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Marine fisheries catches in Arctic Alaska. Booth, Shawn; Zeller, Dirk 2008

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ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports    2008 Volume16 Number 9     MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES Fisheries Centre, University f British Columbia, Canada IN ARCTIC ALASKA        o   MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES IN ARCTIC ALASKA     Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller                   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9) 59 pages © published 2008 by  The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2202 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4       ISSN 1198-6727   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9) 2008   MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES IN ARCTIC ALASKA  Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller   CONTENTS   Page IRECTOR’S FOREWORD.......................................................................................................................................1 BSTRACT............................................................................................................................................................2 CTION....................................................................................................................................................2 ATERIALS AND METHODS..................................................................................................................................4 HUMAN POPULATION DATA............................................................................................................................4 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES DATA.......................................................................................................................4 SUBSISTENCE FISHERIES DATA.......................................................................................................................5 ESULTS..............................................................................................................................................................9 TOTAL CATCH TIME SERIES.............................................................................................................................9 SUBSISTENCE CATCHES..................................................................................................................................9 COMMERCIAL CATCHES................................................................................................................................10 ISCUSSION.......................................................................................................................................................10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..... ..................................11 REFERENCES............................... .............................................12 APPENDIX 1: METHODS OF EXPANSION AND ANCHOR POIN S...............................................................................14 APPENDIX 2: INUPIAT NAMES, COMMON N  SPECIES REPORTED.........................43 APPENDIX 3: COMMUNITY INFORM ............................................44 APPENDIX 4: PARTICIPANTS  AND NOTES FROM DATA VALI ATION WORKSHOP ......................59     A Research Report from the Fish ries Centre, UBC and  the Lenfest Ocea  Program   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9) 59 pages © Fisheries C itish Columbia, 2008  FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727    D A INTRODU M R D ................................................................................................. .......................................................................... T AMES AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES FOR ATION............................................................... ...............................D e n  entre, University of Br  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 1 DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD The huge area which makes up the Amerasian Arctic, from Novaya Zemlya Island and the Kara Sea, off north-western Siberia in the west to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Hudson Bay in the east, is fully encompassed in FAO Statistical Area 18, one of the 19 large statistical areas through which the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization documents the marine fisheries catches of the world, based on reports filed since 1950 by FAO’s member countries. In the case of FAO Area 18, the member countries did not do their job. Thus, catches for the north of Siberia were not reported to the FAO by the USSR and later Russia (which can perhaps be forgiven since the USSR was not a member, and Russia joined the FAO only in 2006). Similarly, Canada’s catches from its Arctic waters were desultorily reported to the FAO. We reported on this for both USSR/Russia and Canada in Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 15(2), published in 2007. The present report, which covers the fishery of arctic Alaska, thus completes our coverage of the Amerasian Arctic, i.e.,  of FAO Area 18, for which the total catch, as reconstructed by members of the Sea Around Us Project from 1950 to 2005, is over 50 times that reported by FAO. As is here illustrated for Alaska, this is because the statistical reporting systems at the national (and hence international) level for fisheries on Russia, the USA and Canada do not pay any attention to their small- scale fisheries, even when these provide all the fish consumed in vast areas. In this, unfortunately, Russia, the USA and Canada do not differ much from other countries, which all tend to underestimate their small- scale fisheries catches. But more could have been expected, given that these three countries have the resources, one would think, to document one of the major food-producing sectors of the economy along their Arctic coasts. The present report also highlights the USA-specific problem of missing data as they relate to state-level jurisdiction, as fisheries data collected and reported by the State of Alaska from their 3 nautical mile jurisdiction are not incorporated into national catch reports.  Be that as it may, these catch time series should now become important baselines, e.g., for assessing gains and losses due to the warming now raging in the Arctic, which will not fail to impact on fisheries. This is also the reason why the documentation of the bottom-up process used to arrive at the catch data presented therein is given in such great details. This report is based on work funded by the Lenfest Oceans Program (www.lenfestocean.org), and we thank Ms Margaret Bowman for having understood the need to establish a historic baseline for fisheries which may change radically in the next decades, as the ice of the Arctic recedes and its waters become accessible to industrial fishing fleets. These fleets have wreaked havoc on the fish stocks and ecosystems further south. Let us hope that they do not get to undermine the fisheries documented here. Daniel Pauly, Director UBC Fisheries Centre October 2008        Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 2  MARINE FISHERIES CATCHES IN ARCTIC ALASKA1  Shawn Booth and Dirk Zeller Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 e-mail: s.booth@fisheries.ubc.ca; d.zeller@fisheries.ubc.ca  ABSTRACT The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) provides global data on fisheries catches based on reports by member countries. Interestingly, for FAO Statistical Area 18 (Arctic), the USA reports no fish catches to the global community. In Alaska, it is the communities found north of Cape Prince of Wales that fall within FAO area 18. However, the State of Alaska’s Department of Fish and Game has collected time series of commercial data, and undertakes community fisheries subsistence studies that are temporally and spatially intermittent. At the regional level, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, Alaska) do not report on either of these fisheries, as they take place within state waters. The Sea Around Us Project, at the University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre, undertakes catch reconstructions to account for discrepancies between globally reported and likely total catches. Our catch reconstruction includes both subsistence and commercial fisheries of marine and anadromous species from 1950-2006 for 15 coastal and near-coastal communities in arctic Alaska. Total catches over this time period were estimated to be 89,000 tonnes (196.2 million pounds), with subsistence catches contributing 54 % (48,200 tonnes or 106.4 million pounds), and commercial catches estimated at over 40,700 tonnes (89.8 million pounds). Subsistence catches averaged 847 tonnes·year-1 (1.8 million pounds·year-1, range: 589-1,139 tonnes·year-1). It is only since the late 1980s that subsistence catches have exceeded those from the 1950s, when there was a higher reliance on fisheries resources. Despite a small increase in subsistence catches, the human population has increased from approximately 3,550 to approximately 12,650, which resulted in per capita catch rates falling from 237 kg·person-1·year-1 (523 pounds·person-1·year-1) in 1950 to 78 kg·person-1·year-1 (171 pounds·person-1·year-1) in 2006. One of the main drivers for this was the decrease in the amount of fish used for dog feed, when the snowmobile replaced the dogsled as the main form of transportation. The more holistic historical perspective of total reconstructed fisheries catches presented here is important, in view of the impacts of global climate change, given the significance of these resources for the food security of arctic peoples.  