for organisms with small body size (Froese & Binohlan, 2000). The Lmax/L∞ ratio, which had a mean value of 0.88 (s.e. = 0.01), is similar to that reported by Stergiou (2000) for Greek  Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 106 marine fishes. The highly significant relationships between L∞ and Lmax and Lm and L∞ can be used to predict L∞ and Lm for less studied species or stocks in data-poor situations such as in the southern Mediterranean. With respect to the K-L∞ relationships, the intercept cannot be compared across groups because of the different length types used. However, slopes are comparable and the slope for Decapoda was found to be steeper than for Bivalvia (0.36) and for Mediterranean fishes (0.39, n=1029, Apostolidis & Stergiou unpublished data). This relationship is known as the growth trade-off and the slope has been related to other life- history parameters and has a metabolic basis (Charnov, 1993; 2007). In addition, the slopes for the 3 invertebrate species presented here are higher than those of the groups in which these species belong (see Charnov, 1993). log10CL∞ = -0.844·log10K+0.173 R2 = 0.409; s.e.slope =0.073 n = 194; P < 0.001 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5  Asymptotic carapace length (log10 CL∞; cm) G ro w th  c oe ff ic ie n t (l og 1 0  K ; ye ar -1 )  log10SHL∞ = -0.364·log10K-0.194 R2 = 0.304; s.e.slope = 0.106 n = 29; P = 0.002 -1.8 -1.6 -1.4 -1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Asymptotic shell length (log10 SHL∞;cm) G ro w th  c oe ff ic ie n g 1 0 K ; ye ar -1 ) t (l o  Figure 5. Relationship between growth coefficient (K) and asymptotic length (L∞) for decapod crustaceans (upper panel) and and bivalve mollusks (lower panel). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank Dr Daniel Pauly for pushing us to assemble the data presented here. REFERENCES AA.V.V., 1993. 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Stock evaluation of two species of deep-sea shrimp of the penaeid family: Aristeus antennatus and Parapenaeus longirostris. FAO Fish. Rep. 347, 221-231. Zeichen, M.M., Agnesi, S., Mariani, A., Maccaroni, A., Ardizzone, G.D., 2002. Biology and population dynamics of Donax trunculus L. (Bivalvia: Donacidae) in the South Adriatic coast (Italy). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54, 971-982. Zguidi, W., 2002. Ecobiologie et exploitation du poulpe commun Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797 (Cephalopoda, Octopoda) dans le golfe de Gabés (Tunisie, Méditerranée centrale). Thesis 3rd cycle, University of Tunis, pp. 165. Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 112 Table A1. Life history parameters of Mediterranean invertebrates. N denotes the sample size. S denotes sex, i.e., F: female; M: male; and C: combined. Length-based parameters, i.e., asympotic length (L∞), length at maturity (Lm) and maximum length (Lmax) are in cm. The growth coefficient (K) is in year-1 and to in year. Length-weight relationship coefficients a and b dimensionless. AM denotes the ageing method of original data set (LF: length frequency analysis; T: tag-recapture data; SR: shell rings readings) and M denotes the method used for the estimation of the von Bertalanffy growth parameters (NL: non-linear estimation; El: Elefan software; GH: Gulland-Holt plot; FW: Ford-Walford plot). Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm T Lmax max AM M LT Reference I Decapoda                 Aristaeomorpha foliacea  Italy C. Tyrrhenian Sea - F 7.32 0.620 0.19 - - 3.05 - - LF - CL Leonardi & Ardizzone (1994; in Spedicato et al., 1999a)   Tyrrhenian Sea - F 7.32 0.483 -0.44 0.5241 2.69 - - - LF - CL Spedicato et al. (1998; in Spedicato et al., 1999a)   S. Tyrrhenian Sea - F 7.10 0.470 -0.28 - - - - - - - CL Spedicato et al. (1994; in Papaconstantinou & Kapiris 2003)   Sardinian Channel - F 5.10 0.620 0.00 - - - - - - - CL Mura et al. (1997; in Papaconstantinou & Kapiris 2003)   Sardinian Channel - M 5.10 0.635 - - - - - - - - CL Mura et al. (1997; in Papaconstantinou & Kapiris 2003)   Sardinian Sea - F 7.54 0.456 0.58 - - 3.90 - - LF - CL Cau et al. (1994; in Spedicato et al., 1999a)   Sicilian Channel - F 6.55 0.670 0.00 - - - - 7.00 LF - CL Ragonese et al. (1994; in Spedicato et al., 1999a)   Sicilian Channel - M 4.15 0.960 0.28 - - - - - LF - CL Ragonese et al. (1994; in Papaconstantinou & Kapiris 2003) .  Sicilian Channel - F 6.58 0.520 -0.23 - - 4.20 - - - - CL Ragonese et al  (2004)   Ionian Sea - F 6.98 0.450 -0.18 - - - - 6.50 LF - CL Matarrese et al. (1997; in Spedicato et al., 1999a)   Ionian Sea - F 6.98 0.450 -0.18 - - - - 6.90 LF - CL Tursi et al. (1998; in Fiorentino, 2000)   Ionian Sea - M 4.97 0.420 -0.34 - - - - 4.40 LF - CL Tursi et al. (1998; in Fiorentino, 2000)   W. Ionian Sea 295 F 6.60 0.450 - - - - - 6.50 LF - CL D'Onghia et al. (1998a; in Politou et al., 2004)   W. Ionian Sea 386 M 5.00 0.420 - - - - - 4.50 LF - CL D'Onghia et al. (1998a; in Politou et al., 2004)   Tyrrhenian Sea 20819 C 7.20 0.396 0.00 - - - - 7.20 LF NL CL Cau et al. (2002)   Sardinian Sea 14660 C 7.07 0.538 0.27 - - - - 7.00 LF NL CL Cau et al. (2002)  Greece Aegean Sea 1963 C 6.21 0.600 -0.34 - - - - 6.00 LF NL CL Cau et al. (2002)   N.E. Ionian Sea - F 7.25 0.430 - - - - - 7.00 LF - CL Anonymous (2001; in Politou et al., 2004)   N.E. Ionian Sea - M 6.00 0.400 - - - - - 5.90 LF - CL Anonymous (2001; in Politou et al., 2004)    Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  113 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Aristaeomorpha foliacea  Greece Aegean Sea 1963 C 6.21 0.600 -0.34 - - - - 6.00 LF NL CL Cau et al. (2002)   N.E. Ionian Sea - F 7.25 0.430 - - - - - 7.00 LF - CL Anonymous (2001; in Politou et al., 2004)   N.E. Ionian Sea - M 6.00 0.400 - - - - - 5.90 LF - CL Anonymous (2001; in Politou et al., 2004)   E. Ionian Sea 392 F 6.66 0.370 - - - - - 6.20 LF NL CL Politou et al. (2004)   E. Ionian Sea 498 M 4.70 0.450 - - - - - 5.10 LF NL CL Politou et al. (2004)   E. Ionian Sea - F 6.40 0.460 -0.19 - - - - 6.20 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou & Kapiris (2003)   E. Ionian Sea - M 4.70 0.564 -0.13 - - - - 4.00 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou & Kapiris (2003)  Algeria Algerian Coasts - F 6.90 0.505 - - - - - 6.70 LF - CL Yahiaoui et al. (1994; in Politou et al., 2004)   Algerian Coasts - M 4.45 0.660 - - - - - 4.50 LF - CL Yahiaoui et al. (1994; in Politou et al., 2004) Aristeus antennatus  Spain Ibiza Channel - F 7.30 0.363 -0.41 0.7323 2.48 2.19 - 5.90 LF EL CL García-Rodriguez & Esteban (1999)   Ibiza Channel - M 5.50 0.380 -0.43 0.7928 2.40 1.81 - 3.70 LF EL CL García-Rodriguez & Esteban (1999)   Catalan Sea - F 7.60 0.300 -0.07 - - - - 6.10 LF EL CL Demestre (1990; in Company & Sardá, 2000)   Catalan Sea - M 5.40 0.250 - - - - - 3.80 LF EL CL Demestre (1990; in Company & Sardá, 2000)   Algerian Coasts 6962 C 7.60 0.382 0.20 - - - - 4.40 LF NL CL Cau et al. (2002)   Murcia - F 7.30 0.390 -0.08 - - - - - - - CL Martínez-Baños (1996; in Orsi Relini & Relini, 1998)   Balearic Islands 5844 F 7.40 0.380 - 0.7628 2.42 2.93 - 6.10 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 1792 M 4.60 0.468 - 0.7730 2.32 2.23 - 3.80 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 2765 F 7.30 0.521 - 0.7083 2.47 2.67 - 6.10 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 1464 M 4.40 0.435 - 0.7365 2.42 2.15 - 3.80 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 2678 F 7.30 0.364 - 0.7657 2.44 2.85 - 6.00 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 1052 M 4.50 0.410 - 0.7789 2.36 2.15 - 3.70 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 1910 F 7.40 0.521 - 0.5480 2.46 2.78 - 6.30 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 961 M 4.40 0.390 - 0.7610 2.39 2.18 - 3.60 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 2291 F 7.40 0.510 - 0.7083 2.47 2.49 - 6.50 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 908 M 4.60 0.531 - 0.7676 2.38 2.21 - 3.50 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 4049 F 7.40 0.387 - 0.7378 2.47 2.69 - 6.40 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)   Balearic Islands 1784 M 4.40 0.400 - 0.7836 2.35 2.13 - 3.60 LF EL CL Carbonell et al. (1999)                                                                                                        Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 114 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Aristeus antennatus  Italy Ligurian Sea - F 6.30 0.142 5.26 - - - - - LF EL CL Orsi Relini & Relini (1985)   Ligurian Sea - F 7.70 0.213 -0.02 - - - - 7.10 LF - CL Orsi Relini & Relini (1998a)   Ligurian Sea - M 4.60 0.213 -0.02 - - - - - LF - CL Orsi Relini & Relini (1998b)   Tyrrhenian Sea - F 6.68 0.558 -0.23 0.7424 2.48 3.50 - 6.31 LF - CL Spedicato et al. (1995; in Spedicato et al., 1999b)   Tyrrhenian Sea - F 8.67 0.258 - - - - - 6.60 LF - CL Arculeo et al. (1994; in Spedicato et al., 1999b)   Tyrrhenian Sea - - 6.94 0.337 - - - - - - LF - CL Arculeo et al. (1994; in Spedicato et al., 1999b)   Sardinian Sea - F 7.68 0.340 0.37 - - - - - LF - CL Cau et al. (1994; in Spedicato et al., 1999b)   Sicilian Channel 798 F 6.91 0.532 0.00 - - - - 6.60 LF EL CL Ragonese & Bianchini (1996)   Ionian Sea - F 7.72 0.350 -0.36 - - 3.80 - - LF - CL Matarrese et al. (1997; in Spedicato et al., 1999b)   Ionian Sea - M 5.46 0.990 -0.14 - - 2.50 - 6.50 LF - CL D'Onghia et al. (1994; in Spedicato et al., 1999b)   Tyrrhenian Sea - F 6.77 0.490 0.00 - - - - - LF - CL Colloca et al. (1998; inSpedicato et al., 1999b)   Ionian Sea - F 6.60 0.930 - - - - - - - - CL Matarrese et al. (1992; in Papaconstantinou & Kapiris, 2001)   Ionian Sea - M 5.50 0.990 - - - - - - - - CL Matarrese et al. (1992; in Papaconstantinou & Kapiris, 2001)   Ionian Sea - F 7.72 0.350 -0.36 - - - - 6.60 LF - CL Tursi et al. (1998; in Fiorentino, 2000)   Ionian Sea - M 5.15 0.400 -0.35 - - - - 3.90 LF - CL Tursi et al. (1998; in Fiorentino, 2000)   Tyrrhenian Sea 8834 C 7.56 0.197 -0.29 - - - - 6.40 LF NL CL Cau et al. (2002)   Sardinian Sea 9452 C 7.94 0.214 -0.08 - - - - 6.30 LF NL CL Cau et al. (2002)   Sicilian Channel - C 6.91 0.532 - - - - - 6.60 LF - CL Levi et al. (1998; in Cau et al., 2002)  Greece E. Ionian Sea 7273 F 6.60 0.390 0.38 1.2835 2.05 - - 6.20 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou & Kapiris (2001)   E. Ionian Sea 1345 M 5.80 0.430 -0.46 1.2216 2.06 - - 4.50 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou & Kapiris (2001)                                                                      Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  115 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Aristeus antennatus  Algeria - - F 6.51 0.370 0.05 - - - - - - - CL Yahiaoui et al. (1986; in Fiorentino, 2000)   Algerian Coasts - F 6.75 0.350 - - - - - - LF - CL Nouar (2001)   Algerian Coasts - M 3.75 0.425 - - - - - - LF - CL Nouar (2001)  France Lion Gulf - F 6.36 0.525 -0.26 - - - - - - - CL Campillo (1994; in Orsi Relini & Relini, 1998)  Portugal Algarve - F 7.54 0.360 -0.30 - - - - - - - CL Dos Santos & Cascalho (1994; in Orsi Relini & Relini, 1998) Chlorotocus crassicornis  Greece N. Aegean Sea 201 F 1.90 0.400 -0.30 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 164 M 1.74 0.480 -0.27 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 365 C 1.73 0.480 -0.31 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004) Geryon longipes  Spain Catalan Sea 203 F 5.30 0.300 - 0.4224 3.14 - - 4.91 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 35 M 7.50 0.500 - 0.4121 3.20 - - 6.97 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 238 C 7.55 0.540 - 0.4620 3.10 - - 6.97 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Medorippe lanata  Italy E. Ligurian Sea 725 F 3.35 1.050 - - - 2.10 - 2.90 LF EL CL Rossetti et al. (2006)   E. Ligurian Sea 639 M 3.11 1.575 - - - - - 2.90 LF EL CL Rossetti et al. (2006) Melicertus kerathurus  Greece Amvrakikos Gulf - F 24.74 0.572 -0.30 - - - - - LF FW TL Conides et al. (1990; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   Amvrakikos Gulf - M 24.17 0.470 -0.37 - - - - - LF FW TL Conides et al. (1990; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   Amvrakikos Gulf - F 6.97 1.062 0.24 - - 4.60 - 6.20 LF NL CL Conides et al. (2006)   Amvrakikos Gulf - M 6.27 1.253 - - - - - - LF NL CL Conides et al. (2006)   Amvrakikos Gulf 5505 C 5.97 1.047 - - - - - 6.20 LF NL CL Conides et al. (2006)  Tunisia Gabes Gulf - F 5.43 0.600 -0.86 - - - - - LF - CL Ben Meriem (2004)   Gabes Gulf - M 3.70 0.780 -0.96 - - - - - LF - CL Ben Meriem (2004) Munida intermedia Spain Catalan Sea 55 F 2.9 0.250 - 0.8494 3.31 - - 2.72 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 76 M 3.05 0.320 - 0.9093 3.06 - - 2.87 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 131 C 3.05 0.320 - 0.8712 3.23 - - 2.87 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)  Italy C. Adriatic Sea  - F 2.16 0.460 -0.76 1.0715 2.96 - - 2.30 LF NL CL Gramitto & Froglia (1998)   C. Adriatic Sea  - M 2.37 0.480 -0.59 1.0233 3.23 - - 2.50 LF NL CL Gramitto & Froglia (1998) Munida tenuimana  Spain Catalan Sea 61 F 2.75 0.400 - 0.6805 3.14 - - 2.51 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 67 M 2.92 0.400 - 0.6540 3.15 - - 2.60 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 128 C 2.95 0.400 - 0.6794 3.15 - - 2.60 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)                                                                                                                         Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 116 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Nephrops norvegicus  Italy E. Ligurian Sea - F 5.77 0.214 0.00 - - 3.20 - - LF NL CL Abella & Righini (1998)   E. Ligurian Sea - M 7.21 0.169 0.00 - - - - - LF NL CL Abella & Righini (1998) .  Sicilian Channel - F 5.30 0.140 -0.50 0.5935 3.13 3.10 - - - - CL Ragonese et al  (2004)   Sicilian Channel - M 6.20 0.130 -0.50 0.3072 2.86 - - - - - CL Ragonese et al. (2004)   Ligurian Sea 37 F 7.74 0.110 -1.32 - - - - 5.50 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Ligurian Sea 32 M 8.90 0.110 -1.08 - - - - 6.30 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Tyrrhenian Sea 46 F 8.78 0.080 -1.26 - - - - 6.00 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Tyrrhenian Sea 61 M 9.98 0.090 -1.39 - - - - 7.50 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Adriatic Sea 30 F 8.18 0.100 -1.36 - - - - 5.40 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Adriatic Sea 88 M 12.08 0.060 -1.92 - - - - 6.50 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)  Spain Alboran Sea 49 F 9.39 0.090 -1.61 - - - - 4.80 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Alboran Sea 39 M 9.13 0.120 -1.08 - - - - 6.00 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Catalan Sea 38 F 17.11 0.030 -1.80 - - - - 6.60 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Catalan Sea 40 M 9.42 0.090 -0.81 - - - - 7.90 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Catalan Sea - F 7.00 0.100 -2.07 - - - - - LF EL CL Sardá & Lleonart (1993)   Catalan Sea - M 8.20 0.100 -0.69 - - - - - LF EL CL Sardá & Lleonart (1993)  Greece Euboikos Gulf 79 F 9.03 0.090 -1.27 - - - - 5.20 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   Euboikos Gulf 79 M 9.32 0.100 -1.10 - - - - 6.30 LF NL CL Mytilineou et al. (1998)   W.C. Aegean Sea - F 6.90 0.090 - - - - - - LF EL CL Mytilineou et al. (1993; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   W.C. Aegean Sea - M 8.60 0.060 - - - - - - LF EL CL Mytilineou et al. (1993; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   E.C. Aegean Sea - F 6.70 0.100 - - - - - - LF EL CL Mytilineou et al. (1993; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   E.C. Aegean Sea - M 8.70 0.060 - - - - - - LF EL CL Mytilineou et al. (1993; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   Thracian Sea - F 6.60 0.140 - - - - - 5.50 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou et al. (1994; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   Thracian Sea - M 7.30 0.120 - - - - - 6.60 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou et al. (1994; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   Toroneos & Siggitikos Gulfs - F 6.60 0.130 - - - - - 5.30 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou et al. (1994; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   Toroneos & Siggitikos Gulfs - M 8.30 0.110 - - - - - 7.20 LF EL CL Papaconstantinou et al. (1994; in Stergiou et al., 1997)  Algeria Beni-saf - F 6.20 0.170 - - - - - - LF - CL Djabali et al. (1990)   Beni-saf - M 7.98 0.140 - - - - - - LF - CL Djabali et al. (1990)   Beni-saf - F 7.10 0.130 - - - - - - LF - CL Djabali et al. (1990)   Beni-saf - M 8.70 0.120 - - - - - - LF - CL Djabali et al. (1990)                   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  117 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Palaemon adspersus  Greece Messolongi Lagoon - F 7.90 0.165 - - - - - 6.30 LF FW TL Klaoudatos & Tsevis (1987; in Stergiou et al., 1997)   Messolongi Lagoon - M 6.50 0.165 - - - - - 6.00 LF FW TL Klaoudatos & Tsevis (1987; in Stergiou et al., 1997)  Spain Balearic Islands 2506 F 4.78 2.065 - 0.0186 2.96 - - - LF GH TL Manent & Abella-Gutiérrez (2006)   Balearic Islands 888 M 3.41 1.076 - 0.0160 3.01 - - - LF GH TL Manent & Abella-Gutiérrez (2006) Palinurus elephas Italy Corsica - F 16.60 0.151 -0.35 - - - - - T - CL Marin (1985; in Secci & Cau, 1999)   Corsica - M 13.59 0.185 -0.34 - - - - - T - CL Marin (1985; in Secci & Cau, 1999) Parapenaeus longirostris Italy C.Tyrrhenian Sea - F 4.44 0.740 -0.13 - - - - - LF - CL Ardizzone et al. (1990; in Tursi et al., 1999)   C.Tyrrhenian Sea - M 3.31 0.930 -0.05 - - - - - LF - CL Ardizzone et al. (1990; in Tursi et al., 1999)   Sicilian Channel - C 3.05 0.630 -0.19 1.1340 2.27 - - - LF EL CL Levi et al. (1995) .  Sicilian Channel - F 4.09 0.710 - - - 2.40 - - - - CL Ragonese et al  (2004)   Sicilian Channel - M 3.43 0.730 - - - 1.90 - - - - CL Ragonese et al. (2004)   Tyrrhenian Sea - C 4.59 0.670 -0.25 - - - - - LF - CL Carbonara et al. (1998; in Tursi et al., 1999)   Tyrrhenian Sea - C 5.17 0.640 - - - - - - LF - CL Carbonara et al. (1998; in Tursi et al., 1999)   Tyrrhenian Sea - C 4.61 0.720 - - - - - - LF - CL Carbonara et al. (1998; in Tursi et al., 1999)   Ionian Sea - F 4.77 0.740 -0.19 - - - - - LF - CL D'Onghia et al. (1998b; in Tursi et al., 1999)   Ionian Sea - M 3.55 0.540 -0.19 - - - - - LF - CL D'Onghia et al. (1998b; in Tursi et al., 1999)  Greece Greek Seas - F 3.72 0.520 -0.30 - - - - - LF - CL Anonymous (1999; in Sombrino et al., 2005)   Greek Seas - M 3.37 0.620 -0.16 - - - - - LF - CL Anonymous (1999; in Sombrino et al., 2005)  Portugal Algarve - F 4.40 0.700 -0.30 1.1230 2.31 2.40 - - LF - CL Ribeiro-Cascalho (1988; in Sombrino et al., 2005)   Algarve - M 3.60 0.900 -0.30 1.1616 2.19 2.00 - - LF - CL Ribeiro-Cascalho (1988; in Sombrino et al., 2005)  Algeria Algerian Coasts - F 4.44 0.545 - - - - - - LF - CL Nouar (2001)   Algerian Coasts - M 3.55 0.570 - - - - - - LF - CL Nouar (2001) Pasiphaea multidentata  Spain Catalan Sea 161 F 4.85 0.850 - 0.3157 2.61 - - 4.67 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 276 M 4.44 0.770 - 0.3096 2.65 - - 4.27 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 650 C 5.00 0.800 - 0.2511 2.84 - - 4.67 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)  Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 118 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Pasiphaea sivado  Spain Catalan Sea 144 F 2.60 0.550 - 0.1988 2.92 - - 2.32 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 4156 M 2.75 0.620 - 0.2106 2.76 - - 2.43 LF EL CL Company et al. (2001)   Catalan Sea 276 C 2.95 0.550 - 0.2307 2.68 - - 2.43 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Plesionika acanthonotus  Spain Catalan Sea 64 F 1.90 0.550 - 0.9239 2.55 - - 1.79 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 121 M 1.84 0.500 - 0.8203 2.97 - - 1.62 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 192 C 1.90 0.550 - 0.7757 3.13 - - 1.79 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Plesionika antigai  Greece N. Aegean Sea 560 F 1.39 0.980 -0.79 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 384 M 1.27 0.680 -0.27 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 944 C 1.27 0.730 -0.11 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004) Plesionika edwardsii Spain Catalan Sea 209 F 3.10 0.650 - 0.6902 3.09 - - 2.90 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 239 M 3.20 0.800 - 0.7727 2.92 - - 2.72 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 453 C 3.10 0.700 - 0.6991 3.07 - - 2.90 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   W. Mediterranean Sea - F 3.10 0.800 0.15 0.8387 2.81 - - 2.91 LF EL CL García-Rodriguez et al. (2000)   W. Mediterranean Sea - M 