UBC Community, Partners, and Alumni Publications

Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950 - 2005) Zeller, Dirk; Pauly, Daniel 2007-02-25

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
37052-FCRR_2007_15-2.pdf [ 2MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 37052-1.0074755.json
JSON-LD: 37052-1.0074755-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 37052-1.0074755-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 37052-1.0074755-rdf.json
Turtle: 37052-1.0074755-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 37052-1.0074755-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 37052-1.0074755-source.json
Full Text
37052-1.0074755-fulltext.txt
Citation
37052-1.0074755.ris

Full Text

   ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports      2007 Volume 15 Number 2     RECONSTRUCTION OF MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES FOR KEY COUNTRIES AND REGIONS (1950-2005)     Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada     RECONSTRUCTION OF MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES FOR KEY COUNTRIES AND REGIONS (1950-2005)     Edited by Dirk Zeller and Daniel Pauly                 Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2) 163 pages © published 2007 by  The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2202 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4       ISSN 1198-6727    Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2) 2007  RECONSTRUCTION OF MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES FOR KEY COUNTRIES AND REGIONS (1950-2005)  Edited by Dirk Zeller and Daniel Pauly  CONTENTS   Page Director’s Foreword...........................................................................................................................................1 Canada’s arctic marine fish catches ................................................................................................................. 3 Shawn Booth and Paul Watts Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18) ......................................................................... 17 Daniel Pauly and Wilf Swartz National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique .........................35 Jennifer L. Jacquet and Dirk Zeller Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches ........... 49 Jennifer L. Jacquet and Dirk Zeller Reconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil ................................................................61 Kátia M. F. Freire and Thiago L. S. Oliveira A Reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheriescatches.............................................................................. 69 Jeffrey Wielgus, Dalila Caicedo-Herrera and Dirk Zeller Fisheries catch statistics for Mexico................................................................................................................81 Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez and Enrique Arcos-Huitrón Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ ...........................................................................................105 Didier Gascuel, Dirk Zeller, Mahfoud O. Taleb Sidi and Daniel Pauly Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics .................................. 121 Athanassios Tsikliras, Dimitrios Moutopoulos and Konstantinos Stergiou Multivariate analysis of fisheries catch per day in Greek waters .................................................................139 Konstantinos Stergiou, Athanasios Machias, Stylianos Somarakis and Argyris Kapantagakis Country disaggregation of catches of former Yugoslavia .............................................................................149 Yvette Rizzo and Dirk Zeller Country disaggregation of catches of the former Soviet Union (USSR) ...................................................... 157 Dirk Zeller and Yvette Rizzo  A Research Report from the Fisheries Centre at UBC  163 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2007   FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727  Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005),  Zeller & Pauly (eds.)  1 DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD When, in 1998, I published a short paper providing “[A] rationale for reconstructing catch time series”, I thought that the proposed concepts and methodology would need to be applied only to countries and regions (e.g., the Caribbean) not well covered in the global FAO database of fisheries landings. Now, 10 years later, a rather different view of global fisheries statistics has emerged:  • IUU (i.e., Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated) fisheries catches, which are now perceived to be quite large, have moved to the centre stage in the consciousness of fisheries managers worldwide, and get regular coverage in the international media; • Catch reconstructions performed for various countries throughout the world, many under the guidance of Dr. Dirk Zeller, this report’s senior editor, show that the statistics supplied to FAO by many countries, large and small, underestimate their likely true catch (i.e., reported landings + IUU) by a factor of 2 or more. While the illegal catches of industrial fisheries (which probably contribute most of the ‘I’ in IUU) are rather difficult to document, the mostly unreported catches of small-scale fisheries can be inferred from fisher number, and/or fish consumption data. Hence, catch reconstructions tend to boost catches from the small-scale sector, which is particularly neglected in the global FAO data set. The neglect of small-scale fisheries has a strong effect on fisheries policy. Many countries, especially in the developing world, pay little attention to their small-scale fisheries, in the mistaken belief that they contribute little to their national economy and food security. Hence, these countries fail to devote resources to the study of these fisheries, and hence their catches remain un- or substantially under- reported to FAO, where they indeed appear to contribute little, thus perpetuating the problem. The only way to get out of this vicious circle is to actually reconstruct national catches from independent data if possible, or by complementing the FAO data. This report presents both types of reconstructions. Also, two contributions are presented which disaggregate the catches of the ex-USSR and ex-Yugoslavia such that the republics that emerged from the dissolution of these multi-ethnic states are treated as if they had always existed (at least since 1950, when FAO’s global statistical fisheries system began). This will enable one to treat, e.g., Russia, or Croatia, as any fisheries nations, i.e., building on fisheries catch data going back several decades, and allowing for analysis of long-term trends. It may be useful to stress again that reconstructions of the sort presented here do not claim to provide ‘true catches’. ‘Truth’ must remain elusive. But the catches presented in this report certainly represent an improvement over the present situation, and could thus be considered to move towards the ‘likely true’ catch levels. And often, this is all we can hope for: to improve on things.  Daniel Pauly,  Director, Fisheries Centre  Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  3 CANADA’S ARCTIC MARINE FISH CATCHES1 Shawn Bootha and Paul Wattsb   a Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; e-mail: s.booth@fisheries.ubc.ca  b Institute of Arctic Ecophysiology, Churchill MB; e-mail: paulwatts52@yahoo.com   ABSTRACT Canada’s arctic marine fisheries occur within FAO statistical areas 18 and 21. Although many of the communities in these areas rely on the sea, only commercial data have been part of the formal reporting procedure. Small-scale fisheries data, including subsistence fisheries, have not been formerly assessed, nor do they form part of the national and global reports. Here, we present reported and estimated catch data for the period 1950 to 2001 for the commercial and small-scale sectors, including catches that were formerly used for feeding sled-dog teams. During this period, it is estimated that small-scale marine fisheries were 27 times larger than the reported commercial catches suggest, and small-scale catches declined by 56 % overall. Excluding the sled-dog food component, the small-scale catches destined for human consumption increased from approximately 523 tonnes in 1950 to an average of nearly 1,200 tonnes in the 1970s, but declined to approximately 900 tonnes by the early 2000s.  Arctic marine fisheries catches for the small-scale sector in terms of population (kg·person-1·year-1) reached an estimated peak of 268 kg in 1960 and were found to be 20.5 kg at the end of the study period. INTRODUCTION Canada’s arctic fisheries occur within FAO statistical areas 18 and 21 (Figure 1). Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) is Canada’s federal agency responsible for fishery statistics, and it reports catch data for Canada, including the Central and Arctic region. The Central and Arctic region includes the coastal waters of the Yukon, the marine and inland waters of Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, Ontario and the prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, while Quebec is its own separate region (DFO, 2006). However, existing reports allow for the estimation of the marine fish component of catches from arctic waters to be separated from the inland freshwater catches. The present study reports on marine fish catches taken by communities that fish the arctic waters of Canada (commercial and small-scale) for the period 1950-2001. One purpose of the study is to provide an estimate of marine fish catches to serve as a scientific baseline in the face of global warming, while both data and trends may also be of assistance in community and intercommunity development strategies. Although several studies and reports have been published previously, there has been no comprehensive review of potential historical catches, combining both small-scale catches with reported commercial catches, and there has been no expansion to cover the entire Canadian arctic. Productivity in the marine waters of northern Canada is limited by low nutrient availability in the upper water layer caused by vertical stability, a lack of upwelling and the freeze/thaw cycle which dilutes available nutrients. In Hudson Bay, vertical stability is amplified by the large amount of freshwater inputs from various river sources. It is for these reasons that the commercial fishery potential has traditionally been considered to be low (Dunbar, 1970).  The Arctic Ocean region of Canada is characterized by small coastal communities with an extremely limited tax base and a high degree of dependence upon marine resources including mammals, as well as fish. The population is spread over a vast, often frozen coastline based in communities that are generally less developed than most others in Canada. Although the significance of subsistence fisheries has been recognized (Berkes 1990), this area has previously received little attention as a fishing culture, due in part to the small population and limited government services. The present study focuses on the marine fish catches of 56 northern communities (Appendix Table A1), which are thought to account for nearly the                                                  1 Cite as: Booth, S. and Watts, P.2007. Canada’s arctic marine fish catches. p. 3-15. In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  4 entire human population in coastal arctic Canada. These communities are largely populated by Inuit, although some located on Hudson’s Bay coast have large numbers of Algonkian, Athapaskan and Métis, as well as non-indigenous peoples. Most of these communities fall within FAO statistical area 18, but some on the east side of Baffin Island fall within FAO area 21 (Figure 1). The communities are linked by factors that include: cultural heritage, transportation routes, jurisdiction as well as ecological parameters thus providing opportunities for intercommunity coastal resource management, research and development.  However, the distances involved and the cultural and jurisdictional diversity make strategic planning difficult.   Over the time period considered here, there has been a large change in the economics and infrastructure of these communities. Before the early 1950s, most Inuit were not living as much in fixed communities, but during the mid-1950s government based communities were established and the people adopted a less nomadic lifestyle. Dog-sled teams, the traditional mode of transportation, were replaced by the snowmobile starting in the early 1960s (Usher, 1972; 2002) and the subsistence economy, although still important, has become blended with a government, and market-based infrastructure. During the 1970s and 1980s there was an increasing tendency towards southern foods (Collings et al., 1998) in part based upon the perception that many of the traditional foods were contaminated with toxins (Jensen et al., 1997). There has also been a larger than 5-fold increase in the indigenous population of these communities, with an estimated growth from about 8,000 in 1950 to almost 44,000 in 2001.   MATERIALS AND METHODS Estimates of commercial marine fish catches in round weight were taken from reports prepared by DFO, while small-scale catches were based on several reports detailing, by species, the number of fish taken. Numbers by taxon were converted to round weight as described below (see ‘Small-scale fisheries data’). Since the small-scale reports did not cover the entire time period under consideration, catch data were transformed into per capita catch rates (by community) and combined with human population data to form the basis of the estimates for years when ‘hard’ data were not available. This method of interpolation Northwest Territories Nunavut Manitoba Ontario Quebec Figure 1: Map of Canada’s arctic regions showing the territories and provinces as well as communities by regions (numbered; see Appendix Table A1 for community names). Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  5 between anchor points of hard data to estimate fishery catches has also been used elsewhere (Zeller et al., 2006; Zeller et al., 2007a).  Human population data Population statistics for the 56 communities were taken from the Canada census undertaken every five years, and were adjusted to only represent the aboriginal population (Anonymous, 1954, 1963, 1973, 1977, 1978, 1983a, 1983b, 1996, 2001). Both the 1996 and 2001 census provide estimates of indigenous people’s population by community, with most communities having greater than 90% of the population being self-identified as indigenous. Therefore, for communities that had this profile, this percentage was assumed to stay constant in time back to 1950, and is likely an underestimate for earlier periods. For communities in 1996 and 2001 that had less than 90% of the respondents identifying themselves as indigenous, the indigenous people’s population was assumed to be 90% in 1950 and was then scaled linearly to the percentage presented in the 1996 census. Since the census data only provided 5-year snapshots of population numbers, a linear interpolation was done between census years. However, due to apparent erratic reporting during the early census years, the derived population numbers for each community were interpolated between the 1951 and 1971 estimates (Figure 2). Commercial fisheries data Studies reporting on the commercial catches of marine fishes taken in the Central and Arctic region have been reviewed by Crawford (1989) and Yaremchuk et al. (1989), as well as in a series of publications by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO, 1991, 1992a, 1992b, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999). Both Crawford (1989) and Yaremchuk et al. (1989) report on commercial catches taken from both marine and freshwater areas in the Northwest Territories and the two studies overlap in area and time. Crawford (1989) reports commercial data from the coastal arctic area including data from Rankin Inlet, Cambridge Bay, Pelly Bay (Kugaaruk), Iqaluit, Mackenzie Delta and other places combined, whereas Yaremchuk et al. (1989) describe commercial and test fisheries catches by community and location. Due to the greater detail given, only the work by Yaremchuk et al. (1989) was considered here. The data supplied in Yaremchuk et al. (1989) and the publications by Fisheries and Oceans Canada were geo-referenced using Google Earth, and capture locations were considered to be marine if they were located in ocean or estuarine areas. Commercial fisheries in arctic marine waters started in the late 1950s, with the first commercial catches reported from Iqaluit in 1958, while commercial operations in Cambridge Bay, Killiniq and Whale Cove  0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Figure 3: Commercial catches of marine fishes taken from marine waters in the Central and Arctic region from 1950-2001, as determined from national reports published by DFO. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year H um an  p op ul at io n (x  1 0  3 ) Figure 2: Estimated indigenous people’s population (1950- 2001) for the 56 coastal communities in Canada’s arctic region H um an  p op ul at io n (x  1 0  3 )Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  6 began in 1960 (Yaremchuk et al., 1989). Between 1960 and 1996, 26 communities were determined to have commercial marine fisheries. For the period after 1996, the commercial data (Figure 3) represent a five-year average from the 1992-1996 Fisheries and Oceans Canada reports. Commercial fisheries in Canada’s arctic tend to be distributed in space and time, following traditional practices, although some communities, e.g., Cambridge Bay, support yearly, seasonal fisheries (Kristofferson and Berkes, 2005). Commercial data for the coastal communities located in Quebec and Ontario have not been estimated as it is assumed that the majority of commercial fisheries based in these provinces would be freshwater (Kierans, 2001). Test fisheries in FAO statistical area 21, primarily targeting turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) by large offshore trawlers (Anonymous, 2005), were not considered in this report. Small-scale fisheries data Although there are numerous definitions of small-scale fisheries, here we use the interpretation of the basic needs level as defined in the Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study (NWHS; Priest and Usher, 2004). Although no explicit definition was given, it was acknowledged that it was the end use of fish that mattered. Thus, fish were considered to be part of the small-scale fishery if the fish were used in the fisher’s community or entered into inter-settlement trade, but fish were not considered part of the small- scale fishery if the fish was for commercial sale. Therefore, we consider small-scale catches to be primarily subsistence in nature, including inter-community trading, but not those sold in the commercial market. Small-scale catch data come from four studies. The earliest reported small-scale study used here was undertaken as a provision of the James Bay and Northern Quebec land claims agreement, and was meant to serve as a means to quantify guaranteed harvest levels to the indigenous inhabitants of the area (Anonymous, 1979), and it also estimated the caloric content of their diet. Data collected to estimate marine fish use were from the period 1974-1976. Gamble (1988) reported on small-scale fisheries undertaken in the Keewatin region, for what was then the Northwest Territories (now part of Nunavut), for a four year period 1981-1986. However, only the data for the period 1982-1985 were used here, since data for other years were incomplete. Gamble (1988) reported on six coastal communities that were also a part of the NWHS (Priest and Usher, 2004). However, the data for Chesterfield Inlet, Coral Harbour and Whale Cove were not used, as their catches were judged to be exceedingly low, especially in comparison to the data reported in the NWHS. Data reported for Arviat, Rankin Inlet, and Repulse Bay were retained. Two later studies, the ten year (1988-1997) Inuvialuit Harvest Study (IHS; Fabijian and Usher, 2003) and the five year (1996-2001) NWHS (Priest and Usher, 2004) also examined the basic needs level of the Inuit in the Inuvialuit Settlement region and in Nunavut as part of land claims agreements. Data collected in these reports were based on hunters’ accounts of their monthly catch, with the term ‘hunter’ referring to hunters, fishers and collectors; for the remainder of the report we refer to ‘fishers’. The data reported by fishers were converted into round weights using reported average weights and edible weight to round weight conversion factors (Appendix Table A2). Once converted into round weight, the data were transformed into per capita rates (kg·person-1·year-1) by taking the estimated total community harvest of that year and dividing it by the estimated human population for the community of that year. Thus, for each year and community represented in one of the four studies, a per capita fish use rate was determined, forming the best ‘hard’ data anchor points available. The small-scale data collected in the original studies did not give locations of capture, and therefore the proportional commercial catch breakdown (marine vs. freshwater) was used to estimate the portion of reported small-scale catches taken in marine waters. Human versus sled-dog use of fish resources To account for changes in the life-style of the Inuit communities from the 1950s to the present, an additional anchor point was derived to account for the amount of fishery resources that were formerly used for feeding sled-dog teams. Sled-dogs formed the primary mode of transportation for Inuit into the late 1960s, early 1970s. However, the introduction of the snow-mobile in the 1960s led to a rapid decline in sled-dog teams, with their virtual disappearance as working dog-teams by the mid-1970s. Usher (2002) states that for 6 communities (Aklavik, Holman, Inuvik, Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour and Tuktoyaktuk) in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region the catch of marine and anadromous fish was approximately 4.3 times higher in the 1960s than compared to the annual mean harvest during the Inuvialuit study period (1988-1997), with the decline being largely due to the demise of the sled-dog teams. Therefore, the annual mean catch estimated during the Inuvialuit Harvest Study for the four coastal communities (Holman, Paulatuk, Sachs Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  7 Harbour and Tuktoyaktuk) were multiplied by 4.3 to derive estimated total catches for the year 1960. These 1960 catch estimates were converted into per capita use rates (kg·person-1·year-1) by dividing the catch estimates for each coastal community by the community’s population for 1960. This allowed an average per capita use rate to be determined for 1960 which was, on average, 15.5 times higher compared to the average per capita use rate reported during the IHS (1988-1997). Jessop (1974 in Usher, 2002) reported that in the 1960s, 75% of fish catches in the Mackenzie Delta were fed to sled-dog teams. Thus, the average per capita fish use determined for 1960 was split into a sled-dog feed component and a human consumption component using a 3:1 ratio. This resulted in the human component of per capita use rates to be approximately 3.9 times larger in 1960 than the rates estimated during the IHS period (1988-1997). Human use component For communities that were part of the IHS, the 1988-1997 estimated average per capita use rates for each community were multiplied by 3.9 to derive the human use component for the year 1960. The 1960 rates were linearly interpolated to the 1988 value (based on the 1988-1997 average), but were carried back unaltered from 1960 to 1950 (Figure 4). For communities that were not part of the IHS, the same method was used.  An average rate for the study period of the NWHS (1996-2001) was also determined for each community and the per capita use rates for 1960 were set at 3.9 times the 1996-2001 average, and linearly interpolated to the 1996 data point. The three communities of Arviat, Rankin Inlet and Repulse Bay, which form part of the NWHS (1996-2001) and Gamble’s (1988) study (1981-1984) had their per capita use rates interpolated between two anchor points. For these three communities, the NWHS estimated mean per capita use rate for each community was multiplied by 3.9 to derive the human use component for the year 1960. The derived 1960 per capita use rates were linearly interpolated to the value estimated from Gamble (1988) for 1981. In turn, the value estimated for 1984 from Gamble (1988), was linearly interpolated to the estimated average value from the NWHS (e.g., Arviat, Figure 4). Quebec communities had their per capita use rates scaled from the average estimated from 1974-1976 (Anonymous, 1979) to the per capita use rate determined for 1995, the median year reported from both the IHS and NWHS studies. The 1995 per capita use rate was considered to be 37.9 % of the 1974-1976 average (i.e., if the 1960 rates are 3.9 times the 1995 rate, then the 1995 value is 37.9% of the average estimated for 1974-1976). The 1960 rate was set to 3.9 times the 1995 per capita use rate. Since no other data were available for these communities, the estimated 1995 rate was carried forward to 2001 (e.g., Inukjuaq, Figure 4). Twelve communities were not represented in any of the four previous studies (Appendix Table A1) and were thus entirely lacking data. For the nine mixed communities located around the southern portion of Hudson and James Bay a conservative estimate was used based on 10% of the average per capita use rate from Inukjuaq and Kuujarapik, the two nearest communities for which data were available. This very conservative assumption reflects the observation from a spatial land use study of these largely Cree communities, that suggested the majority of fishing occurred in freshwater (Berkes et al., 1995). For the three other communities which are largely Inuit (Ivujivik, Puvirnituq and Umiujaq; Appendix Table A1, Figure 1), the average from Inukjuaq and Kuujarapik was applied unaltered.  0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year P er  c ap ita  u se  r at e Inukjuaq Paulatuk Arviat (k g· pe rs on -1 ·y ea r- 1 ) P er  c ap ita  u se  r at e (k g· pe rs on -1 ·y ea r- 1 ) Figure 4: Representative examples of hard data anchor points (solid circles) for communities from small-scale studies, and the 1960  and 1995 (Inukjuaq, Quebec only) derived anchor points (open circles) for Inukjuaq (Anonymous, 1979); Paulatuk (Fabijian and Usher, 2003); and Arviat (Gamble, 1988; Priest and Usher, 2004). Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  8 Sled-dog feed component The sled-dog feed component of per capita use rates were set at 3 times the derived 1960 human component of the per capita use rates (based on the reported 3:1 ratio; Usher, 2002), and were carried back unaltered to 1950. Going forward in time, the 1960 rate was scaled linearly to zero in 1975 for communities that are largely Inuit. Thus, we assume that 1974 was the last year that marine fish made up a significant part of sled-dog feed, since Usher (1972) states that by 1972 the transition from sled-dog teams to snowmobiles was virtually complete. For the mixed communities, along the southern portion of Hudson and James Bay, no sled-dog feed component was estimated. RESULTS Over the time period considered here, our estimated small-scale catches are approximately 27 times larger than reported commercial catches (Figure 5). Given that only commercial catches are reported by Canada to FAO, the global representation of Canada’s arctic fisheries catches are substantially underestimated. Total catches may have doubled from 1950 to a peak in 1960 of approximately 4,000 tonnes before declining to catches of approximately 1,000 tonnes in the late 1990s. This overall decline is largely accounted for by the small- scale sector, and particularly by the sled-dog feed component.  Although there has been a large human population increase, this has not translated into increased catches in the small-scale sector after 1960 due to the apparent changes in per capita fish use. Since 1975, catches have declined by approximately 21% in the small-scale sector and by approximately 17% in the commercial sector (Figure 5). In the present study, small-scale per capita use rates were held constant for all communities from 1950 to 1960, and the overall average for all communities during this time period (1950-1960) was approximately 466 kg·person-1·year-1, or, with sled-dog feed component removed, 101 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  r at es  (k g  p er so n -1   y ea r- 1 ) 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Small-scale total Dog component Human component Small-scale: dog component Small-scale: human component Reported commercial Figure 5: Canada’s commercial and small-scale fishery catches in arctic marine waters, with catches for human and sled-dog use separated. 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Others Charr Figure 6: Per capita use rates of marine fish, averaged for all communities over the time period 1950-2001. Figure 7: Estimated catches of marine fish in Arctic waters by common names (for species composition of ‘others’ and scientific names see Appendix Table A3). C at ch  r at es  (k g  p er so n -1   y ea r- 1 ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t )Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  9 kg·person-1·year-1 as human use component. Thus, the increase noted from 1950 to 1960 only reflects the human population increase (and assumed concomitant increase in sled-dog teams). In 1975, the first year without the sled-dog feed component, the use rate fell to 68.1 kg·person-1·year-1, and has declined to 32.7 kg·person-1·year-1 by 2001 (Figure 6; see Appendix Table A4 for data by region). Taxonomic Breakdown FAO, on behalf of Canada, only reports one taxonomic entity, charr (Salvelinus alpinus), over the entire time period, whereas here we report on catches of 17 taxonomic entities. Charr is clearly the dominant species accounting for an average of 86 % of total catches, whereas all other species combined account for 14% (Figure 7). However, of the 16 taxonomic entities reported, only 6 are reported for FAO area 21 (Appendix Table A3). It should also be noted that the family Gadidae comprises different species in different regions. FAO Areas Catches in FAO area 18 summed over the entire time period have been approximately 5 times larger than the Canadian catches in the arctic part of FAO area 21 (excluding Labrador; Figure 8). In 1950, the aboriginal population of the arctic communities in FAO area 21 made up approximately 5 per cent of the total arctic population, and catches within area 21 made up approximately 4.8% of total catches. By 2001 the aboriginal population accounted for approximately 14% of the arctic total, and catches matched to approximately 13.9 % of the total (Figure 8). DISCUSSION Here we present the first study to estimate the full extent of Canada’s past marine fish catches in the Arctic. Although commercial catches are fairly well documented, there has been no such effort undertaken for the small-scale component, with previous studies documenting subsistence fisheries in Canada over relatively short time-spans (e.g., Gamble, 1988; Fabijian and Usher, 2003), and no expansion to consider the entire arctic has been done. The approach taken here provides estimates for years when there are no ‘hard’ data available. The development of community level fisheries self management systems (Berkes 1990) could potentially include periodic data collection with interpolations employed between survey periods, as suggested elsewhere (Zeller et al., 2007a), thereby improving the inputs into public policy and decision making. The current work in terms of per capita use rates (kg·person-1·year-1) compares well with the study of Berkes (1990), who found an average use of 60 kg·person-1·year-1 in his survey of subsistence fisheries in indigenous communities. The small-scale component estimated here is 27 times larger than commercial catches and underlines the importance of the non-market economy. Changing the collected data from catch·fisher-1 to per capita marine fish use also reflects the importance of the non-market economy, since there are extended food sharing networks within and between communities (Collings et al., 1998). Not formally considering estimates of small-scale catches can also lead to bias in national economic indicators (Zeller et al., 2007b). Global warming has already brought about some noticeable changes to the arctic environment, with the most prominent being the change in the extent and thickness of sea ice (Anonymous, 2003). Global warming will have direct effects on the biological productivity of the arctic and can also affect the livelihoods of the people, who often hunt for marine mammals at the ice edge.  Strategies to adapt to this changing environment need to be considered both at the jurisdictional and local level. The change in sea ice conditions has also resulted in a shift of fauna associated with sea ice, with both the number of species and abundance of species being lower now than the 1970s (Melnikov et al., 2002). Shifts in community structure have also been noticed in the northern Hudson Bay area, where the diet of nestling thick-billed  0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) FAO 18 FAO 21 C at ch  (t ) Figure 8: Total reconstructed catches taken in FAO statistical areas 18 and 21. Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  10 murres (Uria lomvia) has changed as sea ice has decreased. Their diet has changed with a decrease in the amount of arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), sculpins (Cottidae) and eelpouts (Zoarcidae), and an increase in capelin (Mallotus villosus) and sandlance (Ammodytes spp.) which are thought to be more typical of sub- arctic waters (Gaston et al., 2003). There are also signs of other species appearing in the arctic, with Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) showing up in the western arctic (Stephenson, 2006) and increased sightings of Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Hudson Bay (Higdon et al., 2006). The loss of sea ice has the potential to introduce new species into arctic areas, possibly creating a shift in community and ecosystem structure (e.g., Welch et al., 1992; Mohammed, 2001). The questions regarding how this changing ecosystem will affect the resource dependence and health of the peo0ple of the north will demand both local and jurisdictional attention and is exemplified by the region of Hudson Bay. Hudson Bay represents a major challenge in terms of global warming and related management systems since three provinces, a territory and the federal government have jurisdictional responsibility over these waters. The Bay also contains the only site in Canada where Algonkian, Athapaskan and Inuit people used the same area since pre-European contact, representing a unique cross cultural challenge. The changes in the arctic ecosystem will affect the population living in the area, and it remains to be seen whether the anticipated and required changes will improve livelihoods. New ice conditions and new species may cause a challenge to these peoples in terms of meeting their basic need levels and ensuring food security. However, there have already been substantial changes in the diets of the people brought about by the introduction of foods imported from further south. Although country foods such as caribou and charr still play an important role in the mixed economy, the amount of country food on a per capita basis has declined, with the largest declines seen in the youngest generations (Blanchet et al., 2000; Boult, 2004). The increased importance of southern foods, including foods rich in carbohydrates and sugars, has led to higher rates of obesity and obesity related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (Young et al., 2000).  These changes in diet have largely occurred since the 1980s (Collings et al., 1998). The climate and the distances between arctic communities, together with underdeveloped infrastructure and economy, represent challenges. Mitigation of warming trends by the people living in this environment need to be considered in terms of resource management as a function of health, social accountability and cultural survival. Regardless of the roles adopted for local and jurisdictional organizations, the collection and use of fisheries and ecosystem data appears to be a growing priority.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work forms part of the Sea Around Us project, funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, and located at the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia. We would like to thank D. Pauly and D. Zeller for their support and useful insights. We would also like to thank the Institute of Arctic Ecophysiology for providing access to a resource and report network on which this study was based. In particular we would like to thank the members of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada who took personal time to assist: J. Mathias, M. Treble, P. Richard, J. Martin, and M. Dyck. We would also like to thank D. Malley for assistance in expanding the network of contacts.   REFERENCES Anonymous (1954) Ninth census of Canada: Population-unincorporated villages and hamlets. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, 63 p. Anonymous (1963) 1961 Census of Canada: Population-unincorporated villages. Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, 74 p. Anonymous (1973) 1971 Census of Canada: Population-unincorporated settlements. Statistics Canada, Ottawa, 215 p. Anonymous (1977) 1976 Census of Canada: Population-geographic distributions. Statistics Canada, Ottawa, 48 p. Anonymous (1978) 1976 Census of Canada: Supplementary bulletins: Geographic and demographic-population of unincorporated places. Statistics Canada, Ottawa, 128 p. Anonymous (1979) Research to establish present levels of native harvesting: Harvest by the Inuit of northern Quebec-phase II (Year 1976). James Bay and Northern Quebec Native Harvesting Research Committee, Montreal, xv + 99 p. Anonymous (1983a) 1981 Census of Canada: Place name reference list-Quebec and Ontario. Statistics Canada, Ottawa, xii + 228 p. Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  11 Anonymous (1983b) 1981 Census of Canada: Place name reference list-Western provinces and the territories. Statistics Canada, Ottawa, xii + 157 p. Anonymous (1996) 1996 Census aboriginal population profiles. Statistics Canada, Ottawa. Available at: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/Profil/PlaceSearchForm1.cfm  [Accessed: January 10, 2007]. Anonymous (2001) 2001 Census aboriginal population profiles. Statistics Canada, Ottawa. Available at: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/profil01/AP01/Index.cfm?Lang=E [Accessed: January 10, 2007]. Anonymous (2003) The Science and the environment bulletin: What's happening to Arctic ice. Environment Canada, Ottawa. Available at: www.ec.gc.ca/science/sandefeb03/a1_e.html [Accessed: February 20, 2007]. Anonymous (2005) Nunavut Fisheries Strategy. Government of Nunavut & Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, Iqaluit. Available at: http://inuktitut.edt.gov.nu.ca/pdf/Fisheries%20Strategy.pdf [Accessed: Febraury 19, 2007], 50 p. Berkes, F. (1990) Native subsistence fisheries: A synthesis of harvest studies in Canada. Arctic 43: 35-42. Berkes, F., Hughes, A., George, P.J., Preston, R.J., Cummins, B.D. and Turner, J. (1995) The persistence of aboriginal land use: Fish and wildlife harvest areas in the Hudson and James Bay lowland, Ontario. Arctic 48: 81-93. Blanchet, C., Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Bruneau, S., Receveur, O. and Holub, B.J. (2000) Contribution of selected traditional and market foods to the diet of Nunavik Inuit women. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 61: 50-59. Boult, D.A. (2004) Hunger in the Arctic: Food (in)security in Inuit communities-A discussion paper. National Aboriginal Health Organization, Ottawa. Available at: www.naho.ca/inuit/english/documents/FoodSecurityPaper_final.pdf. [Accessed: February 20, 2007], 11 p. Collings, P., Wenzel, G. and Condon, R.G. (1998) Modern food sharing networks and community integration in the central Canadian Arctic. Arctic 51: 301-314. Crawford, R. (1989) Exploitation of Arctic fishes. Department of Fisheries and Oceans: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, Manitoba, v + 43 p. DFO (1991) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1988-1989. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, v + 59 p. DFO (1992a) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1989-1990. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, xiv + 61 p. DFO (1992b) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1990-1991. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, xiv + 67 p. DFO (1993) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1991-1992. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, xiv + 69 p. DFO (1994) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1992-1993. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, xvii + 104 p. DFO (1995) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1993-1994. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region xv + 86 p. DFO (1996) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1994-1995. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, xiii + 85 p. DFO (1997) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories, 1995-1996. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, xii + 80 p. DFO (1999) Annual summary of fish and marine mammal harvest data for the Northwest Territories. 1996-1997. Freshwater Institute: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, xii + 72 p. DFO (2006) Fisheries and Oceans Canada: Regions. Ottawa. Available at: www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/regions_e.htm [Accessed: February 14, 2007]. Dunbar, M.J. (1970) On the fishery potential of the sea waters of the Canadian north. Arctic 23(3): 150-174. Fabijian, M. and Usher, P.J. (2003) Inuvialuit harvest study data and methods report 1988-1997. The Inuvialuit Joint Secretariat, Inuvik, Northwest Territories, v + 202 p. Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (2007) Fishbase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org version (01/2007). [Accessed: February 2, 2007]. Gamble, R.L. (1988) Native harvest of wildlife in the Keewatin Region, Northwest Territories for the period October 1985 to March 1986 and a summary for the entire period of the harvest study from October 1981 to March 1986. Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 688: v + 85. Gaston, A.J., Woo, K. and Hipfner, J.M. (2003) Trends in forage fish populations in northern Hudson Bay since 1981, as determined from the diet of nestling Thick-Billed murres Uria lomvia. Arctic 56: 227-233. Higdon, J., Bernhardt, W., Chmelnitsky, E., Chambellant, M. and Ferguson, S. (2006). Are Killer whales (Orcinus orca) increasing in Hudson Bay? Available at: http://www.arcticnet-ulaval.ca/pdf/posters_2006/higdon_et_al.pdf [Accessed: 20 February 2007]. Jensen, J., Adare, K. and Shearer, R., editors. (1997) Canadian Arctic contaminants assessment report. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa, 460 p.  Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  12 Kierans, T. (2001) 21st Century joint Canada-United States water management. pp. 10 in Phelps, D. and Sehlke, G., editors. World Water Congress 2001-Bridging the Gap: Meeting the World's Water and Environmental Resources Challenges, Orlando, Florida, USA. Kristofferson, A.H. and Berkes, F. (2005) Adaptive co-management of char in Nunavut Territory. p. 249-268 In Berkes, F., Huebert, R., Fast, H., Manseau, M. and Diduck, A., (eds.), Breaking Ice: Renewable Resource and Ocean Management in the Canadian north. University of Calgary Press, Calgary. Melnikov, I.A., Kolosova, E.G., Welsh, H.E. and Zhitina, L.S. (2002) Sea ice biological communities and nutrient dynamics in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Research I 49: 1623-1649. Mohammed, E. (2001) A preliminary model for the Lancaster Sound region in the 1980s. pp. 99-110 In: Guénette, S., Christensen, V. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Fisheries impacts on North Atlantic ecosystems: Models and analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia. Priest, H. and Usher, P.J. (2004) The Nunavut wildlife harvest study. Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Iqaluit, Nunavut, 862 p. Stephenson, S.A. (2006) A review of the occurence of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Canadian western Arctic. Arctic 59: 37-46. Usher, P.J. (1972) The use of snowmobiles on Banks Island. Arctic 25: 170-181. Usher, P.J. (2000) Standard edible weights of harvested species in the Inuvialuit settlement region. Ottawa, iii + 38 p. Usher, P.J. (2002) Inuvialuit use of the Beaufort Sea and its resources, 1960-2000. Arctic 55: 18-28. Welch, H.E., Bergmann, M.A., Siferd, T.D., Martin, K.A., Curtis, M.F., Crawford, R.E., Conover, R.J. and Hop, H. (1992) Energy flow through the marine ecosystem of the Lancaster Sound Region, Arctic Canada. Arctic 45:343-357. Yaremchuk, G.C.B., Roberge, M.M., McGowan, D.K., Carder, G.W., Wong, B. and Read, C.J. (1989) Commercial harvests of major fish species from the Northwest Territories, 1945 to 1987. Department of Fisheries and Oceans: Central and Arctic Region, Winnipeg, Manitoba, iv + 129 p. Young, T.K., Reading, J., Elias, B. and O'Neil, J.D. (2000) Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Canada's First Nations: Status of an epidemic in progress. Canadian Medical Association Journal 163: 561-566. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. and Pauly, D. (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25: 144-152. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007a) Re-estimation of small-scale fisheries catches for U.S. flag island areas in the Western Pacific: The last 50 years. Fisheries Bulletin 105: 266-277. Zeller, D., Booth, S. and Pauly, D. (2007b) Fisheries contributions to the gross domestic product: Underestimating small-scale fisheries in the Pacific. Marine Resource Economics 21: 355-374.  Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  13 APPENDIX     Table A1: Coastal communities in Canada’s arctic, their region and their associated community number used in Figure 1, separated by FAO statistical area; communities marked with an asterisk were missing fisheries data. Bathurst Inlet and Umingmaktok are reported as one community. Community Name Region Community No. Community Name Region Community No. FAO statistical area 18 Kimmirut 5 12 Aklavik 1 5 Kugaruuk 4 1 Akulivik 8 7 Kugluktuk 3 1 Arctic Bay 2 3 Kuujuaq 5 9 Arviat 6 5 Kuujjuarapik 8 3 Attawapiskat* 7 4 Moosonee* 7 6 Aupaluk 5 7 Paulatuk 1 2 Bathurst Inlet 3 2 Peawanuck* 7 3 Cambridge Bay 3 4 Puvirnituq* 8 6 Cape Dorset 5 13 Quaqtaq 5 5 Chesterfield Inlet 6 2 Rankin Inlet 6 3 Chisasibi* 8 2 Repulse Bay 5 1 Churchill* 7 1 Resolute 2 2 Coral Harbour 6 1 Sachs Harbour 1 3 Eastmain* 7 8 Salluit 5 3 Fort Albany* 7 5 Sanikiluaq 8 1 Fort Severn* 7 2 Taloyoak 3 6 Gjoa Haven 3 5 Tasiujaq 5 8 Grise Fiord 2 1 Tuktoyaktuk 1 1 Hall Beach 4 3 Umiujaq* 8 4 Holman 1 4 Umingmaktok 3 3 Igloolik 4 2 Waskaganish* 7 7 Inukjuaq 8 5 Whale Cove 6 4 Inuvik 1 6 FAO statistical area 21 Ivujivik* 5 2 Clyde River 10 2 Kangiqsualujjuaq 5 10 Iqaluit 9 1 Kangiqsujuaq 5 4 Pangnirtung 9 2 Kangirsuk 5 6 Pond Inlet 10 1 Killiniq 5 11 Qikiqtarjuaq 10 3     Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  14   Table A2: Edible weights (kg) and edible to round weight conversion factors used to transform reported numbers of fish to round weight (kg). For scientific names see Appendix Table A3. Common Name Edible Weight (kg) Source Conversion Factor Source Keewatin (Gamble, 1988) Arctic cod 0.225 Froese and Pauly (2007) 1.0000 n/a Charr 2.500 Gamble (1988) 1.4375 Usher (2000) Sculpins 0.175 Froese and Pauly (2007) 1.0000 n/a Inuvialuit (Fabijian and Usher, 2003) Arctic cisco 0.450  1.4444 Usher (2000) Arctic cod 0.225 Froese and Pauly (2007) 1.0000 n/a Broad whitefish 1.650 Usher ( 2000) 1.2121 Usher (2000) Charr (Aklavik) 0.900 Usher (2000) 1.3846 Usher (2000) Charr (Holman) 2.200 Usher (2000) 1.4194 Usher (2000) Charr (Paulatuk) 2.300 Usher (2000) 1.4375 Usher (2000) Charr (Sachs Harbour) 1.000 Usher (2000) 1.4286 Usher (2000) Dolly varden 0.650 Usher (2000) 1.3846 Usher (2000) Flounder 0.500 M. Treble, pers. comm.a 1.0000 n/a Fourhorn sculpin 0.175 Froese and Pauly (2007) 1.0000 n/a Inconnu 2.550 Usher (2000) 1.3333 Usher (2000) Pacific herring 0.200 Usher (2000) 1.5000 Usher (2000) Saffron cod 0.364 Fishbase 1.0000 n/a Nunavut (Priest and Usher, 2003) Charr 2.500 Gamble (1988) 1.4375 Usher (2000) Arctic cisco 0.450 Usher (2000) 1.4444 Usher (2000) Cod 0.872 Froese and Pauly (2007) 1.0000 n/a Inconnu 2.550 Usher (2000) 1.3333 Usher (2000) Least cisco 0.200 Froese and Pauly (2007) 1.0000 n/a Sculpin 0.175 Froese and Pauly (,007) 1.0000 n/a Turbot 1.400 Froese and Pauly (2007) 1.0000 n/a James Bay and Northern Quebec (Anonymous, 1979) Charr 4.500 Anon. (1979) 1.4375 Usher (2000) Cod 2.500 Anon. (1979) 1.4375 Usher (2000)b Salmon 8.500 Anon. (1979) 1.4375 Usher (2000)b Sculpin 0.500 Anon. (1979) 1.2000 Usher (2000)b a M. Treble, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6, Canada.  b Specific conversion factors were not available and the closest conversion factor in Usher (2000) was used.  