INTRODUCTION Alaskan marine fisheries in the arctic area are those that operate north of Cape Prince of Wales on the Seward Peninsula (Figure 1). This area falls within the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Statistical Area 18. The National Marine Fisheries Service’s Alaska branch (NMFS- Alaska) does not report on these fisheries, because they take place within state waters. At the federal level, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS-National) reports on Alaska’s fisheries, but they do not include catches taken in the arctic. As a consequence, the United States currently reports zero catches to FAO for the arctic area. The state agency, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), has collected time series of commercial data and has also undertaken community subsistence studies that are intermittent in space and time. However, no complete time series of total marine catch estimates exist for the arctic coast of Alaska. Here, we present reconstructed estimates of total commercial and subsistence catches taken by the 15 coastal and near-coastal communities in Alaska’s arctic waters that form part of FAO Statistical Area 18 for the years 1950 to 2006.  Fisheries in 1950 were under the mandate of the US federal government. However, driven in part by the desire of Alaskans to have control over their salmon resources, statehood was achieved in 1959. At this point, the State of Alaska took control of its own fisheries management. With the implementation of the Magnuson-Stevens Act in 1976, the federal government gained responsibility for fisheries taking place from 3-200 nautical miles from shore and the state retained responsibility for the fisheries occurring within 3 nm of the coast. After Alaska gained statehood, its subsistence use of fish and wildlife was given priority over all other uses. However, in subsequent years the Alaska Board of Fisheries and Game created                                                              1 Cite as: Booth, S. and Zeller, D. (2008) Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(9). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727].  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 3 a rural subsistence priority, which was later ruled to be in violation of the state’s constitution, and thus subsistence use and personal use fisheries are currently given priority. In 1999, the federal government also extended its jurisdiction to include fisheries on all public lands and waters under the Federal Subsistence Management Program (Woodby et al., 2005). The people of arctic communities have always relied on the Arctic Ocean for a large part of their sustenance. The area is sparsely populated, and the 15 communities represented in this study (Wales, Shishmaref, Deering, Buckland, Selawik, Kotzebue, Noatak, Kivalina, Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Barrow, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, and Kaktovik) have an estimated total population of over 12,000 that grew at an average annual rate of 5.2 % per year from 1950 to 2000. The total population has since been slightly decreasing (Figure 2). Two communities, Atqasuk and Nuiqsut, were founded in the 1970s by people moving from existing communities to traditional lands. These 15 communities form part of three Alaska Native Regional Corporations—the ing Straits Native Corporation (Wales and Shishmaref), NANA Regional Corporation  Buckland, Selawik, Kotzebue, Noatak, and Kivalina) and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (Point Hope, Point Lay, Wainwright, Barrow, Atqasuk, Nuiqsut, and Kaktovik). Marine commercial fisheries are important in Kotzebue Sound, with chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) the most important component of the catch, while marine subsistence fisheries are an important component throughout the area, and target a variety of species including chum salmon, whitefish (Coregonidae) and Dolly varden (Salvelinus malma). Ber (Deering, The coastal communities in arctic Alaska have  Figure 1. The U.S. State of Alaska, showing the 200 nm Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and southern boundary of FAO Statistical Area 18 (Arctic). Indicated also are the arctic communities of 1) Wales, 2) Shishmaref, 3) Deering, 4) Buckland, 5) Selawik, 6) Kotzebue, 7) Noatak, 8) Kivalina, 9) Point Hope, 10) Point Lay, 11) Wainwright, 12) Barrow, 13) Atqasuk, 14) Nuiqsut and 15) Kaktovik.   0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year H um an  p op ul at io H um an  p op ul at io n (x  1 03 ) H um an  p op ul at io H um an  p op ul at io n (x  1 03 ) Figure 2. Human population for the 15 communities of arctic Alaska 1950-2006. Solid circles indicate census data taken from the website of the Division of Commerce, Community and Economic Development’s website (www.dced.state.ak.us/). Intervening years are linearly interpolated. For individual community information, see Appendix 3. relied on a mixed economy since the late 19th century, when American government and business expanded into the territory and developed commercial industries (Wolfe, 2004). Whaling, reindeer herding, and fur- trapping were important early contributors. After World War Two, the building of military stations (e.g., the DEW line) also provided the opportunity for people to earn wages. More recently, the discovery of oil on the North Slope in 1968 has enabled people to participate in a  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 4 mixed economy with the cash income helping some maintain a subsistence lifestyle. Since the mid-1960s, people have also largely replaced the dog sled with motorized transport (see also Booth and Watts, 2007, for the Canadian arctic). Furthermore, the development of oil fields has had effects on some animal populations, including Bowhead whales and caribou (National Research Council, 2003). MATERIALS AND METHODS ial catches were taken mainly from the 2004 and 2005 Annual Human population data mmerce, Community and Economic Development maintains the Alaska Time series estimates of commerc Management Reports (Kohler et al., 2005; Banducci et al., 2007), with additional unreported catches being estimated (see ‘Commercial fisheries data’ below). The Annual Management Reports detail the catch in numbers of individuals taken and average weights that were used to convert numbers of fish to round weight. A time series average for weight was used to estimate the weight of the catch in years when the report did not detail average weights. Arctic cisco taken in the Colville River fishery were assigned an average weight of 1 pound (0.45 kg; Daigneault and Reiser, 2007).  Estimates of subsistence catches were taken from a variety of sources (see ‘Subsistence fisheries data’ below) and were expanded using a range of approaches to incorporate communities and years when no data were available. Subsistence catches in Alaska are often reported in terms of edible weight. If the edible weight to round weight conversion factors were not given, a standard conversion factor of 1.3 was used (i.e., round weight * 0.75 = edible weight; Anonymous, 2001) The Alaska Department of Co community database that provides population data for the first year of every decade (www.dced.state.ak.us), as well as estimates for 2005 and 2006. To estimate the population for each community and year, linear interpolations were performed between years of reported data. For Point Lay (the above data source did not report population for this community between 1940 and 1980), we used Point Lay Biographies (Impact Assessment Inc., 1989) to estimate the population between 1950 and 1980. Total population for the 15 arctic communities grew from approximately 3,550 in 1950 to 13,000 in 2000 at an average rate of 5.2 % per year, before declining to about 12,650 in 2006 (Figure 2). Commercial fisheries data heries for this area take place in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region. The commercial fishery in Kotzebue Sound for chum salmon, along with incidental takes of Dolly varden However, although it is reported in official documents that the commercial fishery in Kotzebue Sound                                                             Administratively, commercial fis This region encompasses the drainages of the Kuskokwim, the Yukon and Colville Rivers, and includes both Norton Sound and Kotzebue Sound. However, the areas of the region that coincide with FAO Statistical Area 18 are Kotzebue Sound and the northern district of the Yukon-Northern area. Within these two areas, there are few commercial fishing opportunities, although a fishery that mainly targets chum salmon takes place in Kotzebue Sound, while another fishery in the Colville Delta targets whitefish. The commercial fishery for chum salmon in Kotzebue Sound is stated to have officially started in 1962 and the Colville River fishery officially commenced in 1967. Commercial catches were taken from the 2005 Annual Management Report and the 2007 Kotzebue Sound salmon season summary (Banducci et al., 2007; Menard and Kent, 2007). (Salvelinus malma), other species of salmon, and the fishery for sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys) is reported by the commercial fisheries department within ADF&G. Recent and historical data for these species were taken from the 2004 Annual Management Report (Kohler et al., 2005) and the 2005 Annual Management Report (Banducci et al., 2007). However, data for the commercial fishery that targets Arctic cisco largely in estuarine waters near the Colville River were taken from data supplied by Stephen Murphy (pers. comm.2). For the period 1974-1976 and 1981, unreported catches of Dolly varden were estimated using the respective average decadal catches.  