2.60 0.800 -0.05 0.7900 2.94 - - 2.88 LF EL CL García-Rodriguez et al. (2000) Plesionika gigliolii  Spain Catalan Sea 140 F 2.05 0.750 - 0.9781 2.60 - - 1.86 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 144 M 2.00 0.550 - 1.1562 2.92 - - 1.60 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 285 C 2.10 0.750 - 0.9160 2.84 - - 1.86 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Plesionika heterocarpus  Greece N. Aegean Sea 9468 F 1.78 1.450 -0.17 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 11465 M 1.61 1.170 -0.28 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 20933 C 1.56 1.090 -0.31 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)  Spain Catalan Sea 129 F 2.30 0.900 - 0.7662 2.99 - - 2.02 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 50 M 2.24 1.000 - 0.7603 3.09 - - 1.94 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 188 C 2.27 0.900 - 0.7277 3.10 - - 2.02 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)                                   Plesionika martia  Spain Catalan Sea 208 F 3.04 0.390 - 0.6239 3.04 - - 2.67 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 149 M 2.75 0.540 - 0.6059 3.08 - - 2.39 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 370 C 3.01 0.500 - 0.5753 3.20 - - 2.67 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)  Greece N. Aegean Sea 1643 F 2.37 0.710 -0.74 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 1491 M 2.30 0.580 -0.19 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   N. Aegean Sea 3134 C 2.40 0.730 -0.79 - - - - - LF EL CL Vafidis et al. (2004)   W. Ionian Sea 8231 F 3.05 0.440 - 0.7086 2.85 1.55 - 2.60 LF EL CL Maiorano et al. (2002)   W. Ionian Sea 6943 M 2.80 0.500 - 0.7230 2.84 - - 2.50 LF EL CL Maiorano et al. (2002) Polycheles typhlops  Spain Catalan Sea 76 F 4.80 0.350 - 0.1321 3.82 - - 4.67 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 134 M 3.20 0.500 - 0.2435 3.01 - - 3.00 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 210 C 4.95 0.450 - 0.2422 3.03 - - 4.67 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Processa canaliculata  Spain Catalan Sea 53 F 2.30 1.100 - 0.4624 3.14 - - 2.00 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 90 M 2.10 0.700 - 0.4199 3.45 - - 1.99 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 154 C 2.30 1.100 - 0.4266 3.37 - - 2.00 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)                   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  119 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Processa nouveli Spain Catalan Sea 24 F 1.35 1.110 - 0.4885 2.60 - - 1.20 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 38 M 1.35 1.100 - 0.5509 3.24 - - 1.12 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 77 C 1.35 1.100 - 0.5290 3.01 - - 1.20 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Scyllarides latus  Italy Sicily & Linosa Islands 59 C 12.72 0.200 - 0.3905 3.01 - - - T EL CL Bianchini et al. (1997) Sergestes arcticus  Spain Catalan Sea 35 F 1.65 0.700 - 0.2588 1.40 - - 1.37 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 160 C 1.70 0.800 - 0.2848 2.31 - - 1.37 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Sergia robusta  Spain Catalan Sea 77 F 2.48 0.640 - 0.3932 3.03 - - 2.25 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 231 C 2.43 0.640 - 0.3976 2.92 - - 2.25 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Solenocera membranacea  Spain Catalan Sea 1367 F 3.15 0.600 - - - - - 3.00 LF EL CL Demestre & Abelló (1993)   Catalan Sea 322 M 2.40 0.500 - - - - - 2.10 LF EL CL Demestre & Abelló (1993)   Catalan Sea 246 F 2.85 0.650 - 0.5301 3.38 - - 2.68 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 661 M 2.16 0.560 - 0.5558 2.89 - - 2.03 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000)   Catalan Sea 907 C 2.90 0.650 - 0.5560 2.91 - - 2.68 LF EL CL Company & Sardá (2000) Squilla mantis Italy E. Ligurian Sea - F 22.00 1.450 - - - - - - - - TL Righini & Baino (1996; in Piccinetti-Marfin, 1999)   E. Ligurian Sea - M 22.50 1.300 - - - - - - - - TL Righini & Baino (1996; in Piccinetti-Marfin, 1999)   C. Adriatic Sea  - F 4.19 0.450 - 1.5351 3.04 - - - - - CL Froglia (1996; in Maynou et al., 2005)   C. Adriatic Sea  - M 4.12 0.530 - 1.5351 3.04 - - - - - CL Froglia (1996; in Maynou et al., 2005)  Spain Ebro Delta 1768 F 20.00 1.300 - - - - - 18.00 LF EL TL Abelló & Martín (1993)   Ebro Delta 1732 M 20.00 1.600 - - - - - 19.00 LF EL TL Abelló & Martín (1993) Bivalvia                 Arca noae  Croatia Marina, E. Adriatic Sea - C 3.50 0.160 -0.02 - - - 13 - SR NL SHH Peharda et al. (2002)   Mali Ston Gulf, E. Adriatic Sea - C 3.15 0.170 -0.04 - - - 16 - SR NL SHH Peharda et al. (2002)   Malo Jezero, E. Adriatic Sea - C 3.01 0.150 -0.02 - - - 13 - SR NL SHH Peharda et al. (2002) Callista chione  Greece Thassos Island - C 6.27 0.240 -0.32 0.1047 3.08 - - - SR - SHL Leontarakis & Richardson (2004)   Thassos Island - C 5.78 0.260 -0.15 0.1047 3.08 - 16 - SR - SHL Leontarakis & Richardson (2004)  Italy - - C 9.04 0.208 0.14 0.1350 3.25 - - - SR - SHL AA.VV. (1993; in Marano et al., 1999a)                                                                                       Compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates, C.A. Apostolodis & K.I. Stergiou 120 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Chamelea gallina Italy Adriatic Sea - C 4.16 0.480 -0.01 - - - - - SR - SHL Arneri et al  (1995; in Marano et al., 1999b) .   Adriatic Sea - C 4.28 0.790 -0.03 0.3260 2.78 - - - - - SHL Vaccarella et al. (1996; in Marano et al., 1999b)   Tyrrhenian Sea - C 3.91 0.500 -0.30 0.4622 2.70 - - - - - SHL Costa et al. (1987; in Marano et al., 1999b) Donax trunculus  Italy E. Ligurian Sea - C 3.67 0.500 -0.31 0.1733 2.70 - - - - - SHL Costa et al. (1987; in Marano et al., 1999c)   S. Adriatic Sea 31082 C 4.76 0.300 0.00 - - 1.84  3.70 LF EL SHL Zeichen et al. (2002)  Spain Catalan Sea - C 4.18 0.710 -0.35 - - - - 3.60 SR NL SHL Ramón et al. (1995)  France - - C 3.60 0.956 0.70 - - - - - LF - SHL Bodoy (1982; in Ramón et al., 1995) Ensis siliqua Italy E. Ligurian Sea - C 14.10 0.700 -0.15 0.0096 3.08 - - - - - SHL Costa et al. (1987; in Marano et al., 1999d) Modiolus barbatus Croatia Mali Ston Gulf  - C 5.98 0.210 -0.10 - - - 13 6.55 SR NL SHL Peharda et al. (2006) Mytilus galloprovincialis  Italy C. Tyrrhenian Sea - C 11.17 0.680 -0.75 - - - - 11.15 LF NL SHL Ardizzone et al. (1996) Paphia aurea  Italy Ancona - C 4.47 0.440 0.37 0.1909 2.97 1.50 - 4.80 - - SHL Froglia et al. (1998; in Marano et al., 1999e) Pecten jacobaeus  Croatia Northern Adriatic Sea 70 C 12.79 0.420 -0.22 - - - 13 14.20 SR GH SHL Peharda et al. (2003) Pinna nobilis  Greece Thermaikos Gulf 112 C 73.77 0.063 -0.22 - - - 28 69.00 SR NL SHL Galinou-Mitsoudi et al. (2005)  France Port-Cros - C 86.30 0.053 0.22 - - - 10 - SR - SHL Moreteau & Vicente (1988)  Spain Aguamarga - C 49.41 0.210 -0.08 - - - 13 - SR NL SHL Richardson et al. (1999)   Rodalquilar - C 45.27 0.280 -0.07 - - - 8 - SR NL SHL Richardson et al. (1999)   Carboneras - C 68.98 0.220 -0.11 - - - 4 61.00 SR NL SHL Richardson et al. (1999)  Croatia S.E. Adriatic Sea 47 C 72.31 0.160 - - - - - 78.00 T GH SHL Siletić & Peharda (2003) Tapes decussata Italy Venice Lagoon - C 5.37 0.440 - - - - - 3.98 - - SHL Breber (1985) .Venus verrucosa  Italy Mafredonia - C 5.34 0.280 -1.26 0.1197 3.33 - - - - - SHL Arneri et al  (1991; in Marano et al., 1999f) .  Bari - C 4.28 0.260 -1.34 0.1591 3.21 - - - - - SHL Arneri et al  (1991; in Marano et al., 1999f)   Genova Gulf - C 5.78 0.157 1.04 - - - - - - - SHL Vacchi et al. (1996; in Marano et al., 1999f) .  Trieste Gulf - C 7.54 0.189 - - - - - - - - SHL Brizzi et al  (1992; in Marano et al., 1999f) Cephalopoda                 Loligo media Italy E. Ligurian Sea - F 10.58 0.200 - - - 6.00 - - LF - ML Auteri et al. (1987; in Belcari, 1999)   E. Ligurian Sea - M 7.94 0.270 - - - 5.00 - - LF - ML Auteri et al. (1987; in Belcari, 1999)  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.   121 Table A1. Continued.                 Species Country Locality N S L∞ K t0 a b Lm Tmax Lmax AM M LT Reference I Eledone cirrhosa  Italy Ligurian Sea 217 F 19.28 0.387 -0.03 - - - - 15.50 LF EL ML Orsi Relini et al. (2006)   Ligurian Sea 202 M 15.56 0.422 -0.07 - - - - - LF EL ML Orsi Relini et al. (2006) Illex coindetii  Spain Catalan Sea 416 F 29.27 0.205 - - - - - 24.00 LF FW ML Sánchez (1984)   Catalan Sea 371 M 25.67 0.202 - - - - - 18.00 LF FW ML Sánchez (1984)                                   Octopus vulgaris Spain - - C 30.00 0.720 - - - - - - - - ML Guerra (1979; in Belcari & Sartor, 1999)  Tunisia Gabes Gulf - C 29.60 0.560 -0.23 - - 14.50 - - LF - ML Zguidi (2002; in Ezzeddine & El Abed, 2004) Sepia officinalis  Tunisia Tunisian coasts - F 27.06 0.831 -0.05 - - - - 26.00 LF EL ML Ezzeddine-Najai & El Abed (2001)   Tunisian coasts - M 29.51 0.723 -0.06 - - - - 27.00 LF EL ML Ezzeddine-Najai & El Abed (2001)   Tunisian coasts 2459 C 28.58 0.739 -0.07 - - - - 27.00 LF EL ML Ezzeddine-Najai & El Abed (2001)                                                                     Holothuroidea                 Holothuria polii Algeria Sidi-Fredj 15 C 18.72 0.690 - - - - - 16.50 LF EL VL Mezali & Semroud (1998) Holothuria sanctori Algeria Sidi-Fredj 10 C 16.10 0.250 - - - - - 16.50 LF EL VL Mezali & Semroud (1998) Holothuria tubulosa Algeria Sidi-Fredj 26 C 14.34 0.660 - - - - - 13.15 LF EL VL Mezali & Semroud (1998) Anthozoa                 Corallium rubrum  - - - C 35.00 0.060 - - - - - - - - - Garcia (1984; in Campisi & Murenu, 1999)  Growth estimates of spiny lobster, Garces, L. 122 GROWTH ESTIMATES OF THE SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIRUS LONGIPES IN CAPTIVITY1 Len R. Garces The WorldFish Center - Philippine Office, Khush Hall, IRRI, College, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: l.garces@cgiar.org ABSTRACT Growth determination studies were conducted on spiny lobsters, Panulirus longipes (A. Milne-Edwards, 1868) in captivity to determine their growth rates and to estimate von Bertalanffy growth parameters, i.e., asymptotic carapace length (L∞) and the growth constant (K) using the Gulland and Holt method. Molting frequency in smaller individuals was higher than in larger animals. The mean single molt increments of lobsters (2.0-4.9 cm) ranged from 0.2 to 0.27 cm carapace length and 6.1 to 15.0 g total weight, with mean intermolt days of 32.5 to 60.1 days. Mean intermolt