Canada’s arctic marine fish catches, Booth & Watts  15  Table A3: Common and scientific names for species reported in this study; common names marked with an asterisk are reported for FAO areas 18 and 21, all others are reported for FAO area 18. Common Name Taxonomic Name Source Arctic cod Boreogadus saida Gamble (1988) Charr Salvelinus alpinus Gamble (1988) Sculpins Cottidae Gamble (1988) Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis Usher (2003) Arctic cod Boreogadus saida Usher (2003) Broad whitefish Coregonus nasus Usher (2003) Dolly varden Salvelinus malma malma Usher (2003) Charr Salvelinus alpinus Usher (2003) Flounder Platichthys stellatus Usher (2003) Fourhorn sculpin Triglopsis quadricornis Usher (2003) Inconnu Stenodus leucichthys Usher (2003) Pacific herring Clupea pallasi pallasi Usher (2003) Saffron cod Eleginus gracilis Usher (2003) Arctic cisco* Coregonus autumnalis Priest and Usher (2003) Charr* Salvelinus alpinus Priest and Usher (2003) Cod* Boreogadus saida + Gadus morhua + G. ogac Priest and Usher (2003) Inconnu Stenodus leucichthys Priest and Usher (2003) Least cisco* Coregonus sardinella Priest and Usher (2003) Sculpin* Cottidae Priest and Usher (2003) Turbot* Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Priest and Usher (2003) Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus Anonymous (1979) Cod Boreogadus saida + Gadus morhua + Microgadus tomcod Anonymous (1979) Salmon Salmo salar Anonymous (1979) Sculpin Triglopsis quadricornis Anonymous (1979)   Table A4: Small-scale per capita use rates of marine fish determined for the 10 regions, divided into the amount used for sled-dog teams and for human use. Dog Component Human Component  Region Min  (Year) Max (Year) Mean  (1950-1974) Min (Year) Max  (Year)  2001 Mean (1950-2001) 1 10.4 (1974) 177.8 (1953) 115.5 15.0 (1997) 59.3  (1953) 19.0 35.8 2 7.3 (1974) 250.9 (1953) 101.5 8.1  (1998) 83.6  (1953) 9.4 27.9 3 32.6 (1974) 489.6 (1960) 352.5 32.7  (1998) 163.2  (1960) 106.6 109.8 4 23.9 (1974) 357.9 (1960) 257.7 15.7  (2000) 119.3  (1960) 27.3 79.3 5 31.5 (1974) 473.1 (1960) 340.7 40.5 (2000) 157.7  (1960) 40.6 102.9 6 17.2 (1974) 278.4 (1951) 192.1 13.6  (1997) 92.8  (1951) 17.0 54.6 7 n/a n/a n/a 2.1  (1995) 8.2  (1960) 2.1 5.4 8 43.1 (1974) 354.6 (1960) 257.6 41.7 (2000) 140.1  (1974) 44.0 83.4 9 32.5 (1974) 487.3 (1960) 350.9 33.5 (2001) 162.4  (1960) 33.5 108.1 10 22.3 (1974) 334.6 (1960) 240.9 17.9 (2000) 111.5  (1960) 18.1 74.2   16  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  17 MARINE FISH CATCHES IN NORTH SIBERIA (RUSSIA, FAO AREA 18)1 Daniel Pauly and Wilf Swartz  Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; e-mail: d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca   ABSTRACT The four Large Marine Ecosystems (Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas) that comprise Arctic Russia suffer from poor quality of fisheries data, and the FAO statistics for this area are too low to be credible. With the development of larger scale commercial fisheries in the region likely under global warming, it is imperative that past and current states of fisheries in the region are assessed, to provide a baseline with which to gauge any future development. Following an extensive online literature search, we were able to assemble a list of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of fisheries in the region (in particular catch statistics for anadromous Coregonus species from the 1980s to the early 1990s), from which we have generated time series of estimated catches for the region for the period from 1950 to 2004. We estimate that fisheries catches in the Kara Sea underwent a decline from around 15,000 tonnes in 1950 to an average of about 4,000 in the 1980s, and that they continue to decline, though at a lower rate. On the other hand, we had no basis for inferring a decline in the other three ecosystems. Instead, we estimated average catches in both the Laptev and East Siberian Seas to be around 4,000 tonnes·year-1, and a catch of 100 tonnes·year-1 for the Russian section of the Chukchi Sea. We look forward to comments on these estimates, which, although tentative, are likely to be more accurate than the figures they are meant to replace. INTRODUCTION The Arctic, generally defined as the area within the 10o C summer isotherm, has about 4 million human inhabitants. FAO Fisheries Statistical Area 18, ranging from Novaya Zemlya in the east to the Hudson Bay in the west, is comprised of the Siberian coast (Russia), the Arctic coasts of Alaska (USA) and Canada, or about two-third of the entire Arctic region. FAO Area 18 is also an area with low fish catches and low fishery productivity. This is particularly the case along the Siberian coast, for which FAO reports catches which are too low to be credible (see www.fao.org), even considering the remoteness and harshness of the environment, which limits the development of fisheries. This may be due, in part, to Russia not joining FAO as a member until 2006. While the former USSR participated in the formation of the FAO, and had observer status, it never formally joined the organization.  This situation is likely to change under global warming, as the entire region is likely to become more accessible by sea, especially for fishing vessels. Hence, the development of fisheries in the region appears likely, if not inevitable. Thus, there is now an urgent need to establish a baseline against which future development can be assessed. Moreover, the assemblage of realistic historic fisheries catch time series for this part of the world will enable coverage of four Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs), the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas, for which hitherto, no reasonable fishery data have been available. However, this report being a first attempt – at least in the English language – to establish a time series of fisheries catches for this part of the world, it must be stressed that it was written primarily as a starting point for our Russian and other colleagues with better data to work from (or against, as the case might be). We are under no illusion as to the quality of the data we present. We only believe that they are less wrong than what is available to date (mainly nothing), a theme to which we shall return in the Discussion.   An extensive online literature search was conducted, but yielded comparatively few sources of information on Russian Arctic fisheries in English, and even fewer in other languages that we master (French, German, Spanish and Japanese). Numerous references were found in which “fishing” by the indigenous peoples of Northern Siberia was mentioned (see also www.raipon.org), notably by anthropologists, but very few of                                                  1 Cite as: Pauly, D. and Swartz, W. 2007. Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18). p. 17-33. In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  18 them provided quantitative information. This is, regrettably, also the case with anthropologists working in warmer climes (Pauly 2006). However, one source of data was found which proved to be extremely useful, the working papers of the International Northern Sea Route Programme (INSROP) conducted from 1993 to 1999. This project involved scientists from Norway, Russia, Japan and other countries, and explored the implications of possible operation of a regular shipping lane from Northern Europe to Japan and beyond - the legendary Northeast Passage – and its potential impact on the Siberian marine ecosystems (see www.fni.no/insrop/). The project also studied the potential effect of a Northern Sea Route (NSR) on marine mammals (Wiig et al. 1996, Belikov et al. 1998, Thomassen et al. 1999), seabirds (Gavrilo et al. 1998) and invertebrates (Larsen et al. 1995). Significant in the present context, the project also included a volume devoted mainly to fisheries (Larsen et al. 1996), which we used extensively here, complemented by a smattering of heterogeneous sources. The fisheries catch data in Larsen et al. (1996), also presented in the atlas of Brude et al. (1998), were obtained from the State Institute of Lake and River Fisheries (GOSNIORKH), then the relevant line agency in Russia. These data pertain almost exclusively to catches made with fixed and drifting gill nets, drag seines, trap nets and under-ice nets, which are all small-scale, artisanal gears. There is another management body, the National Administration for Fishery Enforcement, Resource Restoration, and Fishing Regulation (GLAVRYBVOD), which “regulates the industrial harvest of fish, marine mammals and plants in Russia’s internal waters, on the continental shelf and in the two-hundred-mile Exclusive Economic Zone” (Newell 2004, p. xvi), but its relationship – if any – with GOSNIORKH is not clear. The available data are highly fragmented and could be vastly improved by more complete information becoming available from present institutional arrangements and/or from colleagues working on these fisheries and with these institutions. Indeed, we sincerely hope that our Russian and other colleagues with first-hand knowledge of the Arctic will correct and improve our view of their fisheries and ecosystems, and the figures presented here. In this report, the available fisheries data and our estimates are presented by Large Marine Ecosystems, from east to west, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the East Siberian Sea and the Chukchi Sea (Table 1).  Table 1. Oceanographic features of the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas Large Marine Ecosystems relevant to their fisheries. Property (Units) Kara Sea Laptev Sea E. Siberian Sea Chukchi Sea Area (km²) 797,171  499,039  926,721 556,899  Mean depth (m) 127 578 1350 1004 Ice free shelf area (km²) 948,120 623,356 370,178 455,197* Inshore fishing area (km²) 272,590 125,348 131,891 38,445* Major river systems [from west to east] Ob, Yenisei, Pyasina, Taimyrskaya Khatanga, Lena, Yana Indigirka, Kolyma None Primary production (mgC·m-²·day-1) 410 479 182 382 *ice free shelf and inshore fishing areas for the Chukchi Sea denote the areas that fall within the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone  THE FISHERIES OF THE KARA SEA The Kara Sea is bounded to the west by the Novaya Zemlya islands and to the east by the Severnaya Zemlya islands (Figure 1). Its oceanography is complex (see e.g., Fetzer et al. 2002). Being adjacent to the Barents Sea, the Kara Sea benefits from the occasional intrusion of ‘warm’ water and the accompanying fauna, “as apparently occurred during 1919-1938, when a strong inflow of warm Atlantic water into the Kara Sea, Northern Russia, led to the eastward expansion of salmon” (Fleming and Jensen 2002). Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  19 However, except for these occasional strays, the fish fauna of the Kara Sea is as species-poor as the Laptev and East Siberian Seas further to the east (Table 2). Also, the bulk of the fisheries catches is contributed by the same group, which also accounts for the bulk of the catch in the Laptev and East Siberian seas, that is, fishes of the genus Coregonus, (Subfamiliy Coregoninae, Family Salmonidae; see www.fishbase.org), collectively known as ‘whitefishes’, or ‘sig’ in Russian. Larsen et al. (1996) wrote that catches of “eight species of [the genus Coregonus] have been recorded, from which 6 species make up 70 to 90 % of the total recorded landings from the area”. Based on this, we will assume that the catches of fish other than coregonids in the Kara Sea constitute 20% of total catches.  Coregonids are caught in the lower reaches of rivers, in the estuaries and in the surrounding coastal areas, notably in the giant estuaries of the rivers Ob and Yenisei. Slavin (1964) writes “the waters of the Ob are rich in fish. Up to 30,000 tons (66 millions lbs) are now landed there annually, including such rare species as white salmon and sturgeon.” Unfortunately, with the exception of Coregonus muksun for which scattered pre-1950 data exist, depicting elevated catches from the Yenisei River from 1934 to 1937 and from 1940 to 1943, the time series of catch data, from Larsen et al. (1996), based on reports from GOSNIORKH, cover only the years for 1980 to 1994 for the Ob Bay and 1989/1991 to 1994 for other tributaries. All four tributaries show a clear declining trend around a mean of 225 tonnes•year-1, which, extrapolated backward, would correspond to a coregonid catch of about 12,500 tonnes in 1950. Moreover, Vilchek et al. (1996) writes that “The total catch in the Ob’ in the late 1930s reached 34,140 tons or more, 22, 950 tons being from the lower reaches of the Ob’. By the mid-1940s the total catch in the Ob’ basin was at a record level – 80, 400 tons; in the early 1950s it began to drop to 50, 000-55, 000 tons. Now the catches in the Ob’ Gulf and the lower Ob’ amount to only 150.8 and 374.5 tons, respectively. A similar picture can be observed in virtually all the rivers and seas of the Arctic”.  Figure 1. Map of Northern Siberia (Russian Federation), showing the extent of the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas Large Marine Ecosystems, major rivers and their estuaries, and other features discussed in the text. Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  20  Table 2. Marine fish species (English common names) occurrence in the Kara, Laptev (Lapt.), East Siberian (E.S.) and Chukchi Seas (Chuk.) Large Marine Ecosystems. Unless stated otherwise, all information based on FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Species  Kara Lapt. E.S. Chuk. Comments Acantholumpenus mackayi (Pighead prickleback) √   √ North Pacific from Japan to the Okhotsk and Bering seas, and in Arctic Ocean. Some fisheries.  Acipenser baeri (Longnose Siberian sturgeon) √ √ √  Anadromous. Found in Siberian rivers Ob, Irtysh, Yenisei, Lena, and Kolyma. Highly commercial.  Ammodytes hexapterus (Pacific sand lance)  √ √ √ Arctic and Pacific from Arctic Alaska to the Sea of Japan. Some commercial fisheries, sometimes targeted for fishmeal.  Anarrhichthys ocellatus (Wolf-eel)  √ √ √ In North Pacific from Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan to the Aleutian chain and California. Minor commercial fisheries.  Anisarchus medius (Stout eelblenny)  √ √ √ North Pacific, Northwest Atlantic and Arctic. Some fisheries. Arctogadus borisovi (East Siberian cod)  √ √ √ Arctic and North Atlantic including coasts of Siberia. Targeted for subsistence fisheries.  Arctogadus glacialis (Arctic cod)  √ √ √ Widely distributed in western part of Arctic basin. Minor commercial fisheries.  Artediellus scaber (Hamecon) √   √ Southeastern part of Barents Sea to northern part of Bering Sea. Aspidophoroides bartoni (Aleutian alligatorfish)    √ North Pacific and Arctic Ocean. Bathymaster signatus (Searcher)  √ √ √ East Siberian Sea to eastern Kamchatka. From the Sea of Okhotsk to Washington, USA. Some fisheries. Boreogadus saida (Polar cod) √ √ √ √ Circumpolar in the Arctic. Highly commercial.  Careproctus reinhardti (Sea tadpole) √ √   Kara and Laptev seas, Faroe-Shetland Channel to the Norwegian Sea, Spitsbergen, Murmansk and throughout Barents Sea. Careproctus solidus   √   Laptev Sea. Clupea pallasii  (Pacific herring) √ √ √ √ White Sea to Ob Bay in the Arctic and eastern Kamchatka to the Aleutian. Highly commercial.  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  21  Table 2. Marine fish species (English common names) occurrence in the Kara, Laptev (Lapt.), East Siberian (E.S.) and Chukchi Seas (Chuk.) Large Marine Ecosystems. Unless stated otherwise, all information based on FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Species  Kara Lapt. E.S. Chuk. Comments Coregonus autumnalis (Arctic cisco) √ * √ * √ * √ Russian name: омуль. Anadromous, in Barents Sea and coasts and rivers of Siberia. Some commercial fisheries.  Coregonus laurettae (Bering cisco) √ * √ * √ * √ Russian name: беринговоморский омуль. Anadromous. From Alaska to Chukotsk and Kamchatka regions of Siberia. Some subsistence fisheries.  Coregonus muksun (Muksun) √ √ √  Russian name: муксун. Anadromous. Low-salinity portions of the Arctic Ocean. From Kara River to Kolyma River. Highly commercial.  Coregonus nasus (Broad whitefish) √  * √ * √ * √ Russian name: Чир. Anadromous. In the Arctic basin east of Pechora River. Targeted for commercial and recreational fisheries.  Coregonus pidschian (Humpback whitefish) √ √ √ √ Russian name: сиг-пыжьян. Anadromous. Distribution ranges from Sweden to the western Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk. Some commercial fisheries.  Coregonus sardinella (Sardine cisco) √  * √ * √ * √ Russian name: ряпушка сибирская. Anadromous. From Bering Sea to Kolyma and Kara Rivers. Some commercial fisheries.  Cyclopteropsis jordani (Smooth lumpfish) √    Kara Sea to Baffin Island at Admiralty Inlet, Canada.  Eleginus gracilis (Saffron cod)    √ North Pacific from Yellow Sea to Alaska and from Cape Lisburne, Chukchi Sea to Dease Strait. Highly commercial.  Eleginus nawaga (Navaga) √ √ √ √ White, Barents and Kara seas from Kola Bay to Ob Bay. Some commercial fisheries.  Eumesogrammus praecisus (Fourline snakeblenny)    √ Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and Arctic Alaska in the North Pacific.  Eumicrotremus andriashevi (Pimpled lumpsucker)    √ Northeastern Chukchi Sea to eastern Bering Sea.  Eumicrotremus derjugini  (Leatherfin lumpsucker) √ √ √ √ Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Franz Josef Land, Spitsbergen, eastern Greenland, Kara, Laptev, Siberian and Chukchi seas and the Sea of Okhotsk. Eumicrotremus orbis (Pacific spiny lumpsucker)    √ Chukchi Sea and Sea of Okhotsk to Muroran, Hokkaido (Japan), Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain and Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Some fisheries.  Gymnelus andersoni √ √   Spitsbergen, north, central and eastern parts of the Barents Sea off Nova Zemlya and in the Kara Sea; in the Shokalskii Straight and western part of the Laptev Sea.  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  22  Table 2. Marine fish species (English common names) occurrence in the Kara, Laptev (Lapt.), East Siberian (E.S.) and Chukchi Seas (Chuk.) Large Marine Ecosystems. Unless stated otherwise, all information based on FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Species  Kara Lapt. E.S. Chuk. Comments Gymnelus barsukovi  √ √ √ Western Laptev Sea to the Bering Strait; Canadian Arctic to Ungava Bay. Gymnelus esipovi √    Arctic Ocean. Gymnelus hemifasciatus (Bigeye unernak) √    Kara Sea east to Canada and in the Bering and Okhotsk seas. Gymnelus platycephalus     √ Northern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea.  Glymnocanthus pistilliger (Threaded sculpin)    √ Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk to the Chukchi Peninsula and Norton Sound, Alaska to Kiska Island in the Aleutian chain and southeastern Alaska. Some fisheries. Gymnocanthus tricuspis (Arctic staghorn sculpin) √ √ √ √ Eastern coasts of Greenland, Iceland, northern coast of Norway to White Sea and throughout Barents Sea to Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya. Hemilepidotus papilio (Butterfly sculpin)    √ From Chukchi Sea in the Arctic to Sea of Okhotsk and the Aleutian in the North Pacific.  Hemilepidotus zapus (Longfin Irish lord)    √ Northern Kuril Islands, Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Hexagrammos stelleri (Whitespotted greenling)    √ Peter the Great Bay, Russia and the Sea of Japan to Cape Lisburne in the Chukchi Sea, Unimak Island in the Aleutian chain and Oregon, USA. Minor commercial and game fisheries.  Hippoglossoides robustus (Bering flounder)    √ Hokkaido, Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk north to northeast of Cape Lisburne, south to northwest of Akutan Island, Aleutian chain, Alaska. Hippoglossoides stenolepis (Pacific halibut)    √ Hokkaido, Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk to the southern Chukchi Sea and Point Camalu, Baja California, Mexico. Highly commercial.  Icelus bicornis (Twohorn sculpin) √ √ √ √ Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen, Barents and Kara seas, Bohuslän in Norway. Icelus spatula (Spatulate sculpin) √ √ √ √ Arctic Ocean to Ungava Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada and Greenland; Kara Sea and southeastern part of Barents Sea. Some fisheries.  Lampetra camtschatica (Arctic lamprey)    √ Anadromous. Range from the Siberian coast to Anderson River in Canada. Some commercial fisheries.   Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  23  Table 2. Marine fish species (English common names) occurrence in the Kara, Laptev (Lapt.), East Siberian (E.S.) and Chukchi Seas (Chuk.) Large Marine Ecosystems. Unless stated otherwise, all information based on FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Species  Kara Lapt. E.S. Chuk. Comments Leptagonus decagonus (Atlantic poacher) √    Arctic Ocean to Grand Bank and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada in western Atlantic; Spitsbergen and Finmarken coasts in Norway to White Sea, Barents Sea and Kara Sea; also Iceland and Greenland, and Okhotsk and Bering Seas. Leptoclinus maculatus (Daubed shanny)    √ Arctic Alaska to Sea of Okhotsk, northern Sea of Japan, Unalaska Island in the Aleutian chain and Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Limanda aspera  (Yellowfin sole)    √ Korea and the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, and Barkley Sound, Canada. Highly commercial. Liopsetta glacialis (Arctic flounder) √ √ √ √ Barents and White Sea to the coasts of Siberia and the Bering Seas to Bristol Bay, Alaska and the northern Sea of Okhotsk. Minor commercial fisheries.  Liparis gibbus (Variegated snailfish) √ √ √ √ Arctic, North Pacific and North Atlantic. Lumpenus fabricii (Sledner eelblenny) √ √ √ √ Circumpolar. Lycenchelys kolthoffi √ √ √  North of Novaya Zemlya and northern part of Kara Sea and in Greenland, Hudson Strait, north of Iceland, Faroe Islands, Svalbard and Laptev Sea. Lycenchelys muraena √    Norwegian Sea, Kara Sea and Northwest- and East Greenland. Lycodes eudipleurostictus (Doubleline eelpout) √ √ √ √ Arctic Alaska, Smith Sound, northwest Greenland, Kara Sea, Barents Sea, Spitsbergen, Norway, Iceland, northeast Greenland, and western Greenland. Lycodes frigidus  √ √ √ Northern Laptev Sea, East Siberian and Chukchi seas. Lycodes jugoricus (Shulupaoluk) √ √ √ √ White Sea and southern parts of the Kara Sea; Laptev Sea, New Siberian Isles, Near mouth of the Kolyma River and near Herschel Island in the Beaufort Sea. Lycodes mucosus (Saddled eelpout)    √ From Sea of Okhotsk to Arctic Canada. Lycodes palearis (Wattled eelpout)    √ Point Hope, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea to Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan), Agattu Island (Aleutian chain) and Oregon, USA. Lycodes pallidus (Pale eelpout) √ √ √ √ Kara Sea, western part of Laptev Sea, Beaufort Sea and Arctic Canada. Lycodes polaris (Canadian eelpout) √ √ √ √ Nearly circumpolar along Arctic coasts of Asia and North America.  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  24  Table 2. Marine fish species (English common names) occurrence in the Kara, Laptev (Lapt.), East Siberian (E.S.) and Chukchi Seas (Chuk.) Large Marine Ecosystems. Unless stated otherwise, all information based on FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Species  Kara Lapt. E.S. Chuk. Comments Lycodes raridens (Marbled eelpout)    √ Sakhalin, Russia and the Okhotsk Sea to Bristol Bay and Alaskan Arctic. Lycodes reticulates (Arctic eelpout) √ √   West of Boothia Peninsula (Northwest Territories, Canada) and the northern parts of Kara and Laptev Seas. Lycodes rossi (Threespot eelpout) √ √ √ √ Kara Sea to Beaufort Sea. Lycodes sagittarius (Archer eelpout) √ √ √ √ Kara Sea to Beaufort Seas. May occur in the Barents Sea. Lycodes seminudus (Longear eelpout) √ √ √ √ Franklin Bay, North Western Territory and Alaska; also the Kara and Beaufort seas. Lycodes turneri (Polar eelpout) √   √ Arctic reaches of Canada to northern Gulf of Lawrence in Canada, Alaskan Arctic to the eastern Bering Sea. Mallotus villosus (Capelin) √ √ √ √ Circumpolar in the Arctic. Megalocottus platycephalus (Belligerent sculpin)    √ North Pacific. Myoxocephalus jaok (Plain sculpin)    √ Northern Sea of Japan to the Bering Sea and southeastern Alaska. Myoxocephalus scorpius (Shorthorn sculpin) √ √ √ √ Greenland, Jan Mayen Island, Iceland to Bay of Biscay; North and Baltic Seas, Spitsbergen and southern part of Barents Sea; throughout the Arctic Ocean. Myoxocephalus stelleri (Steller’s sculpin)    √ Northwest Pacific from northern Japan to the western Bering Sea. Myoxocephalus verrucosus (Warty sculpin)  √ √ √ Laptev Sea and Chukchi Sea to the Kamchatka Gulf, Adak Island in the Aleutian chain and British Columbia, Canada. Occella dodecaedron (Bering poacher)    √ Kotzebue Sound to the northern Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk and Akun Island in the Aleutian chain and adjacent Arctic, including Gulf of Alaska.  Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Pink salmon)    √ Anadromous. From Northwest Territories (Canada) to southern California, Bering and Okhotsk Seas. Highly commercial.  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  25  Table 2. Marine fish species (English common names) occurrence in the Kara, Laptev (Lapt.), East Siberian (E.S.) and Chukchi Seas (Chuk.) Large Marine Ecosystems. Unless stated otherwise, all information based on FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Species  Kara Lapt. E.S. Chuk. Comments Oncorhynchus keta (Chum salmon)  √ √ √ Anadromous. Korea, Japan, Okhotsk and Bering Sea, Arctic Alaska south to San Diego, California, USA. Highly commercial. Oncorhynchus kisutch (Coho salmon)    √ Anadyr River in Russia south towards Hokkaido, and from Point Hope in Alaska southwards to Chamalu Bay in Baja California, Mexico. Highly commercial. Oncorhynchus nerka (Sockeye salmon)    √ Anadromous. Northern Japan to Bering Sea and to Los Angeles, California, USA. Highly commercial. Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Chinook salmon)    √ Anadromous. Alaska to Ventura River, California, USA. Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk, Hokkaido; Coppermine River in the Arctic. Highly commercial. Osmerus mordax (Arctic rainbow smelt) √ √ √ √ Anadromous. North Korea and the Sea of Okhotsk, British Columbia, north to the Bering Sea and the Arctic. Also known from the White Sea. Some commercial fisheries. Platichthys stellatus (Starry flounder)  √ √ √ Catadromous. Korea and southern Japan, the Bering Strait and Arctic Alaska to Northwest Territories, Canada; also southern California, USA. Commercial fisheries.  Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus (Alaska plaice)    √ Peter the Great Bay to Point Hope in the Chukchi Sea south to Unalaska Island and east to Kayak Island in southeast Alaska. Some commercial fisheries. Podothecus acipenserinus (Sturgeon poacher)    √ Western Bering Sea south of Cape Navarin to Commander Islands, and Pacific Ocean to Sea of Okhotsk off southwestern Kamchatka and northern Kuril Islands; eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands from Attu Island to northern California. Pungitius pungitius (Ninespine stickleback)    √ Anadromous. Circumarctic. Some subsistence fisheries.  Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Greenland halibut)    √ Sea of Japan off Honshu north to Shishmaref, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea, throughout the Aleutian Islands, to northern Baja California, Mexico. N.E. USA to Spitsbergen (Svalbard Islands) and the Barents Sea. Highly commercial. Salvelinus alpinus (Charr)   √ √ Anadromous. Arctic. Minor commercial fisheries.  Salvelinus malma (Dolly varden)   √  ** √ Anadromous. Distributed over a large area of the Arctic coast toward the south of the Bering Strait. ** Some commercial fisheries. Salvelinus taranetzi (Taranets)   √  ** √ ** Anadromous. Widely distributed in the eastern sector of the Arctic.** Somniosus pacificus (Pacific sleeper shark)  √ √ √ Japan and along the Siberian coast to the Bering Sea, southern California (USA), and Baja California, Mexico.  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  26  Table 2. Marine fish species (English common names) occurrence in the Kara, Laptev (Lapt.), East Siberian (E.S.) and Chukchi Seas (Chuk.) Large Marine Ecosystems. Unless stated otherwise, all information based on FishBase (www.fishbase.org). Species  Kara Lapt. E.S. Chuk. Comments Theragra chalcogramma (Alaska pollock)    √ From Kivalina, Alaska, to the southern Sea of Japan and to Carmel, California, USA. Triglopsis quadricornis (Fourhorn sculpin)  √ √ √ North Atlantic and Arctic. Some subsistence fisheries. Ulcina olrikii (Arctic alligatorfish) √ √ √ √ Arctic Ocean to Western Atlantic (Hudson Bay and Labrador, Canada, and Greenland). Also from Barents to Chukchi Sea and Anadyr Gulf. *based on reported catches in Larsen et al. (1996).  **based on Glubokowsky and Cheresenev (1981).   Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  27 We thus have four independent sources of evidence that catches of coregonids in the estuaries and lower reaches of rivers of the Kara Sea were higher in the past. 1. Slavin (1964) wrote of a catch of 30,000 tonnes·year-1, presumably pertaining to the late 1950s early 1960s, which is nearly ten time the catches in the 1980s; 2. The catch data of GOSNIORKH for Coregonus muksun for the lower Yenisei River, from 1934 to 1943 (360-780 tonnes·year-1), which is about twice the mean catch for this species in the 1980s; 3. The backward extrapolation of the GOSNIORKH data, which yields catches estimate for 1950 three to four time higher than the mean catch for the 1980s (with consistent trends for Ob Bay, lower Yenisei, Pyasina and Taimyskaya rivers examined separately); and 4. The quote from Vilcheck et al. (1996), which suggests that pre-1950 catches would have been over hundred times the catches in the 1990s. From this evidence, we can assume that (3) would lead to an estimate for 1950 that is both realistic and conservative, and which can thus serve as an anchor point for interpolation between 1950 and 1980 (for Ob Bay) and up to 1991 for the other three tributaries. Indeed, we believe such values represent an underestimate of the earlier fisheries catch in the region. Under the Soviet regime, Siberia, including its coastal regions, experienced a series of human population booms. First, via the dispatching of criminals and political prisoners to camps from 1929 onward, followed by German and other prisoners of war from 1942 onwards, and finally followed by the workers needed for massive industrialization projects in the region during the 1960s and 1970s. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the loss of subsidies from the central government, Siberia experienced a large emigration of non-indigenous populations through the 1990s, with the total population of the Russian ‘North’ declining by more than 14 percent between 1989 and 2002 (Hill 2004). With such drastic changes in the local human population, the fisheries catch from 1950 to 1980 could easily have exceeded our estimates. For the period from 1995 to 2004, after the year of last available data, we assumed, optimistically, a decline that proceeds at half the rate estimated for the earlier period. Complementing the reported catches of coregonids, we added small catches to accommodate other species, for which we found the following observations: “Until 1968 longnose Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri) was caught in the Ob Bay and the lower Yenisei [R]iver. The annual yield in the 1960’s was approximately 300 tons, until species became protected in Ob Bay in 1968. The sturgeon is presently caught in the lower Yenisei, with a catch of 31 tons recorded in 1994. For comparison, the catch of sturgeon in Yenisei was 398 tons in 1957, gradually falling to 56 tons in 1966. […] The decrease in sturgeon catches is claimed to have arisen from a combination of several factors; construction of dams, pollution and overfishing. Today whitefish are more important than sturgeon in the fisheries in the Yenisei River and estuary” (Larsen et al. 1996). The state of the sturgeon fisheries during the 1990s is also described as follows: “Sturgeon resources during the last 10 years have been decreasing and are now in a critical state. The reasons for the reduction of Siberian sturgeon resources are: irrational commercial fishing; reduction in natural production as the result of hydro-electric construction (dams for the Novosibirsk and Bukhtarmin hydroelectric stations cut off 40% of the spawning habitats of sturgeon in the Ob River basin); and oil pollution in the lower flow of the Ob River” (Ministry of Natural Resources 1998). Another fishery in the Kara Sea is an ice fishery for smelt (Osmerus mordax): “No data are available on the landings of smelt in the Yenisei River, but as much of the fish is caught for direct consumption by private persons (non-fishermen), the landings from this seasonal fishery would hardly appear in any statistics. However, in Ob Bay, the recorded catch of smelt has varied from 516 tons in 1989 to 28 tons in 1991” (Larsen et al. 1996). Based on the above statements, we have estimated the historical catch of A. baeri in the Kara Sea to be 300 tonnes·year-1 from 1961 to 1967, 56 tonnes·year-1 following the closure of Ob Bay in 1968 and 31 tonnes·year-1 after 1994, the year of the last reported catch data. Furthermore, we estimated higher catches in the 1950s (500 tonnes·year-1) to accommodate the reported catch from the Yenisei River in 1957. As for the catch estimates of O. mordax, in the absence of additional information, we took the mean of the two reported figures as our estimates for all years except 1989 and 1991 (Table 3). Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  28  Table 3. Catches (tonnes) from the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) from 1950 to 2004. Bold numbers denote reported catch; italics mark estimated catch; regular font numbers indicate reported catches limited to some rivers and estuaries (for coregonids, the reported catches were from: Ob Bay 1980-1994 except 1983, lower Yenisei 1990-1994, lower Pyasina 1989-1994, lower Taimyrskaya 1991 to 1994, Khatanga Bay 1981-1990, Lena 1981-1990, Yana 1982-1991, Indigirka 1981-1990, and Kolyma 1981-1990). Estimated coregonid catches for the Kara Sea were extrapolated linearly for each species and estuary/river back to the total catch of 12,500 tonnes in 1950 and for 1995 to 2004 using half the rate of decline used in the estimate of 1950 to 1980 (or up to 1991 for Yenisei, Pyasina and Taimyrskaya). For the Laptev and East Siberian Seas, coregonid catches were estimated as a mean of the first three years of the reported catches (for older estimates) or the last three years of the reported catches (for recent estimates). C.n = Coregonus nasus, C.a = C. autumnalis, C.m = C. muksun, C.s = C. sardinella, C.l = C. lavaretus, A.b = Acipenser baeri, O.m = Osmerus mordax, Oth = others. Kara Sea Laptev Sea E. Siberian Sea Chuk. Sea Year C.n C.a C.m C.s C.l A.b O.m Oth C.n C.a C.m C.s C.l Oth C.n C.a C.m C.s C.l Oth Oth 1950 1073 1006 2284 6240 1897 500 272 1728 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1951 1052 985 2239 6136 1863 500 272 1683 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1952 1032 964 2194 6033 1830 500 272 1639 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1953 1011 943 2149 5930 1796 500 272 1594 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1954 991 922 2104 5827 1762 500 272 1549 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1955 971 901 2059 5724 1728 500 272 1505 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1956 950 880 2014 5621 1695 500 272 1460 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1957 930 858 1969 5518 1661 500 272 1415 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1958 909 837 1923 5415 1627 500 272 1370 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1959 889 816 1878 5312 1594 500 272 1326 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1960 869 795 1833 5209 1560 300 272 1481 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1961 848 774 1788 5106 1526 300 272 1436 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1962 828 753 1743 5003 1492 300 272 1392 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1963 807 731 1698 4900 1459 300 272 1347 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1964 787 710 1653 4797 1425 300 272 1302 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1965 766 689 1608 4694 1391 300 272 1258 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1966 746 668 1563 4591 1358 300 272 1213 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1967 726 647 1517 4488 1324 300 272 1168 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1968 705 626 1472 4385 1290 56 272 1368 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1969 685 604 1427 4282 1256 56 272 1323 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1970 664 583 1382 4179 1223 56 272 1278 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1971 644 562 1337 4076 1189 56 272 1234 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1972 624 541 1292 3973 1155 56 272 1189 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1973 603 520 1247 3870 1122 56 272 1144 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1974 583 499 1202 3767 1088 56 272 1099 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1975 562 478 1157 3663 1054 56 272 1055 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1976 542 456 1111 3560 1020 56 272 1010 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1977 521 435 1066 3457 987 56 272 965 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1978 501 414 1021 3354 953 56 272 921 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  29 Table 3. Catches (tonnes) from the Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) from 1950 to 2004. Bold numbers denote reported catch; italics mark estimated catch; regular font numbers indicate reported catches limited to some rivers and estuaries (for coregonids, the reported catches were from: Ob Bay 1980-1994 except 1983, lower Yenisei 1990-1994, lower Pyasina 1989-1994, lower Taimyrskaya 1991 to 1994, Khatanga Bay 1981-1990, Lena 1981-1990, Yana 1982-1991, Indigirka 1981-1990, and Kolyma 1981-1990). Estimated coregonid catches for the Kara Sea were extrapolated linearly for each species and estuary/river back to the total catch of 12,500 tonnes in 1950 and for 1995 to 2004 using half the rate of decline used in the estimate of 1950 to 1980 (or up to 1991 for Yenisei, Pyasina and Taimyrskaya). For the Laptev and East Siberian Seas, coregonid catches were estimated as a mean of the first three years of the reported catches (for older estimates) or the last three years of the reported catches (for recent estimates). C.n = Coregonus nasus, C.a = C. autumnalis, C.m = C. muksun, C.s = C. sardinella, C.l = C. lavaretus, A.b = Acipenser baeri, O.m = Osmerus mordax, Oth = others. Kara Sea Laptev Sea E. Siberian Sea Chuk. Sea Year C.n C.a C.m C.s C.l A.b O.m Oth C.n C.a C.m C.s C.l Oth C.n C.a C.m C.s C.l Oth Oth 1979 481 393 976 3251 919 56 272 876 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1980 460 372 931 3148 886 56 272 831 240 816 411 1184 205 857 216 356 53 805 262 508 100 1981 296 351 950 1709 708 56 272 475 233 1019 257 1192 156 857 185 314 42 765 368 502 100 1982 249 329 803 1682 669 56 272 418 233 632 467 1139 236 812 331 346 36 829 200 523 100 1983 265 308 800 1652 632 56 272 404 316 716 509 1274 235 915 133 409 82 821 217 499 100 1984 295 287 765 1740 594 56 272 408 151 910 392 1195 165 844 167 596 80 917 299 618 100 1985 222 266 682 1478 557 56 272 313 258 970 511 1421 212 1012 645 483 51 1020 280 744 100 1986 244 245 632 1092 542 56 272 223 172 877 487 1429 112 923 690 380 58 1431 785 1003 100 1987 261 224 653 1365 482 56 272 269 237 852 503 1240 185 905 425 318 104 1341 293 744 100 1988 182 202 546 1058 439 56 272 158 223 625 695 1145 195 865 339 247 76 1432 338 730 100 1989 188 181 505 1288 407 56 516 0 260 519 618 1107 188 808 505 122 122 1713 451 874 100 1990 178 175 456 1285 408 56 272 173 258 531 618 922 142 741 357 428 155 1729 289 887 100 1991 194 182 414 1131 344 56 28 369 262 554 644 1021 213 808 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1992 139 147 411 771 334 56 272 32 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1993 221 129 333 503 305 56 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1994 197 70 302 564 301 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1995 186 60 282 512 284 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1996 176 50 262 461 267 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1997 166 41 243 409 250 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1998 156 32 223 358 233 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 1999 146 23 204 306 217 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 2000 135 14 186 255 200 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 2001 125 5 168 203 183 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 2002 115 0 149 152 166 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 2003 105 0 131 100 149 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100 2004 97 0 113 54 132 31 272 0 256 557 644 1040 194 807 400 266 118 1625 359 830 100    Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  30 THE FISHERIES OF THE LAPTEV SEA The Laptev Sea, bounded by the Severnaya Zemlya islands in the west and New Siberian Island and Kotelny Island in the east (Figure 1), is a mostly shallow water body with a complex oceanography (Kosobokova et al. 1998, Thiede et al. 1999). It is frozen nearly year round, with an extremely short summer, during which some parts of the water become ice-free as the coastal ice recedes, and into which the several large rivers discharge immense quantities of freshwater (Table 1). The fish fauna of the Laptev Sea is extremely impoverished, as it is remote from both the Barents Sea on the west and Bering Sea to the east (Figure 1, Table 2). According to an economic review of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) by the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO), there is no commercial marine fishery operating along the Republic’s 5,000 km long coast facing the Laptev and East Siberia seas (Japan External Trade Organization 2004). For this same area, however, Isaev and Newell (p. 243 in Newell 2004) write that [small-scale] “fishing annually yields about 8,000 tons, mainly in the lower reaches of the Lena, Yana, Indigirka, and Kolyma Rivers”. This catch estimate pertains to both the Laptev and East Siberian Seas, which we assume to be distributed equally, or 4,000 tonnes·year-1 for each LME, based on the similar size in their inshore fishing areas (to be described in a later section). Coregonid species, again, form the bulk of the fishery in the Laptev Sea, but detailed records are available only from the lower reaches of the Lena and Yana rivers, and from Khatanga Bay for the years 1981 to 1991 (Larsen et al. 1996). These data, amounting to about 3,000 tonnes·year-1 on average, do not show any consistent trend unlike those from the Kara Sea. Thus, as evidence is lacking which would support any trend related estimation, the mean catch of the first three years with data (1980-1982) is extrapolated backward to 1950; similarly, the mean catch of the last three years is extrapolated forward from 1992 to 2004. There is no information available on catches of any other species. Larsen et al. (1996), however, estimate a range of 10 to 30% of total catches being non-coregonid in Arctic Russia. We therefore applied the upper value of this range to both the Laptev and East Siberian seas as our estimated catches of other fish, which when combined with our estimates of coregonid catches brought our total catch close to the estimate of 4,000 tonnes·year-1 derived from Newell (2004; see Table 3). THE FISHERIES OF THE EAST SIBERIAN SEA The East Siberian Sea LME covers an area bounded by Kotelny Island in the west and Wrangel Island in the east. Like the Laptev Sea, it is remote from the Barents and Bering Seas and hence its fish fauna is species-poor (Table 2). A few large rivers, however, discharge into the East Siberian Sea, notably the Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers, and thus we find the familiar assemblage of coregonids being exploited by small-scale fisheries in the lower reaches and estuaries of these rivers. According to Newell (2004, p. 43), rivers which discharge into Chaun Inlet, near Pevek (Figure 1), “have commercially valuable stocks of humpback salmon and dolly warden (Salvelinus malma),” that are threatened by overfishing. The catch data used here are from GOSNIORKH as reported by Larsen et al. (1996), and the same assumptions were applied to their extrapolations as were applied for the Laptev Sea (Table 3). An estimate of 30% was assumed for catches of non-coregonid fish, yielding, for the 1980s, an annual average catch of 3,087 tonnes·year-1, a figure conservative with regards to the estimate derived from Newell (2004; see above). It should be noted here that unlike the catches in the Kara Sea which underwent a decline in fisheries catches, we can expect a more stable yield in the East Siberian Sea, and to some extent the Laptev Sea. This may likely be driven by a relatively larger proportion of indigenous inhabitants in the region, who are less inclined to emigrate following the collapse of regional industries (Larsen et al. 1996), and the lower levels of environmental degradation from the intensive industrialization of the regions (Newell 2004). THE FISHERIES OF THE CHUKCHI SEA The Chukchi Sea LME, being adjacent to the Bering Sea (Figure 1), includes a greater number of fish species than the East Siberian Sea, notably species which also occur in Arctic Alaska and the northern Pacific (Raymond 1988 in Larsen et al. 1996), for example the char, Salvelinus alpinus (Table 2). The “GOSNIORKH does not possess data on landings from areas east of the Kolyma river” (Brude et al. 1998), Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  31 presumably because there are no large river systems feeding into the Chukchi Sea. However, the area has a number of smaller rivers rich in anadromous salmonids. Given the absence of data, we estimated the catch from the Chukchi Sea as a ‘Fermi solution’ (von Baeyer 1993), i.e., by breaking down the problem at hand, and making informed guesses about each of the parts, whose errors are likely to cancel each other at the end. The non-indigenous human population of the Chukotka Republic which borders the Chukchi Sea, is believe to be “rapidly dwindling in the whole region” (Newell 2004, p. 285), with about 17,000 indigenous people in total, comprising mostly Chukchi, Yukagirs, Yupik, Koryak and Even people (Newell 2004, p. 285). The overwhelming majority of this population appears to live in the southern parts of the Republic along the coast of the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk (Newell 2004, map 8.2, p. 308). For the purpose of this report, we shall assume that 5 percent of the total population (or about 1,000 inhabitants) occupy the coast of the Chukchi Sea, and that the following description of their lifestyle applies: “lacking money, coastal native people have again turned to the sea as source of food […]. Most now survive exclusively on marine mammal meat, fish, and marine invertebrates […]. Small surplus quantities of fish and meat […] are sold to tourists, or traded […]. Hunting at sea is once again becoming a prestigious calling in coastal cultures” (Newell 2004, p. 310). Therefore, if we assume that each of the 1,000 persons along the Chukchi Sea coast consumes 100 kg of fish·year-1 (a high value), a catch of 100 tonnes·year-1 would be required. Alternatively, we could assume, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, that annual catches along the Chukchi Sea coast are, on a per-area basis, 10% of those in the East Siberian Sea1. Such an estimate yields 2.3 kg·year-1·km-2 of inshore fishing area. Given the size of inshore fishing area computed for the Chukchi Sea (Table 1), we computed 90 tonnes·year-1 as the likely catch for the region. This is close to the figure of 100 tonnes·year-1 estimated above, which we retained. This is also based on the concept that, as a “spontaneous number”, it has the advantage of not suggesting a high precision (Albers and Albers 1983). It is interesting to note that since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the region has attracted interest from the Alaskan sport fishing industry, and chartered trips have been organized targeting various Pacific salmon and Arctic char (Jenkins 1991) and their role in the local fisheries is expected to grow. We assume that the catches made by these fisheries easily fit into our estimate for the Chukchi Sea.  DISCUSSION Figure (2) presents our estimated time series of catch, by species, for the entire North Siberian region, including the estimates for the catches of ‘other fishes’, based on Larsen et al. (1996) and other sources. These estimates are meant to provide an alternative to the official landings data reported by FAO on behalf of Russia, which are summarized in Table (4). These reported landings pertain to species usually caught by industrial trawlers, not likely to operate in any of the ecosystems reported upon here. These data are also incompatible with information provided in a report of the Ministry of Natural Resources (1998): “Commercial fishing in the Kara and eastern Arctic seas is not viable. The largest amount of bioresources (mainly semi-migratory fish of the ‘sig’ family:                                                  1 The reference area used here is the ‘inshore fishing area’, previously used by Chuenpagdee et al. (2006) to compare fisheries yields by small-scale fisheries throughout the world, and which are defined as waters of up to 200 m in depth or up to 50 km from shore, whichever is nearest to the coastline. Figure 2. Estimated marine fisheries catch by species for the Russian Arctic Large Marine Ecosystems (Kara, Laptev, E. Siberian and the Russian section of the Chukchi Seas) from 1950 to 2004.  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  32 muksun, pelyad, sig, ryapushka, and omul) are produced in the pre-mouth zones of the Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Along other areas of the coast, fish resources are small (Yakutia, Chukotka) and fishing is only for the subsistence needs of the local population.” Table (3) and Figure (2) are based on data and inference which are highly uncertain. However, the overall catch level may be within the correct range, as can be inferred by comparison with the catch data in Berg et al. (1949; E. Pakhomov, Earth & Ocean Sciences, UBC, pers. comm.). This is in contrast to the data presently available from the FAO, which reports landings 60 times lower than presented here (Table 4). Another concern is the distinction between marine, brackish-water and freshwater catches. We are almost certain that by relying heavily on the reported catches of anadromous coregonids in our estimates, we have included significant, and, for our purpose, unwanted freshwater catches (although we have omitted catches of Coregonus peled, an exclusively freshwater species, from our study). Nonetheless, we believe that such a potential overestimate in the catches of anadromous species is compensated for, at least in part, by unreported small-scale fisheries for marine species in larger estuaries such as that of Ob and Lena rivers or in areas such as Khatanga Bay. Indeed, it is more or less universal for small-scale subsistence fisheries to be overlooked in governments’ statistical systems (Pauly 2006, Zeller et al. 2006, Zeller et al. 2007). The region discussed here suffers to a substantial extent from various forms of industrial pollution, the result of decades of ruthless attempts to extract natural resources from the area without environmental safeguards (Gordeev et al. 2006, Newell 2004, Vilchek et al. 1996). Thus, it would be tempting to attribute the decline of fish catches observed during the period for which there is data solely to high levels of pollution, especially in the Kara Sea area. This is believed to be the case for the coregonid fisheries in the White Sea (Ministry of Natural Resources 1998), and generally for the Russian Arctic (Vilchek et al. 1996). Yet, massive demographic changes have also occurred during this period, as ethnic Russians that immigrated into the region during the Soviet era are leaving the area following the collapse of the Soviet regime. Those who remain are indigenous peoples, with few options but to (re-)turn to small-scale fishing and hunting. Be that as it may, the present contribution was assembled essentially for the purpose of generating a straw man, which Russian and other colleagues interested in Arctic fisheries can now begin to shoot at.  