started in 1962, there were local commercial fisheries taking place prior to this. The commercial fishery taking place prior to that date was an informal one, whereby local people sold their catch for dog feed to people who ran dog-sled teams, the transportation link prior to the introduction of the snowmobile (C.  2 Stephen R. Murphy, ABR, Inc.  P.O. Box 80410, Fairbanks, Alaska 99708-0410, (907)-455-6777 [date information received: October 19, 2007].  Marine fisheries catches in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  5 There was also a Japanese fishery in the Chuckchi Sea beginning in 1966, with most fishing effort taking Subsistence fisheries data eries as those targeting fish species that rely on marine waters as part of Subsistence fisheries catch data come from a variety of reports that are spatially and temporally Lean, pers. comm.3). Similarly, Stefanich (1973) reported that commercial fisheries taking place in the Colville River prior to 1967 were taking approximately 64,000 whitefish and ciscos each year; Wilimovsky (1956) estimated that 10,000 pounds of whitefish were taken in one instance in 1952. Thus, these two commercial fisheries had unreported catches estimated for the period prior to their official reporting by ADF&G. place between 66-67O N and 166-169O W, an area largely within the current boundaries of the US Exclusive Economic Zone. This fishery’s peak catches were similar to those for Kotzebue Sound, and thus, this fishery may have been intercepting large numbers of Kotzebue area chum salmon.  Commercial data for the Japanese fishery are reported for 1966 and 1967 (Anonymous, 1967, 1968).  Here, we define subsistence fish their life history. Thus, subsistence fisheries include both anadromous and marine fish species that are taken in marine, estuarine or freshwater environments, but exclude fish species that are solely reliant on freshwater for their life-cycle. Anadromous species including chum salmon, sheefish, whitefish and Dolly varden, and marine species, including herring (Clupea pallasii) and cod (Boreogadus saida and Eleginus gracilis), are the main species of importance.  intermittent (Table 1) and form the basis for data ‘anchor’ points (see Zeller et al., 2007). Early studies such as those by Patterson (1974) quantify fisheries catches for several communities representing an average annual catch of important species. The State of Alaska, through its Community Profiles Database (www.subsistence.adfg.state.ak.us), maintains a database on subsistence fish catch and wildlife harvests that includes fisheries data for eleven of the fifteen communities, with most information derived from household surveys. Other studies mostly focus on a given community in a given year, although it is worthy to note that Burch (1985) presents data for Kivalina for two distinct time periods (1964-1965 and 1982- 1983). The data sources used to derive estimates of non-commercial, subsistence catches also indicated that the reported catch totals incorporated catches used for dog-feed. In order to account for catches that were not reported during these studies, yearly catches were estimated The two final methods involved scaling a community’s catch to either another community’s reported catch                                                             using several methods. The most common method involved interpolating between data anchor points via per capita catch rates. This method involves dividing reported catches of a year by the human population of the same year and then interpolating linearly between the per capita catch rates. Another method involved using average catches, whereby a community’s catch for reported years was divided by the number of years of reported data to derive an average catch, which was applied to other years when there were no data reported. This method was used in those cases where there was known to be large variations, including zero catches, due to ice in lagoon areas (Burch, 1985). The third method was to use the same reported catch for other years that lacked reported data; this was mostly done in carrying catches forward in time from the last reported catch amount, but was also used in some cases to carry catches backwards in time from the earliest reported catches. or to another species catch in the same community. Point Hope, Point Lay and Wainwright had only one reported anchor point for most species, and thus other anchor points in time were derived using reported changes for the same species in Kivalina. In Kotzebue, Dolly varden catches were estimated as a percentage of chum salmon catches, since there is some indication that higher catches of Dolly varden are associated with higher catches of chum. Chum salmon catches in Shishmaref were estimated by linearly interpolating the exploitation rate between two data anchor points (average 1971-1975 and 1989); for later years missing reported data the average exploitation rate was used. In Wales, chum catches were derived for 1971-1975 and 1989 using the reported change in catches for Shishmaref. For the intervening time periods, catches were estimated by linear interpolation of the exploitation rate. Eggers and Clark (2006) provide estimated total run sizes for Kotzebue District chum for 1962-2004. Catch data were converted into exploitation rates by dividing the number of chum salmon caught in reported years by the estimated   3 Charlie Lean, Norton Sound Fisheries Research and Development Director,  P.O. Box 358, Nome, Alaska, 99762, 1-888-650-2477 [date information received: January 24, 2008].   Table 1. Sources used to construct time series anchor points of subsistence fisheries catches by taxa for 15 communities in Arctic Alaska. Community    Source Year(s) Common name Atqasuk Craig (1987) 1983 broad whitefish, humpback whitefish, least cisco  Anon. (2005b) 1994 broad whitefish, chum salmon, humpback whitefish, whitefish Barrow    Patterson (1974)  Anon. (2001)  1971  1987-1989 Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish,  least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, capelin, chum salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin Buckland Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) 1957 chum salmon  Anon. (1967) 1967 chum salmon, sheefish  Anon. (1968) 1968 chum salmon  Moore (1979) 1972 pink salmon, smelt, whitefish   Banducci et al. (2007) 1970-1975, 1979, 1981 chum salmon Mason et al. (2007) 2003 chum salmon, smelt Deering Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) 1957 chum salmon  Patterson (1974) 1972 Bering cisco, coho salmon, Dolly varden, least cisco, pink salmon, saffron cod  Sobelman (1984) 1974, 1975 chum salmon  Magdanz and Utermohle (1994) 1994 chinook salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sockeye salmon  Anon. (2001) 1994 Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, least cisco, Pleuronectidae, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt   Kohler et al. (2005) 1994 chum salmon Banducci et al. (2007) 1965-1977, 1979, 1981- chum salmon Kaktovik Patterson (1974) 1971 Arctic cisco, Dolly varden, least cisco  Anon. (2001) 1985, 1986, 1992 salmon, pink salmon, saffron cod  Pedersen (2005) 2001, 2002 Arctic cisco, Dolly varden Kivalina Raleigh 1957 in (Smith et al. 1966) 1957 chum salmon, pink salmon  Saario 1959 in (Burch, 1985) 1959 Arctic cod, saffron cod  Saario and Kessel (1966) 1959, 1960 Dolly varden, whitefish  Patterson (1974) 1972 Arctic cod, chum salmon, whitefish  Braund & Burnham in (Burch, 1985) 1982 whitefish  Burch (1985) 1964, 1965, 1982, 1983 Arctic cod, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, pink salmon, saffron cod  Anon. (2001) 1992 Arctic cod, chinook salmon, chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, pink salmon,  rainbow smelt, saffron cod, sheefish, sockeye salmon, whitefish          Kohler et al.  (2005) 1981-1984 chum salmon Banducci et al. (2007) 1968-1972, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1984-1986 Dolly varden Kotzebue  Raleigh 1957 in (Smith et al. 1966)   1957 chum salmon Anon. (1967) 1967 sheefish Anon. (1968) 1968 sheefish  Patterson (1974) 1972 chinook salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt   Georgette and Loon (1993) 1986 Bering cisco, broad whitefish, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish,  least cisco, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt    Anon. (2001)  1991  Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder,  herring, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, Pleuronectidae, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt, sockeye salmon  Eggers and Clark (2006) 1962-2004 chum salmon     Table 1 (cont’d). Sources used to construct time series anchor points of subsistence fisheries catches by taxa for 15 communities in Arctic Alaska. Community  Source Year(s) Common name Noatak Raleigh 1957  in Mattson (1962) 1957 chum salmon  Anon. (1968) 1968 chum salmon  Patterson (1974) 1972 Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, round whitefish  Georgette and Utermohle (2000) 1999 Sheefish  Georgette and Utermohle (2001) 2000 Bering cisco, broad whitefish, humpback whitefish, least cisco, round whitefish, sheefish  Anon. (2001) 1994 Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, round whitefish, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt  Georgette et al. (2003) 2002 Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, humpback whitefish, least cisco,  pink salmon, round whitefish  Banducci et al. (2007) 1969-1971, 1973-1984,  1986, chum salmon, Dolly varden Nuiqsut Anon. (2001) 1985, 1993 Arctic cisco, Arctic cod, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, round whitefish  Point Hope Raleigh 1957 in Smith et al. (1966)  1956 pink salmon  Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) 1957 chum salmon  Foote and Williamson (1966) 1959, 1960 Arctic cod  Patterson (1974) 1971 Arctic cod, Dolly varden, pink salmon, smelt, whitefish Point Lay Anon. (2001) 1987 broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, pink salmon, smelt Shishmaref Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962) 1957 chum salmon  Patterson (1974) 1973 broad whitefish, chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, pink  Conger and Magdanz (1990) 1989 Arctic cod, broad whitefish, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring,  humpback whitefish, king crab, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, smelt, sockeye salmon  Anon. (2001) 1995 Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, king crab, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt, sockeye salmon  Banducci et al. (2007) 1967, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1995 chum salmon Wainwright Patterson (1974) 1971 chinook salmon, Dolly varden, pink salmon, smelt  Anon. (2001) 1988, 1989 Bering cisco, chinook salmon, chum salmon, flounder, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, smelt Wales Raleigh 1957 in Mattson (1962)   1957 chum salmon   Patterson (1974) 1973 Arctic cod, broad whitefish, coho salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, humpback whitefish, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod  Magdanz and Utermohle (1994) 1994 chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, pink salmon, sockeye salmon  Anon. (2001) 1993 Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly     Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 8 total run size of that year. Average reported weights from the commercial fishery for chum in Kotzebue Sound were used to convert the number of salmon to live weights. Detailed data and all sources used are presented in Appendix 1. Human vs. dog feed component of subsistence catches Prior to the introduction of the snowmobile in the early 1960s, dog-teams provided the main mode of transportation. The first snowmobiles were sold in Kotzebue in the early 1960s and by the winter of 1965- 66 the first snowmobiles were brought into Noatak (Hall, 1971). Therefore, we assumed that for communities other than Kotzebue, the snowmobile was introduced in 1965 and for Kotzebue in 1963. Fish were one of the main sources of feed for the dog-teams in some communities.  Abrahamson (1968) reported that a dog would need at least 2 pounds of dried fish per day over the winter. C. Lean (pers. comm.) indicated that in the past a dog would be fed half a chum salmon (approximately 4 lbs, given an average weight of 8 lbs per chum) during the winter, and during the rest of the year, they would be fed with other protein sources (e.g., caribou). Thus, we considered that, prior to the introduction of the snowmobile, each dog would be fed 4 pounds of fish each day over a 6 month period prior to the introduction of the snowmobile. Raleigh (1957, in Mattson 1962), gave estimates for the number of dogs in the 1950s in each community excluding Wainwright, Barrow, Kaktovik, Selawik and Point Lay. Estimates of the number of dogs for communities lacking data were based on the average dogs-to-people ratio for those communities that had reported data. Patterson (1974) also provided an estimate for the total number of dogs in 1972 for the NANA region, which includes communities outside the scope of this work. However, Raleigh (1957 in Mattson 1962) also provided estimates for these communities and thus, the number of dogs in 1972 for each of the communities was based on the percentage decline of total dogs between 1957 and 1972. For 1957, we assumed that each dog was fed 4 pounds of fish per day over a 6 month period. For 1972, Patterson (1974) estimated that each dog was fed 327 pounds (round weight) of fish per year. Georgette and Loon (1993) estimated the amount of fish fed to dogs for the community of Kotzebue in 1986 and estimates are also provided for Noatak in 1999 (Georgette and Utermohle, 2000) and 2000 (Georgette et al. 2001). These data were transformed into anchor points based on the amount of fish used for dog-feed (as a percentage) in relation to the total estimated fish catch. The 1957 estimate of the amount of fish used for dog-feed (as a percentage of the total estimated fish catch) was held constant until the year the snowmobile was introduced (Kotzebue 1963, all others 1965) and then scaled linearly to the 1972 estimate. For the communities that did not have any data available past the 1972 estimate, we scaled the amount of fish used for dog feed on the percentage change for Noatak because Kotzebue, as a regional centre, has a much larger population. Thus, it was possible to estimate, for each community, what percentage of catch through time was fed to dogs by linearly interpolating between anchor points. However, for some communities the estimates of fish used for dog-feed exceeded the reported catch for the anchor years of 1957 and 1972. On further investigation, it was found that these communities relied far less on fish as a protein source and relied more heavily upon land or marine mammals. Estimates of total protein availability for each community were based on the report of Patterson (1974), who provided estimates on the weight of caribou, deer/reindeer, moose, seals, walrus, beluga, bowhead whales and birds taken in each community. The estimated amount of fish caught was added to these amounts and a percentage contribution to the available protein by fish was determined. The communities of Wales, Shishmaref, Point Hope and Kaktovik were found to have a negative balance, and they also had fish contributing less than 15 % to their protein availability, and therefore we assumed that they did not rely heavily on fish for dog-feed. Therefore, we were also able to determine that the communities of Wainwright and Barrow, which were missing information on the number of dogs, were not heavily dependent on fish as dog-feed because they had fish contributing 3 % and 5 %, respectively to their total protein availability. No data were available for Point Lay, quantifying the number of dogs or contributions to protein availability, although the community is known for its beluga harvest (B. White, pers. comm.4); therefore it was assumed that fish were not relied upon for dog-feed for the following communities: Barrow, Kaktovik, Point Hope, Point Lay, Shishmaref, Wainwright, and Wales. Thus, for each community that was reliant upon fish for dog-feed (Deering, Buckland, Kotzebue, Noatak,                                                              4 Bruce Wright,  Senior scientist, Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, 1131 East International Airport Rd., Anchorage Alaska 99518, (907)-276-2700 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 9 Kivalina and Selawik) we were able to determine through time what percent of the estimated catch was used for dog-feed. For the communities of Atqasuk and Nuiqsut, that were established on traditional lands in the 1970s, the average percentage (excluding Kotzebue) was used to determine what proportion of fish was used for dog-feed in the first year that people re-settled traditional lands and the decline was based on changes represented by the community of Noatak. Although Deering in 1957 had a positive protein availability balance, the protein availability balance was negative in 1972, and therefore the change in the amount of fish fed to dogs was based on the average percent decline for the other communities, excluding Kotzebue. RESULTS Total catch time series Prior to 1962, when commercial fisheries were part of the informal economy, total estimated catches averaged approximately 1,230 t·year-1 (2.7 million lbs·year-1; 1950-1961), with the informal commercial sector accounting for on average 31 % of the yearly catch (Figure 3). For the first years when the commercial fishery was considered to be part of the formal economy (1962-1969), total catches were estimated to average approximately 1,080 t·year-1 (2.4 million lbs·year-1). From 1970-1989, there were two peak periods of catches, 1974-1975 with catches of 3,178 and 2,909 tonnes (7.0 and 6.4 million lbs) respectively, and then in 1981-1982 with catches of 3,529 and 2,609 tonnes (7.8 and 5.8 million lbs), respectively. Catches for 1970-1989 averaged approximately 1,981 t·year-1 (4.4 million lbs·year-1). During the 1990s, catches averaged approximately 1,651 t·year-1 (3.6 million lbs·year-1) and in the early 2000s estimated total catches had declined to 1,355 t·year-1 (3.0 million lbs·year-1; Figure 3). Total commercial and subsistence catches over the time period considered here amount to approximately 89,000 tonnes (196 million lbs). The most important species is chum salmon, which accounts on average for 55 % of the total yearly catch. The whitefish complex (whitefish + ciscos) is the next most important taxon, accounting for on average 21%, while sheefish and Dolly varden account for 12 % and 8 % of the total yearly catch, respectively (Figure 4). Subsistence catches Subsistence catches account for approximately 54 % of the estimated total catches (Figure 3a). From 1950- 1965, prior to the Japanese high seas fleet fishing in the Chuckchi Sea, subsistence catches averaged 850 t·year-1 (1.9 million lbs·year-1), but declined to around 685 t·year-1 (1.5 million lbs·year- 1) from 1966-1979. Catches increased to average 791 t·year-1 (1.7 million lbs·year- 1) during the 1980s and it was only since the late 1980s that subsistence catches have consistently surpassed catches from the 1950-1966 time period. Since 1990, subsistence catches have averaged 1,000 t·year-1. Despite increases in subsistence catches, subsistence per capita catch rates have declined from 237.0 kg·person-1 (522.6 lbs·person-1) in 1950 to 77.8 kg·person-1 (171.5 lbs·person-1) in 2006. The sharpest drop in subsistence per capita catch rates came from 1950-1971, with an estimated decline of approximately 60 %. Between the 1950s and 1990s, there has been a 2.4-fold drop in subsistence per capita catch rates (Figure 5). 