days of group-reared lobsters (4.0- 4.9 cm) were significantly higher (P<5%) than for smaller lobsters (2.0-3.9 cm), both group- and individually-reared. Spiny lobsters which were reared in captivity had an estimated asymptotic carapace length of 6.9 cm and 7.6 cm and K of 0.68 year-1 and 0.51 year-1 for group- and individually-reared lobsters, respectively. INTRODUCTION Knowledge of growth is essential to the basic understanding of the biology of any organism and may provide useful information both for culture and resource management considerations of commercially important species, such as spiny lobsters. Although extensive studies have been conducted on the Western Australian spiny lobster (Panulirus cygnus George, 1962), little is known about its counterpart in the Philippines, Panulirus longipes (A. Milne-Edwards, 1868). This study, conducted from January to December 1987, investigated the growth of the spiny lobster P. longipes in captivity in order to obtain estimates of the von Bertalanffy growth parameters, asymptotic carapace length (L∞) and growth constant (K), as part of a larger study on their biology and ecology (Garces, 1988). MATERIALS AND METHODS Acquisition of experimental animals Live P. longipes were bought from fishermen in Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines, who collected them in the coral reef areas off the coast of Balingasay (Figure 1). These lobsters inhabit reef flats or areas deeper down the seaward portion of the outer reef. Growth determination The lobsters were held in a compartmentalized wooden tank (2.4 x 1.2 x 0.9 m), i.e., within individual stocking compartments (0.4 x 0.3 x 0.9 m) and group stocking compartments (0.6 x 0.5 x 0.9 m). Stocking density was approximately 10 lobsters·m-2. Hollow blocks were provided as shelters to simulate natural crevices. The experimental setup was provided with flow-through sea water at a rate of 2.3 l·min-1 during daytime when the pumps are running with twenty hour aeration. Every afternoon, lobsters were fed ad libitum with clams (Family Veneridae) and/or gastropods (Strombus sp.). Excess food was removed every morning to prevent fouling.                                                  1 Cite as: Garces, L., 2008. Growth estimates of the spiny lobster, Panulirus longipes in captivity. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.) Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 122-126.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  123 Carapace length (CL), total weight (TW) and sex of each lobster were determined prior to growth studies. The lobsters were tagged with colored wires tied to the base of an antenna to ensure accurate monitoring of an individual's growth. The date of each molt was recorded and the respective CL and TW were measured after 3 days when the new shell had hardened. Newly-molted lobsters were then retagged. All molting incidences were treated as single molts and grouped into 1-cm size classes. First molts in captivity and succeeding molts (i.e., second and third molts) were treated separately because part of the inter-molt period prior to the first molt in captivity was spent in the wild. This was done to eliminate the probable differences in the growth increments (Chittleborough, 1975).  Figure 1. Map of study area in Bolinao, Pangasina, Philippines. Growth Parameter Estimates A Gulland and Holt Plot (Pauly, 1984) was used to estimate the asymptotic length (L∞) and the growth constant (K) of P. longipes longipes. A plot of size increments per unit time against mean size (for the increment in question) gives a straight line whose slope is an estimate of the value of K. Statistical Analysis Growth data such as CL increments and intermolt days were tested using unbalanced 2-way nested ANOVA. This was done to determine the differences in growth performance among the size groups and between individually and group-reared lobsters per size class. Multiple mean comparisons were also done. RESULTS Of the 54 P. longipes reared in captivity at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory, 20 were reared individually, while 34 were reared in groups. The mean carapace length increment (CLInc) increased with size with 3.0-3.9 cm CL size class exhibiting the highest increments (Table 1, Figure 2). In terms of total weight increment (TWInc), larger individuals had greater TWInc than smaller animals (Figure 3). Similarly, mean intermolt days (IntD) increased with increasing size, while the percentages of CLInc and TWInc decreased with increase in size. Figure 3 shows that the total weight increments of individuals held in isolation were higher than those held in groups. However, those in groups had higher CLInc except those in size class 3.0-3.9 cm CL (Figure 2). Moreover, lobsters held in groups exhibited shorter mean IntD than individually held animals, except those in size class 4.0-4.9 cm CL (Table 1).  Figure 2. Mean carapace length increment per molt per size class of Panulirus longipes reared in experimental tanks at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory, University of the Philippines - Marine Science Institute at Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines.  Growth estimates of spiny lobster, Garces, L. 124 Table 1. Differences in growth based on single molts for the succeeding molt per size class for individually and group-reared spiny lobsters Panulirus longipes from tank experiments at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory, University of the Philippines - Marine Science Institute at Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines. Standard deviations of size increments and intermolt days are in brackets. Treatment Class size (cm) Sample size Mean Length (CL, cm) Length increments (CL, cm) Mean Weight (TW, g) Weight increments (TW, g) Number of molts Mean intermolt days Indiv. 2.0-2.9 5 2.6 0.20 (0.24) 22.3 6.8 (6.5) 11 38.4 (6.7) Grouped  11 2.5 0.21 (0.29) 17.9 6.1 (7.2) 14 32.6 (7.6) Indiv. 3.0-3.9 4 3.5 0.27 (0.23) 45.0 13.8 (5.0) 4 49.0 (12.4) Grouped  7 3.6 0.24 (0.41) 53.6 10.0 (18.3) 7 45.3 (8.8) Indiv. 4.0-4.9 7 4.4 0.22 (0.20) 88.5 15.0 (11.2) 10 58.8 (10.5) Grouped    11  4.6  0.23 (0.24) 117.0 14.0 (19.5) 15  Although carapace length increments did not differ significantly between individually and group-reared lobsters and among size classes, mean intermolt days of group reared lobsters with size 4.0-4.9 cm CL were significantly higher (P < 5%) than those of smaller lobsters (2.0-3.9 cm CL). Mean intermolt days of group and individually reared lobsters of the same size class were not significantly different (Table 1). 60.1 (16.3) Table 2. Growth parameters etimated via the Gulland and Holt Plot for Panulirus longipes reared in experimental tanks at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory, University of the Philippines - Marine Science Institute at Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines  Stocking L∞ (CL, cm) K r Sample size Length range (CL, cm) Group 6.88 0.68 -0.8958 19 2.02-5.72 Individual 7.56 0.51 ‐0.8631  7  2.63‐4.72 Preliminary growth estimates for P. longipes from the Gulland and Holt Plot are presented in Table 2. Individually reared lobsters attained higher asymptotic length (L∞) values (7.6 cm) than those held in groups (6.9 cm). In contrast, those in groups had higher K values than individually reared lobsters at 0.68 year-1 and 0.51 year-1, respectively (Figures 4a and 4b). This may suggest that group reared animals grow faster than those held in isolation. DISCUSSION Growth of P. longipes, as in other decapod crustaceans took place discontinuously in a series of steps when ecdysis occurs. Therefore, growth is determined by the increase in CL and TW as well as molting frequency. Growth rates of P. longipes were highest in smaller individuals and decreased with increasing size. This finding is comparable with results of similar studies on P. argus (Travis, 1954) and Jasus lalandii (Fielder, 1964). Similar conclusions were also derived by Berry (1971) for P. homarus and Gomez & Junio (1985) for P. ornatus, P. versicolor and P. longipes based on carapace length increments and molting frequency. Decreasing growth rates in larger animals may be more influenced by increasing intermolt periods with size rather than smaller carapace length or total weight increments. The mean single molt increment of P. longipes (2.0-4.9 cm CL) ranged from 0.20-0.27 cm CL and 6.1- 15.0 g TW, with mean intermolt days of 32.5-60.1 (Table 1). This is comparable with results obtained by Gomez & Juinio (1985) using the same species wherein the average single molt increment was 0.17 cm for CL ranging from 5.52-6.44 cm, and an average of 80 intermolt days (or 4.55 molts·year-1).  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D. & Pauly, D.  125  Figure 3. Mean total weight increment per molt per size class of Panulirus longipes reared in experimental tanks at the Bolinao Marine Laboratory, University of the Philippines - Marine Science Institute at Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines. The slight decrease in carapace length increments of the lobsters at 4.0-4.9 cm CL suggests that the growth rate may be slightly depressed as they reach sexual maturity (Figure 3). As observed by Travis (1954) in his work on P. argus, the growth rate of juveniles was rapid and decreased as they approached sexual maturity. Moreover, Berry (1971) pointed out that a decline in CL increment was observed at 5.0 cm CL in P. homarus, the size at sexual maturity. Similarly, Gomez & Juinio (1985) reported that the smallest egg-bearing female P. longipes is 4.18 cm CL. Therefore, the size at first sexual maturity for P. longipes may be about 4.0 cm CL.  