Table 4. Official landings data reported by FAO for Area 18 on behalf of Russia and the former USSR, for the period 1950-2004. Yeara Reported taxa 1967 1968 1969 1970 Total landings (t) Greenland halibut 100 1,400 800 200 2,500 Roundnose grenadier 1,100 5,900 2,600 500 10,100 Miscellaneous marine fish - - - 100 100 Total 1,200 7,300 3,400 800 12,700b a Only the 4 years included here had non-zero landings.  b This compares with 754,815 t in Table (3) for 1950-2004, i.e., 60 times more.   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank C. Ragner of the Norwegian Institute for making available to us the reports which made this contribution possible. Our thanks also go to B. Campbell for the GIS work, and A. Atanacio for drawing the figures. A special thanks to E. Pakhomov, Earth & Ocean Sciences, UBC, for comments which, we hasten to add, do not make him responsible for any of the interpretations presented here. This work is a product of the Sea Around Us Project, funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia.   Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  33 REFERENCES Albers, W. and Albers, G. (1983) On the prominence structure in the decimal system. p. 271-287 In: R.W. Scholz (ed.). Decision making under Uncertainty. Amsterdam, Elsevier. Belikov, S., Boltunov, A., Belikova, T., Belevich, T. and Gorbunov, Y. (1998) The Distribution of Marine Mammals in the Northern Sea Route Area. INSROP Working Paper No. 118, 49 p. Berg, L.S., Bogdanov, L.S., Kozhin, N.I. and Rass, T.S. (Editors) (1949) Коммерчески рыбы СССР [Commercial fishes of the USSR]. Pshchepromizdat, 787 p. [in Russian]. Brude, O.W., Moe, K.A., Bakken, V., Hansson, R., Larsen, L.H., Lovas, S.M., Thomassen, J. and Wiig, O. (1998) Northern Sea Route Dynamic Environmental Atlas. INSROP Working Paper No. 99, 58 p. Chuenpagdee, R., Liguori, L., Palomares, M.D. and Pauly. D. (2006) Bottom-Up, Global Estimates of Small-Scale Marine Fisheries Catches. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(8), 112 p. Fetzer, I., Hirche, H.J. and Kosolova, E.G. (2002) The influence of freshwater discharge on the distribution of zooplankton in the southern Kara Sea. Polar Biology 25: 404-415. Fleming, I.A. and Jensen, A.J. (2002) Fisheries: Effects of Climate Change on the Life Cycles of Salmon. p. 309-312. In: I. Douglas (ed.). Volume 3, Causes and consequences of global environmental changes. Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. Gavrilo, M., Bakken, V. and Isaksen, K. (1998) The Distribution, Population Status and Ecology of Marine Birds selected as Valued Ecosystem Components in the Northern Sea Route Area. INSROP Working Paper No. 123, 145 p. Glubokowsky, M.K. and Cheresenev, I.A. (1981) Unresolved problems concerning the phylogeny of chars (Salvelinus) of the Holarctic: I. Migratory chars of the East-Siberian Sea basin. Journal of Ichthyology 21(5): 1-15. Gordeev, V.V., Andreeva, E.N., Lisitzin, A.P., Kremer, H.H., Salomons, W. and Mashall-Crossland, J.I. (2006) Russian Arctic Basins: LIICZ Global Chage Assessment and Synthesis of River Catchment – Coastal Areas Interaction and human Dimension. LOICZ Report and Studies No 29, 95 p.  Hill, F. (2004) Siberia: Russia’s economic heartland and daunting dilemma. Current History (Oct): 324-31. Japan External Trade Organization (2004) Russia Far East economic review. (www.jetro.go.jp/biz/world/russia_cis/ru/kyokuto/2004_02.html) [in Japanese] Jenkins, J.L. (1991) Sportfishing in the Soviet Far East? The Angling Report Jan. 1991. Available at: www.anglingreport.com [accessed September 26th, 2007] Kosobokova, K. N., Hanssen, H., Hirche, H.J. and Knickmeier, K. (1998) Composition and distribution of zooplankton in the Laptev Sea and adjacent Nansen basin during summer 1993. Polar Biology 19: 63-76. Larsen, L.H., Palerud, R., Goodwin, H. and Sirenko, B. (1996) The marine invertebrates, fish and coastal zone features of the NSR area. INSROP Working Paper No 53, 42 p. Larsen, L.H., Evenset, A. and Sirenko, G. (1995) Linkages and impact hypothesis concerning the Valued Ecosystem Components (VEC’s): Invertebrates, Fish, the Coastal Zone and Large River Estuaries and Deltas. INSROP Working Paper No.12, 38 p. Ministry of Natural Resources (1998) Safety and environmental regime for Russian offshore oil and gas operations. The feasibility study: the joint Russian-American-Norwegian project. Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation, 152p. Newell, J. (2004) The Russian Far East: A Reference Guide for Conservation and Development. Daniel & Daniel Publishers, McKinleyville, CA, 466 p. Pauly, D. (2006) Major trends in small-scale marine fisheries, with emphasis on developing countries, and some implications for the social sciences. Maritime Studies (MAST) 4(2): 7-22. Slavin, S.V. (1964) Economic development of the Siberian North. Arctic 17(2): 104-108. Thiede, J., Timokhov, L., Bauch, H.A., Bolshiyanov, D., Dmitrenko, I., Eicken, H., Fahl, K., Gukov, A., Hölemann, J., Hubberten, H.W., van Juterzenka, K., Kassens, H., Melles, M., Petryashov, V., Pivovarov, S., Priamikov, S., Rachold, V., Schmid, M., Siegert, C., Spindler, M. and Stein, R. (1999) Dynamics and History of the Laptev Sea and its Continental Hinterland: A Summary. p. 695-711 In: H. Kassens et al. (eds.) Land-Ocean System in the Siberian Arctic: Dynamics and History. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Thomassen, J., Dallmann, W., Isaksen, K., Khlebovich, V. and Wiig, O. (1999) Evaluation of INSROP Valued Ecosystem Components: Protected areas, Indigenous People, Domestic reindeer and Wild reindeer. INSROP Working Paper No. 162, 62 p. Vilchek, G.E., Krasnovskaya, T.M. and Chelyukanov V.V. (1996) The environment in the Russian Arctic: Status Report. Polar Geography 20(1): 20-43. von Baeyer, H.C. (1993) The Fermi Solution: Essays on Science. Random House, New York. 172 p. Wiig, O., Belikov, S.E., Boltunov, A.N. and Garner, G.W. (1996) Selection of marine mammal Valued Ecosystem Components and description of impact hypotheses in the Northern Sea Route Area. INSROP Working Paper No. 40, 70 p. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. and Pauly, D. (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25: 144-152. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fisheries catches for U.S. flag island areas in the Western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fisheries Bulletin 105: 266-277.  Marine fish catches in North Siberia (Russia, FAO Area 18), Pauly & Swartz  34    National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  35 NATIONAL CONFLICT AND FISHERIES: RECONSTRUCTING MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES FOR MOZAMBIQUE1 Jennifer L. Jacquet and Dirk Zeller  The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 j.jacquet@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.zeller@fisheries.ubc.ca  ABSTRACT Mozambique is one of the poorest countries in the world; however, it is rich in marine resources. This study gives an overview of Mozambique’s marine fishing history from the colonial period to the present, including how fishing was affected by the country’s 16-year civil war. Since the 1950s, when the compilation of global fisheries data by FAO began, Mozambique has reported primarily industrial catches and has vastly under-reported the nation’s small-scale fishing sector due to lack of resources and civil strife. This study reconstructs small-scale catches, industrial catches, and discards, for the 1950-2004 period. Overall, small-scale catches may account for an average of 87% of Mozambique’s national marine fisheries landings. Since 2000, the fishing sector as a whole has landed between 115,000 and 140,000 tonnes per year, which is 5.5 times greater than the statistics reported by FAO based on country reports. Though there is a large degree of uncertainty with this work, the assumptions made herein are better than the alternative, i.e., that the small-scale sector has no landings.  INTRODUCTION To assess hunger and malnutrition by country, the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) requires the collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of information relating to nutrition, food, and agriculture, including fisheries (Ward, 2004). The FAO FishStat database, which offers time series data on marine fisheries landings from 1950 to the present, is based on national statistical data supplied by its member countries. Therefore, the quality of the data depends on the capacity of statistical collection within these countries. The FAO data have been the basis of many influential global fisheries studies (e.g., Pauly et al., 1998) but they are, in fact, incomplete (e.g., Zeller et al., 2006; Zeller et al., 2007). Furthermore, data reported by FAO do not distinguish between fisheries sub- sectors.  Small-scale, artisanal fishing often contributes significantly to food security and nutritional needs of coastal communities, particularly in developing countries. However, small-scale fisheries have often been marginalized politically due to their socio-economic, physical, and political remoteness from urban centers (Pauly, 1997). Instead, government focus and support is often directed toward industrial fishing, which provides foreign exchange (e.g., Renner, 1996; Cramer, 1995). This dichotomy is also reflected in reported data.  However, small-scale fisheries’ role in local economies and food security must be closely examined, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, the only region of the world where child malnutrition is predicted to increase rather than decline (Pinstrup-Andersen et al., 1999).  In Mozambique, one of the poorest countries in the world, the small-scale fishing sector is of historical and contemporary importance to rural livelihoods, though this case is not often made.  Fishing in Mozambique obviously predates the colonial period but, for the present study, the fishing history is presented from the colonial period onward. Quantitatively, this study is limited to the period of global FAO reporting, i.e., from 1950 onwards.                                                   1 Cite as: Jacquet, J. L. and Zeller, D. 2007. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique. p. 35-47. In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].  National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  36 The colonial period: 16th century-1975 Mozambique has one of the longest coastlines of any African nation and a long history of fishing. When the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century, an estimated 10,000 people were living around the bay of Sofala and engaging primarily in trade, boat building, and fishing (Ehnmark and Wastberg, 1963). Where raising cattle was difficult, coastal populations caught fish with traps and cages and collected intertidal resources, such as oysters. In addition to subsistence use, fish was dried and traded inland and shellfish were sold in local markets (Anon., 1920; Foreign Office, 1920; Newitt, 1995; de Boer, 2000). Most of the finfish (primarily cod and canned sardines) eaten in urban centers during Portuguese colonial rule was, however, imported from Portugal and Angola (Nordic Fishery Project, 1985; Krantz et al., 1986).  Until the 1960s, there was no local industrial fishing fleet in Mozambique, and trawling was prohibited under colonial law (Nordic Fishery Project, 1985). But, in the early 1960s, local Portuguese authorities recognized the export potential of a shrimp fishery (Anon., 1982) and in 1965, the trawling ban was overturned (Krantz et al., 1986). A small industrial fleet was established in Mozambique, but was owned and operated by fishers from Portugal.  By the mid-1960s, the fishing industry began to expand. Large processing and freezing plants for shrimp, crabmeat, and fish canning were established at various locations along the coast. Ten of Portugal’s largest fishing enterprises formed a corporation aiming to invest in the expansion of Mozambique’s fishing industry. During the colonial epoch, most of the literature addresses only this development of industrialized fishing, though the government’s Missao de Bioceanologicia e Pescas se Moçambique was working with FAO and the small-scale sector.  However, the small-scale sector is, for the most part, absent from the national fishing statistics presented by FAO.  Yet, in the mid-1960s, there were more than 16,000 rural coastal fishers and coastal people consumed many varieties of fish and shellfish (Herrick et al., 1969). The small-scale fishing sector would become of even greater importance when thousands of refugees fled to the coast during the era of conflict that followed independence (Kristiansen and Lopes, 1997).  Civil war: 1976-1992 In 1962, anti-colonial forces formed the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) and initiated an armed campaign against Portuguese colonialism. Mozambique did not gain independence, however, until 1975, after the 1974 coup in mainland Portugal, at which time FRELIMO established a one-party state aligned with the Soviet Union.  At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world’s poorest economies. Fishing infrastructure (including retailers) and the system of data collection were abandoned with the exodus of the Portuguese. The new government nationalized all industries, including the fishing boats, of which there were fewer than 100 (Nordic Fishery Project, 1985).  The political instability after independence led to a civil war fuelled by South Africa and lasting from 1977- 1992, which destroyed much of the country’s infrastructure and caused massive migrations of people. About 1.7 million refugees fled abroad. Four million people, about one-fourth of Mozambique’s entire population, were internally displaced (Azevedo, 2002). The coastal cities of Angoche and Moma were attacked repeatedly but, generally, coastal areas experienced less fighting (Anon., 1982). Refugees migrated to the coast and islands and turned to fishing for survival (Kristiansen and Lopes, 1997). As the number of fishers increased, catch rates for coastal fishers declined (Lopes and Gervasio, 1999).  By the early 1980s, 80-90% of the population was dependent on subsistence agriculture and fishing for a large part of their livelihood. As late as 1985, the artisanal fishing fleet was still operating within a subsistence, rather than an industrial, market-based economy (Nordic Fishery Project, 1985). Trade of fish was made difficult due to the destruction of roads, landmines, and a shortage of salt, which prevented the preservation of fish for shipment inland (SEP, 1994).  To generate revenue, the government increased efforts to refurbish the industrial fishing sector. In August 1976, the government passed legislation designed to protect its inshore fishing grounds and to bring unrestricted offshore fishing under its control. The new law established a 12-mile nautical zone along the coast, and fishing there required a government license (Chingono, 1996).  Eager for foreign exchange, the new Mozambique government formed joint enterprises with private fishing interests in Japan, Spain, and Norway, and traded fishing rights for aid from the Soviet Union. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  37 Through the 1980s, Norway supported most of the government-run industrial fishing (Instituto de Investigacao Pesqueira, 1995). By 1984, Mozambique’s fishing grounds had not been fully surveyed (Avezedo, 2002). Yet, Norwegian advisors suggested increasing annual production of fish by 20,000 t by 1985 through the development of bottom trawling (Anon., 1982).  Soviet fishing vessels overexploited many of Mozambique’s fishing grounds, including the rich resources of Sofala bank (Davidchick and Mahoney, 1979; Andersson, 1992). A joint Mozambique-Soviet fishing company was established in 1979 with the aim to supply fresh fish to the local domestic market and export shrimp for revenue. In the early 1980s, shrimp was, after cashews, the country’s largest earner of foreign exchange (Anon., 1984).  Peace: 1992-present In 1992, after 16 years of civil war, the government and the guerilla groups signed a cease-fire agreement. More than one million refugees who had fled abroad returned home to Mozambique. Though some refugees that fled to the coast of Mozambique during the war returned to their place of inland origin (SEP, 1994), many stayed.  Most of the landmines that impeded travel were removed once the civil war ended, but selling fish to inland markets remains difficult due to transport difficulties (Lopes et al., 1996). The lack of education and, therefore, alternatives to fishing, is severe in rural areas (Azevedo, 2002). Fishers span the seven coastal provinces (Figure 1) and are some of the poorest people in Mozambique. Wooden, unmotorized canoes are the most common type of fishing vessel, and beach seining for small pelagic fish species is the most widespread gear type in the small-scale sector. Other traditional gears include line fishing, traps and cages, implying a high degree of sophistication (Gerdes, 1988). Some fishers have newer gear introduced in the 1980s, including gill nets, purse seines, longlines, and trolling equipment (Overballe et al., 1987). Due to the lack of preservation techniques for fish, fishing effort is reduced during the rainy season (December through March), when sun drying is impossible.  In Mozambique, women also contribute to fisheries through processing and controlling retail of fish. Women and children also collect intertidal organisms, such as the mudcrab (Syclla serrata), the blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus), and many other species of bivalves, mollusks, and shellfish (de Boer and Longamane, 1996; de Boer et al., 2000). This catch is eaten while the fish caught by men is sold.  In Mozambique, “the role of women fishers is as hidden as it is crucial” (Wynter, 1990, p. 35). The catch from women and children, as well as most of the small-scale finfish catch, has been absent from national statistics until recently (IIP, 2003, 2004).  Mozambique’s reports to FAO have systematically underreported actual catch due to their historic exclusion of small-scale fisheries catches (Charlier, 1994) and the lack of interest in this data expressed by FAO (Rudy van der Elst, ORI, pers. comm). Before independence, Portuguese data collectors focused entirely on the burgeoning industrial sector. This continued through independence and the civil war, as the industrial sector continued to grow (Nordic Fishery Project, 1985). After the war, government resources were understandably allocated to rebuilding basic infrastructure rather than resource monitoring.  Figure 1: Mozambique, East Africa, with its maritime provinces and EEZ. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  38 However, the 2003 Marine Fisheries Regulation of Mozambique dedicated resources to improve monitoring of the small-scale fisheries sector, which is reflected in recent government reports (e.g., Afonso, 2006). In 2004, for instance, the national fisheries division made great advances and reported a catch of 57,747 t for the small-scale sector, an 800% increase from the landings reported in 2002. However, even this appears to be an underestimate; the 2004 data were derived from sampling 115 of the larger fishing centers, while 543 fishing centers (admittedly smaller) were not monitored at all. Local extrapolations were made for these 115 centers but not extended nationwide (N. Faucher, IDPPE, pers. comm.). Likewise, in 2003, only 19 percent of total fishing centers were monitored (Afonso, 2006).   Table 1. Mozambican fisher, collector and human populations, and ratio of total fishers (fishers & collectors) to total population with sources and estimates. Reported Estimated Year fishers collectors Source Collectorsa Fishers & collectors Population (x 106) Ratio 1965 16,131 no data Herrick et al. (1969) 13,198 29,329 7,414 3.96 1979 38,883 no data Konigson et al. (1985) 32,086 70,969 11,329 6.26 1981 39,609 no data Debeauvais et al. (1990) 32,407 72,016 11,885 6.06 1982 42,300 no data Konigson et al. (1985) 34,609 76,909 12,097 6.35 1988 43,876 no data Debeauvais et al. (1990) 35,899 79,775 13,369 5.97 1995 49,045 47,378 IDPPE (1998) - 96,423 14,854 6.49 2002 69,359 48,888 IDPPE (2004) - 118,247 18,676 6.33 aBased on a 45% proportion of collectors to total fishers.  This situation of underreported catches is not unique to Mozambique or the Western Indian Ocean region as a whole (van der Elst et al., 2005, Chuenpadgee et al., 2006). The logic for reconstructing catches has been outlined previously (Pauly, 1998; Pauly and Zeller, 2003) and catches have been successfully reconstructed in other regions of the world (Zeller et al., 2006; Zeller et al., 2007). Here, we follow the basic concept and approach outlined by these studies to reconstruct historic fisheries catches for Mozambique.  Catch data by sector is presented as a time series from 1950-2004.  MATERIALS AND METHODS Today, the government of Mozambique considers the fishing fleet in three sectors: industrial (boats larger than 20m), semi-industrial (10-18m) and artisanal (<12m and shore-based). The two latter categories, semi-industrial and artisanal, are combined under the heading ‘small-scale’. For the purposes of the present study, the industry is considered in two categories: small-scale and industrial. The small-scale sector also includes collectors and divers, hereafter referred to simply as collectors.  Small-scale sector Using data from both published and gray literature sources as anchor points, time series data were reconstructed using interpolation and extrapolation. Hard data used to form these anchor points included fisher population data, national human census data, national reported catch data for 2003 and 2004, and estimates of catch per fisher. Estimates of fisher populations were available for a number of years (Table 1). The estimates available for years prior to 1995 excluded collectors and divers. Therefore, we took the average proportion of the collectors to total fishers for 1995 and 2002 (45%), and applied this average proportion to estimate collector populations for the earlier years (Table 1).  Rather than interpolating fisher populations between the seven different years of fisher population data, the ratio of fishers to the entire Mozambique population was determined for these seven years and interpolated so that population trends in the fishing sector mirrored those of the country as a whole. For the time series data of the Mozambique national population, census data were used, with interpolation for the intervening periods. Multiplying these ratios by the overall Mozambique population provided estimated data on the number of fishers and collectors for 1950-2004 (Figure 2).  Reliable data on small-scale catches were not available. A few unpublished reports attempted to provide estimates for the small-scale fleet for certain years (e.g., Krantz et al., 1986; Charlier, 1994) and places (see Paula e Silva et al. 1993 and references therein for Maputo Bay). However, these studies did not present their methods for estimation, nor did they appear to include the collector component in catch estimates.  National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  39 Therefore, the data that offered the least uncertainty were the 2003 and 2004 national catch data, which explicitly included estimated small-scale fisheries catches with a clearly described estimation method (IIP, 2003, 2004). The 2003 data included substantial coverage of three coastal provinces (Maputo, Sofala, and Zambezia) and 70% of two other coastal provinces (Nampula and Inhambane), but excluded the southern province of Gaza and the northern province of Cabo Delgado, which has the largest number of active boats and the second largest number of fishers (KPMG, 2006). This knowledge was combined with the 2002 fisher census, which provided fisher populations by province (IDPPE, 2004), and it was determined that, overall, only approximately 62% of total number of fishers were included in the national statistics (Table 2).  Table 2. Number of fishers by province and the proportion of fishers represented in national fisheries statistics data. Coastal province 2002 census of fishersa Percent representedb Number of fishers represented Number of fishers not represented Cabo Delgado 26,609 0 0 26,609 Nampula 39,585 70 27,710 11,876 Zambezia 14,151 100 14,151 0 Sofala 11,838 100 11,838 0 Inhambane 17,784 70 12,449 5,335 Gaza 1,497 0 0 1,497 Maputo 6,783 100 6,783 0 TOTAL 118,247 62 72,930 45,317 aIDPPE, 2004 bKPMG, 2006  Therefore, it was assumed that the reported catch for 2003 and 2004, of 67,074 and 57,747 t respectively, was caught by 62% of all coastal fishers. Assuming proportionality, we increased the reported catches for 2003 and 2004 by 38% to derive ‘100% estimates’ for these years.  This resulted in a reconstructed total catch of 108,184 and 93,140 t for 2003 and 2004, respectively. Based on these adjusted total small-scale catches and the associated fisher population, we derived estimated per fisher catch rates of 2.47 kg·fisher- 1·day-1 for 2003 and 2.09 kg·fisher-1·day-1 for 2004. Anecdotal historical evidence suggests that, due to additional fishing pressure from refugees, catch rates have declined since the start of the civil war in 1975 (Dutton and Zolho, 1990; Lopes and Gervasio, 1999. A peer-reviewed study on the small-scale fishery of Inhaca Island (part of the province of Maputo; Figure 1) presented data from fisher interviews and suggested that catch rates on the island have declined from 29 kg·fisher-1·day-1 to 11 kg·fisher-1·day-1 over the last 30 years (de Boer et al., 2001). This proportional decline of 38 percent was applied to the much lower 2003 national catch rate of 2.47 kg·fisher-1·day-1 (as Figure 2: Number of fishers, number of fishers and collectors, and human population, 1950- 2004. Reported data indicated by anchor points (•). National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  40 approximated above) back to the start of the civil war in 1975 so that the catch rate declined from an assumed 6.44 kg·fisher-1·day-1 in 1975 to the adjusted rate of 2.47 kg·fisher-1·day-1 in 2003 (based on national statistics).  To remain conservative (and, without access to any earlier information), the catch rate was assumed constant (6.44 kg·fisher-1·day-1) from 1950- 1974, prior to the war (Figure 3). These catch rates are conservative when compared to Zanzibar, Tanzania, where catch rates (including collectors) were estimated at 4.7 kg·fisher-1·day-1 (Jiddawi and Stanley, 1999). These derived annual catch rates were expanded to determine total small-scale catches using the fisher population time series.  Industrial sector Landings  Historically, more resources have been allocated to monitoring and reporting the fisheries catch by the industrial sector. As a result, gray literature reports indicating industrial catch (Table 3) were accepted as reported. However, the accuracy is questionable as a number of years obviously contain rounded numbers. For years when data was unavailable, catch estimates were estimated using linear interpolation between adjacent periods, as no obvious correlation exists between industrial sector catch development and human population of Mozambique.   Discards The increase in industrial shrimp fisheries in the 1970s meant a corresponding increase in by-catch (landed incidental catch) and discards (not landed). By-catch is likely underreported, while discards are entirely absent from the reported data series. Schultz (1997) found that, between 1993 and 1996, there was an annual by-catch between 21,000 and 29,000 t. In 1982, discards at sea in the shrimp industry were estimated at 15-20,000 t (Anon., 1982). This estimate is likely conservative, as Krantz et al. (1986) suggest that there was 40,000 t of incidental by-catch annually and that the vast majority of this was discarded at sea.  To estimate total discards, the conservative 1982 estimate of discards (15,000 t) was compared to the total shrimp catch that same year as reported by FAO (8,900 t). This ratio of discards to shrimp (1.69) was then applied to the time series of reported shrimp catch to produce a time series of discards (Table 4).  Table 3. Industrial sector catch estimates and sources, 1955-2003. Year Catch estimate (t) Source 1955-1960 3,300-3,900 a Krantz et al. (1986) 1961-1975 3,285-15,655b DNP (1976) 1981 24,650 Konigson et al. (1985) 1982 20,000 SIDA (1982) 1985 49,100 Gerboval et al. (1994) 1986 51,610 Gerboval et al. (1994) 1987 48,050 Gerboval et al. (1994) 1990 33,436 Gerboval et al. (1994) 1994 23,229 Charlier (1994) 2003 22,037 Tembe (2004) a1955 catch was 3,300 t; 1960 catch was 3,900 t; b1961 catch was 3,285 t; 1974 catch was 15,655 t. Table 4. Decadal industrial shrimp catch and estimated discards, 1950-2000. Year Catch (t)a Discards (t)b 1950 0 0 1960 400 674 1970 800 1,348 1980 11,700 19,718 1990 10,539 17,761 2000 11,195 18,867 aFAO FishStat;   bBased on 15,000 t of discards for the early 1980s (Anon., 1982), or a ratio of 1.69 t discarded per t of shrimp. Figure 3. Catch per fisher, 1950-2004; catch rate declines with the start of the civil war in 1976. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  41 RESULTS The catch rate data combined with the fisher population data yielded the reconstructed time series of small-scale catch for 1950-2004, which is presented with reconstructions of industrial catch and discards for the same years (Figure 4, Table 5). The trend of production over time is consistent with the catch rate assumptions made for the small-scale sector and the use of the industrial sector for foreign exchange to finance the civil war; both the small-scale and the industrial sector’s production peaked in the 1980s.  The time series data also show the magnitude of small-scale production. In terms of tonnage, the small- scale sector lands six times more than the industrial sector. Excluding freshwater catches, and assuming that the entire small-scale catch was consumed within Mozambique (and ignoring imports and exports of the industrial catch), the average per capita consumption over the 55-years was 9.6 kg·person-1·year-1. From 2000-2004, fish consumption is estimated between 4.8 and 6.7 kg·person-1·year-1.  The total reconstructed catch (small-scale and industrial combined) is presented for the same years and compared with the FAO reported data (Figure 5). The reconstructed catch is, overall, 550% larger than that reported by FAO. Since 2000, the FAO has reported catches between 24,000 and 32,000 t, while the present study suggests catches between 115,000 and 140,000 t for the same time period.  DISCUSSION Although there is a large degree of uncertainty associated with our estimates, total catch estimates for recent years of 115,000 to 140,000 t·year-1 are comparable to the estimate presented in the FAO country profile for Mozambique of 100,000 to 120,000 t·year-1 (Afonso, 2006), and used, e.g., in Chuenpagdee et al. (2006). However, our estimates diverge from those for earlier years. For instance, in 1990, Tembe (1991) estimated a catch of 102,000 t (without explicitly describing the methods) while our reconstruction yields 163,190 t for the same year.  Nevertheless, our reconstructed data illustrates the most likely historical trends for Mozambique over the last 50 plus years. Furthermore, the postulations made here are likely closer to the truth than the alternative of assuming that no data means no catch.  Figure 4. Catch reconstructions for the small-scale sector, industrial sector, and estimates of total industrial catch including discards, 1950-2004. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  42  Table 5. Time series of marine fisheries catches (t) for Mozambique by industrial sector, industrial discards, small-scale sector and total, 1950-2004. Year Industrial Discards Small-scale Total 1950 3,300 0 51,627 54,927 1951 3,300 0 52,005 55,305 1952 3,300 0 52,760 56,060 1953 3,300 0 53,516 56,816 1954 3,300 0 54,272 57,572 1955 3,300 0 55,027 58,327 1956 3,300 0 55,783 59,083 1957 4,100 0 56,538 60,638 1958 4,100 843 57,294 61,394 1959 4,700 674 58,050 62,750 1960 3,900 674 59,309 63,209 1961 3,285 843 60,785 64,070 1962 3,256 674 62,262 65,518 1963 3,425 843 63,738 67,163 1964 4,428 674 65,214 69,642 1965 4,181 1,011 66,690 70,871 1966 5,347 1,685 71,007 76,354 1967 5,047 1,685 75,447 80,494 1968 5,707 1,517 80,010 85,717 1969 7,028 1,348 84,696 91,724 1970 7,634 1,348 89,505 97,139 1971 10,423 4,045 96,459 106,882 1972 10,413 4,382 103,671 114,084 1973 13,338 5,393 111,141 124,479 1974 15,655 9,842 118,869 134,524 1975 11,486 7,483 126,854 138,340 1976 13,680 10,954 132,182 145,862 1977 15,874 8,427 133,584 149,458 1978 18,068 8,089 138,643 156,711 1979 20,262 8,427 147,445 167,707 1980 22,456 19,718 145,907 168,363 1981 24,650 19,212 142,553 167,203 1982 20,000 15,000 148,465 168,465 1983 29,700 14,269 145,720 175,420 1984 39,400 9,854 142,871 182,271 1985 49,100 10,349 139,921 189,021 1986 51,610 20,220 136,875 188,485 1987 48,050 19,111 133,738 181,788 1988 43,179 20,785 130,512 173,691 1989 38,307 16,610 130,221 168,528 1990 33,436 17,761 129,754 163,190 1991 30,884 18,958 129,108 159,992 1992 28,333 16,883 128,277 156,609 1993 25,781 18,521 127,256 153,037 1994 23,229 17,055 126,042 149,271 1995 23,097 17,950 124,630 147,726 1996 22,964 16,775 121,182 144,147 1997 22,832 19,103 117,622 140,454 1998 22,699 17,596 118,847 141,546 1999 22,567 17,556 119,508 142,075 2000 22,434 18,867 119,613 142,047 2001 22,302 18,773 116,042 138,344 2002 22,169 18,392 112,224 134,394 2003 22,037 25,219 108,184 130,221 2004 21,905 22,575 93,140 115,045  National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  43  Summed for 1950-2004, reconstructed fisheries data suggested a 5.5-fold difference between reconstructed estimates and the statistics reported by FAO, itself based on country reports. These findings fall within the calculations van der Elst et al. (2005) made based on Ardill and Sanders (1991), which concluded that the level of non-reporting to the FAO was around 70%  (a range of 22-96%) for artisanal fisheries the Western Indian Ocean.  Furthermore, these findings are consistent with findings by other catch reconstruction efforts. For America Samoa, for instance, catch reconstructions yielded a 17-fold difference (Zeller et al., 2006), while for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands catch reconstructions yielded a smaller, 2.2-fold difference (Zeller et al., 2007). However, in both of these cases, maximum absolute catches were less than 800 t, which is very small compared to those of Mozambique, where maximum small-scale catch was nearly 150,000 t (in the late 1970s/early 1980s). The findings from Mozambique thus reinforce what Pauly and Zeller (2003) emphasize: there is a need to complement FAO data and incorporate previously ignored catches, even if these are based on approximations and assumptions. Small-scale fisheries Based on the small-scale catch estimates derived here, catches produced by this sector appear substantial and, on average, account for 87% of total marine catch. This is comparable to other African countries with large small-scale fleets, such as Ghana, where the small-scale sector produces at least 70% of total catch (Jacquet and Alder, 2006). The systematic underestimation of small-scale catches in Mozambique has been recognized repeatedly (e.g., Herrick et al., 1969; Charlier, 1994; Gillet, 1995). Though other studies provide anecdotes and occasional catch estimates to emphasize the importance of the small-scale sector, the present study provides the first comprehensive countrywide small-scale catch estimates to quantitatively support these accounts from 1950 to the present. Spence (1963) regarded fishing in Mozambique as “hardly deserving of the title ‘industry’,” though he recognized fishing as important for food and livelihoods for Mozambique’s coastal population. It is likely that fishing was indeed important and even substantial—contributing, according to the present study estimates, roughly 64,000 t to the food supply in the early 1960s.  Figure 5. Total reconstructed catch (small-scale and industrial combined, excluding discards) compared with FAO reported catch, 1950-2004. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  44 Even now, inshore resources are important to coastal people living marginal existences.  Although the civil war has ended, Mozambique is still considered in the top 20 percent of poorest countries (UNDP, 2005). The vast majority of Mozambique’s rural poor still lives on less than US$1 per day.  Furthermore, Mozambican fishers and their households are the most disadvantaged of the rural poor2. The high level of poverty among fishers, combined with the reconstructed estimates, suggests that fish is a more important part of food security than was otherwise perceived. Previous per capita consumption estimates, based on poor data, were unreliable and vastly underestimated true consumption.  For example, the World Resources Institute reports annual per capita fish consumption as 3 kg for Mozambique but 8 kg for sub-Saharan Africa as a whole3. These numbers, however, seem a better indication of poor statistics than fish consumption rates. Using the reconstructed time series data, average countrywide per capita consumption over the 55-year period appears in the order of 9.6 kg·person-1·year-1. The national fisheries division of Mozambique estimates consumption at around 7.5 kg·person-1·year-1 for recent years (Afonso, 2006), while our estimates yield roughly 6 kg·person-1·year-1 since 2000. This suggests that the present reconstructed estimates might be conservative, or, more likely, that imports and freshwater catches (excluded by the present reconstruction) make up the remaining quantity. Either way, fish is a more important component to food security than is indicated by the FAO statistics.  Recently, improvements to monitoring the small-scale sector have been undertaken. Surprisingly, these data appear not to have been incorporated into the FAO FishStat database. In 2005, FishStat reported total marine captures at 78,129 t for 2003, which appeared to reflect the improvements in small-scale data collection. But in a later iteration of the database, the 2003 capture data had been changed and total marine captures were reported as 32,985 t.  Aside from lack of data, there is concern about the population growth in the fishing sector. The 2002 fisher census shows 69,359 canoe fishers along the coast, more than four times the fishers reported in 1965. Linked with population pressure is the decline in catch rates and other indications of overexploitation. Examination of historical shell middens also shows that mean shell size has decreased due to exploitation by collectors and that, in the past, piscivorous or omnivorous fishes, such as kingfishes, rays, grunts and snappers, were more abundant (de Boer et al., 2001). Another regional study shows that on average, some species of fish (e.g., Siganus sutor) have gotten smaller (Kristiansen et al., 1995).  The widespread use of very fine-meshed mosquito nets for beach seining is highly destructive. Mosquito nets capture high rates of juvenile fish that escape larger-meshed seine nets and, in Mozambique, have caused a reduction in catches (Lopes and Gervasio, 1999). Combined, population pressure and fishing practices suggest that ‘Malthusian overfishing’ (Pauly, 1997) is occurring in Mozambique. Though there is management in place to address some of these concerns, lack of human resources is but one of the barriers to proper enforcement.  However, over the last ten years, due to political stabilization and the creation of an autonomous ministry for fisheries management, the number of areas under management and level of enforcement has increased significantly (Afonso, 2006). Industrial fisheries From the mid-1960s through the 1980s, the government of Mozambique encouraged industrial fishing for shrimp as a means to increase revenue through exchange earnings (see contributions in Pauly, 1992). Predictably, industrial catches peaked during this decade of technological innovation and financial need, as it did in many other countries around the world. While the trend for industrial catches is likely correct, the data presented are conservative estimates. As shrimp fishing increased, so, too, did discards at sea.  According to our results, aggregated from 1950- 2004, the amount of total discards was estimated at 500,000 t.  It should also be noted that the discards sampled in the 1982 study were comprised mostly of demersal species (65%) followed by small pelagics (35%) and sharks and rays (5%) (Anon., 1982), and many of the discarded species overlap with the species caught by small-scale fishers. These points are disconcerting in a country so reliant on small-scale fisheries for food security. Some attempts were made in the early 1990s to equip small-scale fishing vessels with motors so that they could recover some of the by-catch directly from the trawlers (SEP, 1994), but these efforts have had little effect.                                                   2 International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Rural poverty in Mozambique.  www.ruralpovertyportal.org/english/regions/africa/moz/index.htm [Accessed October 31, 2006].  3 World Resources Institute (WRI). Costal and Marine Ecosystems-Mozambique. http://earthtrends.wri.org/pdf_library/country_profiles/wat_cou_508.pdf [Accessed November 11, 2006]. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  45 During the colonial period, sport fishing for gamefish such as marlins, particularly by South African tourists, was very popular (Herrick et al., 1969), but historical data for these fisheries are not available. More recently, the government has begun collecting data for sport fishing, which increased drastically after the civil war ended, but there is little monitoring or control of this activity (Afonso, 2006).  Neither were catch data available from the collection of ornamental fish, which has become prevalent in Mozambique since the moratorium on the collection of ornamental fish for commercial purposes ended in 2001 (Whittington et al., 2000). Overall, while the value of these fisheries sectors may be substantial, the tonnage is likely low.  Similarly, the time series data presented do not include industrial catches by foreign vessels, such as Japanese, South African, French, Soviet, and Spanish fishing vessels, which fished the waters off Mozambique heavily in the early 1970s prior to the declaration of Exclusive Economic Zones (Chingono, 1996). Access agreements have subsequently been made. In 1994, there were 118 industrial fishing boats, only 48 of which were registered nationally (Gillett, 1995). However, the reported data are relatively small (e.g., 2,528 t from Romania in 1984)4 and are often reported by the nations doing the fishing (vessel flag state) rather than Mozambique, as is the case with swordfishes and other Indo-Pacific billfishes (IOTC, 2006). Nor do the official data include fishing by pirate fishing vessels, which is thought to have occurred extensively since the 1970s in the largely unmonitored waters of Mozambique. Thus, the industrial catch estimates exclude sport fishing, ornamental fish collection, and a likely substantial amount of pirate fishing by foreign vessels.  The present study provides a historical look at the small-scale and industrial fishing sectors of Mozambique by reconstructing each sector’s catches.  The result is a reminder that the small-scale sector does not necessarily yield small catches. Furthermore, the small-scale sector supplies a high protein calorie source to poor rural populations. Yet, this sector has been largely ignored in the past, both in terms of statistics and management, in favor of the industrial sector, which generates foreign exchange earnings. But, as the small-scale sector directly competes with the industrial sector, which incidentally catches substantial amounts of small pelagic fishes, the two cannot be considered separately. Mozambique will have to decide how to balance foreign exchange and commerce with nutritional needs and rural livelihoods in the face of increasing pressure from global markets.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, for funding the Sea Around Us Project, and WWF-US and WWF-International for their financial support of the present study. The authors thank R. van der Elst, Director of the Oceanographic Research Institute (ORI) in South Africa, for his comments on an earlier draft of this report. They also thank H. Fox, H. Motta, P. Afonso, and N. Faucher and their respective institutions (WWF, IIP, IDPPE) and M. Falco and R. Silva for help with data mining. Thank you also to J. Alder for help with the figures. Finally, thank you to D. Pauly for his insights regarding early results.  REFERENCES Afonso, P.S. (2006) Country review: Mozambique. p. 415-423 In De Young, C., (ed.) Review of the state of the world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 488, Rome. Andersson, H. (1992) Mozambique: A war against the people. MacMillan Press London, 191 p.  Anon. (1920) Mozambique. H.M. Stationary Office, London, 109 p.  Anon. (1982) Fishery Sector Study, Mozambique. Report of the Nordic/FAO evaluation mission, Goterborg, 39 p. Anon. (1984) Mozambique: a country study. American University, Washington D.C., 342 p.  Anon. (1985) Nordic Fishery Project, Rehabilitation and Development of Coastal and Inland Artisanal Fisheries in Mocambique. NSBF-MOC 85/8, Report from annual consultation, 83p. Ardill, J.D. and Sanders, M.J. (1991) FAO Fisheries Report No. 457. Proceedings of the seminar to identify priorities for fishereries management and development in the southwest Indian Ocean, Albion, Maritius, 3-5 September, 1991. . FAO, Rome, 196p. Azevedo, M.J. (2002) Tragedy and Triumph: Mozambique Refugees in Southern Africa, 1977-2001. Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH, 221 p.  Charlier, P. (1994) Development of a Data Collection System for the Small Scale Fisheries in Mozambique. Report prepared for the project MOZ/93/002, FAO 68 p.                                                  4 Sea Around Us Project (SAUP) www.seaaroundus.org [Accessed March 20, 2007] National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  46 Chingono, M.F. (1996) The state, violence, and development: the political economy of war in Mozambique, 1975-1992. Avebury, Aldershot, 291 p.  Chuenpagdee, R., Liguori, L., Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (2006) Bottom-up, Global Estimates of Small-Scale Marine Fisheries Catches. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 14(8). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 105 pp.  Davidchick, M.D. and Mahoney, R.B. (1979) Soviet civil fleets and the Third World. p. 317-335 In Dismukes, B. and McConnell, J., (eds.), Soviet naval diplomacy. Pergamon for the Centre of Naval Analyses, an affiliate of the University of Rochester, New York. de Boer, W.F. (2000) Between the Tides: The Impact of Human Exploitation on an Intertidal Ecosystem, Mozambique. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Groningen, Veenendaal, The Netherlands 268 p. de Boer, W.F. and Longamane, F.A. (1996) The exploitation of intertidal food resources in Inhaca Bay, Mozambique by shorebirds and humans. Biological Conservation 78: 295-303. de Boer, W.F., Pereira, T. and Guissamulo, A. (2000) Comparing recent and abandoned shell middens to detect the impact of human exploitation on the intertidal ecosystem. Aquatic Ecology 34: 287-297. de Boer, W.F., van Schie, A.M.P., Jocene, D.F., Mabote, A.B.P. and Guissamulo, A. (2001) The impact of artisanal fishery on tropical intertidal benthic fish community. Environmental Biology of Fishes 61: 213-229. Debeauvais, R., Vanclare, C., Campbell, J. and Roullot, C. (1990) Etude du Secteur de la Peche a Petite Echelle au Mozambique. CEASM, Paris, 152 p. DNP (1976) Estadisticas Basicas de Pescas de Mocambique 1961-1975. Direccao Nacional de Pescas, Maputo, 38 p. Dutton, T.P. and Zolho, R. (1990) Conservation Master Plan for Sustainable Development of the Bazaruto Archipelago. WWF, Maputo, 90 p. Ehnmark, A. and Wastberg, P. (1963) Angola and Mozambique: The case against Portugal. Pall Mall Press, London and Dunmow, 176 p.  Gerdes, P. (1988) On culture, geometrical thinking and mathematics education. Educational Studies in Mathematics 19:137-162. Greboval, D., Bellemans, M. and Fryd, M. (1994) Fisheries characteristics of the shared lakes of the East African rift. FAO, Rome, 81 p. Gillet, R. (1995) Pilot Study on Marine Rish Resources for Artisanal Fisheries: Mozambique. TCP/MOZ/4451, FAO, Rome. Herrick, A.B., Bastos, A., Eisele, F.R., Harrison, S.A., John, H.J. and Wieland, T.K. (1969) Area handbook for Mozambique. American University, Washington, D.C., 351 p.  IDPPE (1998) Censo Nacional da Pesca Artesanal Aguas Maritimas (1995). IDPPE, Maputo. IDPPE (2004) Censo Nacional da Pesca Artesanal Aguas Maritimas (2002). IDPPE, Maputo, 76 p. IIP (2003) Relatorio Anual 2003. Instituto Nacional de Investigacao Pesqueira, Maputo. IIP (2004) Relatorio Anual 2004. Instituto Nacional de Investigacao Pesqueira, Maputo. Instituto de Investigacao Pesqueira, I. (1995) Future Cooperation Between Mozambique and South Africa in the Conservation and Management of Marine Resources. in 1st International Marine Workshop, Maputo. IOTC (2006) Report of the Fifth Session of the IOTC Working Party on Billfish. Indian Ocean Tuna Commission, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 27-31 March, 2006, 28p. Jacquet, J. and Alder, J. (2006) Golden coast--tarnished sea. Sea Around Us Project Newlsetter March/April. Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D. (1999) A study of the artisanal fishery landings in the villages of Matemwe and Mkokotoni, Zanzibar. p. 48-72 In Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., (eds.), Fisheries Stock Assessment in the Traditional Fishery Sector: The Information Needs. CIDA, Zanzibar. Konigson, L., Gronlund, B. and Hultsbo, S. (1985) Small scale fishing boats for Mozambique. SIDA, Gothenburg, Sweden, p. 201. KPMG (2006) A statistical information system to measure the development of living standards of the artesanal fishing communities (draft report). KPMG, Maputo, 68 p. Krantz, L., Sorensen, N.K., Olesen, J. and Kotalova, J. (1986) Nordic Support to the Fisheries in Mozambique: A Sector Study. National Swedish Board of Fisheries, Gothenburg, 182 p. Kristiansen, A. and Lopes, S. (1997) The Socio-economic Situation in the Area of the Artisanal Fisheries Project in Nampula Province. IDPPE, Maputo, 36 p. Kristiansen, A., Poiosse, E., Machava, M., Santana, P. and Meisford, J. (1995) Study of co-management systems in the beach seine fisheries in Inhassoro, Inhambane Province, Mozambique. Relatorio da viagem a Inhassoro de 30 de Janeiro a 17 de Fevereiro 1995. Lopes, S. and Gervasio, H. (1999) Co-Management of Artisanal Fisheries in Mozambique: A Case Study of Kwirikwidge Fishing Community in Angoche District, Nampula Province.  