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Commercial Subsistence 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Human component Dog component a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure 3. a) Estimated total marine and anadromous fisheries catches (excluding marine mammals) by fishing sector for 15 coastal and near-coastal communities of Arctic Alaska, and b) breakdown of subsistence catch into estimated amounts destined for human consumption and for dog-feed.  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 10 Use of fish for dog-feed For the eight communities that we determined were reliant on fish for dog-feed, the percentage of fish for dog-feed accounted for 58 % of the catch total in 1950 declining to 6 % in 2006. Prior to the introduction of the snowmobile (1950-1962), it was estimated that the amount of fish fed to dogs averaged 459 t·year-1 (1 million lbs·year-1). From 1963 to 1975, the amount of fish required for feed dropped from an estimated 387 t·year-1 (843,000 lbs·year-1) to 82 t·year-1 (181,000 lbs·year-1) or from 56 to 14 % of the estimated total subsistence catches for the eight communities. Since 1976, catches for dog-feed have averaged 65 t·year-1 (143,000 lbs·year-1) and have declined from 13 % to 6 % of total catches (Figure 4). Commercial catches Commercial fisheries that were part of the informal economy from 1950-1961 were estimated at 382 t·year-1 (842,000 lbs·year-1). Commercial fisheries catches in 1962 were estimated at 553 tonnes (1.2 million lbs), but did not reach that level again until 1970. From 1963-1969 commercial catches averaged 249 t·year-1 (548,000 lbs·year-1); during the 1970s reported catches averaged 1,097 t·year-1 (2.4 million lbs·year-1), rising to around 1,408 t·year-1 (3.1 million lbs·year-1) in the 1980s, before declining in the 1990s to average 621 t·year-1 (1.4 million lbs·year-1). In 2000-2001, catches averaged 732 t·year-1 (1.6 million lbs·year-1), but due to market conditions recent commercial catches have been low, averaging 226 t·year-1 (497,000 lbs·year-1) from 2002-2006. Chum salmon are the main contributors to the commercial catch totals accounting for an average of 93 % of total commercial catches. Peak years for chum occur every 3 to 4 years (Figure 4). DISCUSSION The data presented here are estimates of fisheries catches for species that spend at least a portion of their life-cycle in marine waters (excluding marine mammals) taken from 1950-2006 by 15 coastal and near- coastal communities in arctic Alaska. The data estimated here more likely represent total catches than those presented by reporting agencies, and may serve as baseline data for this area, which is also lacking adequate baseline data for marine mammals (Hovelsrud et al., 2008).  Furthermore, it may also be wise to heed the call for a ban on commercial fishing in this area to prevent fishing fleets from expanding into this area  0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Chum salmon 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Whitefish Sheefish Dolly varden Other salmon Cod Herring Others a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure 4. Taxonomic distribution of fisheries catches for the 15 coastal communities of arctic Alaska (by common names, marine mammals excluded) for 1950-2006 for a) chum salmon; and b) all other species. Note the difference in scale between the two panels. Whitefish includes both ciscos and whitefish; pink, coho, chinook, and sockeye salmon comprise the group ‘Other salmon’; Cod includes both Arctic cod and saffron cod; while capelin, king crab, flounder and other Pleuronectidae, rainbow smelt, smelt and sculpin comprise the group ‘Others’. See Appendix 2 for all common, local and scientific names.  0 50 100 150 200 250 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Pe r ca p C at ch  r at e (k g· pe rs on -1 ·y ea r- 1 ) Pe r ca p C at ch  r at e (k g· pe rs on -1 ·y ea r- 1 ) Figure 5. Estimated subsistence per capita catch rates (total catches/total human population) for arctic Alaska, 1950-2006 for 15 communities.  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 11 as the ice recedes (Biello, 2008). This would also allow the local people to maintain food security in the face of climate change and a changing ecosystem; the loss of resources that the people have always relied on would have dramatic effects on the culture of the people. Although the state agency, the ADF&G, reports on both fishery sectors, these data do not make it to either the national (NMFS) or international (FAO) organizations. A catch-reporting system more transparent to the public, including data transfer information between the state, regional, national, and international agencies is needed so stakeholders can more easily access and understand data and their limitations for policy and decision-making processes. Having a baseline of information available on total fisheries catches is also important in light of global warming, and impacts from ongoing developments.  Commercial catches have been in decline since peaking in the early 1980s. However, the drop since 2000 is due to a limited market situation (one buyer only), and subsistence catches have increased during this time. However, the increase in subsistence catches is small compared to the growth in human population, thus resulting in a declining per capita subsistence catch rate and hence per capita supply. There has been a 3.3 fold decline in subsistence per capita rates from the 1950s to 2006. This value is much lower than that for the Canadian arctic, where subsistence per capita rates in coastal communities in the Inuvialuit region dropped approximately 15 fold between 1950 and 2001 (Booth and Watts, 2007).  The difference is due to the higher reliance on fish for dog-feed in the Mackenzie Delta area, where it was reported that catches of marine and anadromous fishes were approximately 4 times higher in 1960 compared to the data source study years, 1988-1997 (Usher, 2002).  Although it appears that the commercial fisheries are well-monitored, a more regular, systematic survey method would lead to a better understanding of subsistence fisheries. It is interesting that the commercial fishery sector appears to report all catches. However, it is the subsistence use, which is given priority in the state constitution, which seems to be lacking consistent, detailed and comprehensive data. A subsistence survey design incorporating each community in a specified time interval, with abundance indices for species in non-survey years would assist in clarifying actual subsistence catches. Specific attention to all salmon species would also benefit the efforts to track global warming effects, since species’ distributions will be affected. Coho salmon in Norton Sound have been increasing in abundance over the last two decades, but tracking similar changes in areas further north is currently difficult since salmon species, besides chum, are often described as ‘other’ salmon in reports. However, it should be noted that chinook salmon do appear to have extended their historical distributions northwards because they have been appearing in Barrow since the mid-1990s and there is no local Inupiaq name for them (C. George, pers. comm.5). Previously, the furthest reported extent of this species was Wainwright. The data anchor points used here are from a variety of sources. These sources may not have scaled up catches to a community level, and thus our estimates may be missing data. This is because early reported catches may be observed amounts, whereas later reports are based mainly on a household survey method, which includes estimates for non-reporting households. However, these anchor points do allow an assessment of more likely catches for the years when no data have been collected at all. The estimates of catches presented here are likely conservative, since no marine catches have been estimated for inland communities that may still have summer camps for fishing near marine waters or that fish for anadromous species further inland.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Jim Menard, Jim Magdanz and Jim Simon of ADG&G, Stephen Murphy of ABR, Inc. and Bill Wilson, North Pacific Fishery Management Council, for providing us with additional data and insights. We would also like to thank Oceana, and especially Susan Murray and Jonathan Warrenchuk, for local and logistic support, assistance and active contributions to this work and to the associated data workshop conducted in Anchorage, Alaska on 24th of January, 2008. This project has been funded by the Lenfest Ocean Program and forms part of the Sea Around Us Project, funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts, Philadelphia, and located at the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.                                                               