Figure 4. Growth estimates of Panulirus longipes (pooled both sexes) from the Gulland and Holt Plot. A: Group stocking. B: Individual stocking. Table 3. Growth parameters and growth performance indices (Φ’= log10K +2log10L from Pauly & Munro 1984) of three species of Panulirus from five different localities. Note clear morphological differences between the generally larger males and the smaller females. Species Sex Location L∞ (cm) K (year-1) Φ’ Source; Remarks P. homarus M Durban, S. Africa 12.0 0.177 3.406 Smale (1978)  F Durban, S. Africa 9.42 0.337 3.476 Smale (1978) P. longipes both Aquaria/Australia 11.3 0.459 3.768 Chittleborough (1976) P. longipes both Bolinao, Pangasinan 8.8 0.379 3.469 This study; lobsters reared in groups P. longipes both Philippines 13.4 0.181 3.511 This study; lobsters reared individually P. penicillatus M Enewetok Atoll, 14.6 0.211 3.653 Ebert and Ford (1986)  F Marshall Islands 9.65 0.580 3.732 Ebert and Ford (1986) P. penicillatus M Sta. Ana, Cagayan, Philippines 16.1 0.131 3.530 Arellano (1989) ; K is estimated from Φ’, based on two other values for male lobsters  F  15.3 0.172 3.604 Arellano (1989) ; K is estimated from Φ’, based on two other values of female lobsters Growth increments per molt of P. longipes were apparently not affected by crowding since food supply was in excess. Also those lobsters held in groups had higher growth rates than those held in isolation. This observation is similar with results of earlier studies on P. cygnus in Western Australia, where Chittleborough (1975) reported that individually reared juveniles grew less than when they were held in  Growth estimates of spiny lobster, Garces, L.  126 groups. In addition, laboratory and field studies (Chittleborough 1976) showed that limited food supply is the primary cause of retarded growth. Finally, results obtained from this study also indicate that the growth parameter estimates for P. longipes are comparable with those of other species (Table 3). Are arameters in Panulirus penicillatus using a wetherall plot and comparisons with other Berr arus (Linnaeus) off the east coast of Southern Africa. Invest. Rep. Chi  juvenile western rock lobsters Panulirus longipes Chi f juvenile Panulirus longipes cygnus George on coastal reefs compared with those reared under Fiel . Aust. J. Gar tivity of the Spiny Lobster, Panulirus longipes longipes (A. Milne- . MS thesis. Pau  Tropical Waters: A Manual for Use with Programmable Calculators. ICLARM Stud. Rev. No. 8. Travis, D.F., 1954. The molting cycle of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus Latreille, I. Molting and growth in laboratory-maintained individuals. Biol. Bull. 107(30), 350-433.  REFERENCES llano, R.V., 1989. Estimation of growth p lobsters. Fishbyte 7(2),13-15. y. P.F., 1971. The biology of the spiny lobster Panulirus hom Oceanogr. Res. Inst. (Durban) 28, 1-75. ttleborough, R.G., 1975. Environmental factors affecting growth and survival of (Milne-Edwards). Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 26, 177-196. ttleborough, R.G., 1976. Growth o optimal environmental conditions. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 27, 279-295. der, D.R., 1964. The spiny lobster, Jasus lalandii (A. Milne-Edwards) in South Australia. I. Growth of captive animals Mar. Freshwater Res. 15, 77-92. ces, L.R., 1988. Natural Diet, Feeding and Growth in Cap Edwards) (Decapoda: Palinuridae). University of the Philippines, College of Science, Diliman, Quezon City Gomez, E.D., Juinio, A.R., 1985. Biological and Ecological Studies on Spiny Lobsters, Panulirus spp. University of the Philippines, Marine Science Institute, Terminal Report (unpublished). Pauly, D., 1983. Some Simple Methods for Assessment of Tropical Fish Stocks. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 234. ly, D., 1984. Fish Population Dynamics inVon Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  127 DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH OF EDIBLE OYSTERS (OSTREIDAE) IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA1 J. L. Maclean2 Formerly of the Department of Agriculture Stock and Fisheries, Fisheries Research Station, Kanudi, Papua New Guinea M.L. Deng Palomares The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email: m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT This study is based on hitherto-unpublished field and laboratory work conducted by the first author in the early 1970s, but still considered useful; the second author provided updates and a more recent context. Larval development rates to the trochophore stage of the Papua New Guinea oysters Crassostrea amasa (Iredale) and ecomorphs of C. echinata (Quoy & Gaimard) are compared in different thermohaline regimes. The conspecificity of these ecomorphs is reflected in the similar thermohaline conditions that produce optimum development rates. Embryos of the C. echinata ecomorphs appear to prefer warmer less saline waters than C. amasa, the latter preferring almost oceanic conditions. These differences are reflected in the respective habitats of adult oysters. At least eight oyster species occur around the Papua New Guinea coastline. Three rock oysters (Crassostrea spp.) were studied with respect to their farming potential. The mangrove oyster (C. echinata) appeared suitable by its size and excellent condition attained, but the period of good condition was not predictable and collectors failed to attract spat. The Pacific oyster C. gigas, may be considered for introduction as a mariculture species, as it has been successfully introduced and farmed in other countries, but the high temperature would likely hinder reproduction and settlement, and seedlings would have to be imported for each new generation. INTRODUCTION In the 1980s, attempts to establish farms on the Papuan coast, in Milne Bay, Galley Reach and Yule Island, of native Papua New Guinea oysters, e.g., Saccostrea cucullata (Born, 1778), were unsuccessful. Water temperatures or salinities were believed to be the cause of these failed experiments. Observations in Port Moresby harbor in 1972 and 1973 showed that oysters were spawning throughout most of the year in both hyper and hyposaline conditions. Peaks in settlement suggested that larval development was more successful in certain combinations of salinity and temperature than others. Previous work indicated ranges of these parameters experienced by oysters in vivo, which is information useful in aquaculture. However, available information on these projects, in Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries files, is inadequate to assess the potential of the native oysters for farming. The work described in this paper includes unpublished experiments of the first author, who examined some aspects of oyster biology relevant to farming, including seasonality of settlement and condition factor of local species in the Port Moresby area. A series of experiments carried out in 1973 to determine the rate of development and success of larval cultures of these oysters at various salinities and                                                  1 Cite as: Maclean, J.L., Palomares, M.L.D. 2008. Development and growth of edible oysters (Ostreidae) in Papua New Guinea. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.) Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 127-137. 2 Present address: 1901A Skyland Plaza Condominium, Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, San Antonio Village, Makati City, Philippines; Email: jaymaclean2007@gmail.com.  Growth of edible oysters in Papua New Guinea, Maclean, J.L., Palomares, M.L.D. 128 temperatures is presented and discussed. In addition, the growth of members of the Family Ostreidae is compared with the widely-used mariculture species, the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), and the wisdom of a possible introduction of this species for mariculture is discussed. Species The Papua New Guinea coastline provides habitats for a number of species of edible oysters belonging to the Family Ostreidae. In the study done by the first author in the 1970s, he found that sub-littoral isolated individuals of Pycnodonte hyotis (Linnaeus, 1758), Ostrea folium Linnaeus, 1758 and Ostrea trapezina Lamarck, 1819 were common. A small intertidal Ostrea sp. forms clusters but it is too small (1.5 cm diameter) for culture purposes. There are several rock oysters (Crassostrea spp.) which could be considered for farming, occurring around most of the mainland and outer islands. Two are clustering species, forming dense discrete intertidal zones in harbours and bays, the black lip, Crassostrea echinata and C. amasa, the milky oyster. The third occurs as large individuals on mangrove roots or stones and is known locally as the mangrove oyster. It has also been identified as C. echinata. In Lombrum harbour, Manus Island, very large isolated individuals of C. tuberculata occur. The specific and generic classification of Indo-Pacific oysters is controversial, and the three Crassostrea species may in fact be sub- species of Saccostrea cuccullata, i.e., S. c. echinata, S. c. camasa and S. c. tuberculata (P. Dinamani, pers. comm. to J. Maclean).         Figure 1. Species of Ostreidae occurring in Papua New Guinea. Left panel, top to bottom: Crassostrea echinata from Port Moresby harbour wharf piles; Port Moresby harbour mangroves; Bootless Bay and Fairfax harbours mangroves. Right panel, top to bottom: Pycnodonte hyotis (Port Moresby harbour); Ostrea trapezina (Port Moresby harbour); and different forms of C. amasa (Port Moresby harbour).   Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  129 Habitat The three oyster varieties considered for farming studies had different habitats. C. amasa preferred stone surfaces on more exposed areas, (west and outer Port Moresby harbour) C. echinata preferred vertical structures in sheltered areas (wharf area of Port Moresby Harbour), while the mangrove oyster appeared to favour exposed areas with a fast current, on stones and mangroves (Bootless Bay reef shallows). Size Only one species, the mangrove oyster, attains a commercially acceptable size in natural conditions for ‘in shell” sale. Table 1 shows the average sizes of 120 individuals of each of the three species. C. echinata was always flat (Figure 1) and thin shelled, indicating rapid growth. The other two species were well cupped and of thicker shell suggesting slower growth rate. Table 1. Average volume of 120 oysters in cm3. Species Whole Shells Meat Black lip 9.0 6.2 1.8 Milky 9.2 o.5 1.3 Mangrove 43.0 34.4 6.6 MATERIALS AND METHODS Larval cultures Gonad material was removed from adult oysters by small spatula. Eggs were sieved through a series of collars of different mesh size to remove gross foreign matter, placed in Petri dishes of filtered seawater of selected salinity and washed in similar water by pipette. A small quantity of sperm was added, and where there was foreign matter in the sperm or an excess of it, the eggs were washed again after a few minutes. Dishes and containers of seawater had previously been placed in a water bath held at the desired temperature. Temperature accuracy was to ±0.1°C. Temperatures chosen were 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5 and 35°C. Salinities were dilutions of normal seawater by distilled water from 100% seawater, 80 %, 60 % to 40 % seawater. For C. amasa, 70 % seawater was also used. After fertilization the eggs were inspected every five minutes in the order that sperm was added; times of first occurrence of polar bodies, cell divisions and finally movement of the larvae were recorded. Duplicate dishes were always used. Onset of movement of the trochophore was the last stage measured. Larvae generally failed to reach the next, D shaped veliger stage. The few that did survive would not accept available food, sterile mono-specific cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Dunaliella tertiolecta. The algae3 were maintained in media and conditions as described by Loosanoff & Davis (1963). Success of cultures was measured by fertilization rate and numbers of abnormal larvae4.  