International Workshop on Fisheries Co-management. Penang, Malaysia, 29 p. Accessible online at http://hdl.handle.net/1834/752 [Accessed October 26, 2006]. Lopes, S., Poiosse, E. and Mussa, A. (1996) Study Concerning the Impact of the By-Catch Project. IDPPE, Maputo, 35 p. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  47 Newitt, M. (1995) A History of Mozambique. Hurst & Company, London, 676 p.  Overballe, H., Bage, H. and Sorensson, K. (1987) Support to Artisanal Boatbuilding in Mozambique. National Swedish Board of Fisheries, Gothenburg, 39 p. Paula e Silva, R., Sousa, M.I. and Caramelo, A.M. (1993). The Maputo bay ecosystem (Mozambique). p. 214-223 In Christensen, V. and Pauly, D. (eds.), Trophic Models of Aquatic Ecosystems. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 26, Manila. Pauly, D. (Editor). (1992). Population dynamics of exploited fishes and crustaceans in Mozambique: contributions from a course on the “Use of Computers for Fisheries Research”, held at the Instituto de Investigaçao Pesqueira, 23 February to 15 March 1988 in Maputo, Mozambique. Revista de Investigação. Pesqueira. (21), 135 p. Pauly, D. (1997) Small-scale fisheries in the tropics: marginality, marginalization, and some implications for fisheries management. p. 40-49 In Pikitch, E., Huppert, D. and Sissenwine, M., (eds.), Global Trends: Fisheries Management. American Fisheries Society Symposium, Bethesda, MD. Pauly, D. (1998) Rationale for reconstructing catch time series. EC Fisheries Cooperation Bulletin 11: 4-7. Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. and Torres, F. (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279: 860-863. Pauly, D. and Zeller, D. (2003) The global fisheries crisis as a rationale for improving the FAO's database of fisheries statistics. p. 8- 16 In Zeller, D., Booth, S., Mohammed, E. and Pauly, D., (eds.), From Mexico to Brazil: Central Atlantic fisheries catch trends and ecosystem models. Fisheries Centre Research Report, UBC Fisheries Centre, Vancouver. Pinstrup-Andersen, P., Pandya-Lorch, R. and Rosegrant, M. (1999) World Food Prospects: Critical Issues for the Early Twenty-First Century. International Food and Policy Research Institute, Washington, D.C. SEP (1994) Appraisal report for the artisanal sector for the formulation of the masterplan. 53980, State Secretariat of Fisheries, Republic of Mozambique, Maputo, 44 p. Schultz, N. (1997) Capturas da fauna acompanante na pescara industrial de camarao no banco Sofala de 1993 a 1996. Instituto Nacional de Investigação Pesqueira 23 p. Spence, C.F. (1963) Moçambique, East African Province of Portugal. Bailey Bros. & Swinfen, London, 147 p.  Tembe, H.L.A. (1991) Review of the Marine Fisheries Subsector for Mozambique. p. 109-136 In Ardill, J.D. and Sanders, M.J., (eds.), Proceedings of the seminar to identify priorities for fishereries management and development in the southwest Indian Ocean, Albion, Maritius, 3-5 September, 1991. FAO Fisheries Report No. 457. FAO, Rome. UNDP (2005) Human Development Report: International cooperation at a crossroads. United Nations Development Programme, New York, 372 p. van der Elst, R., Everett, B., Jiddawi, N.S., Mwatha, G., Santana-Afonso, P. and Boulle, D. (2005) Fish, fishers and fisheries of the Western Inidan Ocean: their diversity and status. A preliminary assessment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 363: 263-284. Ward, M. (2004) Quantifying the world. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 326 p.  Whittington, M., Pereira, M., Gonçlaves, M. and Costa, A. (2000) An Investigation of the Ornamental Fish Trade in Mozambique. MICOA, Maputo, 24 p. Wynter, P. (1990) Property, women fishers and struggle for women's rights in Mozambique. Sage 7: 33-37. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. and Pauly, D. (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25: 14-152. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fisheries catches for the U.S. flag-associated island areas in the Western Pacific: The last 50 years. Fishery Bulletin 105(2):266-277. National conflict and fisheries: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches for Mozambique, Jacquet & Zeller  48        Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  49 PUTTING THE ‘UNITED’ IN THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA: RECONSTRUCTING MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES1  Jennifer L. Jacquet and Dirk Zeller The Sea Around Us Project, The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 j.jacquet@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.zeller@fisheries.ubc.ca  ABSTRACT This study reconstructs marine fisheries catches from 1950-2005 for the United Republic of Tanzania, comprised of mainland Tanganyika and several offshore islands, two of which make up the region of Zanzibar. For unknown reasons, Zanzibar’s recorded fisheries data are absent from the marine fisheries landings reported by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on behalf of Tanzania. Furthermore, the mainland fisheries catches were likely at least one-third larger than those reported by the official data, due to incomplete country-wide expansion of locally sub-sampled catches. Since 2000, Tanzanian mainland fishers have likely caught around 70,000 tonnes annually, while Zanzibar catch estimates are around 25,000 tonnes per year. Overall, the United Republic of Tanzania has likely caught nearly 100,000 tonnes of marine fish per annum in recent years and total marine fisheries catches are likely 1.7 times greater than those presented by the FAO. These findings support broader research in the Western Indian Ocean that found historic FAO data to reflect about half of the real total catch in the region. These findings also call into question current understanding of fisheries stock exploitation in Tanzania and the recent decision by the Tanzanian government to commence export of marine finfish. INTRODUCTION Historical Perspective Tanzania, located in East Africa, has a mainland coastline of approximately 800 km and three large offshore islands: Mafia, Pemba, and the island of Zanzibar, around which much inshore fishing is concentrated (Mngulwi, 2006). Pemba and the island of Zanzibar form the region of Zanzibar. In the past, the mainland (called Tanganyika) and Zanzibar were separate entities. Both Tanganyika and Zanzibar fell under German colonial control in 1886 and then to the British in 1920, after WWI. Tanganyika gained independence in 1961 and Zanzibar followed two years later. In 1964, the two countries merged as the United Republic of Tanzania (Figure 1). Lake Victoria has been the primary center of fishing, due partially to the fact that freshwater fishing is less capital intensive than marine fishing (Bagachwa et al., 1994). Thus, most fisheries reports concentrate on freshwater catches (Anon., 1978). But subsistence marine fisheries have long provided protein for Tanzanian coastal and island communities (Anon., 1920).  Prior to independence, fishers fished for small pelagic                                                  1 Cite as: Jacquet, J.L. and Zeller, D. 2007. Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches. p. 49-60. In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key  countries and regions (1950- 2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].  Figure 1: Tanzania, East Africa, and its three large offshore islands. Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  50 and demersal species using nets, traps, and hook and line. Women used a piece of sacking or a discarded khanga (printed cotton material worn as clothing) to catch prawns in the shallows (Wenban-Smith, 1965). Women and children also collected invertebrates. Fishing using ichthiotoxic plants and sea cucumbers was also common during the late 19th century (Stubbings, 1945). Wads of plants covered in the poison were thrown into estuaries where they stunned many fish that were then caught at the mouth of the river with a net. Legislation made fish poison illegal and, by the end of first half of the 20th century, the practice was less common (Alexander, 1964). The seafood trade in Tanzanian waters also has a long history. The export of fish and fisheries products from Zanzibar, for instance, dates back to the 13th century when Persians, Arabs, and Indians traded dried salted fish (particularly kingfish), shells, shark fins, and later, sea cucumber (Mgawe, 2005).  During the colonial period (1880s-1960s), sportfishing became increasingly common in Tanzanian waters (Hatchell, 1940). At independence, commercial fishing began with the introduction of the purse seine in the Zanzibar channel for small pelagics, i.e., sardines, scads, mackerel, and anchovies (Nhwani, 1981). After independence, the new Tanzanian government practiced an African socialist policy and, under this regime, implemented a ban on the export of marine finfish to protect food security (Anderson and Ngatunga, 2005), though the ban does not seem to apply to Zanzibar (Jiddawi, 2000).  Despite its nominally socialist policies, Tanzania allowed a large amount of foreign investment, including the introduction of shrimp trawling—a practice that, given the amount of wasted fish produced by trawling, seems ironic in light of the export ban on marine finfish. However, the export of shrimp was allowed and began to grow. In the mid 1960s, a Japanese company and the Tanzanian government formed a shrimp company, though the Japanese left in 1975 (Bwathondi and Mwaya, 1984) and the fleet was nationalized. With the rise of the shrimp fishery there was a great deal of bycatch, as much of 94 percent in the 1980s, though it is difficult to determine how much of this was retained and how much discarded (Nanyaro, 1984). It was reported that, in the 1980s and 1990s, the dumping of finfish discards was so great that it was polluting inshore waters. This waste was later addressed by improved enforcement and much of the bycatch is now sold onshore to local markets or processing facilities (Shao et al., 2003).  A number of commercial cooperatives operated through the 1980s, including the Zanzibar Fishing Company (ZAFICO), the Bagamoyo Fishing Company (BAFICO), and the Tanzania Fishing Company (TAFICO) (Ngoile, 1982; Nanyaro, 1984). After trade liberalization began in 1985, a number of small-scale entrepreneurs as well as commercial and foreign trawlers became involved in the fishing sector and, in some cases, tripled fishing effort (Bakari and Andersson, 1999). In the 1980s, a market developed for the export of live aquaria fish (Mongi, 1991). In the early 1990s, Tanzania signed access agreements and allowed the EU to catch 7000 t of tuna annually (Mongi, 1991).  In the mid-1990s, tourism grew and so did demand for fresh fish and shellfish. On the mainland, the number of tourists increased from 82,000 in 1985 to 341,000 in 1996 (Coughanowr et al., 1995; Bakari and Andersson, 1999), which was reflected in the Tanzanian lobster fishery. In 1968, there were 22 permits issued for fishing crustaceans (Anon., 1988). By 1987, there were 415 boats fishing lobster, which far exceeded the upper limits of the effort recommended for the fishery. In 1988, the lobster catch in Tanzania peaked.  Since then, the average size of lobster has decreased (Bakari and Andersson, 1999).  In the 1990s, tourism also developed rapidly in Zanzibar. With the increase in tourism came an increase in demand for high-quality fresh fish. Tourist hotels offer good markets for fresh fish and prawns and hotel representatives now attend the fish auction in Kigomani, Zanzibar (Richmond, 1999). Tourism also increased demand for marine curios, such as shark jaws, shark teeth, and shells (Jiddawi, 2000; Shao et al., 2003). Roughly 150 species of shells are collected by fishers for food or sold as curios (Jiddawi and Öhman, 2002). The most sought after shells by tourists are Horned Helmut shell, Triton trumpet shell, and Mauritian cowry. A shell survey done in the market in Dar es Salaam in 1998 found 112 species on sale with a total of 22,659 specimens. Seven years later, only 87 species were available on the market though there were 39,259 specimens. The number of Red Helmut shells (Cypraecassis rufa) in the market declined by 55 percent over the same time period (Sabel, 2005).  Tanzanian Small-scale Fisheries Today In many ways, small-scale fisheries resemble those from a century ago. Small-scale fishing takes place almost exclusively in the nearshore waters of 40 m depth or less (UNEP, 2001) by means of outrigger canoes and dhow-type planked boats, mostly propelled by sails (Mngulwi, 2006). Dhows are still caulked with shark oil. Fishers use lines, traps, and nets to catch demersals, purse seines and scoop nets to catch small pelagics, and longlines, drift nets, gillnets, and shark nets to catch large pelagics. Like most small-Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  51 scale fishing in the tropics, many species are caught and almost nothing is discarded. In Zanzibar, fishers from the villages exploit at least 61 families of fish (Jiddawi and Stanley, 1999).  Women and children still harvest shellfish, octopus, squid, crabs, sea cucumbers, and mollusks in the intertidal zone and mangrove areas using their hands, hooks, and natural and synthetic poisons (Semesi and Ngoile, 1993; Guard et al., 2000; Silva, 2006). Women also beach seine for very small shrimp, which is quite profitable.  According to the 2005 fisheries frame survey, there are 29,754 fishers, 796 collectors, and 7190 boats on the Tanzanian mainland. No such survey has been conducted recently on Zanzibar, but it is estimated there are more than 23,000 fishers and collectors there (Jiddawi, 2000). There are more than 400 landing sites for the mainland and Zanzibar combined (Jiddawi and Muhando, 1990; Shao et al., 2003). The majority of fish is eaten fresh though some is dried, smoked, fried, and/or salted (Tobey and Torell, 2006). Like other small-scale fisheries of East Africa (van der Elst, 2003), Tanzanian fisheries are subject to little management, and destructive (and illegal) fishing practices are common, such as use of herbicides, pesticides, beach seines and dynamite (Haule and Kiwia, 1999; Othman, 1999; Verheij et al., 2004).   Dynamite fishing The most discussed form of destructive fishing in Tanzania is dynamite, which was introduced in Tanzania in the early 1960s (Haule and Kiwia, 1999). Dynamite tends to be used during specific times of year (holidays and the beginning of the school year) when households need extra cash (Silva, 2006). Dynamite fishing had immediate negative consequences in Tanzania since it destroys the habitat upon which fisheries depend. Coral cover in Tanzania has greatly diminished and Kenyan and Tanzanian reefs are the most severely damaged in East Africa (Obura et al., 2002). In East Africa as a whole, it is estimated that coral cover has decreased by half from 1997 to 2002 (Obura et al., 2002).  In the late 1960s, the reef adjacent to Tanga in northern Tanzania was described as some of Tanzania’s best. By 1987, an IUCN study showed the reef was extensively damaged. Fewer than 20 percent of the areas surveyed were covered in live coral. At Tanga, 12 percent of the 83 reef sites surveyed were completely destroyed by dynamite fishing (Guard et al., 2000). Though enforcement existed, the two Tanga District Fisheries Officers were caught taking bribes from dynamite fishers (Horrill and Makoloweka, 1998).  Even after dynamite was made illegal, frequent dynamite blasting occurred despite public protests (Bryceson, 1981). In some villages, there were complaints of intimidation from dynamiters and cases of brutality (Horrill and Makoloweka, 1998). In just two months in 1996, 441 dynamite blasts were recorded at Mnazi Bay, Mtwara (Darwall et al., 2000). In addition to the destruction of corals, the ease of use of dynamite also has the consequence of lost knowledge for future generations of fishers in terms of how to fish using traditional techniques (Darwall et al., 2000).  As late as 2002, the elimination of dynamite was still the main priority in southern Tanzania (Darwall et al., 2000) where dynamite fishing remained prolific along the coast (Bryceson, 1981; Andersson and Ngazi, 1995; Guard, 1999; Guard et al., 2000). Today, dynamite use has greatly declined because the punishment for its use includes a much more substantial fine and a minimum of three years in jail (Horrill and Makoloweka, 1998; Guard et al., 2000). In some areas, there are signs of recovery and coral cover is increasing, while sea urchin densities, a sign of disturbance, are decreasing (Verheij et al., 2004).  Unfortunately, many young men who used dynamite turned to the illegal practice of coral mining, instead (Luhikula, 1998). Mining for coral for construction materials, particularly on Mafia Island, has also been highly damaging to fish and coral populations (Andersson and Ngazi, 1995; Dulvy et al., 1995; Guard et al., 2000). On mined sites, fish abundance was 42 percent lower and fish diversity 24 percent lower than on un-mined sites. On average, coral cover was reduced 70 percent (Dulvy et al., 1995).  Data: Collection, Reporting, and Underreporting According to official data in recent years, total reported fish catches in Tanzania are estimated between 300-400,000 t annually, of which marine catches account for only approximately 50,000 t (Mgawe, 2005). According to the national data, small-scale fisheries contribute more than 96 percent of total marine catches (Fisheries Division, 2005). However, the collection of accurate marine fisheries statistics has long been considered difficult or near impossible (Anon., 1988). Also, many records from the colonial era were also lost.  Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  52 The newly independent government began the collection of fisheries statistics in Tanzania in the 1960s and chose several fishing villages to be monitored continually. Ideally, two recorders were stationed at each centre and recorded the weight and value by species of fish landed by every vessel. The monthly catches at each centre were meant to be extrapolated to the whole statistical area using a frame survey of the number of boats and gear types to obtain annual catch estimates (Nhwani, 1981).  During the 1970s, some improvements to data collection were made with the distribution of lists of species names and scales for each monitoring site (Nhwani, 1984). For instance, in 1975, the Government of Zanzibar ordered fish to be weighed so that fish would be sold by weight and consumers would receive fair prices (Othman, 1999) although weight was still visually estimated on Pemba until only recently (Othman, 1999). That same decade, the national government began decentralizing its power and one result was that there was little emphasis on monitoring fisheries in some regions (Nhwani, 1984).  In 1984, the Tanzanian national fisheries statistics office did not own even a simple calculator (Nhwani, 1984).  That same year, due to financial constraints in the Zanzibar fisheries office, the number of beach recorders was reduced from 38 to 8 on Pemba and these 8 recorders returned to the visual estimation procedure (Othman, 1999). In 1988, collection methods improved as fish recorders were added to the Zanzibar Fisheries Department (Jiddawi and Muhando, 1990).  Industrial data are also likely underreported since collection relied on reports from the fisheries companies, which were inconsistent and, for foreign vessels, entirely unreported (Nhwani, 1981). Tuna, swordfish, sea cucumber, and prawn fisheries greatly misrepresent their catch (Anderson and Ngatunga, 2005). Jiddawi and Ohman (2002) point out that shark fin traders give a figure that is more than double what is reported officially. Middlemen, particularly those in the Pemba octopus fishery, also provide misinformation (Othman, 1999)  More recent data are also insufficient, which is disclosed in FAO reports (Mongi, 1991) and the data from the small-scale fishery are particularly inadequate (Guard et al., 2000) as they omit the catch by collectors (often women and children) and often transfers at sea. Close analysis of FAO data reveals not only underreporting of Tanzanian data but also the omission entirely of Zanzibar from official statistics. This is likely due to the complexity of Tanzanian bureaucracy: Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar each have autonomous institutional and legal structures for managing fisheries, and thus have separate systems of reporting. Additionally, Zanzibar Fisheries Division must account for catch statistics on the islands of Unguja and Pemba, which further complicates reporting. This research aims to give a time series estimate of national fisheries catches from 1950-2005 for both mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.  MATERIALS AND METHODS Peer-reviewed publications on Tanzanian marine fisheries are rare - most reports center on Lake Victoria fisheries. The few reports that do exist are fairly recent.  Furthermore, because freshwater catches account for the majority of consumed fish nationwide, using consumption data to inform marine fisheries catch reconstructions was not possible. Though there may be anecdotes, there is often little scientific evidence to provide a view of fisheries 25 or more years ago. Jiddawi (2000) demonstrates this for Tanzania with a figure of fisheries publications through time: there were fewer than 5 fisheries research reports completed in 1900 while there were 120 reports written in 1990. Jiddawi and Stanley (1999), for instance, conducted the first comprehensive fisheries catches study in Zanzibar in the 1990s and provided “a first look at the relative status compared to other fisheries in the world.”   Data for the present reconstructions were thus mostly obtained through gray literature and tables produced by the Fisheries Division and other local institutions in Tanzania (e.g., TAFIRI, TCMP, TRAFFIC, WWF). The majority of these reports did not elaborate on the methodology behind the data presented. Frontier (www.frontier.ac.uk), a non-profit organization from Britain, has done regional studies on small-scale fishing since 1989 but was, unfortunately, unwilling to share data.   Zanzibar  For Zanzibar, fisheries catches were available from 1982-2005, with the exception of 1989, which was interpolated. For 1980 and 1981, the data appeared to represent only the catch from the island of Unguja. For 1980, we had reliable data for the number of fishers on Unguja and Pemba: 5884 and 7058 respectively (Table 1). Using the 1980 reported catch for the island of Zanzibar (3965 t) divided by the number of fishers (5884) we obtained a catch per fisher of 0.67 t·year-1. We multiplied this catch rate by Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  53 the 7058 fishers in Pemba to establish the Pemba catch: 4756 t for 1980. For 1981, we interpolated the number of fishers between frame surveys (1980 and 1985) and then repeated the steps used to determine the 1980 data to determine the 1981 catch data for Pemba, which gave us 6942 t for Pemba in 1981.   Aggregating the 1980 and 1981 data for the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar, we obtained catch estimates for Zanzibar as a whole from 1980-2005 for canoe fishers, but these did not include the catch by collectors. There were three years with reliable numbers of collectors on each island: 1980, 1985, 1989. We interpolated the number of collectors between these years to determine the number of collectors from 1980-1989 (Table 1).  A study from Matemwe, Zanzibar estimated catch rates for collectors to be 4.0 kg·collector-1 (Jiddawi and Stanley, 1999). At Matemwe, fishers go to sea 16-20 days per month, while in other parts of Zanzibar fishers go to sea as often as 25 days per month (N. Jiddawi, Institute of Marine Sciences, pers. comm.). For the purposes of this study, we assumed the catch rates from Matemwe to represent the average catch for collectors, likely conservative because catch rates, at least anecdotally, have declined. Thus, we assumed a catch rate for collectors to be 4.0 kg·collector-1 and an effort of 20 days per month (240 days each year). This rate and effort was multiplied by the time series of collectors (from 1980-1989) to obtain collector catches from 1980-1989.  Because 1989 was the last reliable data point for the number of collectors in Zanzibar, we used the ratio of collected fish to caught fish in 1989 (23:100) and used this ratio to obtain a time series of collected fish from 1990-2005 based on a constant proportion to reported fisheries catches.   From 1950-1980, we had only two data points for fisheries catches: catch estimates for 1975 (12,500 t) and 1959 (8500 t), which was presumed not to include collectors. We thus interpolated fisheries data from 1976-1979 and 1960-1974. From 1950-1958, we extrapolated the catch backward based on the linearly increasing catches interpolated annually from 1959-1975 (an increase of 250 t annually). Based on the ratio of collected fish to caught fish in 1980 (33:100), we assumed this constant ratio and determined the collected catch from 1950-1979. We aggregated the fished and collected estimated catch for a time series of Zanzibar marine fisheries catches from 1950-2005.  Mainland Tanzania For the Tanzanian mainland, we retained the estimated fisheries data reported by the FAO for the years 1950-1969, which were probably the best estimates we could obtain. In the absence of reliable number of fishers, consumption data, or catch rates for this time period, these data were likely ‘estimates’ given that they were round numbers in increments of hundreds.  For reasons mentioned above, the official marine catches for the Tanzania mainland from 1970-2005 that we obtained were likely underestimated. A new system of data collection practiced in Tanga (the northern- most province) and published in a peer-reviewed journal demonstrated catches were approximately 35 percent greater than previously believed (Verheij et al., 2004). Based on this regional study, we increased the 1970-2005 time series of marine fisheries catches for the entire mainland Tanzania by 35 percent. This is considered conservative (Martin Guard, Eco2 Dive- Centre2, pers. comm.), but there was no quantitative basis for adjusting the figures upwards.  Small-scale fishing accounts for at least 95 percent of the reported country data. Official reports show that small-scale fisheries produce almost half of shrimp (the primary industrial product) and that, overall, shrimp production is small according to data reported by FAO (1,200 t in the late 1980s to a peak of 2,800 t in 1998), particularly when compared to neighboring country of Mozambique (8,000-15,000 t since the 1980s). Thus, we have no way of gauging the degree to which industrial shrimp catches are underreported.                                                  2 Eco2, Ltd., PO Box 784, Mtwara, Tanzania, http://www.eco2.com/ Table 1. Number of fishers on the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, and number of collectors on both islands combined (Zanzibar total), 1980- 1989. Year No. of fishers (Zanzibar island) No. of fishers (Pemba island) Collectors (Zanzibar total) 1980 5,884a 7,058a 4,555a 1981 5,954  7,194  3,937  1982 6,024  7,330  3,319  1983 6,094  7,467  2,700  1984 6,164  7,603  2,082  1985 6,234b 7,739b 1,464b 1986 - - 1,679  1987 - - 1,894  1988 - - 2,108  1989 - - 2,323c a (Ngoile, 1982) b (Carrara, 1987) c (Mongi, 1991) Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  54 But given that industrial catches make up less than 5 percent of reported data, the 35 percent increase in the data overall may account (minimally) for discards by the shrimp industry.  But this time series of fisheries catches for 1950-2005 (which included a 35 percent increase in reported catches for the last 35 years) did not include collector data. The only years for which we had estimates of collectors were 2001 and 2005, which, though they appear to be small (576 and 796 collectors respectively), were the result of recent mainland frame surveys and thus presumed to be reliable. We interpolated the number of collectors between 2001 and 2005. For years 1970-2000, for which we had reliable number of fishers, we took the ratio of collectors to fishers from 2001 (3:100) and applied that to 1970-2000 (Table 2).  We then multiplied the number of collectors by the same catch and effort for collectors from Matemwe, Zanzibar (4.0 kg·collector-1 for 240 days·year-1) to get a time series of collector catch. Because we had little information on the number of fishers and nothing on the number of collectors from 1950-1969, we took collector catch as a ratio to fishers catch (0.8:100 in 1970) and then used this ratio to determine conservative collecting estimates for 1950-1969 (57-260 t·year-1). Then we aggregated collecting and fisher catches for total marine catch estimates for Tanzania mainland.  Finally, we aggregated the total catches (fishers and collectors) for Zanzibar and the Tanzania mainland to obtain an estimate of total catches for the United Republic of Tanzania from 1950-2005 (Table 3).  RESULTS Time series data is presented for the Tanzanian mainland and Zanzibar (Figure 2). Catch reconstructions for Zanzibar show that total marine catches over the last few decades range between 10-25,000 t. On the mainland, marine catches range from 36-77,000 t over the last 20 years or about three times those of Zanzibar. There is approximately the same number of fishers on the mainland as on Zanzibar (~20,000) and approximately the same number of landing sites (200); however mainland fishers are distributed over a much larger space, and they appear to access healthier resources. Thus, catch per fisher rates are much higher on the mainland, confirming that fishers in Zanzibar are worse off than those on the mainland.  This point is further validated by a household survey of fishers, wherein 51 percent of respondents in Pemba, Zanzibar took three meals a day while 90 percent of fishers on Mafia island did (Tobey and Torell, 2006). However, mainland fisheries catches also appear to be declining in recent years. Anecdotes from the mainland also suggest that species composition for certain fisheries (e.g., the purse seine fishery in Tanga) have changed (Nhwani, 1981).  Table 2. Number of fishers and collectors on the Tanzanian mainland, 1970-2005. Year No. of fishers No. of collectors 1970 6,719a 202  1971 8,200b 246  1972 8,531b 256  1973 8,188b 246  1974 8,331c 250  1975 8,500b 255  1976 11,157d 335  1977 10,033d 301  1978 9,800b 294  1979 8,100b 243  1980 7,600b 228  1981 13,200b 396  1982 13,500b 405  1983 9,500b 285  1984 13,783e 413  1985 11,392f 342  1986 12,619  379  1987 12,739  382  1988 13,855  416  1989 13,887  417  1990 16,178  485  1991 16,361  491  1992 15,027  451  1993 15,027  451  1994 15,027  451  1995 13,822  415  1996 13,822  415  1997 13,822  415  1998 20,625  619  1999 20,625  619  2000 20,625  619  2001 19,071  576g 2002 19,071  631  2003 19,071  686  2004 19,071  741  2005 29,754  796h a(Fisheries Division, 1970) b(Bagachwa et al., 1994) c (Fisheries Division, 1975)  d(Mikisi, 1984) e(Bagachwa et al., 1994) f1985-2005 (F. Sobo, Fisheries Division, pers. comm.)  g(Fisheries Division, 2002) h(Fisheries Division, 2005)  Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  55    Table 3. Time series of marine fisheries catches (t) for Zanzibar fishers and collectors, mainland fishers and collectors, and the United Republic of Tanzania total, 1950-2005. Zanzibar catch (t) Mainland Tanzania catch (t) Year Fishers Collectors Fishers Collectors Total Catch (t) 1950   6,250 2,063  7,100   57 15,469 1951   6,500 2,145   7,100   57 15,802 1952   6,750 2,228   8,100   65 17,142 1953   7,000 2,310 13,400 107 22,817 1954   7,250 2,393 13,400 107 23,150 1955   7,500 2,475 14,100 113 24,188 1956   7,750 2,558 14,100 113 24,520 1957   8,000 2,640 14,100 113 24,853 1958   8,250 2,723 14,100 113 25,185 1959   8,500 2,805 14,000 112 25,417 1960   8,750 2,888 14,300 114 26,052 1961   9,000 2,970 16,600 133 28,703 1962   9,250 3,053 17,800 142 30,245 1963   9,500 3,135 12,500 100 25,235 1964   9,750 3,218 23,400 187 36,555 1965 10,000 3,300 22,800 182 36,282 1966 10,250 3,383 29,700 238 43,570 1967 10,500 3,465 30,000 240 44,205 1968 10,750 3,548 32,500 260 47,058 1969 11,000 3,630 27,500 220 42,350 1970 11,250 3,713 25,110 194 40,266 1971 11,500 3,795 29,565 236 45,096 1972 11,750 3,878 39,015 246 54,888 1973 12,000 3,960 32,400 236 48,596 1974 12,250 4,043 35,571 240 52,104 1975 12,500 4,125 69,039 245 85,909 1976 12,619 4,164 67,458 321 84,562 1977 12,738 4,203 63,443 289 80,673 1978 12,856 4,243 63,886 282 81,267 1979 12,975 4,282 45,692 233 63,182 1980 13,094 4,373 51,292 219 68,978 1981 16,466 3,779 52,533 380 73,158 1982 21,464 3,186 36,501 389 61,540 1983 17,902 2,592 45,195 274 65,963 1984 21,632 1,999 55,202 397 79,229 1985 15,205 1,405 57,843 328 74,782 1986 10,094 1,612 63,430 363 75,499 1987 16,648 1,818 52,778 367 71,611 1988 10,402 2,024 66,667 399 79,492 1989   9,627 2,230 67,827 400 80,083 1990   8,887 2,044 76,652 466 88,049 1991   7,999 1,840 73,363 471 83,673 1992 11,781 2,710 59,246 433 74,170 1993   9,409 2,164 49,525 433 61,531 1994 11,101 2,553 55,060 433 69,147 1995   9,789 2,251 68,949 398 81,387 1996 11,034 2,538 72,252 398 86,222 1997   9,966 2,292 72,284 398 84,941 1998 13,638 3,137 70,516 594 87,885 1999 14,444 3,322 67,500 594 85,860 2000 17,922 4,122 67,365 594 90,003 2001 20,542 4,725 71,462 553 97,281 2002 20,343 4,679 67,061 606 92,688 2003 20,861 4,798 66,515 659 92,832 2004 21,867 5,029 68,135 711 95,742 2005 23,185 5,333 67,500 764 96,782  Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  56 The total reconstructed catch for the United Republic of Tanzania is presented for 1950-2005 along with the FAO data, which represent reported landings (Figure 3). Since 2000, the FAO has reported catches between 49,500 and 53,000 t, while the present study suggests catches between 90,000 and 97,500 t for the same time period. Overall, for the 1950-2005 period, the reconstructed catch is 1.7 times larger than that reported by FAO. DISCUSSION As the seafood market globalizes and the coastal population of Tanzania continues to grow at high rates (as does the country’s population as a whole), coastal fisheries resources have come under increasing pressure.  But this is not always reflected in the official statistics.  Though there is a large degree of uncertainty with the present catch reconstructions, the assumptions made for this study are better than the alternative, i.e., the omission of Zanzibar from official reports and the chronic underreporting of mainland Tanzania catches. The result is that the reconstructed catches now incorporate Zanzibar into the overall marine fish catches statistics, they estimate catches by collectors on both the mainland and Zanzibar, and that they compensate for general underreporting on the Tanzania mainland. The finding that the reconstructed Tanzanian catches are 1.7 times larger than the catches presented by FAO over the 1950-2005 period supports the findings of van der Elst et al. (2005), which, based on calculations made for Africa’s seven Western Indian Ocean countries, estimated that the FAO statistics reflect only half of the total real catch.  The present catch reconstruction also confirms reports of declining catch rates on the mainland (Silva, 2006). Historically, fishers in Tanzania were considered better off than farmers (Wenban-Smith, 1965), but this changed as catches became divided among more and more fishers (Shao et al., 2003). Anecdotes and available fisheries data suggest that fishing grounds within range of the vessels were maximally exploited in the early 1980s (Ngoile, 1982). Catch per fisher also peaked in the early 1980s, though it could be that the high catches reported in the early 1980s were a result of improved statistics, such as those introduced in 1981 (Jiddawi and Muhando, 1990), and catch per fisher actually peaked earlier. On the mainland, catch per fisher in the mid-1990s was roughly 5 t·fisher-1·year-1, while in recent years, it has been around 3.5 t·fisher-1·year-1. Today, many mainland fishers are also farmers and own one to two hectares of land for farming when fishing is difficult (Shao et al., 2003).  On Zanzibar, the population growth rate (~3.0 percent) is even higher than that of the mainland (~2.8 percent). Furthermore, there is almost an equal number of fishers on Zanzibar as the mainland (20,000) and they compete for resources in a much smaller coastal area. Though fisheries catches in Zanzibar in recent years are similar to those from the early 1980s, this catch is divided among almost double the number of fishers. Thus high catches in recent years are not a result of improved ecosystem health but rather due to much greater fishing pressure due to high population growth, lack of arable land, and the growth in tourism. In 1969, Zanzibar had a total of 80 landing sites. By 1990, there were nearly 200 Figure 2. Marine fisheries catch reconstructions for the Tanzanian mainland and Zanzibar, 1950-2005. Figure 3. Total reconstructed marine fisheries catches for the United Republic of Tanzania compared to FAO reported catch, 1950-2005. Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  57 (Jiddawi and Muhando, 1990). Today, catch rates per fisher are much lower in Zanzibar than on the mainland and range between 0.5 and 1 5 t·fisher-1·year-1, confirming that fishers in Zanzibar are among the poorest and most disadvantaged in Tanzanian society (Suleiman, 1999). Fishers in Zanzibar are also more heavily reliant on fish for protein than mainland fisheries, due to the shortage of arable land on the islands.  It is difficult to know how much fishing has deteriorated, though, due to the lack of emphasis on marine fisheries research. Jiddawi and Stanley (1999) provided the first “baseline observations, which can be followed over time.” A late 1990s baseline will have obvious implications for marine management and/or ecosystem restoration. But poor data is no longer a good excuse for poor management, especially for nearshore finfisheries (Johannes, 1998).  Tanzania has enacted good fisheries legislation with calls for better data collection, though these efforts have been stymied due to lack of resources and likely the remoteness of fishing communities. The National Fisheries Sector Policy was adopted by the government in 1997 and stressed the need to understand the fisheries resource base and banned some destructive fishing practices, such as beach seining. However, they are still practiced (Othman, 1999; Verheij et al., 2004; Mngulwi, 2006). Beach seining catches juveniles of many valuable species, such as snappers, scavengers and emperors (Nhwani, 1981).  Until just recently, fisheries management in Tanzania has almost entirely focused on the great lakes (Mngulwi, 2006). Assuming catches for freshwater systems do not suffer the same level of underreporting as marine fisheries, the present results show that marine catches account for 25-30 percent of total fisheries catches in Tanzania, rather than 10-15 percent as suggested by previous reports (Mgawe, 2005). This has obvious implications for the future of marine fisheries management, including national management efforts and foreign aid. Furthermore, this area of the Western Indian Ocean is more important than has otherwise been noted.  According to FAO statistics, the Western Indian Ocean represents 8 percent of the world’s oceans but generates only 4 percent of reported landings (van der Elst et al., 2005). As evidenced by this work and a similar study of Mozambique (Jacquet and Zeller, this volume), this discrepancy is a better indicator of underreporting of the small-scale sectors than of productivity. The marine fishing sector is a more important asset to food security and the magnitude of resource extraction much greater than was previously recognized. It may be true that collector catch estimates should be even larger than the ones generated here and that marine fish provides an even greater part of the coastal Tanzanians’ diet.  On Zanzibar, collectors account for about 20 percent of the total catch while on the mainland the collector catch is less than one percent of total catch. Perhaps farming is much more productive on the mainland due to greater areas of arable land but perhaps the number of collectors is greatly underestimated. The number of reported collectors in the whole of Tanzania seems low in comparison with those reported for Mozambique (nearly 50,000) and further research should explore the extent and effort of collectors on the Tanzanian shore.  Though Malthusian overfishing - a combination of population growth and destructive fishing gear (Pauly, 2006) - is likely at work in Tanzania, increasingly global markets for seafood are also to blame. In 2002, there were 12 licensed industrial fishing vessels fishing in Tanzania’s EEZ (Jiddawi and Öhman, 2002). By 2004, this number had grown to 24 (Mngulwi, 2006). Now, there is a recent government provision to lift the export ban on marine finfish and allow ten different groups of fish to be exported: tunas and kingfishes, carangids (jacks), parrotfish, and bluefish, red snapper, groupers, rock cod, rays and skates, soles, marlines, and catfishes (Mgawe, 2005).  The Fisheries Division believes that an export fishery would reduce local poverty (Anderson and Ngatunga, 2005). However, finfish provide an important protein source to coastal communities and account for about 60 percent of animal protein consumed (Shao et al., 2003; Mngulwi, 2006). Furthermore, Anderson and Ngatunga (2005) point out that an export fishery would raise prices and reduce the supply to domestic markets and exacerbate hunger (Mgawe, 2000).  Furthermore, lessons from Lake Victoria’s export fishery should be considered. At Lake Victoria, the export trade is dominated by a select few companies and fishers are price-takers (i.e., controlled by their credit relationship with large buyers) (Anderson and Ngatunga, 2005). Returns rarely go to fishers.  The impact of the global seafood market on fisheries, particularly those with weak management, is predictable. Foreign demand for crustaceans has caused the overfishing of lobsters and shrimp. The lobster catch peaked in the late 1980s and, since then, the average size of lobster has decreased (Bakari Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  58 and Andersson, 1999; Jiddawi and Öhman, 2002). In just one decade, the CPUE for prawns declined from 610 kg·day-1 in 1990 to 307 kg·day-1 in 2001 (Mngulwi, 2006). The Asian market offers high prices for shark fins ($50·kg-1) and, consequently, sharks are now heavily targeted (Jiddawi and Shehe, 1999) and overfished in many areas off Tanzania (Guard et al., 2000).   This study indicates that the coastal population of Tanzania is exploiting fisheries resources to a degree that may be threatening their food security. Unless there is a way to ensure local fishers receive the benefits of an export fishery, there is no immediate reason to allow international markets to stimulate additional fishing effort, too.   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia for funding the Sea Around Us Project, and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) for their financial support of the present study. The authors also thank H. Fox, M. Guard, N. Jiddawi, H. Machano, M. Meddard, Y. Mgawe, S. Milledge, G. Mwamsojo, A. Ngusaru, J. Rubens, and F. Sobo.   REFERENCES Alexander, C.S. (1964) Fish poisoning along the northeastern coast of Tanganyika. Tanzania Notes and Records 62: 57-60. Anderson, J. and Ngatunga, B. (2005) Desk review of marine finfish export policy in Tanzania. FY05-03/TPO, WWF 64pp p. Andersson, J. and Ngazi, Z. (1995) Marine resource use and the establishment of a marine park: Mafia Island, Tanzania. Ambio 24: 475-481. Anon. (1920) Tanganyika German East Africa. H.M. Stationary Office, London, 115 p.  Anon. (1978) Tanzania, a country study. American University, Foreign Area Studies, Washington, D.C. D101.22:550-6212. Anon. (1988) Donors Conference on International Assistance for Development of the Fisheries Sector. in FAO/Government National Seminar on Policy and Planning, University of Dar Es Salaam. Bagachwa, M.S.D., Hodd, M.R.V. and Maliyamkono, T.L. (1994) Fisheries and Development in Tanzania. MacMillan, London, UK 192 p.  Bakari, R. and Andersson, J. (1999) Economic liberalization and its effect on the exploitation of crustaceans in Tanzania. Ambio 27: 761-762. Bryceson, I. (1981) A review of some problems of tropical marine conservation with particular reference to the Tanzanian coast. Biological Conservation 20: 163-171. Bwathondi, P.O.J. and Mwaya, G. (1984) The Fishery of Crustacea and Molluscs in Tanzania. pp. 19-28 in Iversen, A.S. and Myklevoll, S., editors. The Proceedings of the Norad-Tanzania Seminar to Review the Marine Fish Stocks and Fisheries in Tanzania. Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute, Dar Es Salaam Norwegian Agency for International Development, Bergen, Mbegani, Tanzania, 6-8 March 1984. Carrara, G. (1987) Artisanal Fishery Catch Assessment Survey Plan Zanzibar Victoria, Seychelles, FAO p. 8. SWIOP DOCUMENT OISO Report No. RAF/79/065/WP/39/E Coughanowr, C.A., Ngoile, M. and Linden, O. (1995) Coastal zone management in Eastern Africa including the island states: A review of issues and initiatives. Ambio 24: 448-457. Darwall, W.R.T., Guard, M. and Andrews, G. (200o) Southern Tanzania. In McClanahan, T.R., Sheppard, C., Obura, D.O. (eds.). Coral Reefs of the Western Indian Ocean: Their Ecology and Conservation. Oxford University Press, New York. Dulvy, N.K., Stanwell-Smith, D., Darwall, W.R.T. and Horrill, C. (1995) Coral mining at Mafia Island, Tanzania: A management dilemma. Ambio 24: 358-365. Fisheries Division (1970) Annual Statistics Report, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. Fisheries Division (1975) Annual Statistics Report, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. Fisheries Division (2002) Frame Survey Results for Marine Waters, May 2001, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, 11 pp. Fisheries Division (2005) Marine Frame Survey (2005) Results and Comparison with Past Studies. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, 15 pp. Guard, M. (1999) Artisanal fisheries of southern Tanzania, data collection methods, status of fisheries and resource use management. pp. 35-47 in Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., editors. Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Artisanal Fisheries Sector, September 22-24, 1997. Phantom Press, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  59 Guard, M., Mmochi, A. and Horrill, C. (2000) Tanzania pp. 83-98 in Sheppard, C. (ed.) Seas of the Millennium, an Environmental Evaluation. Pergamon Press. Hatchell, G.W. (1940) Further Notes on Fishing near Tanga. Tanzania Notes and Records Reprints 1993 3. Haule, W.V. and Kiwia, M.A. (1999) Status and potential of the artisanal fishery on the Tanzania mainland coast. pp. 12-15 in Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., editors. Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Artisanal Fisheries Sector, September 22- 24, 1997. Phantom Press, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Horrill, C. and Makoloweka, S. (1998) Silencing the dynamite fisheries along the Tanga coast, Tanzania. pp. 260-266 in International Tropical Marine Ecosystem Management Symposium, Townsville, Australia. Jiddawi, N.S. (2000) Marine Fisheries. p. 64-100 In Ngusaru, A.S., (ed.) The Present State of Knowledge of Marine Science in Tanzania: Synthesis Report. Tanzania Costal Management Partnership, Dar Es Salaam. Jiddawi, N.S. and Muhando, C. (1990) Zanzibar Environmental Study. The Commission for Lands and Environment, Zanzibar, 15 p. Jiddawi, N.S. and Öhman (2002) Marine fisheries in Tanzania. Ambio 31: 518-527. Jiddawi, N.S. and Shehe, M.A. (1999) The status of the shark fishery in Zanzibar, East Africa: A case study. pp. 104-111 in Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., editors. Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Artisanal Fisheries Sector, September 22-24, 1997. Phantom Press, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D. (1999) A study of the artisanal fishery in the villages of Matemwe and Mkokotoni, Zanzibar, Tanzania. pp. 48-72 in Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., editors. Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Artisanal Fisheries Sector, September 22-24, 1997. Phantom Press, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Johannes, R.E. (1998) The case for data-less marine resource management: examples from tropical nearshore finfisheries. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 243-246. Luhikula, G. (1998) Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership. Tanzania Coastal Management Partnership, Dar Es Salaam, 12 p. Mgawe, Y. (2000) Trade-offs in Fisheries Development: The Case of Lake Victoria in Tanzania. M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Tromso, Norway, Tromso. Mgawe, Y. (2005) Challenges of Promoting Export of Fish from Artisanal Marine Fishery in Tanzania. in FAO expert consultation meeting on Fish and Technology and Trade in Africa, Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Mkisi, M.S. (1984) Fisheries statistics in mainland Tanzania. pp. 123-126 in Iversen, A.S. and Myklevoll, S., editors. Proceedings of the Norad-Tanzania Seminar to Review the Marine Fish Stocks and Fisheries in Tanzania, March 6-8, 1984. Fisheries Division, Mgegani, Tanzania. Mngulwi, B. (2006) Country review: United Republic of Tanzania. p. 458pp. In De Young, C., (ed.) Review of the state of the world marine capture fisheries management: Indian Ocean. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 488, Rome. Mongi, H. (1991) Review of the marine fisheries sub-sector for Tanzania mainland. pp. 153-171 in Ardill, J.D. and Sanders, M.J., editors. Proceedings of the seminar to identify priorities for fishereries management and development in the southwest Indian Ocean, Albion, Maritius, 3-5 September, 1991. . FAO Fisheries Report 457, Rome. Nanyaro, G. (1984) Bagamoyo Fishing Company Ltd. A Short Description of Boats, Gears of the FIshery. pp. 135-138 in Iversen, A.S. and Myklevoll, S., editors. The Proceedings of the Norad-Tanzania Seminar to Review the Marine Fish Stocks and Fisheries in Tanzania. Fisheries Division/NORAD, Mbegani, Tanzania. Ngoile, M. (1982) A survey of fishing units in Zanzibar and Pemba. Tanzania Notes and Records 88/89: 89-95. Nhwani, L.B. (1981) The Dagaa Fishery of Tanga. Tanzania Notes and Records 86/87: 29-33. Nhwani, L.B. (1984) The Collection of Fisheries Statistics in Tanzania: Suggestions for Improvement. pp. 127-132 in Iversen, A.S. and Myklevoll, S., editors. The Proceedings of the Norad-Tanzania Seminar to Review the Marine Fish Stocks and Fisheries in Tanzania. Fisheries Division/NORAD, Mbegani, Tanzania. Obura, D., Celliers, L., Machano, H., Mangubhai, S., Mohammed, M., Motta, H., Muhando, C., Muthiga, N., Pereira, M. and Scheyler, M. (2002) Status of Coral Reefs in Eastern Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, and South Africa. p. 63-78 In Wilkinson, C., (ed.) Status of coral reefs of the world: 2002. Australia Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. Othman, A. (1999) An overview of hte status of the Pemba Island fishery. pp. 16-19 in Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., editors. Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Artisanal Fisheries Sector, September 22-24, 1997. Phantom Press, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Richmond, M.D. (1999) Data collected by fishers provide insight into the fishery for large pelagic species in the southern Pemba channel. pp. 112-124 in Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., editors. Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Artisanal Fisheries Sector, September 22-24, 1997. Phantom Press, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Sabel, E. (2005) A Temporal Study on the Ornamental Shell Trade in Dar Es Salaam & Tanga, Tanzania. SIT Tanzania, Dar Es Salaam. Semesi, A.K. and Ngoile, M. (1993) Status of the Coastal and Marine Environment in the United Republic of Tanzania. pp. 291-313 in Linden, O., editor. Proceedings of the Workshop and Policy Conference on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Eastern Africa Including the Island States. Coastal Management Center. Shao, F.M., Mlay, E.E. and Mushi, V.E. (2003) Understanding Fisheries Associated Livelihoods and the Constraints to Their Development in Kenya and Tanzania. FMSP Project R8196, Food, Agriculture, and Natural Resources Management Research Consultants 78 p. Putting the ‘United’ in the United Republic of Tanzania: Reconstructing marine fisheries catches, Jacquet &Zeller  60 Silva, P. (2006) Exploring the Linkages between Poverty, Marine Protected Area Management, and the Use of Destructive Fishing Gear in Tanzania. World bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3831 Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=922957. Stubbings, B.J.J. (1945) Notes on Native Methods of Fishing in the Mafia Islands. Tanzania Notes and Records 19: 49-53. Suleiman, I.A. (1999) Regional summaries of artisanal fisheries data. pp. 6-11 in Jiddawi, N.S. and Stanley, R.D., editors. Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Artisanal Fisheries Sector, September 22-24, 1997. Phantom Press, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Tobey, J. and Torell, E. (2006) Coastal poverty and MPA management in mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. Ocean & Coastal Management 11: 834-854. UNEP (2001) Eastern Africa Atlas of Coastal Resources-Tanzania. United Nations Environmental Program, Nairobi, Kenya, 111 p.  van der Elst, R. (2003) Local solutions to challenges of West Indian Ocean fisheries development. Worldfish Center Quarterly 26: 14- 17. van der Elst, R., Everett, B., Jiddawi, N.S., Mwatha, G., Santana-Afonso, P. and Boulle, D. (2005) Fish, fishers and fisheries of the Western Inidan Ocean: their diversity and status. A preliminary assessment. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 363: 263-284. Verheij, E., Makoloweka, S. and Kalombo, H. (2004) Collaborative coastal management improves coral reefs and fisheries in Tanga, Tanzania. Ocean & Coastal Management 47: 309-320. Wenban-Smith, H.B. (1965) The Coastal Fisheries near Dar Es Salaam. Tanzania Notes and Records Reprints 1993 3: 165-174.  Reconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  61 RECONSTRUCTING CATCHES OF MARINE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES FOR BRAZIL1 Kátia M. F. Freire and Thiago L. S. Oliveira  Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas,  Rod. Ilhéus-Itabuna km 16, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil, CEP: 45654-000  Email: kfreire2006@yahoo.com.br ABSTRACT A database of catches originating from marine commercial fisheries in Brazil was compiled at the state level based on data from national bulletins and previous work for the years 1950-2004. The degree of detail reported in the bulletins differed substantially among years. Three categories were identified: total catch per state (1950-1955), catch of large groups (fishes, crustaceans, molluscs, cetaceans, and chelonians) per state (1956-1961), catch of main taxa per state (1962-1975) and catch of all taxa per state (1976-2004). A simple estimation process was used to estimate missing values using data from the two closest years for which complete data were available. We assessed the estimation process using the 1969 data and found that estimated and observed values were very similar, with the exception of sardine in the State of Rio de Janeiro. National catches increased from 1950 to 1986, and declined thereafter to the current level of approximately 500,000 t. These catches were associated with 446 common names, which may include synonyms used in different states, as the correspondence between common and scientific names is still not well understood. Catches were almost equally distributed among regions (with lower values for northern Brazil) in the 1950s. With the development of industrial fisheries, the southern and southeastern regions started to dominate. After the collapse of sardine stocks, the distribution among regions seemed to be reverting towards homogeneity, but at levels 3.5 times higher than in the 1950s.  INTRODUCTION The analysis of the ‘health’ of fisheries resources requires at least basic data such as catch and effort. Some countries do not keep an electronic historical record of such data either because they do not exist or because there is not enough interest in recovering historical data. In Brazil, only catch data are regularly collected, and effort information is available only for major resources such as sardine, lobster, and southern snapper. The low quality of catch statistics in Brazil has been long recognized (e.g., Paiva, 1997; Freire, 2005; Lucato, 2006). Nevertheless, this cannot serve as an excuse for not making official catch data from scattered documents more readily available. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) provides online access to catch data as supplied by its member countries (www.fao.org). However, these data are presented at a country level, and do not allow analyses at a more spatially detailed, e.g., state level. Considering the great length of the Brazilian coast (covering approximately 38 degrees of latitude, Figure 1), spatially detailed information is required, as the features of the marine environment and target species vary along the coast (Matsuura, 1995). Freire (2003) compiled catch data for the period from 1980 to 2000. Here, we extend the temporal                                                  1 Cite as: Freire, K.M.F. and Oliveira, T.L.S. 2007. Reconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, p. 61-68 In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver [ISSN 1198-6727]. Figure 1. Brazil and its coastal states: Amapá (AP), Pará (PA), Maranhão (MA), Piauí (PI), Ceará (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN), Paraíba (PB), Pernambuco (PE), Alagoas (AL), Sergipe (SE), Bahia (BA), Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR), Santa Catarina (SC), Rio Grande do Sul (RS). Reconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  62 coverage of the electronic database backwards and forwards, covering the period from 1950 to 2004 in its entirety. Some important characteristics of local fisheries are also discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS A database of marine catches for Brazil was compiled for the period 1950-2004. Previously, catch data for 1980-2000 had been compiled by Freire (2003). For the remaining periods, a variety of source documents were used (see Table 1). The analysis was performed backwards in time. The values presented here refer only to landings2, and originate from both artisanal and industrial fleets.  2001-2004 Data were obtained from online PDF format bulletins made available by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA)3 .  1980-2000 An existing electronic database was used for this period (Freire, 2003).  1979 From 1979 backwards, all data were entered manually, as no electronic versions were available. In 1979, values were presented by habitat, thus catches from marine waters were easily identifiable.  1976-1978 Catches from both marine and freshwater habitats were presented in the same source table, and were split between habitats for all taxa recorded in each state. 1962-1975 Catches from both habitats were presented in the same table but only for taxa that accounted for about 80% of total catch for each state. For this period, catches for the main taxa available in the bulletin were encoded manually (both for marine and freshwater habitats) and subtracted from the total catch for each group (fishes, crustaceans, molluscs, chelonians and cetaceans). The remaining catches were distributed among the non-mentioned taxa using the list available for 1976-1977. The distribution was based on the proportion observed of each taxon in 1976-1977 regardless of its habitat, which was adjusted every year as different taxa had catch values in each state each year. Thus, the procedure used was as follows:  The proportion of non-mentioned taxon j (taxon specific catches reported separately only for major taxa) of group g in year y:                                                   2  For simplicity’s sake, they are still referred to as ‘catches’ in this document. 3  Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA), accessible at www.ibama.gov.br. Table 1. Sources used to compile marine catch data from commercial fisheries (artisanal and industrial) in Brazil from 1950 to 2004.   YEAR SOURCE FORMAT TYPE OF DATAa 1950-1955 IBGE (1957) Paper Total (M + F) 1956-1957 IBGE (1959) Paper Group (M+ F) 1958-1960 IBGE (1961) Paper Group (M + F) 1961 IBGE (1962) Paper Group (M + F) 1962 MA/SEP (1964) Paper Main taxa (M +F) 1963 MA/SEP (1965a) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1964 Estimated — All taxa (M) 1965 Estimated — All taxa (M) 1966 MA/SEP (1967) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1967 MA/ETEA (1968) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1968 MA/ETEA (1969) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1969 MA/ETEA (1969) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1970 MA/EE (1971) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1971 SUDEPE/IBGE (1973) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1972 SUDEPE/IBGE (1975) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1973 SUDEPE/IBGE (1976a) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1974 SUDEPE/IBGE (1976b) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1975 SUDEPE/IBGE (1976c) Paper Main taxa (M + F) 1976 SUDEPE/IBGE (1979a) Paper All taxa (M + F) 1977 SUDEPE/IBGE (1979b) Paper All taxa (M + F) 1978 SUDEPE (1980a) Paper All taxa (M + F) 1979 SUDEPE (1980b) Paper All taxa (M) 1980-2003 Freire (2003) MS Access All taxa (M) 2001 IBAMA (2003) PDF All taxa (M) 2002 IBAMA (2004) PDF All taxa (M) 2003 IBAMA (2004) PDF All taxa (M) 2004 IBAMA (2005) PDF All taxa (M) a M = marine waters; F = Freshwater Reconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  63 ∑ = + += n j jgjg jgjg jgy CC CC P 1 7776 7776 )( )(      …1) where g represents the taxonomic group (fishes, crustaceans, molluscs, cetaceans, chelonians); Cjgy is the catch for non-mentioned taxon j of group g in year y, and is defined as:   jgygygyjgy PSTC ×−= )(      …2) where Tgy is the total reported catch for group g in year y; and Sgy is the sum of catches for all reported taxa i within group g in year y. 1956-1961 The procedure above was also used to estimate catches for 1956-1961, considering the total catch available per group for each state. However, proportions Pjgy were calculated based on the average catch data for the years 1962 and 1963. 1950-1955 For this period, total catch (one single number per year) was the only information available in the bulletins for each state and the proportion among groups was defined based on 1956 and 1957 values. The proportion among taxa was defined as presented for the period 1962-1975. This procedure was performed separately for each state. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION National and regional catches  The database compiled here indicates that marine catches from Brazil increased from 113,000 tonnes in 1950 to a maximum of 759,000 tonnes in 1985 (Figure 2). Subsequently, catches declined, but then have stabilized at approximately 500,000 tonnes. Data presented by FAO for Brazil indicate very similar trends (Figure 2). A previous analysis indicated that FAO data were higher than data from the national bulletins by about 100,000 tonnes for the period between 1988 and 2000 (Freire, 2003). Further analysis indicated that this discrepancy was due to the inclusion of 100,000 tonnes of ‘marine fishes n.e.i.’ (not elsewhere included; Freire, 2005). These 100,000 t were supposed to account for catches originating from recreational and subsistence fisheries, even though no basis for such an estimate could be found in local documents. The present re-analysis of the catch data for the same period indicated that this estimate was removed from official FAO data, which now matches the national bulletins for most of the years (Figure 2).  The present data strongly suggests that non-reported catches, e.g., subsistence and recreational, should be assessed and estimated for future inclusion in estimates of total marine catch for Brazil.  The trend in total catches is defined by the trend for fin-fishes, which represent 80-90% of total catches throughout the period. The trend for fishes is also similar to the crustaceans, increasing from 1950 to the early 1980s and decreasing thereafter (Figure 3a). The slight increase in the latest years appears mainly due to higher catches in Pará associated with an improving collection system of catch statistics. Note that catches of crustaceans were equivalent to 10-20% of fishes.  Figure 2. Catches originating from reported marine commercial fisheries in Brazil for the period 1950-2004, comparing FAO and present, reconstructed data. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year C at ch  ( t x  1 0 3 ) FAO This databaseReconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  64 Molluscs were collected throughout the period, with an increasing trend (Figure 3b). Chelonians had the lowest catches amongst the groups with the highest volume caught between 1958 and 1983. After 1988, there was no record of chelonians, due to a complete catch ban imposed in 1986 (Marcovaldi and Marcovaldi, 1999). Nevertheless, it is known that they are caught incidentally by longliners and in gillnet lobster fisheries (e.g., Weidner and Arocha, 1999; Sales and Lima, 2002; Pinedo and Polacheck, 2004). For a discussion on catches of cetaceans, see below.  From 1950 to the early 1960s, three out of four coastal geographic regions of Brazil contributed equally in terms of marine commercial catches (a fifth region is western Brazil and it pertains only to fresh waters, Figure 4). From the early 1960s onwards, when the first industrial fleets started to operate, the southern and southeastern regions alternated in dominating the catches of the country. This continued until 1980 when the southeast had the highest catches, dominated by sardine. After the collapse of sardine stocks in the early 1990s, the south dominated again. The northern and northeastern regions had a smooth increase in catches throughout the period analyzed. Currently, we notice that there is a trend back to the beginning of the period analyzed, with all regions contributing equally to total national catches (though at a level 3.5 times higher than in the early 1950s).  Assessing the estimation procedure The estimation process was validated using 1969 data. Data were estimated for all taxa recorded in all years for all states. The estimated values were compared with observed data for the selected taxa for which observed data were available. The process was able to estimate well catch values for all taxa, except for ‘sardinha’ (sardine) in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Figure 5). When the sardine was eliminated from the analysis, the estimated values correlated very well with the observed data (r2 = 0.96, Figure 5), with the intercept not being significantly different from zero, and the slope not being significantly different from unity. Thus, the estimation procedure used here appears adequate for all taxa, except for sardine, which represented 12% of total catch from Brazil in 1969. We estimated the 1969 catches for sardine using a regression for the period 1962-1971, but the estimated value increased only from 36,611 t to 36,893 t, a value far below the observed 48,664 t. Sardine is a small pelagic, and is closely affected by environmental oscillations. Thus, simple procedures such as those presented here fail to consider the effects of environmental fluctuations on catches. All estimated catches for sardine presented here as preliminary estimates can be replaced by better estimates for this taxon after Figure 3:. Commercial marine fisheries catches in Brazil for the period 1950-2004: a) Fishes and crustaceans; b) Molluscs, cetaceans and chelonians. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 C fi sh es  (t  x  1 0 3 ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 C cr us ta ce an s ( t x  1 0 3 )Fishes Crustaceans a) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 C m ol & ce t  ( t x  1 0 3 ) Year 0 20 40 60 80 C ch el on ia ns  ( t) Molluscs Cetaceans b) Chelonians Figure 4. Commercial marine catches from the four coastal geographic regions of Brazil (1950-2004). 0 100 200 300 400 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t  x  1 0 3 ) South Southeast Northeast NorthReconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  65 consulting local experts. One should point out that for the period between 1962 and 1977, sardine catches are referred to ‘sardinha’ (i.e., sardine) and ‘sardinha verdadeira’ (i.e., true sardine), with higher catches associated with ‘sardinha’ in some years and with ‘sardinha verdadeira’ in others. All analyses presented here were conducted with the combined catches for the two taxa, but excluding other sardine taxa.  Details for other taxa The ‘ghost crab’ (Ucides cordatus), is distributed from the state of Amapá to Santa Catarina (Figure 1; Melo, 1996). It is an important resource for artisanal fishers and dealers in northern and northeastern Brazil, even though detailed information on catch, effort, and stock size are missing. Indeed, we noticed that the ‘ghost crab’ was not recorded as an individual entity in the 1980s and in the 1990s. The list of marine species available in the bulletins for these years indicated that records attributed to ‘caranguejo’ (i.e., ‘crabs’) were in fact ‘ghost crab’. After 2000, ‘ghost crab’ appears in the bulletins only in the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Rio Grande do Norte. In the 1970s, the reporting situation is more confusing: in the 1979 and 1978 bulletins, ‘ghost crab’ was not present; in 1974-1977, ‘ghost crab’ appears together with another category called ‘caranguejo (de mar)’ (marine crab) but was reported as a freshwater species. In the early 1970s and in the 1960s, ‘ghost crab’ was not reported. In the 1950s, catches were not recorded at the taxon level. Any attempt to understand the dynamics of this fishery in Brazil is undermined by the way catch statistics are presented in national bulletins. Thus, the analysis presented for this species in GeoBrasil (2002) was restricted to 1998-1999, and thus missed important baselines. The analysis of catch data for northeastern Brazil presented in IBAMA (1994) was heterogeneous amongst all the states due to this data heterogeneity. Considering that Ucides cordatus is probably a keystone species in mangrove areas (e.g., Glaser and Diele, 2004), and its sale constitutes the main income for many households in northern Brazil (Glaser, 2003), more attention should be paid to correct data collection of catch statistics to allow for assessment of Brazilian stocks.  Catches for ‘ghost crab’ as compiled here were low (Figure 6). When added to other marine ‘caranguejo’ data, catches were much higher, and indicated that there was an increase from 1,000 t in 1950 to about 18,000 t by 1973, followed by an apparent decrease from 1973 to 1978 before returning to the levels of the early 1970s. Another decline in apparent catches occurred from 1986 to 2004 (9,300 t in 2004). This apparent 23% decline in crab catches in the last few years is worrisome; however, we are not able to determine, based on the national bulletins, if all the catches presented in Figure 6 are associated only with U. cordatus. Figure 5. Estimated and observed marine commercial catches for the major taxa caught in 1969: dashed line includes sardine for the state of Rio de Janeiro, solid line excludes sardine for Rio de Janeiro. y = 0.8796x + 179.04 r2 = 0.95 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 Observed value (t x 103) E st im at ed  v al ue  (t  x  1 0  3 ) a)  Figure 6. Catches of ‘caranguejo-uçá’ (Ucides cordatus) reported in national statistics, compiled here for all states combined; ‘Caranguejo + uçá’ indicates ‘caranguejo’ catches added to ‘caranguejo-uçá’ (both marine); and ‘Caranguejo + uçá + uçáF’ includes ‘caranguejo-uçá’ freshwater catches also. 0 5 10 15 20 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 C at ch  ( t x  1 0 3 ) Uçá Caranguejo+Ucá Caranguejo+Uçá+UçáFReconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  66 Whale hunting is a very old activity in Brazil, going back to the 1660s. National statistics indicate that catches were very low in the early 1950s (Figure 7), when only humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were caught off the state of Paraíba in northeastern Brazil (Singarajah, 1985). In the early 1960s, catches increased as whalers s  tarted to operate off the state of Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil. This operation was very costly as whales were caught further offshore compared to the northeastern region. Whaling soon came to an end in southeastern Brazil and national catches dropped significantly. Mean individual weight of whales increased in the beginning of the period analyzed and decreased after the mid 1960s (Figure 7), when the comparatively smaller minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) was the main species targeted. Catches were zero from 1986 onwards. In 1987, the Brazilian government declared a complete ban on cetacean fisheries (Federal law no. 7643, December 18th, 1987).  Reported marine catches of molluscs were low compared to other groups, and encompassed 16 taxa. Catches for the main taxa are presented in Figure 8a. ‘Marisco’ (Perna perna) dominated the catches in the early years, and ‘lula’ (squid; Loliginidae and Ommastrephidae) in the end of the period. Catches of ‘ostra’ (oyster; Crassostrea spp.) and ‘polvo’ (octopus; Octopus spp. and Eledone spp.) increased slowly over the period analysed, while catches of ‘sururu’ (Mytella spp.) decreased. Important to note is that from 1970 to 1978, most of the catches were recorded as ‘other molluscs’. Trends may be masked by changes and inconsistencies in reported taxon names as was observed for fishes.  Changes in taxon names Catches are recorded using local common names. After correcting for different spelling of the same names, 446 taxa were recorded in this database. The correspondence between common name and scientific taxon remains to be resolved, although Freire (2005) has demonstrated a richness of common names for each taxon, with different names used in different states. Thus, a detailed comparison and standardization between common names and scientific taxon should be undertaken at state level.  We noticed that some taxon names were used interchangeably over time. This was observed for sardine and crabs as discussed above, but also for other marine taxa. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, ‘pescada real’ was called ‘pescada verdadeira’ between 1968- 1973. In northeastern Brazil, ‘sarda’ was used instead of ‘serra’ in 1974. In 1962- 1963, ‘atum’ was called ‘albacora’. These differences were not restricted to Figure 7. Whale catches in Brazilian waters from 1950 to 2004. The thin line indicates the mean individual weight of the whales caught.  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 C at ch  (t  x  1 0 3 ) Year 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 M ea n w ei gh t ( t) Figure 8. Commercial catches of molluscs in Brazilian marine waters (1950-2004): a) major taxa; b) minor taxa. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 C at ch  (t  x  1 0 3 ) Perna perna Other molluscs Mytella spp. a) 0 1 2 3 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t  x  1 0 3 ) Squid Oyster Octopus b) s p.Reconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  67 marine taxa. For example, ‘piaba’ was replaced by ‘piau’ from 1973 backwards. Reconstructions of historical catch time series as undertaken here help detect these and other changes.  FUTURE WORK Each catch amount compiled in this database is associated with a common name of fish, crustacean, mollusc, cetacean or chelonian. For the first group, the correspondence between common and scientific name is not completely understood. We will establish this correspondence per state for each common name, based on the database compiled by Freire and Pauly (2005) and available from FishBase (www.fishbase.org).  Some states of Brazil have an independent system of collection of catch data, and these data have been encoded over the last few years. There are also bulletins produced by local institutions that report catch data for some states. Data from both sources will be compared with the data compiled here and values will be corrected if necessary.  In the process, we had to compile catch data from freshwater in order to be able to properly split catches from marine and fresh waters for the period 1950-1977. We intend to compile catch data originating from fresh waters from 1978 onwards to better understand how important fisheries are in each environment at a state level. We hope to convince national institutions to better account for historical catch series, using the database presented here as a foundation. This is particularly important now that we have seen some changes in the contribution of different regions to the catch in recent years.   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank J. Rodrigues, D. Rodrigues, and C. Primitivo for helping encode part of the data compiled here. The SINAGRI Library (Ministry of Agriculture) sent some of the bulletins used. S. Lucato reviewed an earlier version of this manuscript.   REFERENCES Freire, K.M.F., 2003. A database of landing data on Brazilian marine fisheries from 1980 to 2000, pp. 181-189. In: Zeller, D., Booth, S., Mohammed, E. and Pauly, D. (eds.) From Mexico to Brazil: Central Atlantic fisheries catch trends and ecosystem models. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 11(6), Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Freire, K. M. F. (2005). Fishing impacts on marine ecosystems off Brazil, with emphasis on the northeastern region. Resource Management and Environmental Studies. PhD thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver-Canada: 254p. Freire, K. M. F. and D. Pauly (2005). Richness of common names of Brazilian marine fishes and its effect on catch statistics. Journal of Ethnobiology 25(2): 279-296. GeoBrasil (2002). Perspectivas do meio ambiente no Brasil. Brasília, Edições IBAMA. 440 p. Glaser, M. (2003). Interrelations between mangrove ecosystem, local economy and social sustainability in Caeté Estuary, North Brazil. Wetlands Ecology and Management 11: 265-272. Glaser, M. and K. Diele (2004). Asymmetric outcomes: assessing central aspects of the biological, economic and social sustainability of a mangrove crab fishery, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae), in North Brazil. Ecological Economics 49: 361-373. IBAMA (1994). Lagosta, caranguejo-uçá e camarão do nordeste. Brasília, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 190 p. IBAMA (2003). Estatística da Pesca. 2001. Grandes regiões e unidades da federação. Tamandaré - PE, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 97 p. IBAMA (2004a). Estatística da Pesca. 2002. Grandes regiões e unidades da federação. Tamandaré - PE, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 97 p. IBAMA (2004b). Estatística da Pesca. 2003. Grandes regiões e unidades da federação. Brasília - DF, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 98 p. IBAMA (2005). Estatística da Pesca. 2004. Grandes regiões e unidades da federação. Brasília - DF, Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. 98 p. IBGE (1957). Anuário Estatístico do Brasil - 1957. Anuário Estatístico do Brasil XVIII. p. 69. IBGE (1959). Anuário Estatístico do Brasil - 1959. Anuário Estatístico do Brasil XX. p. 53-54. IBGE (1961). Anuário Estatístico do Brasil - 1961. Anuário Estatístico do Brasil XXII. p. 70-71. Reconstructing catches of marine commercial fisheries for Brazil, Freire & Oliveira  68 IBGE (1962). Anuário Estatístico do Brasil - 1962. Anuário Estatístico do Brasil XXIII. p. 52.  Lucato, S. H. B. (2006). An improved mixed-error non-equilibrium stock-production model and its application to some Brazilian fish stocks. Southampton, University of Southampton: 161p. MA/SEP (1964). Pesca - 1962. Estrutura e produção. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Serviço de Estatística da Produção. 45 p. MA/SEP (1965). Pesca - 1963. Estrutura e produção. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Serviço de Estatística da Produção. 37 p. MA/SEP (1965b). Pesca - 1964. Estrutura e produção. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Serviço de Estatística da Produção. 46 p. MA/SEP (1967). Pesca - 1966. Estrutura e produção. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Serviço de Estatística da Produção. 34 p. MA/ETEA (1968). Pesca - 1967. Produção extrativa. Publicação no. 5. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Equipe Técnica de Estatística Agropecuária. 34 p. MA/ETEA (1969). Pesca - 1968. Produção extrativa. Publicação no. 19. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Equipe Técnica de Estatística Agropecuária. 34 p. MA/ETEA (1971). Pesca - 1969. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Equipe Técnica de Estatística Agropecuária. 20 p. MA/EE (1971). Pesca - 1970. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura, Escritório de Estatística. 19 p. Marcovaldi, M. A. and G. G. Marcovaldi (1999). Marine turtles of Brazil: the history and structure of Projeto TAMAR-IBAMA. Biological Conservation 91: 35-41. Matsuura, Y. (1995). Os ecossistemas brasileiros e os principais macrovetores de desenvolvimento. Subsídios ao planejamento da gestão ambiental. Projeto Cenários para o Planejamento da Gestão Ambiental (MMA/PNMA). Brasília, DF, MMA: 39-104. Melo, G. A. S. (1996). Manual de identificação dos Brachyura (caranguejos e siris) do litoral brasileiro. São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. 603 p. Paiva, M. P., 1997. Recursos pesqueiros estuarinos e marinhos do Brasil. Fortaleza, Brazil, UFC. 278 p. Pinedo, M. C. and T. Polacheck (2004). Sea turtle by-catch in pelagic longline sets off southern Brazil. Biological Conservation 119(3): 335-339. Sales, G. and E. H. M. S. Lima (2002). A pesca da lagosta no litoral do nordeste: interação pesca x conservação das tartarugas marinhas. Praia do Forte, Brazil, IBAMA. 11 p. Singarajah, K. V. (1985). A review of Brazilian whaling: aspects of biology, exploitation and utilization. Symposium Endangered Marine Animals and Marine Parks 1: 131-148. SUDEPE/IBGE (1973). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1971. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE/IBGE. 21 p. SUDEPE/IBGE (1975). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1972. Brasília, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE/IBGE. 19 p. SUDEPE/IBGE (1976a). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1973. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE/IBGE. 22 p. SUDEPE/IBGE (1976b). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1974. Rio de Janeiro, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE/IBGE. 22 p. SUDEPE/IBGE (1976c). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1975. Brasília, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE/IBGE. 22 p. SUDEPE/IBGE (1979a). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1976. Brasília, Ministério da Agricultura. 105 p. SUDEPE/IBGE (1979b). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1977. Brasília, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE/IBGE. 121 p. SUDEPE (1980a). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1978. Brasília, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE. 84 p. SUDEPE (1980b). Estatística da pesca. Produção - 1979. Brasília, Ministério da Agricultura/SUDEPE. 141 p. Weidner, D. and F. Arocha (1999). South America: Atlantic, Part A., Section 2 (Segment B). Brazil. Latin America, World swordfish fisheries: an analysis of swordfish fisheries, market trends, and trade patterns. Vol. IV. Silver Spring, Maryland, NMFS. Vol. IV: 237-628.   A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  69 A RECONSTRUCTION OF COLOMBIA’S MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES1 Jeffrey Wielgusa, Dalila Caicedo-Herrerab and Dirk Zellera  a Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; e-mail: j.wielgus@fisheries.ubc.ca, d.zeller@fisheries.ubc.ca b Fundación Omacha, Bogotá, Colombia; e-mail: dalila@omacha.org  ABSTRACT Colombia has coasts on the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but its marine fisheries have been limited by the relatively small size of commercially important stocks. However, fishery resources have traditionally been exploited by coastal communities, and industrial fisheries have grown in recent years with the intensification of tuna fishing in both oceans. The management of Colombia’s fisheries has been hampered by frequent administrative changes, which has notably led to the loss of parts of the official landings data. We reconstructed Colombia’s fisheries catches in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for the period 1950- 2005. We used secondary sources of information to estimate missing data, and estimated subsistence fishing and the unreported by-catches of the shrimp and tuna fisheries. Our results suggest that for the period 1950-2004, the marine fisheries catches of Colombia may have been more than 1.8 times higher then the landings reported by FAO on behalf of Colombia (1.4 times higher in the Colombian Pacific; 2.0 times higher in the Atlantic). The implications for management are discussed.   INTRODUCTION Colombia has coasts on the Atlantic (Caribbean Sea) and Pacific Oceans (Figure 1), but its fisheries, although diverse, have been limited by the relatively small size of commercially important stocks (Prado and Drew 1999). Nonetheless, fishery resources historically have been an important part of the livelihood of human communities on both coasts (Squires and Riveros 1978, Pérez-Ramírez 1986, Prado and Drew 1999). Fisheries management in Colombia has been impaired by frequent transfers of management responsibilities between government agencies. In past years, the National Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture (INPA) was responsible for the collection and analysis of fisheries statistics                                                  1 Cite as: Wielgus, J., Caicedo-Herrera, D. and Zeller, D. 2007. Reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches. p. 69-79. In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Figure 1. Colombia’s EEZ and major ports in Atlantic and Pacific waters. A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  70 and the regulation of fishing activities from 1990 to 2003. With its closure, these responsibilities were assigned to the Colombian Institute of Rural Development (INCODER), a subsidiary agency of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.  Industrial fisheries Industrial fishing (defined as boats larger than 15 m) in Colombia began with shallow-water shrimp trawling in the Pacific Ocean (for Penaeus occidentalis, Xiphopenaeus riveti, and Trachypenaeus spp.) in the late 1950s, and in the Caribbean Sea (for Farfantopenaeus brasiliensis, F notialis, and F. schmitti) in the mid-1960s (Gómez-Canchong et al. 2004). Shrimp was the most important contribution of the industrial fishery to total reported landings in both oceans until the mid-1980s, when overfishing began (Mora-Lara 1987, INDERENA 1988, Figure 2). Since then, tuna has been the most important component of industrial landings (Ministerio de Agricultura 1993, Beltrán-Turriago and Villaneda-Jiménez 2000; Figure 2). Tuna fishing takes place in EEZ waters of the Atlantic and Pacific with boats of less than 400 t capacity, and in international waters (for Thunnus albacares and Katsuwonus pelamis) with larger boats (Beltrán-Turriago and Villaneda-Jiménez 2000).  The industrial shrimp trawlers have remained virtually unchanged since they began operating in Colombia (Zúñiga- Clavijo et al. 2004, Rueda et al. 2004). Most trawlers have a capacity of 20-40 t (Barreto- Reyes et al. 2001). They are fuel- inefficient, and, as their gear is unselective, a large proportion of the by-catch is discarded, or is retained and marketed without being reported to the fisheries authorities (Duarte et al. 2006). Shrimp trawlers in the Caribbean are based in Barranquilla, Cartagena, and Santa Marta (Figure 1), but they fish along the entire coast (Giudicelli 1979). In the Pacific Ocean, there are shrimp trawlers in Buenaventura and Tumaco (Barreto 1986, Rueda et al. 2004, Figure 1). The Buenaventura trawlers operate along the entire Pacific coast, while the trawlers based in Tumaco operate only in the local waters (Barreto 1986, Mora-Lara 1986).  In the Pacific, Colombia also has an industrial fishery for anchoveta (Cetengraulis mysticetus) and thread herring (Opisthonema spp.), which are used in fish-meal and fish-oil production (Beltrán-Turriago and Villaneda-Jiménez 2000). There are small industrial fisheries for spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and queen conch (Strombus gigas) off the San Andrés Archipelago in the Caribbean (Figure 1). Also, there is industrial fishing for fish of high value (e.g., snappers, groupers, sharks) in the Caribbean and Pacific Ocean. Most of the products of the industrial fisheries are exported (Beltrán-Turriago and Villaneda- Jiménez 2000).  Small-scale fisheries Small-scale fisheries (nets cast from the shore and boats less than 15 m) target coastal resources in both oceans and supply a large part of the marine fish landed in Colombia (Magnusson et al. 1983, Mora-Lara 1987, Pereria-Velásquez 1993). There are approximately 14,000 small-scale fishers in the Caribbean, and approximately 15,000 in the Pacific coast (Beltrán-Turriago and Villaneda-Jiménez 2000). The most Figure 2. Percent contribution of shrimp (dark line) and tuna (light line) to total reported landings in Colombia’s (a) Atlantic and (b) Pacific Oceans for 1950-2005. In years for which official data were not available, FAO landings statistics were used (see text for details). 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 (a) (b) R ep or te d la nd in gs  (% ) Year R ep or te d la nd in gs  (% )A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  71 common fishing gears used by small-scale fisheries are cast nets, gill nets, surrounding nets, traps, and long lines (Beltrán-Turriago 2001). Surrounding nets are widely used by small-scale fishers to capture shrimp, and their mesh size is frequently below the legal limit (Friedemann and Arocha 1984, Mora-Lara 1986, 1987, Beltrán-Turriago 2001). These nets capture large numbers of immature shrimp and fish (Mora-Lara 1987). In 1986 (the last year for which data were available), 36% of the reported catch of Penaeus occidentalis landed in the port of Buenaventura was captured by the small-scale fishery using surrounding nets (Mora-Lara 1987). In the Tumaco area, shrimp fishing is done with artisanal trawl nets that are operated from motorized canoes. The small mesh size of these nets (1.0-2.5 cm) and their deployment in mangrove areas results in the incidental catch of large numbers of juvenile fish (Friedemann and Arocha 1984). Although small-scale fisheries supply the majority of the seafood that is consumed in Colombia, part of their product is purchased by the industrial sector and exported (Beltrán- Turriago, 2001).  Here we present a reconstruction of the Colombian Atlantic and Pacific fisheries catches for the years 1950- 2005, which was conducted using the methodology in Zeller et al. (2006, 2007). First, we reconstruct the officially-reported landings and estimate the percent contribution of small-scale fisheries. We then estimate unreported catches, consisting of discarded and unreported by-catches of the shrimp industry, fish caught and consumed by fishers and their families (subsistence), and fish caught incidentally during tuna fishing. Finally, we compare the reconstructed total catch time series to the landings statistics reported by FAO (FAO Fishstat).  MATERIALS AND METHODS Officially-reported landings Parts of Colombia’s official landings data have been lost during the multiple changes in the fisheries management system; INCODER currently holds official landings data only for the years 1975-2005. This information consists of landings data for different number of taxa (by common names of species) for different years, as summarized in Table 1. Official data for the years 1959-1965 and 1970-1974 were obtained from secondary sources (Ciardelli- Fadul 1968 and Mora-Lara 1986, respectively). These statistics consist of total landings for the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and are not disaggregated by taxa. For completing the reported landings time series, we assumed that the country’s officially-reported landings Table 1. Number of taxa (common names) included in the marine landings statistics currently available from the Colombian fisheries management agency (INCODER). 1975-1990 1991-2005 Categories Atlantic Pacific Atlantic Pacific Fishes  29 29 135 173 Crustaceans 4 4 13 21 Mollusks 4 4   1 10 Figure 3. Reported landings statistics for Colombia in the (a) Atlantic and (b) Pacific Oceans for 1950-2005. Note differences in scale. Data obtained from the fisheries management agency (INCODER) or secondary sources are indicated by the dark line, and landings data from FAO are represented by the light line.  0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0 10 20 30 40 50 R ep or te d la nd in gs  (t  x  1 03 ) (b) (a) Year R ep or te d la nd in gs  (t  x  1 03 ) R ep or te d la nd in gs  (t  x  1 03 )A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  72 for missing years (1950-1958 and 1966-1969) could be represented by the data reported for those years by FAO on behalf of Colombia. This assumption was made because the officially-reported landings for the intervening years are similar to those reported by FAO (Figure 3). Contribution of the small-scale sector INCODER provided us with estimates of the percent contribution of the small-scale fisheries to total reported landings for 1999-2005. One additional estimate was found for each ocean in the literature (Table 2). The percent contribution of small-scale fisheries for all other years was estimated using the following procedure. Tunas, clupeids, spiny lobster, and queen conch are fisheries that are targeted mainly by industrial fleets. We regressed the (arc-sine transformed) percent contribution of the small-scale sector for the known years (Table 2) against the catch of these fisheries, and obtained a significant inverse relationship (Atlantic: r2=0.79, F=22.86, P<0.01; Pacific: r2=0.78, F=20.77, P<0.01), The regression equations were used to estimate the percent contribution of the small-scale sector for the missing years in each ocean. Unreported by-catch and discards of the shrimp fisheries Two studies in the Atlantic Ocean and two in the Pacific Ocean investigated the by-catch of the industrial shrimp fishery. In the Atlantic, INDERENA (1983) reported a mean retained by-catch/shrimp ratio of 2.59 for 3 trawlers during a typical 21-day fishing trip in the southern Caribbean, while the mean discards/shrimp ratio was 11.46. In a study of the shrimp-trawling fleet operating during 3 months in the central and northern Caribbean, Duarte et al. (2006) found a mean retained by-catch/shrimp ratio of 2.54 and a mean discards/shrimp ratio of 7.70. Because the Atlantic fleet fishes along the entire Caribbean coast, we averaged these estimates and obtained a mean retained by-catch/shrimp ratio of 2.57 and a mean discards/shrimp ratio of 9.58. In the Pacific, Trujillo (1983) reported on the catches of shrimp trawlers in Tumaco over a 10-month period. He estimated a retained by-catch/shrimp ratio of 3.9 and a discards/shrimp ratio of 1.32. For a 21- day fishing trip of a boat based in Buenaventura, Barreto-Reyes et al. (2001) documented a retained by- catch/shrimp ratio of 2.13 and a discards/shrimp ratio of 0.80. The fishing fleet in Buenaventura is approximately 5 times larger than the Tumaco fleet (Mora-Lara 1986), and we used this weight to estimate mean rates of 2.43 for retained by-catch/shrimp and 0.89 for discards/shrimp.  In a study of the shrimp by-catches that were reported to the fishing authorities in Cartagena between 1974 and 1983, García (1985) found a by-catch/shrimp ratio of 0.15. This value was subtracted from the mean retained by-catch/shrimp ratios above, and the resulting rates and the mean discard/shrimp ratios were applied to shrimp landings to estimate the unreported retained by-catch and discards for each area. We are not aware of studies that have measured the by-catch of small-scale shrimp fisheries in Colombia. Because of the lack of selectivity of the fishing methods employed by these fisheries, we assumed that their by-catch rates (discards and unreported retained by-catch) were the same as those of the industrial shrimp fisheries. Subsistence fishing Rodas-López et al. (1994) found that small-scale fisheries in the Cartagena region sold only 59.5% of their catch. The remaining 40.5% was of low economic value and was retained for consumption by the fishers and their families (i.e., subsistence). During an exploratory study of fishery resources throughout the Colombian Caribbean, Manjarrés-Martínez et al. (2005a, b, c) reported that the percent contribution of commercially important fish to the total catch was 51.1%, 54.2%, and 65.5% in April, July, and October/November, respectively. The estimates of subsistence catch in Rodas-López et al. (1994) were based on data for November, so we used the ratio of the mean percent contribution of the catch of low commercial value (43.1%) to the percent contribution in October/November (34.5%) to estimate that the Table 2. Estimates of the percent contribution of the small-scale sector to total reported landings in Colombia. Source Area Year Contribution (%) Duarte & García (2002) Atlantic 1995 29.2 INCODER Atlantic 1999 13.6 INCODER Atlantic 2000 12.4 INCODER Atlantic 2001 31.3 INCODER Atlantic 2002 18.8 INCODER Atlantic 2003 59.4 INCODER Atlantic 2004 52.0 INCODER Atlantic 2005 72.3  Mora-Lara (1986) Pacific 1986 67.5 INCODER Pacific 1999 6.5 INCODER Pacific 2000 11.1 INCODER Pacific 2001 5.3 INCODER Pacific 2002 12.8 INCODER Pacific 2003 4.8 INCODER Pacific 2004 5.0 INCODER Pacific 2005 2.4 A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  73 annual percentage of the total catch that is not sold by small-scale fishers is 50.6% (1.25 x 0.405). In 1986, 98% of the fish landed in the Caribbean, excluding tunas, was caught by the small-scale sector. This suggested that 49.6% of total catches (excluding tunas) was not reported in the Caribbean area. Thus, we adjusted the reported fish landings in the Caribbean (excluding tunas) by a factor of 1.98 (1/0.504) to account for subsistence fishing. Tobón-López et al. (in press) studied the catch composition of small-scale fisheries in the central Pacific for an entire year. They found that 20 fish families contributed to 64% of the catch. From these 20 families, we added the contribution to total catch of the families that were classified by Tobón-López et al. (in press) as having low commercial but high subsistence value (Haemulidae and Sciaenidae), and those families containing species whose catch was not reported in the official statistics (Ophichthidae, Muraenidae, Labridae, Tetraodontidae, Synodontidae, Cirrhitidae, Scaridae, and Balistidae). We used FishBase (Froese and Pauly 2007) to identify the family of fish species that were reported by their (Spanish-language) common names. The contribution of the 10 families above to total catch was 29.1%. In 1989, 76.2% of the fish landed in the Pacific, excluding tunas and clupeids, was caught by the small-scale sector (Pereira-Velásquez 1993). This suggested that 22.2% of total catches (excluding tuna and clupeids) was not reported in the Pacific area. Thus, we adjusted the reported fish landings in the Pacific (excluding tuna and clupeids) by a factor of 1.29 (1/0.778) to account for subsistence fishing. We consider that this estimate may be conservative because Tobón et al. (in press) reported on only 20 fish families (the other families were grouped in a single category), and it is likely that other families include species that are not marketed, but are important for subsistence. Discards from tuna fishing  During 4 trips aboard tuna fishing vessels with capacity <400 t in the Colombian Pacific, Lara (2004) reported that the discard/tuna ratio was 0.027 for casts directly on tuna schools and 0.056 for casts on floating objects. The mortality rate for the discarded fish was higher than 99%. Casts on tuna schools caught 1.59 as much tuna per hour as casts on floating objects, so we applied the weighted mean of discards/tuna (0.045) to tuna landings to estimate annual discards. We didn’t find studies reporting discard rates for any region in the Caribbean, but the mean discard rate for tuna, bonito, and swordfish fisheries are 2.1 higher in the Atlantic than in the East-Central Pacific (Kelleher 2005), so we applied a discards/tuna ratio of 0.095 to the tuna landings in the Colombian Caribbean.  