Seasonality of settlement To determine settlement periods of the oysters, intertidal spat collectors were placed in representative areas in Fort Moresby Harbor and Bootless Bay. For C. amasa, bunks of fibro collectors (Figure 2) (Thomson, 1950) were set out near Napa Napa. However, after three successive collectors were vandalized, this site was abandoned. For C. echinata, similar fibro collectors were hung below the Navy wharf in the harbor from March 1972 to October 1973. Results are shown in Table 2. Figure 2. Asbestos cement spat collector used in Port Moresby harbour consisting of 12 plates, each 48” x 3” set 0.5” apart. The plates are supported by a steel frame and the whole collector suspended by ropes below a jetty. A free standing version on shore was abandoned due to vandalism.                                                  3 Starter cultures from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Marine Biochemistry Section, Sydney. Isochrysis and Monochrysis cultures were also supplied but died, presumably through temperature stress. 4 While no laboratory cultures of oysters passed the D stage veliger, one culture did produce a light spatfall on fibro plates in an outdoor concrete tank 2 x 1 x 1 m. Larvae were added to the tank at the trochophore stage into filtered seawater enriched with the Chlorella and Dunaliella cultures, though not in sufficient quantity to tint the water (about 10,000 c.c.-1). Salinity was approximately 29‰ and temperature range 25 to 27.5°C. Since this experiment was preceded by a number of unsuccessful ones, settlement was not monitored daily. Spat were first observed on the 14th day from fertilisation, when they were perhaps two days old. The larval period at these temperatures was then about 12-13 days. Settlement would undoubtedly have occurred in less time in warmer water.  Growth of edible oysters in Papua New Guinea, Maclean, J.L., Palomares, M.L.D. 130 Table 2 shows there was a major spat fall within the period March- May 1972, and minor spatfalls from November to April, 1973. Outside these periods there was virtually no settlement. Table 2. Spat settlement of black-lipped oyster, Crassostrea echinata, on fibro collector plates, Port Moresby harbour. Period submerged Upper Lower surface Remarks surface Mar 2-28 1972 - - medium barnacle growth 119.0 86.0 heavy barnacle, and Pinctada settlement; medium sea squirts, mainly on lower plates. Mar 28 - May 15 In the case of mangrove oysters, cement bricks were set out in the adult habitat in Bootless Bay from November 1972 to November 1973. No settlement was recorded during this period. Empty shells held in netting bags were set out from May to November, 1973, but these also failed to attract spat. Seasonality of spawning Jun 9 - Jul 6 - - light algal covering Jul 6 - Sep 7 0.2 1.5 heavy barnacle settlement Sep 5 - Oct 1 - - - Oct 1 - Nov 10 0.0 2.0 - Nov 10 - Feb 2 1973 16.3 27.5 heavy sea squirt settlement 5.8 32.9 plates fairly clean, few barnacles or sea squirts Feb 23 - Apr 19 Apr 19 - Jun 4 - - - Jun 4 - Jul 12 - - fairly clean Jul 12 - Sep 5 - 0.4 - Sep 6 - Oct 16 0.3 3.0 clean to very light algae Gonad smears of the three varieties of oysters were examined microscopically each month to determine sex and gonad stage. In practice, it was possible to detect three states of gonad development only: ripe, spending and spent or immature. Ripe oysters had full gonads, in which eggs or sperm were clearly distinguishable; spending oysters were semi-flaccid, not full, but still contained recognizable eggs and spermatozoa. Spent oysters contained very small gonads in most of which were very few eggs or Table 3. Gonad analysis of three species of Crassostrea from Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Species Year Month No. Sex ratio Ripe Females Spending Spent Ripe Males Spending Spent C. amasa 1972 June 84 0.20 43 10 13 12 - 5 (Milky oyster)  July 20 0.40 9 2 1 5 3 -   September 30 0.16 5 15 5 - 5 -   October 30 0.07 2 22 4 - 2 -   December 30 0.20 2 10 12 - 6 -  1973 January 30 0.67 1 3 6 1 11 8   February 60 0.33 - 24 16 - 20 -   June 30 0.27 5 11 6 - 8 -   September 30 0.17 - 20 5 - 5 -   October 30 0.37 - 13 6 - 11 - C. echinata 1972 June 41 0.29 9 5 15 6 1 5 (Black lip oyster)  July 20 0.60 3 5 - 6 6 -   August 47 0.26 13 15 8 5 6 1   September 30 0.27 4 12 6 - 8 -   October 49 0.16 6 35 - - 8 -   November 22 0.14 - 15 4 - 3 -   December 30 0.47 5 8 3 - 14 -  1973 February 30 0.37 - 11 8 - 11 -   March 22 0.14 - 15 3 - 3 -   April 30 0.27 - 14 8 - 8 -   May 30 0.23 4 14 5 - 7 -   June 30 0.17 - 18 7 - 5 -   July 60 0.35 2 31 6 - 21 -   September 30 0.53 - 12 2 - 16 - C. echinata 1972 November 30 0.47 - 16 - - 14 - (Mangrove oyster)  December 30 0.37 4 15 - - 11 -  1973 January 30 0.53 - 11 3 - 16 -   February 30 0.23 2 20 1 - 5 2   March 18 0.56 1 4 3 - 10 -   April 30 0.26 - 21 1 - 8 -   June 30 0.37 - 12 7 - 11 -   July 30 0.43 - 12 5 - 13 -   August 30 0.40 2 14 - - 12 -   September 30 0.53 - 4 10 - 16 -   October 30 0.57 - 9 4 - 17 -   November 30 0.37 - 19 - - 11 -  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  131 spermatozoa. Females contained mainly small oocytes, while males contained spermatocytes. Table 4. Condition factors, i.e., volume of meat (M) as a ratio of the volume of the whole animal (W) and of shell space (S), of edible oysters from the Port Moresby area in 1972-73. Each sample comprises 30 specimens. Species Year Month Interestingly, it was only when gonad material was virtually indistinguishable that no viable eggs were present. In all months of the year, viable sperm could be obtained and eggs fertilized from specimens of all three species. M/W (% vol.) M/S (% vol. Crassostrea amasa 1972 February 12.2 - (Milky oyster)  March 8.1 -   April 11.6 -   May 8.3 -  The results of gonad analysis are shown in Table 3. In C. amasa, significant proportions of ripe males and females were present in two months only, June and July, 1972. In all other months sampled, most individuals were spending. C. echinata males were ripe from June to August, 1972, although some females remained so until November. In the majority of sampled months, most individuals were spending. The same was true of the mangrove oyster. In this species, no ripe males and few ripe females were found.  June 8.2 -   July 8.4 -   August 14.6 -   September 16.5 -   October 10.5 -   November 15.2 80.6   December 20.1 62.1  1973 January 11.7 50.0   February 16.5 53.2   June 11.7 60.6   September 14.0 100.0   October 6.7 33.0 C. echinata 1972 February 19.0 - (Black lip oyster)  March 13.0 -   April 14.4 -  In all three species, the sex ratio varied considerably from month to month, without obvious pattern.  June 23.6 -   July 6.3 -   August 14.3 -   September 19.7 -   Condition Oysters were easily obtainable as intact specimens from their substrate and initially condition was determined each month in terms of volume of meat as a percentage of whole volume. Later, condition was also measured in terms of volume of meat as a percentage of shell space (whole volume minus volume of valves). Thirty oysters were used for each determination. Meats were drained and volumes found by displacement of water. October 11.8 -   November 18.6 57.9   December 5.3 26.5  1973 January 12.8 42.2   February 23.7 49.0   March 25.0 55.6   April 15.7 58.0   April bis 26.8 80.0   May 24.7 53.7   June 20.4 71.8   July 13.7 75.5   July bis 14.5 55.6   September 19.6 69.2 C. echinata 1972 October 25.0 99.6 (Mangrove oyster)  December 21.8 100.0  Condition factors by month are shown in Table 4. Condition as a factor of whole volume varied erratically from month to month indicating wide variation in relative volume of shells between individuals. 1973 January 27.0 89.1   February 15.2 95.2   April 23.3 96.8   June 13.0 57.8   July 14.7 95.4   August 20.2 74.8   The number of determinations of condition as a factor of shell space was insufficient to show any cyclic patterns. Black lip oysters never attained “good” condition (say over 90% full) in sampled months but there appeared to be a tendency for better condition in the latter part of the year. Even where two samples were taken in the same month (April and July 1973), condition had changed significantly. Milky oysters were full on one sampling occasion only. Mangrove oysters on the other hand exhibited good condition from October 1972 to March 1973 and in July 1973. However in October and November 1973 their condition was relatively poor. September 9.7 54.4   October 16.5 66.3   November 15.6 69.0 Larval sampling Near surface phytoplankton hauls were made fortnightly using a 48 micron net at a station in Port Moresby harbor, May 1972-October 1973, to estimate relative abundance of bivalve larvae. The number of larvae in the samples was always very low and no seasonal variation was detected. Sub-samples were analyzed by Drs. Dinamani and Booth, New Zealand taxonomists, who found possible ostriids in one haul  Growth of edible oysters in Papua New Guinea, Maclean, J.L., Palomares, M.L.D. 132 only, 9 August, 1973. Evidently, the sampling method was inadequate to monitor oyster spawning in this situation. Table 5. Average monthly water temperature, salinity and rainfall in the Port Moresby area. Year Month Water temp. (°C) Salinity (‰) Rainfall (mm) 1972 Water temperature May 27.8 - 133  June 27.0 - 5  Temperatures were taken at least three times per week at a depth of 0.3 meters near Port Moresby, between 0900 and 1000 hours. Average monthly temperatures are shown in Table 5. Note that in 1973 water temperatures began to warm in August, whereas in 1972 the minimum occurred in September. Conditions were warmer in 1973 when the minimum recorded water temperature was 26°C. In 1972 the minimum was 24.4°C. July 25.9 38.0 8  August 25.3 37.7 0  September 24.9 37.5 0  October 26.4 36.8 5  November 27.9 36.6 2  December 28.8 37.0 2 1973 January 30.3 36.1 236  February 29.7 34.7 103  March 30.4 32.9 216  April 30.0 33.7 37  May 28.6 35.6 150  June Salinity Water samples were taken from Port Moresby harbor at a depth of 0.3 meters concurrently with temperature recording. Salinity was determined by titration with silver nitrate, standardized against “standard” sea water. Average monthly salinities are included in Table 5. Minimum salinities in March 1973 coincided with the middle of the rainy season, as shown in the rainfall data in Table 5. The hypersaline conditions that exist in the dry season are noteworthy. RESULTS 28.4 36.0 56  July 26.5 36.1 19  August 26.9 36.8 0  September 28.9 - 0 The eggs of the three species of Crassostrea are pear shaped on removal from the gonads and rounded off quickly in seawater. Average diameters are shown in Table 6. In low salinities (20% seawater) they became turgid and were not subsequently viable. There was some enlargement of eggs in 40% seawater but fertilization did take place in C. echinata, though not in C. amasa. Development of embryos was rapid at most temperatures and salinities. The stages distinguished and an example of times taken to reach them are shown in Table 6. Rate of development of individual embryos was uniform. Most attained the four cell stage within five minutes of the first observed in a given experiment, while the time lag was greater in later stages. Duplicate dishes invariably gave identical results. Table 6. Early development rates of Papua New Guinea oysters (in minutes). Parameter Crassostrea amasa (Milky oyster) C. echinata (Black lip oyster) C. echinata (Mangrove oyster) Temperature (°C) 30 30 30 Salinity 34.5 33 34.5 Egg diameter 45 41 47 Polar bodies 10-20 min 10-20 min 5-10 min First cleavage 25-30 min 30 min 20 min Second cleavage 35-60 min 35-50 min 25-45 min Third cleavage 75-85 min 65-70 min 45-55 min Trochophore 190 min 180 min 165 min Development rate was influenced by both salinity and temperature in all three oyster varieties. Higher temperatures gave more rapid development in all salinities up to 32.5°C in the case of the two C. echinata forms and 30°C for C. amasa. Above these temperatures development was slower. In general lower salinities also retarded development. It would be spurious to provide results for all observed stages. The stages reached were proportional in development time, i.e. an experiment exhibiting fastest formation of polar bodies, also showed most rapid cleavages and trochophore formation. Emphasis is placed on the trochophore stage to explain the results. Fertilization rate in cultures was generally close to 100% and marked reduction only occurred at lower extremes of salinity and temperature. Abnormal embryonic development was also observed in extreme  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  133 experimental conditions. Usually this was manifest by the third cleavage in grossly mis-shaped cells. Rarely did abnormal embryos reach trochophore stage. Conditions which produced more than approximately 5% abnormal embryos are shown as shaded areas in Figure 3, i.e., approximate isopleths of times of trochophore formation at different salinities and temperatures for the three oyster varieties, which shows that:    Figure 3. Curves of equal development time in minutes to the trochophore stage at different salinities and temperatures. Shaded area denotes conditions which produced significant proportions of abnormal embryos. Dots represent development time results used to construct curves. T = temperature (°C); S = salinity expressed as % seawater where S100 = 33‰. Top left panel: Crassostrea echinata (Black lip oyster). Top right panel: C. echinata (Mangrove oyster). Bottom left panel: C. amasa (Milky oyster). • The effects of salinity and temperature are different for each variety. • Different combinations of salinity and temperature result in equivalent development rates, e.g. C. amasa reached trochophore stage at much the same time in 100% seawater at 25°C as it did in 60‰ seawater at 32.5°C. • There appears to be a single optimum temperature-salinity regime for each variety at the focus of each series of isopleths (see Table 7). • The optimum temperature-salinity values for the two C. echinata ecomorphs are very similar, as is the suggested maximum rate of trochophore development at the focus of isopleths, about 150 minutes. • The optimum development rate conditions for C. amasa are cooler and more saline than those of the two C. echinata forms. Minimum development time of C. amasa to trochophore stage is about 175 minutes. • The conditions producing significant numbers of abnormal embryos are similar in the C. echinata varieties, which appear to ‘tolerate’ higher temperatures better than C. amasa.  Growth of edible oysters in Papua New Guinea, Maclean, J.L., Palomares, M.L.D. 134 DISCUSSION Most published data on this subject relate to temperate species, as summarised by Dinamani (1974). Some of his data are reproduced here as Table 8 for comparison, with the addition of equivalent data for the tropical species Crassostrea forskali Chemnitz, which lives in waters of constant high salinity (40‰) and water temperatures in the range 16-30°C in the Red Sea (Eisawy, 1974). Table 8. Early development rates of other species of Crassostrea. Parameter C. forskali C. angulata Table 7. Optimum temperature-salinity regimes for species of Crassostrea in Papua New Guinea. Species Temperature (°C) Salinity (‰) C. amasa 31.5 33.0 C. echinata (Black lip oyster) 34.5 29.7 C. echinata 33.8 (Mangrove oyster) 30.0 C. gigas C. virginica C. commercialis C. glomerata Temperature (°C) 27 20-23 25 23-25 25 17-18 Polar bodies 15-35 min 40-60 min 50-70 min 25-65 min - 30-45 min First cleavage 45-50 min 70-80 min 100 min 45 min 90 min 90 min Second cleavage - 80-90 min 180 min 50-120 min 120 min 120 min Third cleavage - - 180 min 55-195 min - 180 min Trochophore 5 hr 14 hr 24-30 hr 8-9 hr 6 hr 12-18 hr  Salinities and temperatures in Port Moresby harbour vary from lows of S = 31‰, T = 25°C, to highs of S = 39‰, T = 31.5°C. These extremes do not occur concurrently, since cooler temperatures are associated with the hypersaline dry season. At the lower in vitro extremes, C. echinata ecomorphs would reach the trochophore stage in 4 hours, while for C. amasa it would require about 5 hours. In in vivo conditions, these times would be shorter. Consequently embryonic development rates of Papua New Guinea oysters are faster than those of the species in Table 8. Open sea temperatures in the tropics rarely exceed 30°C. The markedly higher temperature ‘preferred’ or tolerated by C. echinata ecomorphs suggests a sheltered habitat with high insolation, while the low ‘optimum’ salinity for development is associated with dilution by freshwater. C. amasa embryos clearly prefer more oceanic conditions. These preferences are confirmed in the habitats of the adult oysters in the Port Moresby area. C. amasa forms bands or aggregations on rocks in those parts of the outer harbour exposed to prevailing trade winds. C. echinata (Black lip oyster) prefers vertical structures such as wharf pylons sheltered parts of the harbour while Mangrove oyster, as the name implies, is found mainly on mangrove roots. No rivers enter the harbour and dilution is by seasonal run off. Preference for a more oceanic habitat by C. amasa would suggest less tolerance to excessive dilution of seawater. This is the case within the Great Barrier Reef where heavy mortality of C. amasa has occurred during the height of the rainy season in areas where nearby growing C. echinata (Mangrove oyster) are unaffected. The optimum thermohaline conditions for development of the two C. echinata forms are very similar indicating a close phyletic relationship, as expected. Simple larval culture experiments as described here would be very useful in assessing taxonomic hypotheses based on morphological features of oysters. The combined results of settlement, gonad and condition data indicate that the oysters in the Port Moresby region do not possess a clear reproductive cycle as such, but probably spawn sporadically throughout most of the year. Spawning peaks occur, as evidenced by patchiness of settlement in the case of black lip, and period of good condition (glycogen storage) in the milky and mangrove oysters. However, there are no seasonal patterns to these peaks. Settlement of black lip oysters was negligible during the dry seasons (winter) but the condition of adults varied erratically suggesting that some spawning continued, but larvae failed to survive in the hypersaline waters there. Changes in sex ratio provide another expression of spawning activity. In general, sex ratios in populations of Crassostrea spp. change with age, older individuals being predominantly females (Dinamani, 1974a). In C. glomerata the New Zealand rock oyster, the percentage of females also increases during the breeding season (Dinamani, 1974a). It has not been possible to age Papua New Guinea oysters, but the age  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.  