RESULTS Differences in landings between the officially-reported data and those reported by FAO on behalf of the Colombian government have become more pronounced since the intensification of industrial tuna fishing (Figures 3 and 4). In the Caribbean, differences in reported tuna landings between national sources and FAO statistics accounted for approximately 61% of the variation in the differences in total landings for 1991-2004 (r2=0.608, F=18.62, P<0.01). In the Pacific Ocean, differences in reported tuna landings accounted for 0 5 10 15 20 25 R ep or te d la nd in gs  (t  x  1 03 ) (a) (b) 0 20 40 60 80 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year R ep or te d la nd in gs  (t  x  1 03 ) Figure 4. Officially-reported tuna landings (1950-2005, dark line) and tuna landings reported by FAO (1950-2004, light line) for the Colombian (a) Atlantic and (b) Pacific Oceans. Note differences in scale. A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  74 approximately 59% of the variation in the differences in total landings for 1988-2004 (r2=0.591, F=21.67, P<0.01). Before the intensification of tuna fishing, the small-scale sector contributed more than half of the total reported landings in the Caribbean and Pacific Oceans (Figure 5). During years of low fishing by the industrial fleet, the small-scale sector still contributes substantially to the total catch (Figure 5). However, the industrial fleet has contributed with more than 80% of the catch during some recent years. There are noticeable differences between the officially-reported landings and the reconstructed total catch estimates, and discrepancies were generally larger in the Atlantic than in the Pacific (Figures 6 and 7). The unreported by-catch and the discards from shrimp trawling were the largest components of unreported catch in both oceans, and they generally represented a larger proportion in the Atlantic than in the Pacific (Figure 7).  Our results suggest that for the period 1950-2004, fisheries catches in the Colombian Atlantic may have been 2.9 times higher than the reported landings presented by FAO on behalf of Colombia (Figure 8). In the Colombian Pacific, catches may have been 1.4 higher than the landings presented by FAO. For the country as a whole, total fisheries catches may have been more than 1.8 times higher than the landings reported by FAO (Figure 9). DISCUSSION Our catch reconstruction suggests that the retained, but unreported by-catch and the discards of the shrimp fisheries are the most important components of the unreported catches in the Colombian Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The antiquated equipment used by the industrial fishery and the artisanal methods employed by the small-scale fishery are non-selective and result in unreported by-catches that are approximately 3 times larger than the shrimp catches in the Pacific Ocean, and 12 times larger than the shrimp catches in the Caribbean. These results are in agreement with FAO reports indicating that the mean discards/shrimp ratio of shrimp trawling in the Caribbean is 12.1, which is one of the highest discard rates of any fishery worldwide (Alverson et al. 1994). The lower contribution of discards to total catch in the Pacific may be associated with the higher number of commercially-important species in this area compared to the Caribbean (Table 1). The discard rate in the Colombian Pacific (0.89) is substantially lower than the rates reported for the industrial shrimp trawls in Ecuador and Perú (3.78 and 4.26, respectively, Kelleher 2005). C at ch  (% ) (a) (b) 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year C at ch  (% ) Figure 5. Percent contribution of small-scale fisheries (dark line) and tuna, clupeid, spiny lobster, and queen conch landings (light line) to total catches in the Colombian (a) Atlantic and (b) Pacific Oceans for 1950-2005. Open circles correspond to the values in Table 2. The remaining data points were estimated by using the regression equations of percent contribution vs. industrial landings (see text for details). A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  75                      Figure 6. Reconstructed total catch estimates for the Colombian (a) Atlantic and (b) Pacific Oceans for 1950-2005. The reconstruction includes retained but unreported by- catch, discard, and subsistence components. (a) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Discards of tuna fisheryDiscards of shrimp fisheries Unreported by-catch of shrimp fisheries Subsistence fishing Reported landings 0 40 80 120 160 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year   Subsistence fishing  Unreported by-catch of shrimp fisheries Discards of shrimp fisheries  Reported landings Discards of tuna fishery C at ch  (t  x  1 03 ) (b) Figure 7. Percent contribution of the different catch components to the reconstructed total catch in the Colombian (a) Atlantic and (b) Pacific Oceans for 1950-2005. 0 20 40 60 80 100 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 0 20 40 60 80 100 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Reported landings Unreported by-catch of shrimp fisheries Discards of shrimp fisheriesSubsistence fishing Discards of tuna fishery Year Reported landings Unreported by-catch of shrimp fisheries Discards of tuna fishery Discards of shrimp fisheries Subsistence fishing (a) (b) C on tr ib ut io n to  c at ch  (% ) C on tr ib ut io n to  c at ch  (% )A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  76 Subsistence fishing is an important component of unreported fishing in the Colombian Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Colombia has one of the highest numbers of internally- displaced people worldwide (between 2 to 3 million people according to UNHCR 2007), and food security is a critical issue in many areas of the country that have been affected by violence, including parts of the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. Fish is an important component of the diet of coastal communities, and during recent years, the number of people involved in artisanal fishing has increased as part of the displaced population seeks alternative means of sustenance and income (Beltrán-Turriago and Villaneda-Jiménez 2000).  Difficulties with the collection of landings data have been pervasive in Colombia, and it likely that large fluctuations in landings between certain years are partly associated with unreliable landings data. Impediments to data collection in the country have been the result of the frequent transfer of management responsibilities between different agencies and the resulting changes in data collection procedures; the logistical difficulties involved in obtaining information from distant and geographically isolated communities; and the reduced number of staff of the fishery management agencies (Sáenz 1962; Ciardelli 1968; WCAFC 2000). These problems with data collection and management may help to explain the discrepancies between the official data held by INCODER and the data reported by FAO on behalf of Colombia. However, fluctuations in landings data are also likely associated with overfishing, as discussed above for the shrimp fisheries, and with environmental factors. In 1973 and 1983, for example, decreases in shrimp landings in the Pacific coincided with strong El Niño events (Mora-Lara 1987). Similarly, fluctuations in tuna catches in the Pacific during the 1980s and 1990s have been correlated with changes in sea-surface temperatures (Pedraza and Díaz-Ochoa 2006).  Figure 8. Reconstructed total catch estimates in the Colombian (a) Atlantic and (b) Pacific (b) Oceans, and reported landings data as presented by FAO on behalf of Colombia, for 1950-2004. R ep or te d la nd in gs  o r ca tc h (t  x  1 03 ) (a) (b) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Reconstructed catch FAO reported landings 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year FAO reported landings Reconstructed catch Figure 9. Reconstructed total catch estimates in Colombia (Atlantic and Pacific Oceans combined), and reported landings data as presented by FAO on behalf of Colombia, for 1950-2004. R ep or te d la nd in gs  or  c at ch  (t  x  1 03 ) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Reconstructed catch  FAO reported landings R ep or te d la nd in gs  or  c at ch  (t  x  1 03 )A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  77 In addition to the uncertainty in the reliability of the reported landings, our reconstruction may have underestimated total catches in Colombia because it did not include the following extractive activities which have been reported, but not quantified. Colombia has a limited ability to enforce fishing regulations (UNEP 2006), and the use of illegal fishing methods such as dynamite and fish poisons, which have a large impact on non-target species, has been observed in both coasts (Giudicelli 1979, Friedemann and Arocha 1984, Pérez-Ramírez 1986). Deficient enforcement has also resulted in recurrent illegal fishing by Honduran and Nicaraguan boats in the San Andrés Archipelago. Colombia has granted fishing rights to the United States in these waters2, but United States vessels must provide records of their catches to the Colombian fisheries management authorities. However, we could not find any information indicating that these records have been provided.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are indebted to Colombia’s Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Andrés Felipe Arias-Leiva, for his interest in this research and his support in locating official fisheries data. We also thank the following people from the Ministry and INCODER-Bogotá: C.G. Barreto-Reyes, E. Bochno-Hernández, R. Campo-Soto, and L. Tobón-Torregloza. For assistance in finding fisheries reports we thank J. Altamar- López (Universidad del Magdalena), E. Arteaga (INVEMAR), M. Barros-Jiménez (Universidad de Concepción, Chile), M.I. Criales (CENSOR Project), N. Farias (Fundación Omacha), A. Giraldo (Universidad del Valle), G. Lara (Pontificia Universidad Javeriana), M. Prada (CORALINA), E. Taylor (CORALINA), A. Tobón-López (Fundación Natura), and J. Viaña-Tous (INCODER-Cartagena). We thank C. Close for extracting Colombian data from FAO FishStat and for producing the map of Colombia. We are grateful to D. Pauly for his support of this research. D. Pauly and S. Menzel provided helpful suggestions on the manuscript. This work forms part of the Sea Around Us Project, funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, and located at the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.  REFERENCES Alverson, D.L., Freeberg, M.H., Pope, J.G. and Murawski, S.A. (1994) A global assessment of fisheries by-catch and discards. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 339, Rome, 233 p. Barreto, C.G. (1986) Evaluación de las pesquerías de camarón en Buenaventura y Tumaco [Evaluation of the shrimp fisheries of Buenaventura and Tumaco]. INDERENA, Bogotá, 19 p. [in Spanish].  Barreto-Reyes, C.G., Polo-Romero, G.A. and Mancilla-Páramo, B. (2001) Análisis biólogico-pesquero y económico de la fauna acompañante en la pesquería de arrastre industrial colombiana [Fisheries-biology and economic analysis of the incidental by- catch of industrial trawling in Colombia]. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 974, Rome. Available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/007/y2859e/y2859e00.pdf [Accessed: June 1, 2007], 378 p. [in Spanish].  Beltrán-Turriago, C.S. (2001). La pesca artesanal en Colombia [Artisanal fisheries in Colombia]. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 957/2, Rome. Available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/ad056s/ad056s00.pdf [Accessed: June 5, 2007], 71 p. [in Spanish].  Beltrán-Turriago, C.S. and Villaneda-Jiménez, A.A. (2000) Perfil de la pesca y la acuicultura en Colombia [Profile of fishing and aquaculture in Colombia]. INPA, Bogotá, 26 p. [in Spanish].  Ciardelli-Fadul, Q. (1968) The marine fisheries of Colombia and their statistics. Proceedings of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 20: 133-144. Duarte, L.O. and García, C.B. (2002) Testing responses of a tropical shelf ecosystem to fisheries management strategies: a small-scale fishery from the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Fisheries Centre Research Reports V(10), Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, pp. 142-149. Duarte, L.O., Gómez-Canchong, P., Manjarrés, L.M., García, C.B., Escobar, F.D., Altamar, J., Viaña, J.E., Tejada, K., Sánchez J. and Cuello, F. (2006) Variabilidad circadiana de la tasa de captura y la estructura de tallas en camarones e ictiofauna acompañante en la pesquería de arrastre del Mar Caribe de Colombia [Circadian variability in the catch rate and size structure of shrimp and by-catches of the Colombian Caribbean trawl fishery]. Investigaciones Marinas 34: 23-42. [in Spanish]. Friedemann, N.S. and Arocha, J. (1984) Pescadores artesanales de la Boquilla y Tumaco [Artisanal fishers of La Boquilla and Tumaco]. IDRC Research Report 3P82-0258, Bogotá, 241 p. [in Spanish]. Froese, R. and Pauly, D. (2007) Fishbase. World Wide Web electronic publication. www.fishbase.org version (01/2007). [Accessed: August 25, 2007]. García, M.A. (1985) Efectos de la pesca de arrastre sobre la fauna acompañante del camarón [Effects of  trawl fishing on shrimp by- catches]. FAO Fisheries Report No. 327 (suppl.). Rome, pp. 65-78. [in Spanish].                                                  2 The Vásquez-Saccio Treaty between Colombia and the United States was signed in 1972. Under this treaty, the United States gives up any claims over the islands of Quitasueño, Roncador, and Serrana and the surrounding waters, and Colombia grants it fishing rights, under certain conditions. The text of the treaty is available at www.armada.mil.co/tratados/tratcol-usa.doc. A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  78 Giudicelli, M. (1979) La pesca artesanal marítima en la costa caribeña de Colombia: su situación, sus posibilidades y sus necesidades para el desarrollo [Artisanal marine fisheries in the Colombian Caribbean: status, possibilities, and requirements for development]. WECAF Report No. 8, Panama, 62 p. [in Spanish]. Gómez-Canchong, P.G., Manjarrés, L.M., Duarte, L.O., and Altamar, J.E. (2004) Atlas pesquero del área norte del Mar Caribe de Colombia [Fisheries atlas of the northern Colombian Caribbean]. GIEEP, Santa Marta, Colombia, 229 p. [in Spanish].   INDERENA (1983) Análisis evaluativo de la pesquería artesanal e industrial en el Golfo de Urabá [Evaluation of the artisanal and industrial fisheries in the Gulf of Urabá]. Cartagena, 11 p. [in Spanish].  INDERENA (1988) Informe sobre el estado y administración de la pesquería de camarones de agua someras en la costa del Caribe [Report on the status and administration of shallow-water shrimp fisheries in the Caribbean]. Bogotá, 21 p. [in Spanish]. Kelleher, K. (2005) Discards in the World's Marine Fisheries- An Update. FAO, Rome. Available at: www.fao.org/docrep/008/y5936e/y5936e00.HTM [Accessed: September 19, 2007], 131 p. Lara, G.A. (2004) Efectos de la pesca atunera con arte de red de cerco  en especies no-objectivo capturadas incidentalmente  en el Océano Pacífico colombiano [Effects of tuna purse-seine fishing on by-catches in the Colombian Pacific. B.Sc. Thesis, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, 105 p. [in Spanish]. Magnusson, M., Aubray, R., Boerema, L.K., Giudicelli, M. and Shepard, M.P. (1983) Colombia: desarrollo y ordenación de las pesquerías marinas [Colombia- development and planning of marine fisheries]. FAO, Rome, 92 p. [in Spanish]. Manjarrés, L., Vergara, A., Torres, J., Rodríguez, G., Arteaga, E., Viaña, J., E., Arévalo, J. and Galvis, R. (2005a) Evaluación de peces demersales e ictioplancton en el Mar Caribe de Colombia, incluyendo condiciones oceanográficas. Parte 1: Crucero INPA- VECEP/UE/DEMER/9507 (julio de 1995) [Evaluation of demersal fish and icthyioplankton in the Colombian Caribbean, including oceanographic conditions. Part 1: INPA-VECEP/UE/DEMER/9507 cruise, July 1995]. Intrópica 2: 51-86 [in Spanish]. Manjarrés, L., Vergara, A., Torres, J., Rodríguez, G., Arteaga, E., Viaña, J., E., Arévalo, J. and Galvis, R. (2005b) Evaluación de peces demersales e ictioplancton en el Mar Caribe de Colombia, incluyendo condiciones oceanográficas. Parte 2: Crucero INPA- VECEP/UE/DEMER/9510 (octubre/noviembre de 1995) [Evaluation of demersal fish and icthyioplankton in the Colombian Caribbean, including oceanographic conditions. Part 2: INPA-VECEP/UE/DEMER/9510 cruise, October/November 1995]. Intrópica 2: 87-115 [in Spanish]. Manjarrés, L., Vergara, A., Torres, J., Rodríguez, G., Arteaga, E., Viaña, J., E., Arévalo, J. and Galvis, R. (2005c) Evaluación de peces demersales e ictioplancton en el Mar Caribe de Colombia, incluyendo condiciones oceanográficas. Parte 3: Crucero INPA- VECEP/UE/DEMER/9604 (abril de 1996) [Evaluation of demersal fish and icthyioplankton in the Colombian Caribbean, including oceanographic conditions. Part 3: INPA-VECEP/UE/DEMER/9604 cruise, April 1996]. Intrópica 2: 117-149 [in Spanish]. Ministerio de Agricultura, 1993. Estadísticas pesqueras de Colombia, 1980-1992 [Colombian fishery statistics, 1980-1992].  Mora-Lara, O. (1986) El estado de la pesca industrial y artesanal en Colombia y sus posibilidades de desarrollo [The status of industrial and artisanal fishing in Colombia and the possibilities for their development]. p. 1019-1032 In Anon. (ed.). Proceedings of the International Conference of the Groupe d’Ètude des Resources Maritimes (GERMA) on Small-Scale Fisheries and Economic Development and of the Third Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET) on Fisheries Trade, Development and Policies V(2). University of Quebec at Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada [in Spanish]. Mora-Lara, O. (1987) Análisis de la pesca de langostino efectuada por la flota camaronera de Buenaventura y el “trasmallo electrónico” [Analysis of shrimp fishing by the industrial fleet in Buenaventura and by surrounding nets]. INDERENA, Bogotá, 15 p. [in Spanish]. Pedraza, M.J. and Díaz-Ochoa, J.A. (2006) Sea-level height, sea surface temperature, and tuna yields in the Panama blight during El Niño. Advances in Geosciences 6: 155-159. Pereira-Velásquez, F. (1993) La pesca en el Pacífico [Fishing in the Pacific]. p. 58-64 In Leyva, P. (ed.), Colombia Pacífico: Tomo II. FEN, Bogotá. [in Spanish]. Pérez-Ramírez, G. (1986) The case of small fisheries and the economic development of Colombia. p. 967-971 In Anon. (ed.). Proceedings of the International Conference of the Groupe d’Ètude des Resources Maritimes (GERMA) on Small-Scale Fisheries and Economic Development and of the Third Biennial Conference of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade (IIFET) on Fisheries Trade, Development and Policies V(2). University of Quebec at Rimouski, Rimouski, Canada. Prado, J. and Drew, S. (1999) Research and development in fishing technology in Latin America. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 944. FAO, Rome, 31 p. Rodas-López, E., Zárate-Villarreal, M. and Caycedo-Lara, M. (1994) Magnitud, composición y valores económicos de las capturas con trasmallo, boliche y cordel de tres agrupaciones de pescadores en el área de influencia de Cartagena [Magnitude, composition, and economic value of the catches with surrounding nets, cast nets, and lines of 3 fishing groups in the Cartagena region]. p. 71- 82 In Valderrama-Barco, M., Rodríguez-Gómez, H., Acevedo-Rojas, G. and Gallo-Nieto, J. (eds.), Boletín Científico INPA, 1994. INPA, Bogotá. [in Spanish]. Rueda, M., Higuera-Salazar, H. and Angulo-Sinisterra, J.A. (2004) Caracterización tecnológica de la flota de arrastre de camarón del Pacífico de Colombia [Technological characteristics of the shrimp-trawling fishery in the Colombian Pacific]. FAO, Rome. Available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/FI/DOCUMENT/rebyc/colombia/FishingTechnology_Pacific_Coast_PPR_1.pdf [Accessed July 29, 2007], 28 p. [in Spanish]. Sáenz, W. (1962) Fisheries progress in Colombia. p. 141-144 In: Higman, J.B. (ed.), Proceedings of the 14th Annual Session of the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida. A reconstruction of Colombia’s marine fisheries catches, Wielgus, Caicedo-Herrera & Zeller  79 Squires, H.J. and Riveros, G. (1978) Fishery biology of spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) of the Guajira Peninsula of Colombia, South America, 1969-1970. Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association 68: 63-74. Tobón-López, A., Rubio, E.A. and Giraldo, A. (in press) Análisis taxonómico de la ictiofauna del Golfo de Tribugá, Pacífico colombiano [Taxonomic analysis of the ichtyiofauna of the Gulf of Tribugá, Colombian Pacific]. Investigaciones Marinas. [in Spanish].  Trujillo, O.A. (1986) Estudio sobre las capturas incidentales de la pesca del camarón en la Ensenada de Tumaco, Pacífico colombiano, 1983-1984 [Study on the incidental by-catches of shrimp fishing in the Bay of Tumaco, Colombian Pacific, 1983-1984]. Fundación Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogotá, 37 p. [in Spanish]. UNEP (2006) Permanent Commission for the South Pacific (CPPS). Eastern Equatorial Pacific, GIWA regional assessment 65. University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden. Available at: www.giwa.net/areas/reports/r65/giwa_regional_assessment_65.pdf [Accessed: September 18, 2007], 81 p. UNHCR (2007) 2006 Global trends: refugees, asylum-seekers, returnees, internally displaced and stateless persons. Available at: www.unhcr.org/statistics/STATISTICS/4676a71d4.pdf [Accessed September 14, 2007]. WCAFC (2000) Report of the Workshop on Management of the Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) Fisheries in the Area of the Western Central Atlantic Fishery Commission. Mérida, Mexico, 4–8 September 2000. FAO Fisheries Report No. 643, Rome. Available at: www.fao.org/fi/projects/fishcode/publications/other/FR643.pdf [Accessed: June 6, 2007], 66 p. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. and Pauly, D. (2006) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa, 1950-2002. Coral Reefs 25: 144-152. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fisheries catches for U.S. flag island areas in the Western Pacific: the last 50 years. Fisheries Bulletin 105: 266-277. Zúñiga-Clavijo, H., Altamar, J. and Manjarrés, L. (2004) Caracterización tecnológica de la flota de arrastre camaronero del Mar Caribe de Colombia [Technological characteristics of the shrimp trawling fishery in the Colombian Caribbean]. FAO, Rome. Available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/FI/DOCUMENT/rebyc/colombia/Fishing_Technology_Atlantic_Coast_PPR_1.pdf [Accessed July 29, 2007], 20 p. [in Spanish].     80   Fisheries catch statistics for Mexico, Arreguín-Sánchez & Arcos-Huitrón  81 FISHERIES CATCH STATISTICS FOR MEXICO1 Francisco Arreguín-Sánchez and Enrique Arcos-Huitrón  Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas del IPN Apartado Postal 592, La Paz,23000,  Baja California Sur, México. email: farregui@ipn.mx;  francisco.arreguinsanchez@gmail.com  ABSTRACT This contribution presents a compilation of reported commercial catch statistics from Mexico, for the last five decades, extracted from statistical books published by agencies of the Mexican Federal Government. Statistics are reported by state, based on local common names. We annotated some aspects regarding the interpretation of catch data based on geographical distribution of the states, potential confusion with common names as well as potential misinterpretation when information is to be used as representative of the species distribution.  MEXICAN CATCH STATISTICS Historically, catch statistics have been compiled by agencies of the Mexican Federal Government (Table 1). The basic process is as follows:  For the small-scale fisheries, catches are recorded at landing locations directly, or catch records are accumulated by ‘mediators’ who report catches to local fisheries officers. In both cases catch records are compiled and send to regional federal offices (mostly by State), before being send to the central office in Mexico City. The efficiency of this data collection process depends on region and state, and data transfer and ‘preservation’ levels differ, but have improved over time.  For industrials statistics, collection is easier in the sense that industrial operators have their own records as raw material; these catches are reported to local offices, and subsequently follow the same route as described above. In all cases the names of the taxa caught are local names, and names are conserved troughout the process.                                                    1 Cite as: Arreguín-Sánchez, F. and Arcos-Huitrón, E. 2007. Fisheries catch statistics for Mexico. p. 81-103 In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Table 1: Federal governement sources of fisheries catch data for Mexico Period Source 1956 - 1958 Secretaria de Industria y Comercio, 1964. Dirección General de Pesca e Industrias Conexas. Estadísticas Pesqueras Concentradas, 1956 – 1961. 1959 – 1967 Secretaria de Industria y Comercio, 1966.  Dirección General de Pesca e Industrias Conexas. Estadísticas Básicas de la Actividad Pesquera Nacional, 1959 – 1965. 1968 - 1970 Secretaria de Industria y Comercio, 1971. Dirección General de Regiones Pesqueras. Estadísticas Básicas de la Actividad Pesquera Nacional, 1968 – 1970. 1971 - 1975 Secretaría de Industria y Comercio, 1976. Dirección General de Plantación y Promoción Pesqueras. Departamento de Estadísticas Básicas. 1971 – 1975.  1976 - 1982 Anuarios Estadísticos de Pesca. Departamento de Pesca. Dirección General de Información y Estadística. One per year. 1983 - 1994 Anuarios Estadísticos de Pesca. Secretaría de Pesca. Dirección General de Información, Estadística y Documentación. One per year. 1995 - 2000 Anuarios Estadísticos de Pesca. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca. Dirección General de Política y Fomento Pesquero. One per year. 2001 – 2003 Anuarios Estadísticos de Pesca. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca. One per year. Fisheries catch statistics for Mexico, Arreguín-Sánchez & Arcos-Huitrón  82 Given the insitutional setup of data recording, catches are reported by each federal state (Figure 1), with concomittant aggregation of taxa to streamline reporting. This results, for example, in individual shrimp species being reported together as ‘shrimp’ (Spanish: camarón), which concentrate different species locally known as brown (café), white (blanco) etc. Complicating the taxonomic accounting is the fact that similar common names can relate to different species, and this may vary by state. For example, ‘brown shrimp’ as reported by the Pacific states is Farfantepenaeus californiensis, but in the Gulf of Mexico it is Farfantepenaeus aztecus. Similarly, the ‘red snapper’ is Lutjanus peru in the Pacific, and Lutjanus campechanus in the Gulf of Mexico. This problem needs correcting before these data can be used in a global setting. This requires transfer of commmon names to scientirfic entities (see Appendix 1).  The currently reported fisheries catches from 1956-2003, as reported here by state, illustrate the increase in reported catches over time, with peaks in time differing by coast. Catches taken along the Pacific coast have generally been higher than Gulf of Mexico catches (Figure 2a, b). Overall, Mexican catches peaked at over 1.2 x 10-6 t in the late 1980s, before declining to just under 1.0 x 10-6 t by early 2000 (Figure 2c). Breakdown of catch statistics by states are available from the authors and vis the Sea Around Us Project website (www.seaaroundus.org).  For species-specific catch distributions, special care must be taken with statistics from the states of Baja California and Baja California Sur, since some species occur only on the Pacific coast of the peninsula while others are only present within the Gulf of California. For example, this is the case for abalone, where Haliotis fulgens (blue abalone), H. corrugate (yellow), H. cracherodii (black), H. rufescens (red), H. sorenseni (chinese) and other Haliotis spp. only have a Pacific coast distribution, but are absent from the Gulf of California (Figure 3).  Specific issues relate also to the tuna fishery, which is important in terms of catch volume. The high mobility of fleets and catch area extending beyond the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Mexico (Figure 4), result in catches being reported only for and by the home port of the vessel (not the area where catches were taken). Even when logbooks and scientific observers have specific spatial data on catch, global statistics refer mostly to the home ports.  The giant squid, Dosidiscus gigas, occurs in both the Gulf of California (except in the northern regions), and the Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Figure 5). Since most catches are taken by small scale fisheries, statistics are recorded by landing site, which corresponds to the origin of the fleets. Catches for the state of Baja California Sur are not disaggregated by Gulf versus Pacific coast in the statistics. Figure 1. Coastal states of Mexico.  Fisheries catch statistics for Mexico, Arreguín-Sánchez & Arcos-Huitrón  83      Figure 2. Catch time series for Mexico, by state, showing (a) Gulf of Mexico; (b) Pacific coast of Mexico; and (c) coastal and country-wide total catches.  0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year C at ch  (x  1 03  t) Quintana Roo Yucatan Campeche Tabasco Tamaulipas Veracruz 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year C at ch  (x  1 03  t) Others Baja California Sur Sinaloa Baja California Sonora 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year C at ch  (x  1 03  t) Total Pacific Gulf of Mexico C at ch  (x  1 03  t) C at ch  (x  1 03  t) C at ch  (x  1 03  t) C at ch  (x  1 03  t) C at ch  (x  1 03  t) C at ch  (x  1 03  t) a) b) c) Fisheries catch statistics for Mexico, Arreguín-Sánchez & Arcos-Huitrón  84                         In order to spatially disaggregate these catches, we must turn to catch statistics at the local level (main landing sites). Currently, the Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca (CONAPESCA) maintains a database with information from small-scale and industrial fleets, with detailed information by landing sites, for the last decade. Hernádez-Herrera and Ramírez-Rodríguez (2005) reviewed and validated localities around the Peninsula and the entire Gulf of California, to produce a better system to aggregate information. An Atlas of Fishing Localities for the Peninsula of Baja California and the Gulf of California is available (Ramírez-Rodríguez et al. 2006), which contains information for the last three years (Mauricio Ramírez-Rodríguez pers. comm., Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas del IPN, México, mramirr@ipn.mx). Additional details on the main fisheries in Mexico can be found in INP (2000, 2004), DOF (2004, 2006), and Arreguín-Sánchez et al. (2006). Note also that the present data do not include catches made, but not landed or reported, such as discards taken as part of shrimp trawl fisheries, and other IUU (Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated) catches. Therefore, estimating IUU catches would be a further, likley significant, improvement on the data presented here.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank colleagues from the Instituto Nacional de Pesca and the Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca, who facilitated access to statistical books. We also thank SEMARNAT-CONACyT (contract: 1231), SAGARPA-CONACyT (contract: 12004), INCOFISH (contract 003739) and SPI-IPN (contract 20050686; 20060579; 20070767) for support. The senior author also thanks the National Polytechnic Institute for support through EDI and COFAA.  Figure 3. Distribution area of abalone species on the Pacific coast of the Peninsula of Baja California, Mexico (taken from Arreguín- Sánchez et al. 2006). Figure 4. Catch locations for the Mexican tuna fleet, based on scientific observer programs. Records from the National Program for Tuna Use and Dolphin Conservation (taken from Arreguín- Sánchez et al. 2006). Figure 5. Giant squid records come from the whole distribution area which comprises the central Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Peninsula of Baja California. This comprises the states of Sonora, northern Sinaloa, and both coasts of Baja California Sur (taken from Arreguín-Sánchez et al. 2006). Fisheries catch statistics for Mexico, Arreguín-Sánchez & Arcos-Huitrón  85  REFERENCES Abbott, R.T. 1974. American seashells. VNRC . New York. 222, 241 pp. Andrews, J. 1977. Shells and Shores of Texas. University of Texas Press/Austin and London. 365 p. Arreguin-Sánchez, F., Beléndez-Moreno, L., Méndez-Gómez-Humarán, I., Solana-Sansores, R. and Rangel-Dávalos, C. (Editors) 2006.  Sustentabilidad y pesca responsable en México: evaluación y manejo. Instituto Nacional de Pesca. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. México.543p. DOF. 2000. Carta Nacional Pesquera. Lunes 28 de agosto. Segunda Sección. Mexico. 1 - 72 pp. DOF. 2004. Carta Nacional Pesquera, Diario Oficial de la Federación. Gobierno de la República, México. 15 de Marzo de 2004 DOF. 2006. Actualización de la Carta Nacional Pesquera, Diario Oficial de la Federación. Gobierno de la República, México. 25 de Agosto de 2006. Escobar-Hernández, R. and Siri, M. 1997. Nombres vernáculos y científicos de los peces del Pacífico mexicano. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. Sociedad Ictiológica Mexicana, A.C. Mexico. 102 p. Hernández-Herrera A. and Ramírez-Rodríguez, M. 2004. Manejo eficiente de la información sobre la producción pesquera a partir de los “avisos de arribo”: Baja California Sur, casos de estudio. En: Mem. I Foro Científico de Pesca Ribereña. 17-18 de Octubre de 2002. INP CRIP Guaymas, Son. INP. 2000. Sustentabilidad y pesca responsable en México: evaluación y manejo. Instituto Nacional de Pesca. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. México. INP. 2004. Sustentabilidad y pesca responsable en México: evaluación y manejo. Instituto Nacional de Pesca. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. México McEachran, J.D. and Fechhelm, J.D. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Vol 1. Univ. of Texas Press.  1112 p. McEachran, J.D. and Fechhelm, J.D. 2005. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Vol 2. University of Texas Press. 1004 p. Ramírez-Rodríguez, M., López-Ferreira, C. and Hernández-Herrera, A. 2006. Atlas de localidades pesqueras en México. Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas del Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Comisión Nacional de Acuacultura y Pesca, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología. México. Secretaria de Pesca. 1994. Atlas Pesquero de México. Instituto Nacional de la Pesca. Mexico.234 p.         86   APPENDIX  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments almeja rangia americana, almeja gallito Common rangia Rangia cuneata Mainly Veracruz & Campeche  almeja de río Brown rangia (5) Rangia flexuosa   lucina tigre atlántica, almeja de mar Atlantic tiger lucine Codakia orbicularis   almeja de marjal Carolina marsh clam Polymedosa caroliliana   almeja de marjal triangular, de fango Triangular  marsh clam Polymesoda triangula   arca auriculada eared ark Anadara notabilis   arca zebra turkey wing Arca zebra   berberecho del Atlántico giant Atlantic cockle Dinocardium robustum   almeja de mar, almejuela del sur southern hard shell clam Mercenaria campechensis  anchoveta anchoveta rabo amarillo Atlantic anchoveta Cetengraulis edentulus Mainly Campeche & Yucatan armado  armado pigfish Orthopristis chrysoptera Campeche Bank (2) atún atún aleta amarilla yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares Mainly Veracruz   atún aleta negra blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus   atún aleta azul bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus   patudo , ojón bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus  bagre bagre hardhead catfish Ariopsis felis Mainly Veracruz & Campeche  bagre maya  Ariopsis assimillis   bagre prieto  Cathorops melanopus  bandera bagre bandera gafttopsail Bagre marinus Mainly Veracruz & Campeche barrilete barrilete skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis    87  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments berrugata zorra nothern kingcroaker Menticirrhus saxatilis Only within the Gulf of Mexico  gurrubata gulf kingcroaker Menticirrhus littoralis   rastreador southern kingcroaker Menticirrhus americanus  besugo pargo cunaro, pargo colorado vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens Only within the Gulf of Mexico bonito bonito del Atlántico Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda   bacoreta little tuny Euthynnus alletteratus   melva frigate tuna, frigate mackerel Auxis thazard   melva bullet tuna, bullet mackerel Auxis rochei  cabrilla cabrilla scamp Mycteroperca phenax   cabrilla de roca red hind Epinephelus guttatus   cabrilla gato tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris   cabrilla roja coney Cephalopholis fulva   payaso rock hind Epinephelus adscensionis  calamar calamar de aletas largas del Atlántico Atlantic long-finned squid Loligo pealei   calamar de dedal corto brief thumbstall squid Lolliguncula brevis  camarón camarón café nothern brown shrim Farfantepenaeus aztecus   camarón blanco southern white shrim Litopenaeus setiferus   camarón rosado pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarun   camarón siete barbas del Golfo Atlantic seabob Xiphopenaeus kroyeri   camarón rojo redspotter shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis   camarón de roca rock shrimp Sicyonia brevirostris  caracol caracol rosado, de abanico, reina pink conch, queen conch Strombus gigas Mainly Campeche   caracol blanco, lanceta cobo lechoso Strombus costatus    88  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments  caracol gigante, rojo, chacpel Florida horse conch Pleuroploca gigantea   caracol tomburro west indian chank Turbinella angulatus   caracol trompillo Kiener's whelk Busycon carica   caracol trompillo lightning whelk Busycon contrarium   caracol chivita, negro west indian crown conch Melongena melongena   caracol negro common crown conch Melongena corona bispinosa   caracol canelo fighting conch Strombus pugilis   caracol campechana, caracol tulipán true tulip Fasciolaria tulipa  carito carito lucio, peto king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla Only within the Gulf of Mexico cazón cazón de ley Atlantic sharp-nosed shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae   cazón cabeza de pala, cornuda  bonnethead shark Sphyrna tiburo   cazón perro, musola viuda Narrowfin smooth-hound Mustelus norrisi   cazón de playa, tiburón jaquetón silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis   cazón cangúey blacknose shark Carcharhinus acronotus   cazón espinoso cuban dogfish Squalus cubensis  cherna mero) cherna jewfish Epinephelus itajara   cherna boca amarilla, gallina yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca intersitialis   cherna pinta snowy grouper Epinephelus niveatus  chopa  chopa amarilla yellow chub Kyphosus incisor Mainly Tabasco & Campeche   chopa negra Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectator  chucumite chucumite fat snook Centropomus parallelus Only within the Gulf of Mexico cintilla (sable) sable, yegua Atlantic cutlassfish Trichiurus lepturus Only within the Gulf of Mexico cojinuda  cojinuda blue runner Caranx crysos Only within the Gulf of Mexico   89  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments  carbonera bar jack Caranx ruber  coronado (jurel) medregal coronado greater amberjack Seriola dumerili Only in Yucatan & Quinta Roo corvina corvina pinta sand seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus   corvina de arena spotted seatrout Cynoscion arenarius   corvinón ocelado reddrum Sciaenops ocellata  croca (ronco) croca spot Leiostomus xanthurus Only in Tamaulipas cubera cubera cubera snapper Lutjanus cyanopterus Only in Veracruz  esmedregal medregal banded rudderfish Seriola zonata   medregal limón almaco jack Seriola rivoliana   medregal listado lesser amberjack Seriola fasciata  gurrubata (berrugata) berrugata Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus Only in Tamaulipas & Veracruz  huachinango huachinango de castilla red snapper Lutjanus campechanus Mainly in Yucatan   huachinango ojo amarillo silk snapper Lutjanus vivanus   huachinango aleta negra blackfin snapper Lutjanus buccanella   huachinango seda queen snapper Etelis oculatus   huachinango navaja wenchman Pristipomoides aquilonaris  jaiba jaiba azul, jaiba roja, jaibón blue crab Callinectes sapidus Coastal lagoons, estuaries and coastal zone (2); mainly Tamaulipas & Veracruz   jaiba prieta, jaiba de puntas sharptooth swincrab Callinectes rathbunae   jaiba roma bluntttooth swincrab Callinectes bocourti   jaiba crab Callinectes ornatus    90  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments  jaiba dana swincrab Callinectes danae   jaiba azul lesser blue crab Callinectes similis  jurel jurel amarillo, común crevalle jack Caranx hippos   jurel blanco, ojón horse-eye jack Caranx latus   jurel dentón white trevally (FB) Pseudocaranx dentex   jurel negro black jack Caranx lugubris  langosta langosta del caribe, espinoza caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus Mainly Yucatan & Quintana Roo   langosta pinta, moteada spotted spiny lobster Panulirus guttatus   langosta verde smoothtail spiny lobster Panulirus laevicauda   langosta zapatera  Scyllarides nodifer  lebrancha lebrancha hospe mullet Mugil curema Mainly in Veracruz  lenguado lenguado two-spot flounder Bothus robinsi   lenguado spotfin flounder Cyclopsetta fimbriata   lenguado arenoso, de playa shoal flounder Syacium gunteri   lenguado de florida southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma   lenguado aleta manchada mexican flounder Cyclopsetta chittendeni   lenguado tres ojos gulf flounder Paralichthys albigutta   lenguado moreno dusky flounder Syacium papillosum  lisa lisa striped mullet Mugil cephalus Mainly in Tamaulipas   lisa amarilla fantail mullet (FB) Mugil trichodon  macabí Macabí de hebra threadfin bonefish Albula nemoptera Only in Quintana Roo   Macabí bonefish Albula vulpes   macabi, machete del Atlantico (FB) ladyfish Elops saurus    91  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments mero mero americano red grouper Epinephelus morio Mainly in Yucatan   mero extraviado, mero aleta amarilla yellowedge grouper Epinephelus flavolimbatus   mero negro warsaw grouper, black jewfish Epinephelus nigritus   mero del Caribe Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus   mero aceitero, guacamayo yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa   mero pintaroja, lenteja calico grouper, speckled hind Epinephelus drummondhayi  mojarra mojarra caitapí, de estero caitapi mojarra Diapterus rhombeus Mainly in Veracruz   mojarra pinta mottled mojarra Eucinostomus lefroyi   mojarra blanca irish pompano Diapterus auratus   mojarra plateada spotfin mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus   mojarra rayada srriped mojarra Eugerres plumieri   mojarra, mojarra rayada, mojarra blanca yellowfin mojarra Gerres cinereus   mojarrita silver jenny Eucinostomus gula   mojarrita de ley flatgfin mojarra Eucinostomus melanopterus  negrillo  abadejo black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci Mainly in Tamaulipas  ostión  ostión americano american cupped oyster Crassostrea virginica Mainly in Veracruz   ostión de mangle mangrove cupped oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae  pámpano pampano amarillo Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus Mainly in Veracruz   pampano listado palometa  Trachinotus goodei   pampano de hebra African pompano Alectis ciliaris   pampano palometa permit Trachinotus falcatus   pampano sureño southern pompano Trachinotus marginatus  pargo pargo lunar, lunarejo mutton snapper Lutjanus analis Mainly in Campeche    92  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments  pargo mulato, parguete gray snapper Lutjanus griseus   pargo perro, caballera dog snapper Lutjanus jocu   pargo juanito, pargo ojón mahogany snapper Lutjanus mahogoni   pargo canchix schoolmaster Lutjanus apodus   pargo rojo red snapper Lutjanus purpureus  peto carito lucio king mackerel Scomberomorus cavalla Mainly in Veracruz   peto wahoo Acanthocybium solandri  pierna  blanquillo ojo amarillo (FB) goldface tilefish Caulolatilus chrysops Only in Tabasco   domingo (FB) blackline tilefish Caulolatilus cyanops   blanquillo payaso (FB) anchor tilefish Caulolatilus intermedius   blanquillo lucio (FB) blueline tilefish Caulolatilus microps  pulpo pulpo rojo, pulpo mexicano mexican four-eye octopus Octopus maya Mainly in Yucatán, also in Veracruz, Campeche & Quintana Roo (1)  pulpo patón, pulpo común common octopus Octopus vulgaris  rayas raya caribeña chupare stingray (FB) Himantura schmardae Mainly in Campeche   raya cola de rata smooth butterfly ray Gymnura micrura   raya de espina de estero yellow stingray Urobatis jamaicensis   raya de papel spiny butterfly ray Gymnura altavela   raya del Golfo roundel skate Raja texana   raya grande, raya latigo southern stingray Dasyatis americana   raya latigo chata bluntnose stingray Dasyatis say   raya latigo de espina Atlantic stingray Dasyatis sabina   raya latigo hocicona longnose stingray Dasyatis guttata    93  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments  chucho, chucho pintado, obispo spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari   raya gavilán cow-nosed ray Rhinoptera bonasus   manta voladora Atlantic manta Manta birostris  robalo robalo blanco snook Centropomus undecimalis Mainly in Veracruz   robalo prieto mexican snook Centropomus poeyi   constantino tarpon snook Centropomus pectinatus   robalo de espolón swordspine snook Centropomus ensiferus   robalo gordo de escama grande guianan snook (FB) Centropomus mexicanus  ronco  ronco barred grunt Conodon nobilis Mainly in Veracruz  rubia  Canané, Rabirrubia yellowtail snapper Ocyurus chrysurus Mainly in Yucatan   villajaiba lane snapper Lutjanus synagris  rubio rubio volador striped searobin (FB) Prionotus evolans   testolín azul bluewing searobin  (FB) Prionotus punctatus  sabalo sabalo tarpon Megalops atlanticus Only in Tamaulipas & Veracruz  sardina sardina vivita de hebra Atlantic thread herring Opisthonema oglinum Mainly in Yucatan   sardina vivita escamuda scaled sardine Harengula jaguana   sardina carapachona false pilchard Harengula clupeola   sardina de escama fina finescale menhaden Brevoortia gunteri   sardina lacha Gulf menhaden Brevoortia patronus  sargo sargo sheepshead porgy Archosargus probatocephalus Mainly in Veracruz   sargo amarillo sea bream Archosargus rhomboidalis   sargo rojo red porgy Pagrus pagrus   chopa espina pinfish, pin pech Lagodon rhomboides    94  Table A1: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Gulf of Mexico and Carribean, by local names, Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific names Comments sierra sierra  spanish mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus Mainly in Veracruz  tambor tambor black drum Pogonias cromis Only Tamaulipas & Yucatan  tiburón tiburón curro, aleta negra, jaquetón spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna Mainly in Veracruz   tiburón sedoso silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis   tiburón chato bull shark Carcharhinus leucus   tiburón puntas negras blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus   tiburón prieto dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus   tiburón aleta de cartón sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus   tiburón poroso smalltail shark Carcharhinus porosus   tiburón nocturno night shark Carcharhinus signatus   tiburón cornuda, tiburón martillo scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini   cornuda grande great hammerhead shark Sphyrna mokarran   tiburón angel Atlantic angelshark Squatina dumeril  1) Secretaría de Pesca (1994); 2) DOF (2000); 3) McEachran & Fechhelm (1998); 4) McEachran & Fechhelm (2005); 5) Andrews (1977); 6) Abbott (1974); 7) www.fishbase.org     95   Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments abulon abulon amarillo yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata Pacific coasts of the Peninsula of Baja California (from the USA border to Punta Malarimo) (3)  abulon azul blue abalon Haliotis fulgens   abulon negro black abalon Haliotis cracherodii   abulon rojo red abalone Haliotis rufescens   abulon chino white abalone Haliotis sorenseni  algas alga pelo de cochi seaweed Gigartina canaliculata Both coasts of Baja California and Pacific coasts of Baja California Sur  sargazo rojo seaweed Gelidium robustum   alga roja, gracilaria red algae Gracillaria pacifica  almeja almeja catarina Pacific calico scallop Argopecten circularis All Pacific coats, mainly Gulf of California  almeja chocolata scallop Megapitaria aurantiaca   almeja pata de mula ark Anadara tuberculosa   almeja pismo pismo clam Tivela stultorum   almeja roñosa o chirla frilled californina venus Chione undatella   almeja roñosa o chirla common californian venus Chione californinesis   almeja burra purplelip rock oyster Spondylus calcifer   almeja blanca disk dosinia Dosinia ponderosa   almeja mano de leon Pacific lion's paw Lyropecten subnodosus   almeja voladora scallop Pecten vogdesi  anchoveta anchoveta Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax Mainly on the Pacific coast of Baja California; scarce for other Pacific coasts  sardina bocona anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus  atun atun aleta amarilla yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares   atun aleta azul northern bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus   atun blanco o albacora albacore Thunnus alalunga  bacoco  ronco bacoco, burro longspine grunt Pomadasys macracanthus Both coasts of Baja California, Sonora, Sinaloa & Nayarit bagre bagre marino, chihuil, bandera gafftopsail catfish Bagre panamensis   chihuil, bagre rojo chihuil catfish Bagre pinnimaculatus    96  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments  bagre marino sea catfish Arius guatemalensis  baqueta baqueta gulf coney Epinephelus acanthistius All Pacific coasts except in Chiapas barracuda barracuda agujona, de Cortez lucas barracuda Sphyraena lucasana Only on the eastern coast of Baja California (4)  barracuda picua, mexicana mexican barracuda Sphyraena ensis   barracuda plateada Pacific barracuda Sphyraena argentea  barrilete barrilete skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis All Pacific coasts, mainly Baja California, Baja California Sur and Sinaloa  barrilete negro black skipjack Euthynnus lineatus  berrugata gurrubata, raton kingcroaker Menticirrhus panamensis   chano highfin corvina Menticirrhus nasus   berrugata Gulf croaker Micropogon megalops   berrugata californiana California corvina Menticirrhus undulatus   berrugata roncadora polla drum Umbrina xanti   berrugata aleta amarilla yellowfin croaker Umbrina roncador  bonito bonito del Pacifico oriental eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis All Pacific coasts with exception of Michoacan and Chiapas. Mainly on the Peninsula of Baja California botete botete pintado whitespotted puffer Arothron hispidus Only for Sinaloa & Nayarit   botete globo guineafowl puffer Arothron meleagris   botete