135 distribution would have been unlikely to vary markedly from sample to sample, and the irregular changes in sex ratio may reflect sporadic spawning activities of tropical oyster species. The mangrove oyster, by its size, and attainment of a high condition factor, would appear the most promising species for farming. However, it does not settle in a discrete zone, and attempts to collect spat have proven fruitless. Further the period of good condition in summer 1972 was not repeated in 1973. Since oysters are suitable for sale only when in good condition, mangrove oysters could be unreliable from the marketing point of view. There were experiments in 1956 and 1961-1963 of the potential of several bays in Papua New Guinea for oyster culture (Appendix 1) that showed some positive data in terms of their settlement and perhaps growth, but they were not followed up. The varying and as yet unexplained results of those and the present experiments indicate that the indigenous oysters would be difficult to farm commercially. Consideration has been given to the introduction of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, to Papua New Guinea, as this species grows rapidly to large sizes (see Figure 4). They were introduced in 1971 to Fiji where the local oysters are too small for farming. Pacific oysters there have shown rapid growth and fattening at some sites. Specimens of 10.5 cm long in excellent condition could be seen 12 months after seeding near Suva. Pacific oysters were also introduced to Mauritius in 1971. There, experiments over a 3 year period concluded that the high temperatures (averaging 22.6°C in winter and 29.6 in summer) in most areas caused stress conditions in the oysters resulting in stunted growth and heavy losses. Mature oysters also suffered exhaustion by producing gametes over an excessively long reproductive season as a result of the warm temperatures (Brusca & Ardill, 1974). Areas of lowered salinity (estuaries) were found to show best survival and growth of Pacific oysters both in Fiji and Mauritius. Water temperatures in the Port Moresby area are warmer than in Mauritius. It is doubtful whether successful spawning conditions could be attained for this species in Papua New Guinea. Optimum conditions for development of Pacific oysters are temperatures of 23-250C and salinities of 23-28%. A temperature of 30°C is said to be the upper lethal limit to larval development (Fujiya, 1970). -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 L∞ (cm; log10) K  ( ye ar -1 ; lo g 1 0) C. gigasC. virginica Crassostrea spp.  Figure 4. Auximetric plot of log10K vs log10L∞ values for 41 populations of 8 species of oysters (Crassostrea ariakensis, C. cortesiensis, C. gigas, C. iridescens, C. madrasensis, C. rhizophorae, C. tulipa, C. virginia). Note steeper slopes of growth efficiency for C. gigas (Pacific oyster) and C. virginica (Atlantic oyster), cultured oyster species native to temperate areas and introduced in tropical waters, e.g., the Pacific islands. Von Bertalanffy parameter estimates are available from SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org). An industry based on this species in Papua New Guinea would therefore probably require imported seed each generation. Even then the ability of the oysters to tolerate the apparently stressful conditions would have to be proven by trial shipments to various estuarine sites before any large scale planting is attempted. There were early concerns of ecological problems resulting from the introduction of C. gigas in Australia and New Zealand (Dinamani, 1974b; Medcof & Wolf, 1975) that do not seem to have been realized. In Australia, C. gigas was introduced to Tasmania in the 1940s; it now grown commercially in Tasmania, South Australia, and one locality in central New South Wales, where it has been introduced. Elsewhere in  Growth of edible oysters in Papua New Guinea, Maclean, J.L., Palomares, M.L.D. 136 southeast Australian waters it has been declared a “noxious fish”. Its introduction in New Zealand sometime before 1970 was said to be accidental but it is now cultured in the north island.5 Another constraint to the development of an oyster industry in Papua New Guinea is the prevalence of seasonal red tides (Pyrodinium bahamense) in many areas and associated risk of paralytic shellfish poisoning. Deaths from eating oysters have been recorded (Maclean, 1973). Oyster mortality during the red tides is rare. However, it would be necessary to ban sales of the oysters for a specified period during and after the red tide season. The alternative is to locate farms in Pyrodinium red tide free zones. From evidence on hand, this would restrict oyster farm localities to the mainland, west of Port Moresby on the south coast, and west of Lae on the north coast. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to Dr. P. Dinamani for helpful advice on taxonomy. Thanks are also due to Daniel Pauly who convinced the first author to resurrect this contribution from an old pile of unpublished work. REFERENCES Brusca, G., Ardill, D., 1974. Growth and survival of the oysters Crassostrea gigas, C. virginica and Ostrea edulis in Mauritius. Rev. Agricole et Sucrière de l’Ille Maurice 53, 111-131. Dinamani, P., 1974a. Reproductive cycle and gonadial changes in the New Zealand rock oyster Crassostrea glomerata. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 8 (1), 39-65. Dinamani, P., 1974b. Pacific oyster may pose threat to rock oyster. N.Z. Catch 74 1(6), 5-9. Dinamani, P., 1974c. Embryonic and larval development in the New Zealand rock oyster, Crassostrea glomerata (Gould, 1850). Veliger 15(4), 295-299. Eisawy, A., 1974. Spawning and larval development of the Red Sea oyster, Crassostrea forskali Chemnitz. Bull. Inst. Ocean Fish. A.R.E. 4, 205-219. Fujiya, M., 1970. Oyster farming in Japan. Helgolander wiss. Meeresunters.20, 464-479 Loosanoff, V.L., Davis, H.C., 1963. Rearing of bivalve mollusks. Advances in Marine Biology 1, 1-136. Maclean, J.L., 1973. Red tide and paralytic shellfish poisoning in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Agricul. J. 24(4), 131-138. Medeof, J.C., Wolf, P.H., 1975. Spread of Pacific oyster worries N.S.W. culturists. Australian Fisheries 34 (7): 32-38. Stenzel, H., 1971. Oysters. Volume 3 in Bivalvia part N of Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. R.C. Moore Editor. Geological Society of America Inc. and the University of Kansas, N.Y. Thomson, J.M.. 1950. The effects of the orientation of cultch material on the setting of the Sydney rock oyster. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 1(1), 139-149.                                                  5 From various internet sources.  Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Marine Organisms, Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D.   137 APPENDIX 1: NOTES ON EARLY OYSTER FARMING EXPERIMENTS IN PAPUA NEW GUINEA These notes are based on entries in a rediscovered file, containing carbon copies of reports to the Chief, Division of Fisheries, Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Konedobu. The (hard copy) files have been passed to SeaLifeBase. The earliest recorded experiments were by biologist William Reed, who set out oyster spat collectors at two sites (Manumanu and Galley Reach) in the Central District west of Port Moresby and in Port Moresby harbor itself during 1956.The oyster species were not identified. The collectors were mangrove branches and shells of a large cockle. ● At Manumanu, spat that settled in March 1956 grew up to 2 ¼” by end October, although most were 1 ¼” and “not fat”. An interesting observation was that this growth suggested that 90% of oysters on natural substrates were less than a year old. ● At Galley Reach, collectors were set out monthly from May to October 1956. Siltation was a problem. However, some spat reached 2” in diameter after 5 months growth. ● In Port Moresby Harbor, the experiments began in March and ended in October 1956. It was noted that while March seemed to be the best time for settlement of spat, the combined observations at all sites, including those in the Central District, suggested that this “best” time corresponded with the time when the collectors were first deployed, i.e., before they began to be covered with silt and other organisms. The best collecting level was found to be 3 feet above low tide datum. Some spat grew to ¾” in diameter from March through June. In August 1960, a new marine biologist, M. Stuart-Fox carried out an examination of experimental oyster racks in a creek at the head of Milne Bay, at the eastern end of the PNG mainland. The origin of these experiments is not recorded but there was little to show for them due to mortality of oysters from gastropod (Morula sp.) infestation and burial under silt. However, in the area were “mangrove oysters”, which were “not very large” at 2-3” in diameter, and “rock oysters” at the mouth of the creek that were 4” in diameter. Stuart-Fox concluded that Milne Bay “provides ideal conditions for the natural growth of oysters attached to both rocks and mangroves and if a market could be assured, a profitable commercial oyster fishery could be established”. He then carried out a one-year project, October 1960-October 1961, to investigate the best conditions in Milne Bay for oyster settlement and growth. The 36 sets of collectors were set out in 10 selected areas, mainly of suspended inverted cockle shells; a few collectors of coconut husks and asbestos (fibro) plates were used for comparison. The oysters were not identified. Shells attracted the most spat, averaging 20 per square inch, as against 5 on the coconut husks. However, the oysters were very difficult to remove without damage from the shells, a comparatively easy task with coconut husks. Asbestos plates were found too fragile and attracted vast numbers of serpulid tube worms on the underside, up to 150 per square inch. At some depths barnacles were a problem on the shells. Other fouling organisms included algae, sponges and polyzoa that covered the oysters at times. Morula caused significant mortality at some sites and depths. Density of settlement was correlated with salinity, being higher in higher salinities. Temperature varied little, in the different locations and over time; the few recordings were between 26.5 and 29 degrees centigrade. The oyster growth rates, up to 1”diameter in three months at one site, were encouraging enough to warrant continuation of the experiment after its first 6 months, for which purpose a “Fisheries Boy Grade II” was sent to train a local “boy” to take care of the experiment. However, the 6th month report was apparently the last from Mr Stuart-Fox. The next and last entry in the file is a report from the next biologist Mr Win Filewood, who visited the project site two years later, on 22-26 July 1963. The trainee used by Stuart-Fox was still employed in the work. Filewood inspected the condition of the oysters growing on coconut husk collectors from three of the sites, adding that those “growing in other areas were said to have been silted out, or affected by worms or otherwise interfered with”. He proposed that future work focus on one area and “as Mr Stuart-Fox’s work as already shown that spat-collection can be carried out fairly readily, growth should be now the principal concern. The rest of his report provides details of a proposed continuation of the project using rather sophisticated growing trays.  

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