espinozo spotted sharpnoused puffer Canthigaster punctatissima   botete oceanico oceanic puffer Lagocephalus lagocephalus   botete skinflap puffer Sphoeroides angusticeps   botete tamborin bullseye puffer Sphoeroides annulatus   botete narizon longnose puffer Sphoeroides lobatus   botete peruano peruvian puffer Sphoeroides sechurae  caballo macarela caballa mackerel scad Decapterus macarellus Only for Sonora cabrilla cabrilla de roca spotted sandbass Paralabrax maculatofasciatus All Pacific coasts with exception of Michoacan and Chiapas. Mainly on Baja California Sur  cabrilla pinta spotted cabrilla Epinephelus analogus   cabrilla piedrera murique, flag cabrilla Epinephelus labriformis   cabrilla verde de arena, verdillo barred sand bass Paralabrax nebulifer    97  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments  cabrilla sargacera kelp bass Paralabrax clathratus   cabrilla extranjera. lucero goldspotted sand bass Paralabrax auroguttatus   cabrilla cachete amarillo, loro parrot sand bass Paralabrax loro   cabrilla cueruda leather bass Dermatolepis dermatolepis   sandia, mamey, indio Pacific creole-fish Paranthias colonus   cabrilla sardinera, rosa, mitan leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea   garropa jaspeada broomtail grouper Mycteroperca xenarcha  calamar calamar gigante Jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas Center & southern Gulfo of California callo de hacha callo de hacha rugose pen shell, pen shell Pinna rugosa Only for Sonora, Sinaloa and Colima  callo de hacha china maura pen shell, shell Atrina maura  camaron camaron azul blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris All Pacific coasts, mainly Sonora and Sinaloa  camaron café northern brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis   camaron blanco white shrimp Penaeus vannamei   camaron cristal o rojo red or crystal shrimp Penaeus brevirostris  caracol caracol panocha wavy turban Astrea undosa Pacific coasts of the Peninsula of Baja California  caracol panocha wavy turban Astra turbanica Pacific coasts of the Peninsula of Baja California   caracol chino rosa pink murex Hexaplex erythrostomus All Pacific coasts, mainly Baja California Sur  caracol burro crown conch Melongena patula   caracol chino negro northern radix murex Muricanthus nigritus   caracol de tinta purpura conch Purpura pansa   caracol burro Cortez conch Strombus galeatus  cazon aleta de carton, sedoso silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis All Pacific coasts with exception of Pacific coast of Baja California and the Northern Gulf of California  toro, chato bull shark Carcharhinus luucas   volador, puntas negras blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus   gambuso, prieto, obscuro dusty shark Carcharhinus obscurus   tiburon poroso, bayo smalltail shark Carcharhinus porosus   tintorera tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier    98  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments  tiburon gata nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum   tiburon mako, marrajo shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus   cazon californiano, gris grey smooth-hound Mustelus californicus   cazon aleta deshilachada, pardo brown smooth-hound Mustelus henlei   cazon mamon sicklefin smooth-hound Mustelus lunulatus   cazon coyotito, pico blanco whitenose shark Nasolamia velox   cazon bironche, platanillo picudo Pacific sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon longurio   tiburon martillo, cornuda barrosa scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini   cornuda, martillo, cornuda cruz smooth hammerhead Sphyrna  zygaena   martillo grande, cornuda gigante great hammerhead Sphyrna mokarran   tiburon martillo, cornuda coronada scalloped hammerhead Sprhyna corona   angelote, tiburon angelito angel shark Squatina californica  cochi pez puerco finscale triggerfish Balistes polylepis Only for Sinaloa   cochino orangeside triggerfish Sufflamen verres  cocinero cocinero cocinero Caranx vinctus All Pacific coasts with exception of Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, Nayarit and Chiapas conejo blanquillo cabezon, salmon bighead tilefish Caulolatilus affinis Pacific coasts of Baja California, both littorals of Baja California Sur and Sinaloa corvina corvina rayada striped weakfish Cynoscion reticulatus All Pacific coasts, mainly Sonora and Sinaloa  coorvineta boquinete silver drum Larimus argenteus   corvina del golfo, golfina Gulf weakfish Cynoscion othonopterus   corvina azul de aleta corta shortfin corvina Cynoscion parvipinnis   corvina boca anaranjada (amarilla) orangemouth corvina Cynoscion xanthulus   corvina blanca white seabass Atractoscion nobilis   corvina chiapaneca, alba whitefin weakfish Cynoscion albus   corvineta armada armed croaker Bairdiella armata   corvineta ronco bairdiella Bairdiella icistia  chile lagarto chile sauro lizarfish Synodus lacertinus Only for Nayarit chopa chopa azul zebra perch Hermosilla azurea Eastern coast of Baja Caifornia Sur, Sonora, Jalisco, Michoacan & Guerrero   99  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments  chopa gris blue-bronze chub Kyphosus analogus   chopa de Cortez Cortez chub Kyphosus elegans  choro (molusco) mejillon mussel Mytilus californianus Both coasts of Baja California. Scare for Sinaloa  mejillon choro  Modiolus carax  chucumite robalo espina larga armed snook Centropomus armatus Only for Chiapas esmedregal jurel de castilla, jurel aleta amarilla yellow tail Seriola dorsalis Mainly for Oaxaca. Scarce for Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco and Colima  esmedregal almaco; amberjack Seriola rivoiana  erizo erizo purpura sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Mainly on the Pacific coasts of Baja California. Scarce for Pacific coasts of Baja California Sur  erizo rojo red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus gallineta rubio gallineta common searobin Prionotus ruscarius Only for Colima garropa baya gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani Golfo de California  garropa aserrada sawtail grouper Mycteroperca prionura   garropa jaspeada broomtail grouper Mycteroperca xenarcha  gurrubata berrugata gurrubata, boca dulce Panama kingcroaker Menticirrhus panamensis Only for esatern coasts of Baja California Sur, Sinaloa & Nayarit  corvineta gurrubata bluestreak drum Elatarchus archidium  huachinango huachinango del Pacifico Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru All the Pacific coasta; mainly Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, Jalisco and Guerrero jaiba jaiba verde crab Callinectes bellicosus   jaiba azul Pacific blue crab Callinectes arcuatus   jaiba negra crab Callinectes toxotes  jurel jurel toro jurel caninus Caranx caninus All Pacific coasts, mainly Peninsula of Baja California  jurel voraz, ojo de perra, ojo grande bigeye trevally Caranx sexfasciatus   cocinero dorado green jack Caranx caballus  langosta langosta roja red lobster Panulirus interruptus Red: Pacific coasts of the Peninsula of Baja California. Blue and Green: Gulf of California and central-south Pacific  langosta verde green lobster Panulirus gracilis   langosta azul blue lobster Panulirus inflatus   langosta insular lobster Panulirus penicillatus    100  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments lebrancha lebrancha, liseta, lisa blanca white mullet Mugil curema All Pacific with exception of Pacific coasts of the Peninsula of Baja California, Michoacan and Guerrero lenguado lenguado de California California halibut Paralichthys californicus All Pacific, mainly Baja California Sur  lenguado huarache speckled flounder Paralichthys woolmani   lenguado de Cortez Cortez flounder Paralichthys aestuarius   lenguado cola de abanico fantail sole Xystreurys liolepis   lenguado bocon bigmouth sole Hippoglossina stomata   lenguado diamante diamond turbot Hypsopsetta guttulata   lenguado cuatrojos fourspot flounder Hippoglossina tetrophthalmus   lenguado resbaloso dover sole Microstomus pacificus   lenguado three-eye flounder Ancylopsetta dendritica  lisa lisa rayada, cabezona striped mullet Mugil cephalus All Pacific, mainly Sinaloa  lisa hospes hospe mullet Mugil hospes  macabi macabi bonefish Albula vulpes Only for Chiapas macarela macarela chub mackerel Scomber japonicus From Nayarit to the notrthern coasts mero mero guasa jewfish Epinephelus itajara All Pacific, mainly Baja California Sur mojarra mojarra de aletas amarillas peruvian mojarra Diapterus peruvianus All Pacific, mainly Michoacan and Jalisco  mojarra plateada spotfin mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus   mojarra tricolor blackspot mojarra Eucinostomus currani   mojarra mancha negra darrkspot mojarra Eucinostomus entomelas   mojarra charrita Pacific flagfin mojarra Eucinostomus gracilis   mojarra malacapa black axillary mojarra Eugerres axillaris   mojarra aleta corta shortfin mojarra Eugerres brevimanus   mojarra china streaked mojarra Eugerres lineatus   mojarra plateada, rayada, bandera yellowfin mojarra Gerres cinereus  ostion ostion de placer oyster Crassostrea corteziensis All Pacific, except Chiapas. Mainly Nayarit and Guerrero  ostion de roca oyster Crassostrea iridescens   ostion japones giant Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas    101  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments palometa palometa del Pacifico Pacific harvestfish Peprilus medius Only Nayarit and Sinaloa  palometa plateada Pacific pompano Peprilus simillimus   palometa salema, pampanito salema butterfish Peprilus snyderi   palometa pampanito shining butterfish Peprilus ovatus   palometa cagavino starry bvtterfish Stromateus stellatus  pampano pampano fino, rayado gafftopsail pompano Trachinotus rhodopus Pacific coast, mainly Baja California Sur, Sinaloa & Guerrero  pampano paloma blackblotch pompano Trachinotus paitensis   pampano de hebra African pompano Alectis ciliaris   pampano acerado steel pompano Trachinotus stilbe   pampano plateado blackblotch pompano Trachinotus kennedyi  papelillo jorobado papelillo Pacific moonfish Selene peruviana Only for Sinaloa & Nayarit  pargo pargo lunarejo, flamenco, chivo spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus Boath coasts of Baja California Sur and from Sonora to Chiapas. Mainly on Baja California Sur and Sinaloa  pargo amarillo, coyotito, alazan yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris   pargo rojo, colmillon Jordan's snapper Lutjanus jordani   pargo colorado, listoncillo colorado snapper Lutjanus colorado   pargo mulato, prieto, negro dog snapper Lutjanus novemfasciatus   pargo rabirrubia, barbirrubia golden snapper Lutjanus inermis   pargo azul-dorado, rayado blue and gold snapper Lutjanus viridis   pargo coconaco tecomate mexican barred snapper Hoplopagrus guntheri   pargo raicero, de manglar mullet snapper Lutjanus aratus  peto peto wahoo Acanthocybium solandri Only for both coasts of Baja California pierna blanquillo fino, blanco ocean whitefish Caulolatilus princeps Both littorals of Baja California Sur and Sinaloa pulpo pulpo  Octopus hubbsorum From Sonora to Michoacan  pulpo manchado white spotted octopus Octopus macropus   pulpo two-spotted octopus Octopus bimaculatus  rayas manta gavilan, gavilan negro Pacific cownose ray Rhinoptera steindachneri Golfo de California to Chiapas  raya latigo coluda, mantarraya longtail stingray Dasyatis longus    102  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments  mantarraya manta Myliobatis fitchi   manta gigante, voladora manta Manta birostris   raya aguila picuda snouted eagle ray Myliobatis longirostris   raya coluda del Pacifico Pacific stingray Himantura pacifica   raya latigo comun whiptail stingray Dasyatis brevis   raya mariposa californiana California butterfly ray Gymnura marmorata  robalo robalo plateado, garabato white snook Centropomus viridis Both coasts of Baja California Sur, Sonora to Chiapas  robalo prieto, piedra black snook Centropomus nigrescens   robalo aleta prieta, aleta obscura blackfin snook Centropomus medius   robalo aleta amarilla yellowfin snook Centropomus robalito  roncacho ronco roncacho white grunt Haemulopsis leuciscus Only for Sonora & Sinaloa ronco ronco chano,manchado, burro manchas yellowspotted grunt Haemulon flaviguttatum All Pacific coasts; mainly Guerrero & Oaxaca  ronco mapache Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis   ronco rayadillo, ronco jopaton wavyline grunt Microlepidotus inornatus   burro ronco, burrito burrito grunt Anisotremus interruptus   burrito roncacho bronze striped grunt Orthopristis reddingi  sabalo popocha Pacific gizzard shad Dorosoma smithi Only Oaxaca & Chiapas sardina sardina monterrey Pacific sardine Sardinops caeruleus All coasts from Nayarit to the North. Scarce to the south of Nayarit  sardina crinuda Pacific thread herring Opisthonema libertate   crinuda azul, machuelo de hebra crinuda slender thread herring Opisthonema bulleri   crinuda machete, machuelo de hebra middling thread herring Opisthonema medirastre   mediana     sardina japonesa round herring Etrumeus teres  sargazo sargazo gigante kelp Macrocystis pyrifera Pacific coasts fo the Peninsula of Baja California sierra sierra del Pacifico Pacific sierra  Scomberomorus sierra All Pacific. Mainly for Sonora and Sinaloa  sierra del Golfo de Cortez Gulf sierra Scomberomorus concolor  tiburon tiburon zorro, zorro de mar pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus All Pacific coasts with exception of the Gulf of Californiaand northern Pacific coasts of Baja California   103  Table A2: List of reported fisheries taxa for the Pacific coast of Mexico, by local names, standard Spanish and English common names and scientific name. Local name Spanish common name English common name Scientific name Coments  tiburon grillo, zorro ojon bigeye thresher Alopias superciliosus   tiburon zorro thresher shark Alopias vulpinus   tiburon tunero silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis   tiburon volador blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus   tiburon puntas blancas, oceanico oceanic whitetip shark Carcharhinus longimanus   tiburon aleta de carton, aleton sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus   tiburon espinozo, negro espinozo prickly shark Echinorhinus cookei   tiburon mako shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus   tiburon coyote whitenose shark Nasolamia velox   tiburon limon lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris   tiburon azul blue shark Prionoce glauca   cornuda comun scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini   tiburon martillo smooth hammerhead Sphyrna  zygaena  1) Secretaria de Pesca (1994); 2) Escobar-Hernández & Siri (1997); 3) DOF (2000); 4) www.fishbase.org       104  Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  105 RECONSTRUCTED CATCHES IN THE MAURITANIAN EEZ1 Didier Gascuela, Dirk Zellerb, Mahfoud O. Taleb Sidic and Daniel Paulyb  a Pôle Halieutique, Agrocampus Rennes, 65 Rte Saint Brieuc, CS 84215, 34042 Rennes Cedex, France Didier.Gascuel@agrocampus-rennes.fr b Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, V6T 1Z4, Canada c IMROP, BP 22, Nouadhibou, Mauritania ABSTRACT The present catch reconstruction for 1950-2005 refers to the three main fisheries operating in the waters of the Mauritanian Excusive Economic Zone (EEZ): the artisanal fishery, the demersal industrial fishery and the pelagic industrial fishery. This reconstruction is based on all information available, including data coming from the national surveys system of the Institut Mauritanien de Recherches Océanographiques et des Pêches (IMROP) and from assessment working groups regularly held in the country since 1985. Additionally, approximate estimates of the unreported catch and by-catch of the two industrial fisheries are proposed, and the catches of the national Mauritanian fisheries were estimated. Here, we provide the first picture of long term catch trends by the various fisheries. The demersal fisheries, overwhelmingly dominated by the industrial sector, developed in the 1960s, while artisanal fisheries remained under- developed until the 1990s, followed by a very rapid increase. In the context of rapidly increasing fishing effort, landings were estimated around 160,000 t·year-1 over the last 40 years (including 40,000 to 70,000 t of unreported by-catch). While total landings remained rather stable, the composition in term of taxa significantly changed since the 1970s, suggesting severe overexploitation and the harvest of an increasingly wider range of ecosystem compartments. For the more recent years, artisanal demersal catches are estimated around 60,000 t·year-1 (80,000 t·year-1 including pelagic fishes). Thus, demersal fisheries, in particularly the artisanal fishery, appears much more important than usually considered. Regarding the pelagic industrial fishery, landings exhibit a high year to year variability, but with a clear and still increasing trend. Estimates suggest unreported catches larger than several hundred thousand tonnes per years, mean total landings reaching 900,000 t·year-1 during the last years. We also show that several hundred thousand tons officially caught by foreign vessels operating as ‘Mauritanian chartered vessels’ (and recorded in the IMROP database) have not been reported to the global community via FAO statistics. More generally, we underline the substantial importance of foreign countries in the exploitation of Mauritanian waters. Finally, the present case study of Mauritania is the first independent test of the results obtained by the spatial allocation approach of FAO data as undertaken by the Sea Around Us project. This test appears successful, i.e., catches from the Sea Around Us for Mauritania’s EEZ waters being very close to our estimates of the official landings of the industrial fisheries. INTRODUCTION Mauritania is one of the countries in the world where the fisheries sector is of the highest macro-economic importance. In 2005, official landings were estimated at approximately 720,000 t, representing 6% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and generating 30% of the value of Mauritanian exports and 30% of public receipts (IMROP, in press). The largest component of the gross production comes from industrial, pelagic fisheries. However, demersal resources, generally consisting of more valuable taxa, are also of major importance. They support both an industrial and a small scale fisheries sector, including about 300 bottom trawlers and 4,000 pirogues, respectively. Each sector lands approximately 60,000 t of demersal groups.                                                  1 Cite as: Gascuel, D., Zeller, D., Taleb Sidi, M.O. and Pauly, D. 2007. Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ. p. 105-119 In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  106 The demersal fisheries have increased substantially over the last few decades, but few studies have been conducted that estimate and describe catches and fishing effort on a long term basis (Chavance, 2004). In such cases, statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are rarely applicable or appropriate. Indeed, a major part of the fishery is undertaken by foreign countries, which normally declare their catches as being taken in FAO sub-areas ‘Sahara coastal’ and ‘Cape Verde costal’, which cover much more than the Mauritanian EEZ. As a consequence, neither the catches by area, nor the catches by country (especially for Mauritania) identify the Mauritanian EEZ as source of origin. Since the early 1980s, the national fisheries research institute (Institut Mauritanien de Recherches Océanographiques et des Pêches, or IMROP, previously know as CNROP) has been developing its own survey system. However, its implementation faced difficulties, and a complete database is available only since 1991 for the industrial, and 1997 for the small scale fisheries. Only scattered and heterogeneous statistics were published earlier, covering short periods.  Using all available information, and especially those provided during the international assessment working groups regularly organized by IMROP since 1985, we present here a ‘catch reconstruction’ (sensu Zeller et al., 2006a) for the three fisheries present in the waters constituting the present Mauritanian EEZ: the artisanal fishery, the demersal industrial fishery and the pelagic industrial fishery, covering the period 1950-2005. Additionally, estimates of the unreported catch and by-catch of the two industrial fisheries are proposed, and the catches corresponding to the Mauritanian fisheries were estimated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data and methods used for the reconstruction of time series of catches are summarized in Table 1. The key aspects and complementary information are described hereafter. Artisanal fishery The Mauritanian small-scale, artisanal fishery involves pirogues, which use a large diversity of gears (e.g., hook-and- line, seine nets, traps) and target both demersal resources (i.e., octopus and demersal fishes) as well as small pelagics (i.e., sardinella). Initiated in 1982, and since 1985 on a more regular basis, IMROP undertakes periodic surveys, usually twice a year, to estimate the total number of pirogues operating in Mauritanian (Figure 1). Monthly surveys, recording catches by gear in the main landing locations (Nouakchott and Nouadhibou), began in the 1980s, but did not cover all fisheries, and were not published for every year. Two periods seem to be correctly covered, allowing for estimation of total artisanal catches: 1980-1987 (Josse and Garcia, 1986; Josse, 1989), and 1997-2005 (Gascuel et al., in press). Based on these data, a mean annual catch per pirogue was estimated (Figure 2). The observed increase in catch rate, from around 18 t·year-1 in 1982 to 25 t·year-1 in 2002, suggests a strong increase in fishing efficiency, which over-compensated for the decrease in resource biomass. Catches for the 1988-1996 intermediate period were estimated as the product of the pirogues number by the mean yearly catch per pirogue.  Figure 1:  Pirogues number in Mauritania. Based on data from: □ Josse (1989); ◊ FAO-CNROP (1995); ∆ Inejih et al. (2004); o Boncoeur et al. (in press). Data for 1983-84 were interpolated. Annual pirogue numbers are averaged for the two surveys per year. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year N u m b er  o f p ir o g u esReconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  107   Table 1: Methods, assumptions and references, for the reconstruction of catches in the Mauritanian EEZ. Fishery Period Methods/Assumptions/References 1950-51 Fixed at 3,000 t, based on subsequent years 1952-61 Salted and dried production extracted from StatBase (Thibaut et al., 2004), adjusted by conversion factor of 45% (Infoconseil-Paoa, 2005). 1962-79 Linear interpolation between the two adjacent 5-year averages. 1980-84 CNROP database and the 1985 working group (Josse and Garcia, 1986). 1985-87 CNROP database and the 1988 working group (Josse, 1989). 1988-96 Number of pirogues (from CNROP surveys) multiplied by the mean yearly production per pirogue (see Figure 2). Artisanal 1997-05 IMROP database and the 2006 working group (Gascuel et al., in press), values smoothed due to high sampling variability. 1950-65 Sea Around Us Project values corrected (multiplied by a factor F=0.57 according to 1980- 2003 results). 1966-68 From octopus catches, source FAO-Copace (Failler et al., 2006), extrapolated to total demersal catches according to 1969-1971 data. 1969-79 From Josse and Garcia (1986) based on FAO data. Corrected by a factor of F=0.57 according to 1980-2003 results. 1980-85 CNROP database and the 1985 working group (Josse and Garcia, 1986); due to inconsistency in data, year 1983 interpolated. 1986-91 From CNROP database and the 1993 working group (FAO-CNROP, 1995), total catches of fishes, cephalopods and crustaceans minus artisanal fishery catches. Demersal industrial (reported landings) 1992-05 From IMROP database and the 2006 working group (Gascuel et al., in press). Because of incomplete data, year 2003 interpolated. 1950-90 Declared landings of the demersal industrial fishery, multiplied by 0.720 according to the mean 1992-05 estimate. Demersal industrial (unreported by- catch) 1991-05 From mean profiles of catches by species, estimated by license types (recalculated from Failler et al., 2006), extrapolated to catches by license type. 1950-68 SAUP values corrected (multiplied by a factor F=1.388 according to 1979-2003 results). 1969-78 From Josse and Garcia (1986), based on FAO data. 1979-91 From CNROP database and the 1993 working group (FAO-CNROP, 1995). Pelagic industrial (reported landings) 1992-05 From IMROP database and the 2006 working group (Gascuel et al., in press). 1950-90 Declared landing of the pelagic industrial fishery multiplied by 0.013, according to the mean 1992-05 estimate Pelagic industrial (unreported by- catch) 1991-05 From mean profiles of catches by specie, estimated for pelagic licenses (recalculated from Failler et al., 2006) extrapolated to catches. 1950-90 Declared landing of the pelagic industrial fishery multiplied by 0.363, according to the mean 1991-05 estimates Pelagic industrial (unreported catches) 1991-05 From IMROP database, assuming that unreported days constitute 70% of the allowed days (licensed boats) without reported catches  Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  108 Before 1982, the artisanal fishery remained little developed in Mauritania, involving a few hundred pirogues (Chavance and Girardin, 1991; Chavance, 2004). No statistics could be identified, except from 1952 to 1961. For that period CNROP estimated the national production of salted and dried fishes (in StatBase, described in Thibaut et al., 2004), which appears to represent the bulk of national production. The salted and dried productions were converted to wet-weight catch equivalents using a 45% yield ratio (Infoconseil-Paoa, 2005). Finally, landings from 1962 to 1979 were estimated based on linear interpolation between the above described known values. These estimates were also compared to a simple linear extrapolation over the whole period of the previous trend observed in the mean year catch per pirogue.  Industrial fisheries Since the early 1980s, IMROP estimated the landings of the industrial fisheries based on logbook and onboard observer data. However, a complete database is presently available only from 1990 onward, and is considered incomplete for the first years. Thus, data from this source (cited in Brahim and Jouffre, in press and in Gascuel et al., in press) were considered for the 1992/2005 period. From 1979 (for the pelagic fishery) or 1980 (for the demersal) to 1991, catch estimates were extracted from the literature (Josse and Garcia, 1986; FAO-CNROP, 1995, 1999), generally based on the IMROP statistical bulletins.  For the 1969-1979 period, Josse and Garcia (1986) estimated the annual catch per species group, using the FAO database, and considering catches proportional to the percentage of FAO areas 34.1.3 (Sahara coastal) and 34.3.1 (Cape Verde coastal) that belong to the Mauritanian EEZ.  Regarding demersal fisheries, these estimates appear very high and have to be corrected. Indeed, a similar estimation, also based on FAO database and taking into account surface area ratios of fishing grounds, i.e., shelf, was performed by the Sea Around Us Project (SAUP, www.seaaroundus.org). Such an approach regularly leads to overestimation when compared to the 1980-2003 demersal catches coming from the IMROP database (Figure 3). This seems appropriate, given that demersal fisheries have always been less developed in Mauritania than in adjacent countries, and particularly in Senegal; thus they would represent less than surface area ratios should have implied. As a consequence, we used the mean 1980-2003 ratio of IMROP/SAUP demersal catches as a correction coefficient. This coefficient is equal to 0.57 and has been applied to Josse and Garcia (1986) estimates.  Similarly, the 1950-1968 catches were calculated using previous SAUP estimates (based on FAO database and surfaces) multiplied by the correction coefficient. However, this approach fails to reconstruct the catches for the very first years of octopus exploitation, in the late 1960s. Indeed, for the three years 1966- Figure 3:  Ratio between our estimates and previous estimates based on FAO data and surface area ratios. Values from 1950 to 1965 (■ demersals) or to 1968 (▲ pelagics) have been fixed to the 1980-2003 and 1979-2003 means, respectively. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year R at io y = 0.3654x - 706 R2 = 0.6782 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year C at ch  p er  p ir og ue  (t ) Figure 2:  Trend in the mean annual catch per pirogue of the artisanal fishery in Mauritania. Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  109 1968, it leads to total demersal catches that are lower than octopus catches commonly cited in the literature (Failler et al., 2006). Thus, for these years, we considered demersal catches equal to the octopus catches, multiplied by an extrapolation factor (the mean ratio of demersal to octopus landings during the three following years 1969-1971). Regarding the pelagic fishery, estimates from Josse and Garcia (1986) appear consistent for the 1969-1978 period and have not been corrected. On the other hand, values coming from SAUP appear underestimated for the 1979-2003 period, when they are compared to IMROP data. This may be partly due to the fact that pelagic fisheries are more important in the Mauritanian EEZ than it would have been deduced from a simple surface area ratios. However, pelagic catches are also influenced by landings of foreign boats, operating with a special agreement as ‘Mauritanian chartered boats’, that appear to have been strongly underreported to the FAO during the 1980s and 1990s (see below). Therefore, pelagic catches are underestimated in the SAUP database as well. Thus, a correction coefficient was calculated here as well; it was used to estimate the 1950-1965 pelagic catches. Unreported catches and by-catches Industrial catch statistics, based on logbooks declarations, underestimated total catches for two reasons. First, catches reported by vessels from each license type are almost exclusively comprised of target species or species groups, but report no or very little by-catch. For demersal fisheries, this is incorrect. For example, the shrimp fishery declares by-catch as low as 15 % of their total landings, whereas realistic values should be greater than 70-80%. Secondly, it is well known that some targeted catches are not reported to the IMROP database. For example, some IMROP surveys show that Dutch vessels may report more catches to their government than to the Mauritanian statistical system (Taleb Sidi, unpublished data). More generally, some vessels are known to not report all their fishing days. Unreported by-catch may be estimated for each license type, for both the demersal and the pelagic industrial fisheries. Firstly, a mean taxon composition profile was calculated (Table 2), based on the 1996-2001 onboard observer data (Failler et al., 2006). Then, we assumed that this profile has been encountered each year, from 1991 to 2005, the targeting species catches being equal for each license to the reported landings for this target. Finally, unreported by-catch was summed for the four demersal license types constituting the demersal fishery.  Table 2:  Mean taxon composition profile (%), per license type (by main target taxon); based on values in Table 5.5 in Failler et al. (2006), by aggregating results of species groups. License type (defined by main target taxon) Taxa Cephalopods Fish Hake Shrimps Pelagic Mollusks 6.3 20.3 3.9 6.7 0.0 Octopus 53.1 22.1 20.5 7.2 0.0 Demersal fish 23.4 38.3 34.9 32.8 3.0 Hake 2.9 9.1 31.0 18.8 0.0 Crustaceans 0.8 1.3 1.0 24.0 0.0 Pelagic fishes 13.5 8.9 8.7 10.5 96.9  With regards to unreported catches of target species, data exist that allow rough estimates to be derived for the pelagic industrial fisheries. All foreign vessels have to buy monthly licences, which define the number of permitted fishing days per year estimated since 1991. Compared to the logbooks, a proportion of days reporting no catch was calculated (Figure 4). This proportion is around 50%, but decreases for the last few years, likely due to increasing controls. Obviously, vessels would not buy licences and then spend time at sea without fishing, thus a large proportion of the above estimated no-fishing days simply correspond to unreported fishing days. Based on our local knowledge, we considered that approximately 15% of no fishing days seems more realistic. Thus, we assumed that 70% of the unreported days were actually fishing days, with daily catches equal to those of the reported days. Unfortunately, this approach is currently not applicable to the demersal fishery, due to lack of time-effort data. However, unreported catches of targeted species seem much lower in this sector, with most misreporting being related to by-catch (already estimated, as explained above). Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  110 For the 1950-1990 period, unreported catches and by-catch were estimated by multiplying the reported landings by mean under-reporting coefficients, based on the means of the 1991-2005 estimates (for the three sectors: demersal and pelagic by-catch, and pelagic unreported catch). Disaggregation of taxa and estimate of national catches  For the 1969-2005 period, reported catches can be readily disaggregated into the six main species groups: crustaceans, cephalopods, Hake, Mullets, other demersal fishes, and pelagic fishes. With regards to the demersal taxa (the first five groups above), we considered that total catches were equal to the total demersal industrial catches (see above) plus the demersal part of the small-scale fishery. The latter is known for the 1997-2005 period from the IMROP database, and have been assumed to be equal to 80% of the total small-scale landings. Subsequently, the proportion of catches by species groups were calculated for 1969-1983 based on Josse and Garcia (1986), for 1984-1990 (industrial) and for 1984-1992 (small-scale) based on FAO-CNROP (1995), and since 1991 (industrial) and since 1997 (small-scale) based on the IMROP database (Gascuel et al., in press). For the small scale fishery, the missing years 1992-1996 were estimated by interpolation.  With regards to pelagic species, total catches were considered equal to total catches of the industrial fishery plus the pelagic component of the small-scale fishery. The latter is known for the 1997-2005 period from the IMROP database, and were assumed to account for 20% of the total small-scale landings for earlier periods.  Finally, the total national Mauritanian catches were determined. For the early period (1950-1979), statistics provided by FAO appear quite realistic, and no additional information exists to change them. During that period, national fisheries remained limited, involving the small scale fishery and a limited industrial fisheries. The increase in total EEZ catches in the late 1960s and during the 1970s was mainly driven by national policy granting licenses to foreign vessels (and therefore their catches do not appear in the national statistics).  With the establishment of the Mauritanian EEZ in the late 1970s and early 1980s, a new policy (‘Nouvelle Politique des Pêches’) was introduced. It declared all demersal resources to be reserved for Mauritanians, and a national company was created for cephalopod exploitation. At the same time, foreign countries who wanted to exploit pelagic resources had to obtain special agreements by which vessels operated as ‘Mauritanian chartered boats’. Catches were to be landed in Mauritania (but in fact, transshipments onto commercial boats in the Nouadhibou Bay was considered as ‘landed’) and reported as national exports. We assumed that this policy was progressively (i.e., linearly) applied between 1979 and 1982. For 1982 to 1991, we assumed that national Mauritanian catches were equal to the sum of: (i) all catches of demersal species (except Hake and Crustaceans that continued to be exploited by foreign countries, mainly Spain); (ii) the pelagic catches of the small-scale fishery (the demersal catches being already included in (i)); and (iii) 96% of the total catches of the industrial pelagic fishery (based on the estimates of the 1992-95 period). For 1992 onwards, we considered the national landings equal to the sum of the small-scale fishery catches and the catches of the industrial boats registered in the IMROP database as ‘national vessels’ and ‘chartered vessels’. Additionally, the amount of unreported by-catch that should be considered as ‘national’ was estimated each year assuming it was proportional to the national component of declared catches for both pelagic and demersal industrial fisheries.  - 0,20 0,40 0,60 0,80 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Year U n re po rt ed  d ay s (% ) Figure 4:  Proportion of days during which pelagic industrial vessels are allowed to fish but declare no catch Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  111 RESULTS Sector trends (reported catches) With regards to small-scale fisheries, Mauritania has no long-standing historic tradition, and this sector remained little developed until relatively recently. However, in the 1950s an early development stage did occur, when production increased from around 3,000 t·year-1 to over 7,000 t·year-1, driven by the development of the salted and dried market (Appendix Table A1). From the 1960s to the 1980s, catches remained less than 15,000 t·year-1 with less than 750 pirogues involved. Catches strongly increased during the 1990s, reaching more than 80,000 t·year-1 in the most recent years (Figure 5), while the number of pirogues increased to 4,000 units.  Regarding the industrial demersal fishery, catches for the 1950s and early 1960s were likely limited. This fishery developed in the late 1960s with Japanese vessels targeting octopus beginning in 1966. These boats were nationalized in the late 1970s, and replaced by Korean, and more recently, Chinese vessels in the form of joint agreements. Foreign vessels, mainly Spanish, also targeted cephalopods in the 1970s before the ‘Nouvelle Politique des Pêches’, and more recently according to the agreements signed in 1996, 2001 and 2006 between Mauritania and the EU. During the entire time period, foreign boats were also authorized for particular fishing such as those targeting hake, pink spiny lobster and shrimps. Total reported landings, half of which were cephalopods, remained around 80-100,000 t·year-1 during the 1970s and 1980s, but have decreased during the last fifteen years to approximately 60,000 t·year-1 (Figure 5).  Catches of the industrial pelagic fishery exhibit high year-to-year variability due to environmental variability (a common pattern for pelagic fisheries), specifically related to the strength and seasonal timing of the local upwelling. However, the Mauritanian EZZ has always been one of the more important areas for the production of fishmeal by the reduction fishery sector. This fishery seemed to start slowly in the 1950s, but annual catches increased strongly from less than 100,000 t·year-1 in the 1960s to nearly 300,000 t·year-1 by the 1970s. The number of boats increased rapidly at that time, with vessels coming from former Warsaw Pact countries (USSR, Romania, East Germany, Bulgaria, Poland etc.). Simultaneously, Dutch and Norwegian vessels also operated in the Mauritanian area, before retiring in the late 1970s. In the context of the ‘Nouvelle Politique des Pêches’, vessels from Eastern Europe operated during the 1980s and the early 1990s as ‘Mauritanian chartered boats’. During that period, landings reached more than 450,000 t·year-1, before temporarily decreasing with the collapse of communism in Eastern European and the USSR (Figure 5). However, new agreements were signed with the newly independent countries, particularly Russia and Ukraine, as well as Lithuania and Latvia. Furthermore, since the mid 1990s the EU became a major partner through the engagement of Dutch industrial vessels. Additionally, a significant part of total landings (more than 100,000 t·year-1) are by flag of convenience vessels (e.g., Belize, Cyprus). In recent years, catches exceeded 600,000 t·year-1 (Figure 5).  Figure 5: Trends in the catches of fisheries operating in the waters now encompassing the Mauritanian EEZ: reported catches and unreported by-catch of the industrial sector. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year C at ch  (1 03  t) Unreported pelagics Industrial pelagic Unreport.demers.by-catches Industrial demersal Small scale fisheryReconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  112 Unreported industrial catch and by-catch Observer data show that unreported by-catch in the industrial fisheries is very important (Table 3). This is particularly relevant for vessels holding a shrimps license, whose unreported by-catch can reach 72% of their total catches. In the case of Hake and demersal fish licenses, the proportions are slightly lower, at around 66% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, pelagic vessels seem to declare almost all demersal by-catch.  Taking into account the importance of each license type suggests that around 50,000 t·year-1 of by-catches, including nearly 40,000 t·year-1 of demersals, are not reported. This means that almost half of demersal fish and around 30% of molluscs and hake are missing from the industrial reports. Thus, taking all taxa combined, we estimate that catches reported by the demersal industrial fishery have to be multiplied by a factor of 1.7 to take into account unreported by-catch. Regarding pelagic fish, Table 3:  Unreported by-catch (t·year-1) per license type.  License type Taxa Cephalopod Fish Hake Shrimp Pelagic Total % of total industrial catch Octopus 0 1,461 6,291 1,169 3 8,924 30.0 Other mollusks 0 1,209 1,162 846 57 3,274 29.0 Demersal fish 550 0 9,782 4,985 6,056 21,373 48.0 Hake 1,010 0 0 2,959 581 4,520 29.0 Crustacean 167 30 253 0 77 527 11.0 Pelagic fish 6,180 589 2,665 1,699 0 11,132 2.1 Total 7,907 3,257 20,152 11,658 6,774 - - % of catches 17.0 49.0 66.0 72.0 1.2 - - 0 50 100 150 200 250 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Year C at ch  (1 03  t) Hake Crustaceans Mullet Cephalopods Demersals Unreported by-catch Figure 6:  Trends in Mauritanian demersal catches by species group and unreported by-catch. 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1969/73 1979/83 1991/95 1997/2000 2001/05 C at ch  p ro po rt io n Other demersals Haemulidae Ariidae Ophidiidae Zeidae Sharks & rays Serranidae Pomadasyidae Sciaenidae Sparidae Dentex & Pagellus Pleuronectiformes Figure 7: Taxonomic composition of demersal fish catches in Mauritania by time periods.  Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  113 by-catch due to the demersal fishery appears rather negligible compared to total landings. In that case, misreporting comes from the industrial pelagic fishery itself. Indeed, results suggest that unreported catch by licensed boats might constitute more than 35% of the reported catch, resulting in several hundred thousand tons of unreported catch per year (Figure 5 and Appendix). During the last few years, total pelagic landings, including unreported and artisanal catches, would be close to 900,000 t·year-1; and may have exceeded 1 million tons in 2002 and 2004. Note, however, this does not include catches by illegal boats entering the Mauritanian EEZ. Demersal catches by taxa The analysis of demersal catches per species group, including both artisanal and industrial fisheries, reveals interesting trends (Figure 6). Total declared landings increased during the last fifteen years due to the development of the artisanal fishery. But this apparent positive trend masks more negative changes. Firstly, we note that total landings, including unreported by-catch, have remained more or less constant around 150,000 t·year-1 since the 1970s, as the decrease in the industrial sector resulted in a decrease in the total by-catch. In other words, a strong increase in total fishing effort, due to artisanal fishery development, has lead to almost constant landings. Secondly, some groups are characterized by increasing landings; this is the case for crustaceans (mainly shrimps) and mullets. These groups are well known as low trophic level taxa, and such a catch trend may contribute to ‘fishing down the marine food web’ (Pauly et al., 1998). Conversely, cephalopod catches (mainly Octopus) slightly increased until the mid 1980s, but exhibited afterwards a clear decreasing trend from more than 55,000 t·year-1 to around 35,000 t·year-1.  Lastly, the composition of demersal fish catches was highly variable, and changed considerably over time (Figure 7). Sparidae largely dominated until the early 1980s, before decreasing. Thus, the “various Sparidae” category constituted more than 40% in 1969/73, while it appears to have almost disappeared in the recent periods. However, it may be included in the “Other demersals” category, which has increased since then. Dentex and Pagellus reached 24% of the total catches before decreasing to around 10% in the most recent period. Conversely, Pleuronectiformes and elasmobranches seem to increase and new categories appeared in the catch statistics. This is especially the case of very coastal species such as Arius sp. (Aridae), and Plectorynchus mediteraneus (Haemulidae), likely due to the development of the artisanal fishery. But significant landings of more offshore species such as Zeus faber (Zeidae) and Brotula barbata (Ophidiidae), were also recently recorded. Globally, these changes indicate that more species become intensively exploited. As the species are overexploited, fisheries target new resources, a wider range of ecosystem compartments being progressively exploited. National catches Until the late 1970s, the development of fisheries in Mauritanian waters was mainly driven by foreign vessels. National catches remained below 50,000 t·year-1 (Figure 8). Thereafter, national catches rapidly increased to over 500,000 t·year-1 around 1980 (or 700,000 t.year-1 if unreported catch estimates are included). This was largely the result of the new policy ‘Nouvelle Politique des Pêches’ which resulted in charter agreements for essentially foreign industrial boats targeting pelagics, and in the nationalization of vessels targeting demersals (mainly Octopus). This resulted in the sudden increases in apparent national 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year C at ch  (1 03  t) Mauritanian total catches Mauritanian reported landings FAO Maurit. catches FAO demersal Maurit.catches Figure 8: Mauritanian national catch trends as derived by the present study, and comparison to FAO data as reported by Mauritania. Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  114 catches (Figure 8). We note that pelagic catches by chartered boats recorded in the Mauritanian database were not reported at that time to the FAO, whose data overwhelmingly relates to demersal catches only (Figure 8). Not until the mid 1990s do FAO statistics progressively include larger pelagic catches, and thus begin to approach the real Mauritanian reported landing (Figure 8). However, these statistics still underestimate demersal catches, especially from the artisanal fishery and do not take into account unreported catches.  In addition, we observe a decrease in national catches over the last twenty years (Figure 9), which seems driven by a new policy regarding agreements with foreign countries. Chartered boats still exist, but are progressively replaced by licensed foreign boats, mainly from Eastern Europe, the Netherlands, or increasingly flag of convenience. These vessels are considered as fully foreign, and their catches are not reported by Mauritania, but deemed the responsibility of the catching country (flag country of the vessel). Thus, national landings are now around 350,000 t·year-1, of which approximately half are demersal species (Figure 9). DISCUSSION Catch time series reconstruction, under conditions of data-gaps, remains a difficult task and our estimates contain uncertainty, including: For periods prior to 1979, we used empirical coefficients based on 1980-2003 data to estimate industrial catches. Compared to previous estimates, this contributes to lowering demersal catches and thus, results appear more realistic over the whole period. In particular, values cited by Josse and Garcia (1986) for the 1968-1979 period are too high and inconsistent with later estimates of maximum potential yields. Therefore, empirical corrections such as ours are likely to improve the catch statistics, but accuracy remains low. Unreported catches and by-catch were estimated over the whole period based on data covering only the recent years. Because by-catch and misreporting practices may have greatly changed over time, these estimates are highly uncertain. They do, however, underline the importance of considering by-catch in national accounting. Three types of catches might be still be missing in our estimates. First, artisanal Senegales pirogues have been allowed in Mauritanian waters since 1999, according to a fishing agreement between both countries. No data have been identified for this fishery, but Gascuel et al. (in press) estimated landings of approximately 6,000 to 12,000 t.years-1. Second, we noticed that unreported catches of the demersal industrial fishery have not been estimated, due to the lack of data. At last, and probably the most important: illegal foreign vessels may operate without any licenses in the Mauritanian EEZ and their IUU catches have not been considered in our results.  Thus, the current catch time series are likely to constitute minimal estimates and should be considered with caution, especially for the 1950s and 1960s. Nevertheless, the present reconstruction is extremely useful in that it provides the first picture of long term catch trends by the various fisheries which have exploited the waters that now represent the Mauritanian EEZ. Six main lessons emerge from this reconstruction:  Figure 9: Catch trend in Mauritanian waters, illustrating the importance of ‘charter’ boats for pelagic catches during the 1980s and 1990s (unreported included). 0 200 400 600 800 1 000 1 200 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year C at ch  (1 03  t) Pelagics foreign boats Pelagics chartered boats Demersals and by-catchReconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  115 1. The results can be compared with the catch estimates by the Sea Around Us project (www.seaaroundus.org). The latter relied on Watson et al. (2004), who allocated FAO catch by groups of species to ½ degree cells, and regrouped these into different EEZs. The present case study of Mauritania is the first independent test of the results presented by the Sea Around Us project, and it passed the test with flying colors: total catches in the Mauritanian EEZ from the Sea Around Us are very close to our estimates of the official landings of the industrial fisheries (Figure 10). On the other hand, a more detailed examination, requiring local knowledge, identifies a limitation of the global method of Watson et al. (2004). For example, we found that demersal catches taken in the waters off Mauritania were overestimated in the Sea Around Us database, while pelagic catches were underestimated. The main reason for this relates to the different fisheries history between Mauritania and its neighbours, particularly Senegal. Mauritanian marine resources have been exploited mainly by foreign countries targeting small pelagic fishes. On the other hand, small-scale fisheries targeting demersal resources developed very early in Senegal. Thus, the catch ratios of demersal and pelagic fishes between these two countries are not simply proportional to their fishable areas, as is assumed by the globally applied method of Watson et al. (2004) when no additional information is available. Their method, however, allows for the incorporation of information such as provided here, and thus it is possible to correct the results in subsequent renditions of the Sea Around Us spatial allocation. 2. Several hundred thousand tons of small pelagic fishes, recorded in the IMROP database during the 1980s and 1990s have simply disappeared from the statistics reported to the FAO. These had been caught by foreign boats (particularly from Eastern Europe), operating on the basis of special agreements as ‘Mauritanian chartered boats’ (Figure 11). Therefore, as ‘chartered boats’ their catches should have been declared as Mauritanian catches. However, they were not reported, and neither do they appear (or only partially) in the landings reported by the foreign countries in question2. 3. A further several hundred thousand tons of small pelagic fishes caught by industrial vessels were also unreported in the Mauritanian database (and thus do not appear in the FAO statistics). While Mauritanian                                                  2  For example, pelagic catches by chartered boats coming from Russia and operating in the Mauritanian EEZ amounted to 460,000 t and 340,000 t in 1992 and 1993, respectively, based on the IMROP database. However, only 185,000 t and 105,000 t were recorded in the FAO database regarding Russian pelagic catches for the entire FAO subareas 34.1.3 (Sahara coastal) and 34.3.1 (Cap Verde coastal), which also includes Morocco and Senegal. This implies that some (likely substantial) Russian vessel catches in Mauritania are missing in the FAO reporting. Figure 11:  Catches of pelagic species by the chartered boats in the Mauritanian EEZ (data from IMROP database). 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Year C at ch  (1 03  t) Others Cyprus Slovenia Lituania Latvia Ukrainia Russia 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year C at ch  (1 03  t) Industrial catches SAUP estimates Figure 10: Comparison between present estimates for Mauritania and Sea Around Us project allocation of catches to Mauritanian waters. Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  116 supervision capacities have been recently reinforced, for a long time they were very limited, and illegal catches, especially by foreign vessels (with or without proper licence), were obviously very important. 4. As in many other countries, official landings of demersal fishes are also underestimated due to a large amount of unreported by-catch, and a neglect of the small-scale fisheries sectors (see Zeller et al., 2006a; Zeller et al., 2007). Indeed, the latter have always been considered insignificant in Mauritania. This may have been true before the early 1990s, when a few hundreds ‘pirogues’ were involved. However, since then, their number has increased nearly ten-fold, generating catches of approximately 80,000 t·year-1. Obviously, a ‘small-scale’ fishery of such magnitude is a major economic factor (Zeller et al., 2006b), whose impacts on the ecosystem can no longer be ignored. As for the by-catch, it has been so far ignored because the vessels report overwhelmingly the species they target, and for which they have a license. Clearly, shrimp trawlers do not only catch shrimps, and cephalopod fishers do not catch only octopus. We find here that taking into account unreported by-catch leads to an increase of the industrial demersal catches by a factor of 1.7.  5. As a consequence, the overall picture of Mauritanian fisheries catches is strongly modified. Until now, it was thought that the industrial fishery for small pelagics overwhelmingly dominates the fisheries sector. While this is still true in term of tonnage (indeed Mauritania has one of the world largest reduction fisheries, where the catch is reduced to fishmeal), this may not be true in term of value or value added, as the demersal fisheries (industrial and small-scale), catching higher-priced species such as hake, octopus, shrimp, etc., have much higher catches than previously thought. 6. Having established that demersal resources are important, we must then deal with the fact that these resources suffer from tremendous overexploitation. The industrial demersal fisheries developed in the late 1960s, mainly targeting octopus, whose abundance increased at that time, probably due to the previous overexploitation of bottom fish, notably porgies (family Sparidae). Since then, total demersal catches have remained around 180,000 t·year-1, albeit with a huge increase of fishing effort. For instance, the number of industrial trawlers grew from around 150 in the early 1980s to 300-350 in the late 1990s/early 2000s. Given that their fishing efficiency has also increased, this further increases the effective effort. In the process, various species groups have been successively exploited, then overexploited. This was probably the case for several fishes belonging to the Sparidae community in the 1960s and 1970s; octopus is overexploited since the mid 1980s (Gilly and Maucorps, 1987; Chassot et al., in press), which induced a decrease in cephalopods landings from a maximum of 55,000 t·year-1 to presently about 35,000 t·year-1; and coastal fishes of the Scianidae community reached their maximum in the 1990s and are now decreasing, too. At the present, it is mullets and shrimps that are on target for overexploitation. Overall, the biomass of demersal resources has been substantially depleted: at present it is about 25% of what it was in 1982, when regular trawl surveys began (Gascuel et al., in review). This corresponds to a loss of 20,000 t·year-1. Moreover, the biomass of top predators has been reduced by a factor of 8 to 10, and of up to 20 for the most affected species. The mean trophic level of the catch, and its biodiversity decreased, inducing a higher sensitivity to the effects of climate change (Gascuel et al., in review).  CONCLUSION Mauritania is a very clear case study of an inequitable allocation of fisheries resources. Almost all the large fishing countries of the world have exploited Mauritanian waters. Octopus and demersal fishes have been targeted by Japanese, Spanish, Korean, and Chinese vessels. Pelagic fishes have attracted vessels from Russia, Ukraine and other eastern European countries, and more recently Dutch vessels. The national Mauritanian industrial fisheries remained limited in spite of several attempts to develop national or joint ventures, especially during the 1980s. Foreign countries have to pay for licenses or fishing agreements, for example resulting in presently about 30% of Mauritanian public receipts coming from the EU. While the opportunity to earn revenue in this manner is obvious, such policies may not be a good basis for exerting national sovereignty. But the majority of catches were never and still are not landed in Mauritania. Instead, foreign vessels offload in the Canary Islands (i.e., Spain), or directly in their country of origin. Mauritania benefits neither through jobs, nor value added returns. As for the small-scale fishery, it was limited for a long time, and developed only since the mid 1990s, partially in competition with industrial fisheries – and only after resources were reduced. The context in which Mauritanian fisheries scientists operate, and try to assess stocks and fisheries is thus very challenging. Perhaps the recent development of an oil industry will make it possible for Mauritania to acquire more weight in international negotiations, and to manage its fisheries resources, and the access of foreign fishing fleet to its waters in a more equitable fashion. It is hoped that this will contribute to more of Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  117 the benefits accruing to Mauritania. There is no doubt that international scientific cooperation will remain useful in this process.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study would not have been possible without the work of several generations of scientists, technicians and onboard observers involved in the Mauritanian fisheries. A special thanks to those involved in the IMROP database implementation and maintenance, and who provided statistics, notably B. Meissa, B. Tfeil and S. Yahya. This study was also supported by an international Marie Curie fellowship, funded under the sixth EU Framework Programme. D. Zeller and D. Pauly acknowledge the support from the Sea Around Us Project, funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia.  REFERENCES Boncoeur, J., Failler, P., Mohamedou, F.O., Ahmed, M.M.O., Ba, O.K., Diop, H., Tarbiya, M.L.O., Nafaa, M.L.O. and Kinadjian, L. (in press) Indicateurs économiques du secteur des pêches mauritanien. Rapport du 6iem groupe de travail IMROP sur l’évaluation des stocks et l’aménagement des pêcheries – commission Economie. Nouadhibou 11-16 décembre 2006. Brahim, K. and Jouffre, J. (in press) Analyse des statistiques 1991/2005 de la pêche industrielle démersale: évolution de l’effort de pêche et des captures, profils de production. Rapport du 6iem groupe de travail IMROP sur l’évaluation des stocks et l’aménagement des pêcheries, Nouadhibou 11-16 décembre 2006. Chassot, E., Balguerias, E., Guitton, J., Jouffre, B., Tfeil, B. and Gascuel, D. (in press) Diagnostic de l’état du stock de poulpe (Octopus vulgaris) mauritanien: Synthèse et nouvelles evaluations par l’approche globale. Rapport du 6iem groupe de travail IMROP sur l’évaluation des stocks et l’aménagement des pêcheries, Nouadhibou 11-16 décembre 2006. Chavance, P. (2004) Pour une reconstruction d'un demi-siècle d’évolution des pêcheries en Afrique de l’Oust. p. 113-130 In Chavance, P., Ba, M., Gascuel, D., Vakily, J.M. and Pauly, D., (eds.), Pêcheries maritime, écosystèmes et sociétés en Afrique de l’Oust: un demi siècle de changement. Coll. Rap. Actes du Symposium international DAKAR Juin 2002. Office des publications officielles des communautés Européennes, ACP-UE 15  Chavance, P. and Girardin, M., editors. (1991) L’environnement, les ressources et les pêcheries de la ZEE Mauritanienne. Bulletin du CNROP 23, Nouadhibou, 227 p.  Failler, P., Diop, M., Dia, M.A., Inejih, C.A. and Tous, P., editors. (2006) Évaluation des stocks et aménagement des pêcheries de la ZEE Mauritanienne. Rapport du cinquième Groupe de travail IMROP, (Nouadhibou, 9-17 décembre 2002), Copace/Pace Sér. 06/66, 197 p.  FAO-CNROP (1995) Evaluation des stocks et des pêcheries mauritaniennes: voies de développement et d’aménagement, rapport du 3ième groupe de travail CNROP (Nouadhibou 20-26 novembre 1993). Copace/Pace Sér. 95/60 113 p. FAO-CNROP (1999) Rapport du 4ième groupe de travail du CNROP: évaluation des stocks et aménagement des pêcheries de la ZEE mauritanienne (Nouadhibou, 7-13 décembre 1998). Copace-Pace Sér. 99/64 180 p. Gascuel, D., Labrosse, P., Meissa, B., Taleb Sidi, M.O. and Guénette, S. (in review) The decline of demersal resources in North-West Africa: an analysis of Mauritanian trawl survey data over the last 25 years. African Journal of Marine Science. Gascuel, D., Monteiro, C., Yahya, S. and Brahim, K. (in press) Estimation des captures par espèce pour les différentes flottilles opérant en Mauritanie (1991/2005). Rapport du 6iem groupe de travail Imrop sur l’évaluation des stocks et l’aménagement des pêcheries, Nouadhibou 11-16 décembre 2006. Gilly, B. and Maucorps, A. (1987) L’aménagement des principales pêcheries de la Mauritanie et le développement de la recherche halieutique. FAO, FI:TCP/MAU/6655, Rome, 175 p. IMROP (in press) Rapport de synthèse du 6iem Groupe de Travail sur l’évaluation des ressources et l’aménagement des pêcheries de la ZEE mauritanienne. Document IMROP.  26 p. Inejih, C., Cheikna, S.Y., Meisse, B., Corten, A., Van Vilsteren, M. and Jouffre, D. (2004) Les pêcheries démersales de la Mauritanie en 2003: description des flottilles et evaluation des resources. Rapport IMROP-RIVA 2004-2 52 p. Infoconseil-Paoa (2005) Etat des lieux de la filière de transformation artisanale des produits halieutiques au Sénégal. Dakar (Sénégal), rapport Gret, Enda graf, SNC Lavalin, Cinteh, MAE, CDE, ACDI, MIA.  42 p. Josse, E., editor. (1989) Les ressources halieutiques de la ZEE mauritannienne: description, evaluation et amènagement. Rapport du 2e groupe de travail CNROP/FAO/ORSTOM (Nouadhibou, 12-22 novembre 1988). Copace-Pace Sér. 89/49, 237 p.  Josse, E. and Garcia, S., editors. (1986) Description et évaluation des ressources halieutiques de la ZEE mauritanienne, rapport du groupe de travail CNROP-FAO-Orstom (16-27 septembre 1985, Nouadhibou), Copace-Pace Sér. 86/37, 300 p.  Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Dalsgaard, J., Froese, R. and Torres, F. (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279: 860-863. Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  118 Thibaut, L., Chavance, P. and Damiano, A. (2004) Statbase, une approche générique pour la gestion de statistiques de pêche d’origines multiples. p. 11-24 In Chavance, P., Ba, M., Gascuel, D., Vakily, J.M. and Pauly, D., (eds.), Pêcheries maritimes, écosystèmes et sociétés en Afrique de l’Ouest : un demi sciècle de changement. Coll. Rap. Actes du Symposium international DAKAR Juin 2002, Office des publications officielles des communautés Européennes, XXXVI, collection des rapports de recherche halieutique ACP-UE 15. Watson, R., Kitchingman, A., Gelchu, A. and Pauly, D. (2004) Mapping global fisheries: sharpening our focus. Fish and Fisheries 5: 168-177. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Craig, P. and Pauly, D. (2006a) Reconstruction of coral reef fisheries catches in American Samoa. Coral Reefs 25: 144-152. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fisheries catches for U.S. flag island areas in the Western Pacific: The last 50 years. Fisheries Bulletin 105: 266-277. Zeller, D., Booth, S. and Pauly, D. (2006b) Fisheries contributions to GDP: Underestimating small-scale fisheries in the Pacific. Marine Resource Economics 21: 355-374. Reconstructed catches in the Mauritanian EEZ, Gascuel, Zeller, Taleb Sidi & Pauly  119  APPENDIX  Table A1: Reconstructed Mauritanian catches for the artisanal and industrial (demersal, pelagic) fisheries; unreported catch and by-catch of industrial fisheries; total catches in the Mauritanian EEZ and national catches (unreported included). All values in tonnes. Year Artisanal Industr. dem Industr. pel Unrep. dem Unrep. pel Tot. EEZ National 1950 3,000 6,835 1,800 4,918 677 17,230 4,439 1951 3,000 7,285 2,013 5,242 757 18,296 4,439 1952 2,844 9,079 3,495 6,532 1,314 23,264 7,159 1953 3,724 10,079 3,623 7,252 1,362 26,041 7,159 1954 4,833 10,565 3,272 7,602 1,230 27,502 7,159 1955 4,100 13,343 4,328 9,601 1,627 33,000 6,799 1956 6,124 10,755 4,662 7,739 1,753 31,034 6,799 1957 7,280 11,613 5,039 8,356 1,895 34,183 6,439 1958 6,867 13,389 12,103 9,634 4,551 46,544 13,598 1959 6,264 17,538 20,102 12,620 7,558 64,083 13,598 1960 6,331 10,614 22,818 7,637 8,580 55,980 16,317 1961 7,667 11,521 30,513 8,290 11,473 69,463 19,756 1962 7,158 12,935 37,231 9,307 13,999 80,630 20,756 1963 7,434 12,353 39,898 8,888 15,002 83,575 20,756 1964 7,710 17,461 56,691 12,564 21,316 115,743 20,756 1965 7,986 26,435 53,885 19,021 20,261 127,588 23,476 1966 8,262 28,024 50,054 20,165 18,820 125,326 26,915 1967 8,539 69,336 75,950 49,891 28,557 232,272 32,054 1968 8,815 110,405 95,601 79,443 35,946 330,210 41,952 1969 9,091 79,169 136,336 56,967 51,262 332,825 51,550 1970 9,367 88,921 259,125 63,983 97,431 518,827 64,437 1971 9,643 90,258 270,595 64,945 101,743 537,185 77,493 1972 9,919 78,480 214,348 56,471 80,595 439,813 45,147 1973 10,195 89,417 265,592 64,340 99,862 529,407 41,022 1974 10,472 96,818 313,244 69,666 117,779 607,979 59,099 1975 10,748 87,219 315,219 62,759 118,522 594,467 43,579 1976 11,024 97,462 395,800 70,129 148,820 723,235 43,787 1977 11,300 79,297 399,879 57,059 150,354 697,889 49,812 1978 11,576 65,917 170,698 47,431 64,182 359,804 56,094 1979 11,852 54,546 207,000 39,249 77,832 390,479 57,299 1980 9,821 71,002 495,000 51,090 186,119 813,032 198,443 1981 19,871 111,090 286,000 79,935 107,536 604,432 408,924 1982 9,831 120,136 274,000 86,444 103,024 593,435 511,231 1983 10,916 105,074 469,000 75,606 176,343 836,939 712,515 1984 10,203 90,011 373,000 64,768 140,248 678,230 655,199 1985 10,591 98,641 454,000 70,977 170,703 804,912 732,062 1986 11,088 100,440 456,000 72,272 171,455 811,256 759,175 1987 17,129 101,726 470,000 73,198 176,719 838,772 767,758 1988 15,311 87,304 403,000 62,820 151,528 719,962 691,102 1989 15,528 71,949 383,000 51,771 144,008 666,256 623,122 1990 15,743 54,625 295,000 39,306 110,920 515,593 502,063 1991 15,961 57,058 381,000 51,051 146,508 651,577 556,092 1992 14,898 67,461 475,686 53,519 200,353 811,916 714,304 1993 27,069 63,465 376,440 54,195 170,624 691,793 686,875 1994 34,816 59,391 206,018 45,439 93,217 438,880 475,959 1995 45,624 54,946 423,456 40,265 132,868 697,158 594,795 1996 60,376 67,376 697,553 34,322 241,075 1,100,702 833,498 1997 58,083 51,150 554,508 33,778 206,227 903,746 617,681 1998 70,558 45,298 605,209 40,911 190,746 952,721 539,985 1999 68,904 53,516 500,149 46,645 169,947 839,161 470,856 2000 71,160 63,032 558,247 50,984 217,235 960,658 464,258 2001 79,506 67,745 474,556 45,833 196,055 863,695 430,760 2002 86,485 67,253 800,555 37,484 242,644 1,234,421 374,981 2003 85,811 63,763 522,859 39,555 241,662 953,650 293,746 2004 78,473 60,274 805,295 41,625 232,775 1,218,442 332,562 2005 78,447 58,765 581,061 42,344 227,750 988,367 357,230    120 Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  121 RECONSTRUCTION OF GREEK MARINE FISHERIES LANDINGS: NATIONAL VERSUS FAO STATISTICS1 Athanassios Tsikliras, Dimitrios Moutopoulos and Konstantinos Stergiou  Department of Zoology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki, UP Box 134, Greece; E-mail: kstergio@bio.auth.gr  ABSTRACT We reconstructed Greek fisheries catches from 1950-2003. The landings data recorded by the National Statistical Service of Greece have been compared with those reported by FAO for 1964-2003. For 1969- 2003 we also reconstructed landings derived from rowing boats and coastal boats with engine power <19HP, which are not reported by either dataset. We disaggregated these landings by taxon, based on recent reports of the mean catch per unit of effort of all species caught by different small-scale gears. This allowed estimation of the total Greek marine fisheries landings and comparison with the corresponding FAO data. The reconstructed total landings indicated an average underestimation by 35% (range: 10-65%) of Greek landings based on the reported landings as presented by FAO on behalf of Greece. Except for the taxonomic differences (e.g., the case of Sardinella aurita) and the different taxonomic resolution (e.g., the case of Spicara spp.), which accounted for several discrepancies between the two datasets, the two datasets also differed for most taxa over the period 1964-1969 and for the years 1997 (FAO landings are overreported) and 1998 (FAO landings are underreported). With respect to catches by individual taxa through time, the two datasets generally agreed for the small pelagics and, to a lesser extent, for demersal taxa. The taxa which accounted for the larger and more consistent difference between the two datasets were the large pelagics (swordfish, bluefin tuna and other tuna-like fishes), which were commonly underreported by the national dataset by a factor of 2 for the years following 1990.  INTRODUCTION Fisheries statistics offer, among other things, direct or indirect background information for evaluating several ecological aspects of fisheries (e.g., assessing ‘fishing down the marine food web’: Pauly et al., 1998; primary production required to sustain fisheries: Pauly and Christensen, 1995; Tudela, 2000; mapping fisheries resources: Watson et al., 2001). In addition, long time-series of fisheries landings are also useful for developing short- and long-term forecasting (e.g., Stergiou, 1989; 1991; Stergiou and Christou, 1996; Stergiou et al., 1997a; Lloret et al., 2000; 2001), for defining management zones using multivariate analyses (e.g., Murawski et al., 1983; Stergiou et al., 1997b; Tsikliras and Stergiou, 2007), for defining target species (Stergiou et al., 2003), and for testing various ecological hypotheses (e.g., Watson and Pauly, 2001; Halley and Stergiou, 2005).  Since 1950, world fisheries landings are routinely reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, based on reports provided by member countries (Pauly and MacLean, 2003). FAO publishes the ‘Yearbook of Fishery Statistics’, which contains the annual landings of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic animals/plants. Such data refer to the commercial, industrial and small-scale inland, coastal and oceanic fisheries (excluding recreational or sport fishing). FAO data often suffer from serious drawbacks and biases, thus in order to better reflect reality they must be complemented by specific evaluation studies at the national level. As mandated, FAO has to rely on statistics provided by member countries, even if it is doubtful that these correspond to reality (e.g., Watson and Pauly, 2001). Erroneous or incomplete statistics may systematically distort world fisheries landing trends, whether over-reported (Watson and Pauly, 2001) or underreported (Pauly and Maclean, 2003). The most important bias is that                                                  1 Cite as: Tsikliras, A., Moutopoulos, D. and Stergiou, K. 2007. Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics. p. 121-137. In: Zeller, D. and Pauly, D. (eds.) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for key countries and regions (1950-2005). Fisheries Centre Research Reports 15(2). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  122 FAO statistics do not include: (i) Unreported, Unregulated and Illegal catches (IUU catches), which may reach up to 50% of the total landings (Pitcher et al., 2002), and (ii) discarded by-catches (e.g., Alverson et al., 1994; Pauly et al., 2003; Zeller and Pauly, 2005).  The global fisheries crisis requires changes in management regimes, which should be based on reliable research and evaluation of the existing fisheries statistics (e.g., Sea Around Us Project, www.seaaroundus.org). The Sea Around Us Project aims to analyze the impacts of fisheries on marine ecosystems, and develop strategies for sustainability of fisheries. Among other goals, the project attempts to correct the FAO data for individual countries based on various sources of each country’s statistics, as well as on the knowledge of local experts (e.g., Zeller et al., 2006; 2007). Within this framework, we compared the national fisheries statistics for Greek waters recorded by the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSH) with those reported by FAO in order to identify/quantify discrepancies between the two data sources. A discrepancy in the total landings reported between these two sources has only been recently realised (Stergiou et al., 2004). In the present study, we: a) compared the FAO marine captured production reported for Greece with that reported by NSSH for the period 1964-2003 on a taxon by taxon basis; b) re-evaluated the taxon groups reported by FAO and NSSH (1964-1981) by revising taxon names and splitting, when necessary, groups into taxa; c) assembled the national statistics for the small-scale fishery (i.e., landings for rowing boats and boats with engines <19 HP), which are not included in the FAO marine statistics, and allocated these landings to taxa (or groups) using previously published information; and d) developed a completely reconstructed time series of marine fisheries catches for Greece, from 1950-2003 (i.e., including the landings for rowing boats and boats with engines <19 HP). MATERIALS AND METHODS Data sources  Greek fisheries statistics are collected by four independent organisations (Papaconstantinou, 2002): (a) the National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSH, since 1964, for 16 fishing subareas, Figure 1); (b) the Agricultural Bank (since 1974, from approximately 110 ports); (c) the National Company for the Development of Fisheries (since 1969, from all existing auction sites); and (d) the Ministry of Agriculture (not routinely involved in data collection). Each of these organizations collects and/or processes fisheries data for its own purposes, without co-ordination among organisations. Thus, collected information is overlapping, contradictory, and sometimes leads to confusion (e.g., two or more differing sets of figures for the same variable surveyed). Although NSSH statistical data may suffer from certain biases, which may be higher for inshore fisheries, they are considered the best figures available (Stergiou et al., 1997b; Papaconstantinou, 2002) with respect to: (a) the length of available time-series, (b) spatial and temporal resolution of collected data (covering all Greek waters), (c) the consistency and degree of subjectivity in data collection, and (d) the statistical design. It should be pointed out that the degree of bias cannot be easily estimated. Yet, NSSH records show signs of biological, ecological, oceanographic and technical relevance, and reasonably agree with the results of trawl and echo-surveys conducted in the Greek Seas (Stergiou et al., 1997b). Important in the present context is that the NSSH dataset forms the basis of the Greek data reported to FAO for the vast majority of species.  The landings of the Greek commercial fleets have been routinely recorded since 1964 by the NSSH and are published in yearly bulletins (NSSH, 1967-2005). Landings (and fishing effort) records are derived via questionnaires, which are distributed to a subset of fishing vessels (using a stratified random sampling design). Surveys are conducted by local Customs Authorities. The statistical questionnaire includes the quantity of each main taxon caught on a daily basis for actual periods of activity. Since 1969, the catches of the small-scale coastal boats with engine horsepower <19 HP (i.e., small inshore ring netters, drifters and liners), as well as rowing boats are monitored by a different NSSH branch (Agricultural Statistics of Greece). However, a rough estimate of the total catch of the small-scale coastal fleets is provided in the marine catches bulletin (NSSH, 1967-2005) This estimate for 1970-1994 averages approximately 25,000 t·year-1 (range: 20,000 - 30,000 t·year-1; Stergiou et al., 1997b). However, this estimate changed for the period following 1995, averaging approximately 55,000 t·year-1 (range: 50,400 - 58,800 t·year-1), that is 14,000 boats powered with less than 19 HP catching 300-350 kg·boat-1·month-1 (NSSH, 1967-2005), possibly following the 1988 census of fishing boats operating in Greek waters (Papaconstantinou, 2002).  Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  123 Albania FYROM Bulgaria Turkey Greece A egean S ea 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 15 10 17 16 18 8 11 9Ionian Sea Cyclades Cretan Sea Dodecanese Thracian Sea Figure 1. Map of the Greek seas showing the division to 16 fishing sub-areas. Subareas 1 and 2 are outside Greek waters (Atlantic Ocean and North African Mediterranean coast, respectively). The NSSH dataset is divided in two time periods depending on the taxonomic resolution of the species recorded. For the period 1964-1981, separate NSSH statistics are available for 23 taxa (or groups of taxa), while for the years 1982 onwards catch statistics are available for 66 commercially important fish, cephalopod and crustacean taxa. Bivalve species were excluded from our analysis, as a large proportion of the reported values are derived from aquaculture. For a better evaluation of the data, Greek waters have been divided in 16 fishing subareas (Figure 1). Subareas 1 and 2 are outside Greek waters (Atlantic Ocean and North African Mediterranean coast, respectively). For 1950-1963, Greek landings are available as a total (i.e., freshwater, coastal, Greek seas and overseas) but the percentage of the marine landings of Greek waters during that period was about 65% (Ananiades, 1968). Based on this percentage, we estimated the total Greek marine landings for 1950- 1963, but no attempt was made to disaggregate to taxon level. For this period we consider the FAO landings and taxonomic resolution as the valid ones. The Greek marine captured landings from 1950 to 2003, as reported by FAO, were accessed and downloaded from FAO FishStat (www.fao.org) for comparison. Taxonomic composition We used the scientific names provided by FAO. The common names reported by the two datasets were kept as originally used. However, a recommended English common name, based on standardized common names as per FishBase (www.fishbase.org) will be suggested to the NSSH for future use. Spatial and taxonomic disaggregation Taxonomically highly aggregated landings statistics are problematic for various reasons, as they do not allow the best use of ancillary information, such as species distributions (Close et al., 2006). A large proportion of Greek landings is reported as ‘miscellaneous marine fishes’ or ‘marine fishes n.e.i.’ (not elsewhere included), while further taxonomic aggregations exist at the genus and family level. The degree of taxonomic aggregation is not always the same between FAO and NSSH datasets. We tried to split the taxonomically aggregated landings to species level whenever possible. We did this for taxa that were reported by the NSSH as aggregated groups for the 1964-1981 period, but were reported as individual species for the 1982-2003 period, as follows: (a) we calculated the average contribution to the combined landings of each species during 1982-1990, for species that were reported aggregated during 1964-1981, and (b) we split the reported landings of the aggregated group during 1964-1981 using the average percentage per species derived from the 1982-1990 period. We used the average percentage for 1982-1990 as opposed to the 1982-2003 because the nature of Greek fisheries changed considerably after 1990 due to geographic expansion and modernization of the fleet (Anonymous, 2001).  Small-scale coastal fisheries landings For 1969-2003, neither NSSH nor FAO include landings derived from rowing boats and coastal boats with engine power <19HP (henceforth called small-scale coastal boats). We collected these total landings data (no taxonomic composition data are available) for the period 1975-1999 from Agricultural Statistics of Greece (ASG, 1977-2000). We disaggregated these landings by taxon based on a recent technical report concerning the mean catch per unit of effort (CPUE) of all species caught by different small-scale gears (<10 m; longliners, netters, beach seiners, other gears) in Greek waters for 1996-2000 (Anonymous, 2001). The total small-scale coastal landings (ASG, 1977-2000) varied from a minimum of 16,701 t in 1979 to a maximum of 26,998 t in 1989. We fitted a linear trend to the 1975-1989 landings, and used this time trend to hindcast landings for the period 1970-1974. For the period 1964-1969 the NSSH total marine Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  124 landings included those of the small coastal boats (possibly excluding rowing boats). However, the small- scale coastal boat landings as derived here are 2.45 times less than the estimate provided by the NSSH for the period 1995-2003 and 1.1 times less for the period 1975-1994 (see Data Sources). Thus, we multiplied the small-scale coastal boat landings (from ASG) by 2.45 for 1995-2003 and by 1.1. for 1975-1994 before adding these landings to the NSSH recorded figures. This analysis should be considered preliminary and will be refined should more sources and data become available to us.  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Total landings Total NSSH reported landings (i.e., fish, cephalopods and crustaceans) increased from 49,544 t in 1964 to 162,018 t in 1994, and subsequently declined to approximately 85,000 t in 2003 (Figure 2). This trend mirrors general global patterns (Watson and Pauly, 2001). Fish landings, which made up the main part of the total landings, increased exponentially from 47,000 t in 1964 to a peak of 150,000 t in 1994, followed by a sharp decline to 73,000 t in 2003 (Figure 3a). Crustacean landings (Figure 3b) varied around 1,100 t for the period 1964-1985 and increased to about 3,500 t during the remaining period. Cephalopod landings (Figure 3c) also varied around 2,000 t during 1964- 1985, increased exponentially to a peak of about 8,000 t in 1995, and declined thereafter. While the distinct peak in 1994 (Figures 2, 3) may be attributable to an internal change in the NSSH data reporting system, it was not possible to verify this through other sources. The total landings reported by FAO during 1964-2003 (solid circles, Figure 2) followed the same pattern and generally agreed with those of NSSH, implying a relatively good data transfer mechanism between the Greek national level and FAO. This is not true for the 1950-1962 period, when FAO reported higher catches than the national data agency (Figure 2). Thus, FAO reported catches were 5% to 38% higher than the national data, and the percentage difference declined over time (Figure 2 insert). Similarly, FAO landings for fish, crustaceans and cephalopods followed the same pattern and generally agreed with those of NSSH with the exception of cephalopods for 1964-1969 (Figure 3).    Figure 3. Annual Greek landings of (a) fishes, (b) crustaceans, and (c) cephalopods, as reported by the NSSH (open circles) and FAO (solid circles) for 1964-2003. (a) 0 40000 80000 120000 160000 1964 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 La nd in gs  ( t) (b) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 1964 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 (c) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 1964 1970 1976 1982 1988 1994 2000 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Years La nd in gs  (t ) -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 1950 1953 1956 1959 1962 Years %  D iff er en ce Figure 2. Total annual Greek landings of fishes, crustaceans and cephalopods as reported by the NSSH (open circles) and FAO (solid circles) for 1950-2003. The small insert shows the percentage by which FAO reported catches differ from the national ones during 1950-1963. Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  125 The small-scale coastal boat landings for 1975- 1999 increased from 22,151 t in 1975 to a maximum of 26,998 t in 1989, thereafter declining to 22,356 t in 1999 (Figure 4). The trend for 1975-1989 was used for the hindcast estimation of landings for the period 1970-1974 (Figure 4). The original and reconstructed FAO and NSSH landings per taxon (1964-2003), as well as the suggested landings per taxon or groups of taxa, including the small-scale coastal boat component are available from the authors.  Overall, the reconstructed total NSSH landings (i.e., including rowing boats and boats with engines <19 HP) increased from 49,544 t in 1964 to 188,296 t in 1994, and subsequently declined to approximately 138,000 t in 2003 (Figure 5). NSSH landings are, as expected, higher than the FAO reported data (owing to the inclusion of the small-scale coastal landings in the NSSH dataset). We consider the NSSH reconstructed landings as the best estimate of total landings for the period 1970-2003, and the FAO data as the more accurate for the period 1950-1969.  Taxonomic breakdown For 1964-1981, NSSH reported groups of taxa that contained two or more species. Most of these individual species do not appear in FAO statistics, instead, FAO reported the entire catch for each group only under the first species of each group mentioned by NSSH. For example, the NSSH reported catches for Boops boops and Sarpa salpa as one group, while FAO reported the entire catch of this group as B. boops (Table 1). In contrast, in only one case does FAO provide landings for two species separately, which are reported as a combined group by NSSH: Merluccius merluccius and Micromesistius poutassou. We are unable to identify how FAO split the NSSH group catch into species specific data, since NSSH reported only one figure for both species’ landings.  A detailed analysis and comparison for every taxon appearing in both datasets is presented in Appendix A1 (end of article), while an overview is given in Table 2. The final reconstructed landings per taxon (including our estimate per species for the small-scale coastal boats) for 1970-2003 are available from the authors. Despite the common basis of the two datasets, some taxonomic differences were apparent. The greatest differences occurred for the large pelagic fish (swordfish and large scombroids), and larger differences were observed for demersal rather than small pelagic fish.  For the 1964-1969 period, the differences between the two datasets were most probably due to: (a) the fact that for that period the landings of the small-scale coastal boats were taken into account by the NSSH, (b) the different taxonomic aggregation (higher taxonomic resolution by FAO for that period), and (c) rounding effects. The differences between the two datasets were smoothed out since 1982, when the common taxonomic aggregation started, and for 1982-2003, there is a general agreement between the two datasets regarding each taxon landings. For that period, the problem is focused on the individual landings of 1997 and 1998, and large pelagic fish from 1990 onwards. Some individual cases are particularly interesting and mainly concern taxonomic (in terms of resolution and nomenclature) and aggregation discrepancies.  y = 411.08x + 16409 R2 = 0.39 n=15 15000 17000 19000 21000 23000 25000 27000 29000 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 Years La nd in gs  ( t) H i n d c a s t Figure 4. Annual Greek landings of small coastal boats. Data derived from the Agricultural Statistics of Greece yearly bulletins from 1975-1999. 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Years La nd in gs  (t ) Figure 5. Reconstructed total annual Greek landings of fishes, crustaceans and cephalopods as reported by the NSSH including the small-scale coastal fisheries for 1964-2003 (open circles) and FAO reported landings (solid circles) for 1950-2003. Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  126 Table 1. Taxonomic grouping and corresponding taxa reported by FAO and NSSH for 1964-1981 and 1982-2003.  FAO NSSH 1964-1981 Boops boops Boops boops, Sarpa salpa Solea solea Solea solea, Psetta maxima Pagellus erythrinus Pagellus erythrinus, Dentex macrophthalmus Sarda sarda Sarda sarda, Katsuwonus pelamis Trachurus mediterraneus Trachurus mediterraneus, T. trachurus Scorpaenidae Scorpaenidae, Triglidae, ‘gurnards’ Dentex dentex Dentex dentex, Pagrus pagrus Serranidae Epinephelus marginatus, E. alexandrinus, Polyprion americanus Mullus spp. Mullus barbatus, M. surmuletus Merluccius merluccius Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou Micromesistius poutassou Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou   1982-2003 Spicara spp. Spicara flexuosa  Spicara maena  Spicara smaris Mullus spp. Mullus barbatus  Mullus surmuletus  The round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) is one of the most problematic cases in terms of taxonomy and nomenclature. The NSSH landings of S. aurita exactly match those of FAO for shads (Alosa spp.), the abundance of which is very low in Greek waters (Figure 6). The close taxonomic relationship of the two species suggests that the two datasets refer to the same species and we consider the species’ name and the landings of NSSH to be the correct ones. The problem probably arises from the Greek common names of the two species that are often confused. The result is that the Greek fleet appears to have fished almost 2,000 t of shads (Alosa spp.) in 2000 instead of round sardinella which is the third most targeted clupeoid species in the Greek Seas, and is mainly caught by purse seiners (Tsikliras, 2004). The twaite shad (Alosa fallax) is the only commercially exploited shad species in the Greek Seas, but very low quantities are landed (Anonymous, 2001). Its exploitation is seasonal, confined to spring/early summer, and is performed by the small scale coastal fleet whose landings are not taxonomically disaggregated. Thus, this record clearly refers to S. aurita. Similarly, there is a peculiarity regarding FAO landings of common grey-mullet (Mugil cephalus), which include the catches of all seven mugilid species (M. cephalus, M. soiuy, Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and Odeachilus labeo) inhabiting the Greek Seas. It is difficult for the fishers to distinguish these species - and pointless, as all of them have the same market value. The contribution of each of the seven species to the total landings is impossible to estimate. Thus, fishers usually report all of these species as grey mullets. Hence, FAO’s M. cephalus refers to all mugilid species, i.e., the NSSH Mugilidae (‘common grey mullet’) landings.   Figure 6. Annual Greek landings of round sardinella (Sardinella aurita) as reported by NSSH (open circles), and shads (Alosa spp.) as reported by FAO (solid circles) from 1982-2003. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year La nd in gs  (t ) ○ Sardinella aurita - NSSH • Alosa spp. - FAOReconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  127 A case of different taxonomic resolution between datasets is that of the three species of the genus Spicara (S. smaris, S. maena and S. flexuosa). FAO records Spicara spp., while NSSH records separate landings for each species. For 1982-2003, the sum of the NSSH landings of the three species exactly matches the FAO landings for Spicara spp., and we consider the taxonomic resolution of NSSH the correct ones. The European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is recorded by NSSH since 1982 and by FAO since 1964. For 1964-1981, NSSH landings were aggregated and recorded together with those of blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and possibly with those of whiting (Merlangius merlangus), which appears separately since 1982 but it does not appear as part of any group in 1964-1981. This NSSH grouping might also include small quantities of the poor cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus). For 1982-2003, landings completely match between the two datasets except for 1997 and 1998. We split the NSSH M. merluccius landings for 1964-1981 to landings for each species (M. merluccius and M. poutassou) based on the average participation of these two species in the total M. merluccius and M. poutassou NSSH landings during 1982-1990 (Figure 7). We consider these NSSH backwards estimated values as the valid ones.  The large pelagic fishes (Scombridae and Xiphiidae) were the main source of discrepancy between the two datasets. The Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda) is recorded separately by NSSH since 1982, whereas FAO reports it separately since 1964. For 1964-1981 it is recorded by NSSH together with the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). For the period 1982-2003, the landings of S. sarda agree between the two datasets from 1982 to 1989 and from 1994 to 1997 (Figure 8). For the remaining years, FAO landings are higher. For the period 1964-1981, we split the NSSH K. pelamis and S. sarda combined landings into landings for each species based on the average contribution of each species to the total combined NSSH landings during 1982-1990. We consider these NSSH backwards estimated values as the valid ones.  0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 Years La nd in gs  ( t) Reconstructed Figure 7. Annual Greek landings of European hake (Merluccius merluccius, solid circles) and whiting (Micromesistius poutassou, open circles) as recorded by NSSH during 1982-2003, and their backward reconstructed values for 1964-1981 (shaded area) based on their reported combined landings for the same period (grey circles). 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 Figure 9. Annual Greek landings of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) as reported by FAO (solid circles) for 1981-2003 and by NSSH (open circles) for 1982- 2003. Figure 8. Annual Greek landings of the Atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda) as reported by FAO (solid circles) and NSSH (open circles) for 1964-2003. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 La nd in gs  (t )Reconstruction of Greek marine fisheries landings: National versus FAO statistics, Tsikliras, Moutopoulos & Stergiou  128 Scientific name Common english name as reported by Greek name Suggested Reconstructed FAO NSSH FAO NSSH 1 Alosa  spp. Shads nei 1982 Sardinella aurita 1982-2003 2 Anguilla anguilla European eel Eel Χέλια 1982 1982 Anguilla anguilla 3 Auxis rochei, A. thazzard Frigate Bullet tunas 1981 Auxis rochei, A. thazzard 4 Belone belone Garfish Garfish Ζαργάνες 1964-1969, 1982 1982 Belone belone 5 Boops boops Bogue Bogue Γόπες 1964 1982* Boops boops 1964-1981 6 - - Gurnard Βραστόψαρα 1982 Marine fishes nei 1964-1981 7 Conger conger European conger 1994 Marine fishes nei 8 Dentex dentex Common dentex Dog's teeth Συναγρίδες 1964 1982* Dentex dentex 1964-1981 9 Dentex macrophthalmus Large-eye dentex Large eyed dog's teeth Μπαλάδες 1982 1982* Dentex macrophthalmus 1964-1981 10 Dicentrarchus labrax European seabass Bass Λαβράκια 1964-1969, 1982 1982 Dicentrarchus labrax 11 Diplodus annularis Couch's seabream Σπάροι 1982 Diplodus annularis 1982-2003 12 Diplodus sargus sargus White seabream White bream Σαργοί 1982 1982 Diplodus sargus sargus 13 Engraulis encrasicolus European anchovy Anchovy Γαύροι 1964 1964 Engraulis encrasicolus 14 Epinephelus marginatus Dusky grouper Grouper Ροφοί 1985 1982* Epinephelus marginatus 1964-1981 15 Epinephelus spp. Groupers nei 1964 16 Epinephelus alexandrinus Dusky sea perch Σφυρίδες 1982* Epinephelus alexandrinus 1964-1981 17 Euthynnus alletteratus Little tunny (=Atl black Skipj) 2002 18 Helicolenus dactylopterus Snapper Κοκκινὀψαρα 1982 19 Katsowonus pelamis Skipjack tuna Skipjack Ρίκια 2003 1982* Katsowonus pelamis 1964-1981 20 Lophius piscatorius Angler (=monk) 1982 Lophius spp. 21 Lophius  spp. Anglerfish Πεσκανδρίτσες 1982 Lophius spp. 22 Merlangius merlangus Whiting Daouki Νταούκια 2002 1982 Merlangius merlangus 23 Merluccius merluccius European hake Hake Βακαλάοι 1964 1982* Merluccius merluccius 1964-1981 24 Micromesistius poutassou Blue whiting (=Poutassou) Couch's whiting Προσφυγάκια 1964 1982* Micromesistius poutassou 1964-1981 25 Mugil cephalus Flathead greymullet 1964 Mugilidae 26 Mugilidae Common grey mullet Κέφαλοι 1964 Mugilidae 27 Mullus barbatus Goatfish Κουτσομούρες 1982* Mullus barbatus 1964-1981 28 Mullus surmuletus Surmulet Red mullet Μπαρμπούνια 1982 1982* Mullus surmuletus 1964-1981 29 Mullus  spp. Surmulets (=Red mullets ) nei 1964 1964-1981 Mullus barbatus 30 Mustelus  spp. Smooth hounds nei Blackmouthed godfish Γαλέοι 1982 1982 Mustelus  spp. 31 Oblada melanura Saddled seabream Blackbream Μελανούρια 1982 1982 Oblada melanura 32 Osteichthyes Marine fishes nei Others Διάφορα  ψάρια 1964 1964 Osteichthyes 33 Pagellus erythrinus Redbream Λιθρίνια 1982* Pagellus erythrinus 1964-1981 34 Pagellus  spp. Pandoras nei 1964 Pagellus erythrinus 35 Pagrus pagrus Red porgy Common sea bream Φαγγριά 1982 1982* Pagrus pagrus 1964-1981 36 Pagrus  spp. Pargo breams nei 1964 Diplodus annularis 37 Polyprion americanus Stone bass Βλάχοι 1982* Polyprion americanus 1964-1981 38 Pomatomus saltatrix Bluefish Bluefish Γοφάρια 1966-1969, 1982 1982 Pomatomus saltatrix 39 Psetta maxima Turbot Brill Καλκάνια 1982 1982* Psetta maxima 1964-1981 40 Raja clavata Thornback ray Thornback ray Βάτοι 2003 1982 Raja clavata 41 Raja  spp. Raja rays nei Rassa Ράσσες 1964-1969, 1982 1982 Raja spp. 42 Rhinobatidae Guitarfishes etc nei Guitarfish Ρινόβατοι 1982 1982 Rhinobatidae 43 Sarda sarda Atlantic bonito Bonito Παλαμίδες 1964 1982* Sarda sarda 1964-1981 44 Sardina pilchardus European pilchard (=Sardine) Pilchard Σαρδέλες 1964 1964 Sardina pilchardus 45 Sardinella aurita Gilt sardine Φρίσσες 1982 Sardinella aurita 46 Sarpa salpa Salema Goldline Σάλπες 1982 1982* Sarpa salpa 1964-1981 47 Scomber japonicus Chub mackerel Chub mackerel Κολιοί 1964 1964 Scomber japonicus 48 Scomber scombrus Atlantic mackerel Mackerel Σκουμπριά 1964-1969, 1982 1982 Scomber scombrus 49 Scombroidei Tuna-like fishes nei 1982 50 Scorpaenidae Scorpionfishes nei Scorpion fish Σκορπιοί 1964 1964 Scorpaenidae 1964-1981 51 Seriola dumerili Greater amberjack Yellowtail Μαγιάτικα 1982 1982 Seriola dumerili 52 Serranus  spp. Comber Χάνοι 1982 Serranus  spp. 53 Serranidae Groupers, seabasses nei 1964 1964-1981 54 Solea solea Common sole Sole Γλώσσες 1964 1982* Solea solea 55 Sparus aurata Gilthead seabream Red sea bream Τσιπούρες 1964-1969, 1982 1982 Sparus aurata 56 Spicara flexuosa Blotched pickerel Τσέρουλες 1982* Spicara flexuosa 1964-1981 57 Spicara maena Blotched pickerel Μένουλες 1982* Spicara maena 1964-1981 58 Spicara smaris Pickerel Μαρίδες 1982* Spicara smaris 1964-1981 59 Spicara  spp. Picarels nei 1964 1964-1981 60 Spondyliosoma cantharus Black seabream Black seabream Σκαθάρια 1964 1964 Spondyliosoma cantharus 61 Sprattus sprattus European sprat Sprat Παπαλίνες 1982 1982 Sprattus sprattus 62 Squalidae Dogfish sharks nei Dogfish Σκυλόψαρα 1964-1969, 1982 1982 Squalidae 63 Thunnus alalunga Albacore 1986 64 Thunnus thynnus Atlantic bluefin tuna 1964-1969, 1985 65 Trachurus mediterraneus Mediterranean horse mackerel Horse mackerel Σαυρίδια 1964 1982 Trachurus mediterraneus 1964-1981 66 Trachurus trachurus Atlantic horse mackerel Jack mackerel Σαμπανοί 1982 1982 Trachurus trachurus 1964-1981 67 Trachurus  spp. 1964-1981 68 Triglidae Gurnards, searobins nei Tubfish Καπόνια 1982 1982* Triglidae 1964-1981 69 Umbrina cirrosa Shi drum Croaker Μυλοκόπια 1964-1969, 1982 1982 Umbrina cirrosa 70 Xiphias gladius Swordfish Swordfish Ξιφίες 1981 1982 Xiphias gladius 71 Zeus faber John dory John dory Χριστόψαρα 1982 1982 Zeus faber 72 - - Tune fish Τόννοι 1982 Cephalopods 73 Loliginidae, Ommastrepidae Various squids nei Flying squid Θράψαλα 1970 1964 Loliginidae, Ommastrepidae 74 Loligo  spp. Common squids nei Common squid Καλαμάρια 1972 1964 Loligo spp. 75 Octopodidae Octopuses etc nei Poulp Μοσκιοί 1970 1982 Octopodidae 76 Sepia officinalis Common cuttlefish Cuttle fish Σουπιές 1964 1964 Sepia officinalis 77 Octopus vulgaris Common octopus Octapus Χταπόδια 1982 1964 Octopus vulgaris Crustacueans 78 Hommarus gammarus European lobster Lobster Αστακοί 1982 1982 79 Penaeus kerathurus Cara