5 Craig George, Division of Wildlife Management, North Slope Borough,  P.O. Box 69, Barrow, Alaska 99723, (907)-852-2611 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 12 REFERENCES  Abrahamson, J.D. (1968) Westward Alaska: The native economy and its resource base. United States Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska. Anchorage, Alaska, vii + 184 p. Anonymous (1967) 1967 Annual Report, Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim area. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, Anchorage, Alaska, 123 p. Anonymous (1968) 1968 Annual Report, Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim area. 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(2006) Assessment of historical runs and escapement goals for Kotzebue area chum salmon. Fishery Manuscript No. 06-01, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Anchorage, Alaska, 45 p. Foote, D.C. and Williamson, H.A. (1966) A human geographical study. p. 1041-1107 In: Wilimovsky, N.J. and Wolfe, J.N., (eds.), Environment of the Cape Thompson region, Alaska. United States Atomic Energy Commission Division of Technical Information, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Georgette, S., Caylor, D. and Tahbone, S. (2003) Subsistence salmon harvest summary Northwest Alaska 2002. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, and Kawerak, Inc., Kotzebue, Alaska, 44 p. Georgette, S. and Loon, H. (1993) Subsistence use of fish and wildlife in Kotzebue, a Northwest Alaska Regional Centre Technical Paper No. 167, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Juneau, Alaska, ix + 211 p. Georgette, S. and Utermohle, C. (2000) Subsistence salmon harvest summary Northwest Alaska 1999. 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(1966) The Salmon Resource. p. 861-876 In Willimovsky, N.J. and Wolfe, J.N., (eds.), Environment of the Cape Thompson Regions, Alaska. United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Technical Information, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Sobelman, S. (1984) Background paper on subsistence salmon fishery, Inmachuk River, Deering. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Fairbanks, Alaska, 12 p. Stefanich, F. (1973) Resources inventory Arctic Region: Fisheries resources, preliminary draft. Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission, Anchorage, Alaska, 8 p. Usher, P.J. (2002) Inuvialuit use of the Beaufort Sea and its resources, 1960-2000. Arctic 55: 18-28. Wilimovsky, N.J. (1956) The utilization of fishery resources by the Arctic Alaskan Eskimo. Occasional Papers of the Natural History Museum of Stanford University 2: 1-8. Wolfe, R.J. (2004) Local traditions and subsistence: A synopsis from twenty-five years of research by the State of Alaska. Technical Paper No. 284, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Juneau, Alaska, v + 81 p. Woodby, D., Carlile, D., Siddeek, S., Funk, F., Clark, J.H. and Hulbert, L. (2005) Commercial fisheries of Alaska. Department of Fish and Game Special Publication No. 05-09, Anchorage, Alaska, iv + 66 p. Zeller, D., Booth, S., Davis, G. and Pauly, D. (2007) Re-estimation of small-scale fisheries catches for U.S. flag island areas in the Western Pacific: The last 50 years. Fisheries Bulletin 105:266-277.   Marine fisheries in arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller  14 APPENDIX 1: METHODS OF EXPANSION AND ANCHOR POINTS  Anchor points of reported catch were determined from the indicated references and are identified as ‘Source’. Anchor points are all presented in pounds (lbs), and a conversion factor of 0.4536 was used to convert pounds to kilograms. Methods of expansion include the manner in which interpolations were done between anchor points, and are as follows:   Derived anchor from another community: this method used information from another community to scale catches for the present community. For example, Atqasuk had catches of Broad whitefish scaled to the catch changes noted in Barrow from 1983 to 1977 to derive a catch anchor for the first year of catches in Atqasuk.  Avg taxa % * total catch: this method involved using the interpolated catch value for a community and in order to derive taxonomic entities, the reported taxa amount for anchor years was summed and an average taxonomic percentage was calculated. This taxonomic percentage was applied to all years that had interpolated catch data to derive catch by species.  (Year) catch: this method used the stated catch for other years when there were no anchor points.  Pop * per cap scaled: this method accounts for scaling a per capita rate between two anchor points. Catch data were first transformed into per capita rates (catch/human population) and then linearly interpolated between anchor years. The per capita rate was then multiplied by the population to estimate catches.  Avg catch: the reported catch over the number of years indicated that had reported data.  Pop * avg per cap: reported catch data were transformed into per capita rates and an average per capita rate was calculated to use in conjunction with the population data to estimate catches.  Proportion of a species: this method was used in some cases where the taxonomic entities were not well defined or reported through time inconsistently; largely a problem with the whitefish/cisco complex. In these cases, the taxonomic entities were pooled across years, and one taxon’s catch was based as a proportion of another. For example, reported data for Kaktovik included whitefish in 1971; cisco in 1985 & 1986; Bering, least and, Arctic cisco in 1992; and only Arctic cisco was reported in 2001 & 2002. Knowing that historically the main fishery is for Arctic cisco and that some least cisco are caught incidentally , the catch of least cisco was estimated as a proportion of the catch of Arctic cisco based on the year 1992, when there is full taxonomic accounting.  Raised anchor’s avg catch: this involved raising the calculated average catch of one species to account for the average weight of a single fish and was used for sockeye salmon in Noatak. The average catch for the reported years (2.6 lbs) was less than a single individual (5 lbs) and thus this value was raised to account for the average weight of a single sockeye salmon in non-anchor years.  Scaled to changes presented in (source): reported catch totals (anchor points) were scaled to catch data presented in the source document, which presented a time series of subsistence data.    Scaled as proportion of another community’s catches: One community’s catches were scaled as a proportion of another community’s catches for the same taxon; used to scale Selawik’s catches of chum salmon and Dolly varden to Kotzebue.  Scaled via exploitation rate: total run size (by number) of chum salmon was estimated for Kotzebue area chum salmon by Eggers and Clark (2006). Thus, it was possible to calculate an exploitation rate (number salmon taken/total run size) for anchor years. For periods of no data, catches were estimated by linearly interpolating between exploitation rates and multiplying by the total run size.           Table A1.1. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Atqasuk. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Atqasuk broad whitefish 1977 Derived anchor from Barrow 1,502   1978-1982 Avg taxa % * total catch                                                          1983 Anchor 190 Craig (1987)   1984-1993 Avg taxa % * total catch    1994 Anchor 3,423 Anon. (2005b)   1995-2006 Avg taxa % * total catch    chum salmon 1977 Derived anchor from Barrow 47    1978-1982 Avg taxa % * total catch    1983 Anchor 0 Craig (1987)   1984-1993 Avg taxa % * total catch    1994 Anchor 113 Anon. (2005)   1995-2006 Avg taxa % * total catch    humpback whitefish 1977 Derived anchor from Barrow 2,371    1978-1982 Avg taxa % * total catch    1983 Anchor 4,795 Craig (1987)   1984-1993 Avg taxa % * total catch    1994 Anchor 911 Anon. (2005)   1995-2006 Avg taxa % * total catch    least cisco 1977 Derived anchor from Barrow 1,697    1978-1982 Avg taxa % * total catch    1983 Anchor 4,083 Craig (1987)   1984-1993 Avg taxa % * total catch    1994 Anchor 0 Anon. (2005)   1995-2006 Avg taxa % * total catch    whitefish 1977 Derived anchor from Barrow 2,199    1978-1982 Avg taxa % * total catch     1983 Anchor 0  Craig (1987)   1984-1993 Avg taxa % * total catch    1994 Anchor 5,292 Anon. (2005)   1995-2006 Avg taxa % * total catch                Table A1.2. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Barrow. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Barrow chum salmon 1950-1970 1971 catch                                                                                                    1971 Anchor 4,500 Patterson (1974)   1972-1988 Pop * per cap scaled   1989 Anchor 14,941 Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 1989 catch  capelin 1950-1986 Avg catch (’87-’89)     1987-1989 Anchors 1,056; 0; 92 Anon. (2001)   1990-2006 Pop * avg per cap    rainbow smelt 1950-1986 Avg catch (’87-’89)     1987-1989 Anchors 25; 0; 237 Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)  sculpin 1950-1986 Avg catch (’87-’89)     1987-1989 Anchors 0; 9; 0 Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)  Dolly varden 1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 600 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled     1987-1989 Anchors 126; 256; 452 Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)  pink salmon 1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 500 Patterson (1974)   1972-1988 Pop * per cap scaled   1989 Anchors 1,384 Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 1989 catch  saffron cod 1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 625 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled     1987-1989 Anchors 0; 259; 0 Anon. (2001)   1990-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’87-’89)    Arctic cod 1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 394 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled   1987-1989 Anchors 0; 2,119; 4,539  Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)  round whitefish  1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 1,403 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled     1987-1989 Anchors 3,534; 970; 21  Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)        Table A1.2 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Barrow (cont’d) humpback whitefish 1950-1970 1971 catch   1971                                                                  Anchor 4,289 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled   1987-1989 Anchors Anon. (2001)  1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89) 5,102; 2,178; 12,159  broad whitefish  1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 45,243 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled   1987-1989 Anchors 45,825; 39,576; 105,228   Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)  Bering cisco 1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 890 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled   1987-1989 Anchors 2,180; 203; 1,884   Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)  least cisco 1950-1970 1971 catch   1971 Anchor 5,360 Patterson (1974)   1972-1986 Pop * per cap scaled   1987-1989 Anchors 11,697; 10,095; 3,905   Anon. (2001) 1990-2006 Avg catch (’87-’89)     Table A1.3. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Buckland. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Buckland chum salmon 1950-1956 1957 catch                                                                                    1957 Anchor 98,900 Mattson (1962)   1958-1966 Pop * per cap scaled to avg (’67, ’68, ’70-’75)    1967-1968 Anchor 1,507; 359 Anon. (1967, 1968)   1969 Avg per cap (’67, ’68, ’70-’75)    1970-1975 Anchors Range: 533-15,670 Banducci et al.( 2007)   1976-1978 1970’s anchors avg per cap    1979 Anchor 8,800 Banducci et al. (2007)   1980 Avg per cap (’70-’75, ‘81)    1981 Anchor 455 Banducci et al. (2007)   1982-2002 Pop * per cap scaled     2003 Anchor 33,042 Mason et al. (2007)  2004-2006 2003 catch smelt 1950-1971 1972 catch 1972 Anchor 9,333 Moore (1979)   1973-2002 Pop * per cap scaled    2003 Anchor 15,250 Mason et al. (2007)  2004-2006 2003 catch  sheefish 1950-1966 Pop * 1967 per cap    1967 Anchor 46,566 Anon. (1967)  1968-2006 1967 catch  pink salmon  1950-1971 Pop * 1972 per cap    1972 Anchor 240 Moore (1979)  1973-2006 1972 catch  whitefish 1950-1971 Pop * 1973 per cap    1972 Anchor 2,000 Moore (1979)  1973-2006 1972 catch                   Table A1.4. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Deering. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Deering chum salmon 1950-1956 1957 catch                                                                               1957 Anchor 213,833 Mattson (1962)   1958-1964 Pop * per cap scaled    1965-1977 Anchors Range: 3,358-63,004 Kohler et al. (2005)   1978 Avg catch (’70-’77)    1979 Anchor 17,600 Kohler et al. (2005)   1980 Avg catch (’81-’83)    1981-1985 Anchors Range: 2,059-15,908 Kohler et al. (2005)   1986-1993 Pop * per cap scaled    1994 Anchor 26,387 Kohler et al. (2005)  1995-2006 1994 catch  chinook salmon 1950-1993 1994 catch     1994 catch Anchor 560 Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  1995-2006 1994 catch  sockeye salmon 1950-1993 1994 catch     1994 catch Anchor 30 Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)  1995-2006   1994 catch Pleuronectidae1 1994 Anchor 5 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 1994 catch  herring 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 16 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    sculpin 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 17 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    sheefish 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 27 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    smelt 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 4 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    flounder 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 1 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    coho salmon  1950-1971 Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94)    1972 Anchor 2,000 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled     1994 Anchor 204 Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)   1: originally identified as halibut      Table A1.4 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Deering (cont’d) Dolly varden 1950-1971 Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94)                                                                                                       1972 Anchor 333 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled   1994 Anchor 54,11 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    pink salmon 1950-1971 Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94)    1972 Anchor 267 Patterson (1974)   1973-1983 Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94)     1984 Pop * per cap (’94)     1985-1993 Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94)     1994 Anchor 6,976 Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)   1995-2003 Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94)     2004 Pop * per cap (’94)     2005-2006 Pop * avg per cap (‘72 & ’94)    humpback whitefish  1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)   1994 Anchor 167 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    round whitefish  1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)   1994 Anchor 1 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    broad whitefish  1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)   1994 Anchor 51 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    Bering cisco 1950-1971 Pop * per cap (’72)   1972 Anchor 659 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled   1994 Anchor 965 Anon. (2001)  1995-2006 1994 catch  least cisco 1950-1971 Pop * per cap (’72)   1972 Anchor 11 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled   1994 Anchor 11 Anon. (2001)  1995-2006 1994 catch  Arctic cod 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)   1994 Anchor 5 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    saffron cod 1950-1971 Pop * per cap (’72)   1972 Anchor 659 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled   1994 Anchor 965 Anon. (2001)  1995-2006 1994 catch       Table A1.5. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Kaktovik. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Kaktovik Dolly varden1 1950-1970 1971 per cap*pop                                                                                                                                    1971 Anchor 12,500 Patterson (1974)   1972-1984 Pop * per cap scaled    1985-1986 Anchors 11,481; 6,601 Anon. (2001)   1987-1991 Pop * per cap scaled    1992 Anchor 20,617 Anon. (2001)   1993-2000 Pop * per cap scaled    2001-2002 Anchors 6,492; 9,891 Pedersen (2005)   2003-2006 Avg per cap (’01-’02)*pop    Arctic cisco  1950-1970 1971 per cap * pop    1971 Anchor 2,933 Patterson (1974)   1972-1984 Pop * per cap scaled    1985-1986 Anchors 3,106; 2,105 Anon. (2001)   1987-1991 Pop * per cap scaled    1992 Anchor 7,572 Anon. (2001)   1993-2000 Pop * per cap scaled    2001-2002 Anchors 1,271; 2,135 Pedersen (2005)   2003-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’01-’02)    least cisco  1950-1970 Proportion of Arctic cisco    1971 Anchor 192 Patterson (1974)   1972-1991 Proportion of Arctic cisco    1992 Anchor 465 Anon. (2001)   1993-2006 Proportion of Arctic cisco    pink salmon  1990-1991 1992 catch   1992 Anchor 23 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch salmon 1990-1991 1992 catch 1992 Anchor 117 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch  Arctic cod 1950-1991 1992 catch   1992 Anchor 157 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch  saffron cod  1950-1991 Pop * per cap (’92)    1992 Anchor 243 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch flounder 1950-1984 1985 catch 1985 Anchor 1 Anon. (2001)  1986-1991 1985 catch 1992 Anchor 1 1993-2006 1992 catch 1: identified in sources as Arctic char until 1992 anchor     Table A1.6. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Kivalina. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Kivalina Dolly varden 1950-1958 Pop * avg per cap (’59 & ’60)                                                                                      1959-1960 Anchors 96,200; 112,300 Saario and Kessel (1966)   1961-1963 Pop * per cap scaled     1964-1965 Anchors 93,995; 28,140 Burch (1985)   1966-1967 Pop * per cap scaled    1968-1972 Anchors Range: 68,518; 152,750 Banducci et al. (2007)   1973-1978 Pop * per cap scaled    1979 Anchor 73,000 Banducci et al. (2007)   1980 Avg catch (’79 & ’81)    1981-1982 Anchors 87,450; 127,222  Banducci et al. (2007)  1983 Anchor 68,467 Burch (1985) 1984-1986 Anchor Range: 50,565; 73,500 Banducci et al. (2007)   1987-1991 Pop * per cap scaled    1992 Anchor 93,057 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch  chum salmon  1950-1955 Pop * avg per cap (‘56&’57)    1956-1957 Anchors 4,300; 4,300 Smith et al. (1966); Mattson (1962)   1958-1963 Pop * per cap scaled     1964-1965 Anchors 1,425; 116 Burch (1985)   1966-1971 Scaled via per cap    1972 Anchor 800 Patterson (1974)   1973-1980 Pop * per cap scaled    1981-1984 Anchors 1,001;1,953; 1,880; 1,640 Kohler et al. (2005)   1985-1991 Scaled via per cap    1992 Anchor 5,571 Anon. (2001)   1993-2006 Avg catch (‘84 & ‘92)    coho salmon 1950-1981 Pop * avg per cap (’82 & ’83)     1982-1983 Anchors 260; 40 Burch (1985)   1984-1991 Pop * per cap scaled    1992 Anchor 435 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch  pink salmon  1950-1956 Pop * per cap avg (’57, ’82 & ’83)    1957 Anchor 8,750 Smith et al. (1966)   1958-1981 Pop * avg per cap scaled     1982-1983 Anchors 4; 32 Burch (1985)   1984-1991 Pop * per cap scaled    1992 Anchor 485 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch  chinook salmon  1950-1991 Pop * per cap (’92)    1992 Anchor 171 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch       Table A1.6 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Kivalina (cont’d) sockeye salmon 1950-1991 Pop * per cap (’92)   1992                                                                                                 Anchor 113 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch  Arctic cod 1950-1958 1959 catch   1959 Anchor 634 Burch (1985)   1960-1963 Pop * per cap avg (’59, ’64 & ’65)     1964-1965 Anchors 0; 0 Burch (1985)   1966-1971 Pop * per cap avg (’64, ‘65 & ’71)    1972 Anchor 1,200 Patterson (1974)   1973-1981 Pop * per cap scaled     1982-1983 Anchors 0; 3,259 Burch (1985)   1984-1991 Pop * per cap scaled (’82 & ’83)    1992 Anchor 2,849 Anon. (2001)   1993-2006 Anchor’s catch avg    saffron cod 1950-1958 1959 catch   1959 Anchor 766 Burch (1985)   1960-1963 Pop * per cap avg (’59, ’64 & ’65)     1964-1965 Anchors 0; 6,955 Burch (1985)   1966-1971 Pop * per cap avg (’64, ‘65 & ’71)    1972 Anchor 0 Patterson (1974)   1973-1981 Pop * per cap scaled     1982-1983 Anchors 9; 1,040 Burch (1985)   1984-1991 Pop * per cap scaled (’82 & ’83)    1992 Anchor 2,984 Anon. (2001)   1993-2006 Anchor’s catch avg    whitefish 1950-1958 1959 catch 1959-1960 Anchors 12,000; 12,000 Saario and Kessel (1966)   1961-1971 same catch between anchors    1972 Anchor 12,000 Patterson (1974)   1973-1981 Pop * per cap scaled    1982 Anchor 7,717 Burch (1985)   1983-1991 Pop * per cap scaled    1992 Anchor 6,216 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch  flounder 1950-1991 Pop * per cap (’92)   1992 Anchor 59 Anon. (2001)  1993-2006 1992 catch        Table A1.6 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Kivalina (cont’d) rainbow smelt 1950-1991 Pop * per cap (’92)                                      1992 Anchor 29 Anon. (2001) 1993-2006 1992 catch  herring 1950-1991 Pop * per cap (’92)   1992 Anchor 187 Anon. (2001) 1993-2006 1992 catch  sheefish 1950-1991 Pop * per cap (’92)   1992 Anchor 93 Anon. (2001) 1993-2006 1992 catch                                     Table A1.7. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Kotzebue. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Kotzebue chum salmon 1950-1956 1957 catch                                                                                                                            1957 Anchor 314,072 Mattson (1962)   1958-1961 Scaled to 1960s avg catch    1962-2004 Anchors Range (92,329-639,270)  Eggers and Clark (2006)  2005-2006 2004 catch  chinook salmon  1950-1971 1972 catch   1972 Anchor 100 Patterson (1974)   1973-1990 Pop * per cap scaled    1991 Anchor 7,565 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch  Dolly varden  1950-1971 Proportion of chum catch    1972 Anchor 10,000 Patterson (1974)   1973-1985 Scaled via chum proportions    1986 Anchor 35,264 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Avg of chum proportions (’86 & ’91)    1991 Anchor 88,724 Anon. (2001)   1992-2004 Avg of chum proportions     2005-2006 2004 catch flounder 1950-1971 1972 catch 1972 Anchor 30 Patterson (1974)   1973-1985 Pop * per cap scaled    1986 Anchor 16,017 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * avg per cap   1991 Anchor 1,555 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch Pleuronectidae1 1991 Anchor 142 Anon. (2001)   1992-2006 1991 catch  herring 1950-1985 Avg per cap * pop   1986 Anchor 14,135 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Avg per cap * pop   1991 Anchor 28,495 Anon. (2001)   1992-2006 Avg per cap * pop    saffron cod 1950-1971 1972 catch   1972 Anchor 8,000 Patterson (1974)   1973-1985 Pop * per cap scaled    1986 Anchor 20,170 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * per cap scaled    1991 Anchor 28,532 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch 1: originally identified as halibut       Table A1.7 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Kotzebue (cont’d) sculpin 1950-1985 Per cap * pop   1986 Anchor 2,003 Georgette and Loon 1993                                                                                                     1987-2006 1986 catch  sheefish 1950-1966 Avg catch (’67 & ’68)    1967-1968 Anchors 65,390; 131,226 Anon (1967, 1968)   1969-1971 Pop * per cap scaled    1972 Anchor 138,300 Patterson (1974)   1973-1985 Pop * per cap scaled    1986 Anchor 185,186 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91)    1991 Anchor 568,856 Anon. (2001)   1992-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91     smelt 1950-1971 1972 catch 1972 Anchor 840 Patterson (1974)   1973-1985 Pop * per cap scaled     1986 Anchor 3,377 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * per cap scaled    1991 Anchor 4,096 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch  coho salmon  1950-1990 Pop * per cap (’91)    1991 Anchor 216 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch  sockeye salmon  1950-1990 Pop * per cap (’91)    1991 Anchor 1,079 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch  pink salmon 1950-1991 1991 per cap * pop    1991 Anchor 1,295 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch  Bering cisco 1950-1985 1986 catch     1986 Anchor 4,321 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91)    1991 Anchor 5,848 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch  least cisco 1950-1985 1986 catch     1986 Anchor 72 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91)    1991 Anchor 97 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch         Table A1.7 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Kotzebue (cont’d) broad whitefish 1950-1985 1986 catch    1986 Anchor 4,142 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91)                              1991 Anchor 5,605 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch  humpback whitefish  1950-1985 1986 catch   1986 Anchor 15,451 Georgette and Loon (1993)   1987-1990 Pop * avg per cap (’86 & ’91)    1991 Anchor 20,910 Anon. (2001)  1992-2006 1991 catch                                 Table A1.8. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Noatak. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Noatak chum salmon 1950-1956 1957 catch                                                                              1957 Anchor 253,012 Mattson (1962)   1958-1959 Pop * per cap scaled     1960 Avg catch (’61-’69)     1961-1968 Anchors Range: 51,039-420,454 Anon. (1968)   1969-1971 Anchors 108,435; 33,372; 80,344  Banducci et al. (2007)  1972 Anchor 70,264 Patterson (1974) 1973-1984 Anchors Range: 1,966-50,955 Banducci et al. (2007)   1985 Avg of ‘80s catch anchors    1986-1987 Anchors 10,840; 23,952 Banducci et al. (2007)   1988 Avg of ‘80s catch anchors    1989-1993 Anchors Range: 13,588-34,844  Banducci et al. (2007)  1994 Anchor 59,386 Anon. (2001) 1995-1998 Anchors Range: 20,912-80,728 Banducci et al. (2007)   1999 Avg of ‘90s catch anchors    2000-2004 Anchors Range: 18,722-62,720 Banducci et al. (2007)   2005-2006 Avg catch (’00-’04)    Dolly varden  1950-1961 Pop * avg per cap (’62 & ’63)    1962-1963 Anchors 182,312; 27,258 Banducci et al. (2007)   1964-1968 Pop * per cap scaled     1969-1971 Anchors 213,510; 24,420; 32,452  Banducci et al. (2007)  1972 Anchor 97,600 Patterson (1974)   1973-1978 Pop * per cap scaled    1979-1984 Anchors Range: 15,506-45,300 Banducci et al. (2007)   1985 Avg of ‘80s catch anchors    1986-1987 Anchors 313; 9,494 Banducci et al. (2007)   1988-1990 Avg of ‘80s catch anchors    1991-1993 Anchors 31,722; 26,370; 30,353  Banducci et al. (2007)  1994 Anchors 20,368 Anon. (2001) 1995-1998 Anchors Range: 29,427-36,301 Banducci et al. (2007)   1999 Avg of ‘90s catch anchors    2000-2004 Anchors Range: 17,023-87,312 Banducci et al. (2007)   2005-2006 Avg catch (’00-’04)    Arctic cod 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 21 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    saffron cod 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 153 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)         Table A1.8 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Noatak (cont’d)  chinook salmon 1950-1993 Avg anchors’ catch (’94-’99)    1994                                                                     Anchor 81 Anon. (2001)   1995-1996 Anchors 0; 0 Georgette and Utermohle (2000) 1997-1998 Anchor 65; 82 Georgette et al. (2003)   1999 Anchor 0 Georgette and Utermohle (2000)   2000-2006 Avg anchors’ catch (’94-’99)    coho salmon  1950-1993 Pop * avg per cap (’94-’02)    1994 Anchor 1,285 Anon. (2001) 1995-2002 Anchors Range: 0-800 Georgette et al. (2003)   2003-2006 Avg catch (’00-’02)    pink salmon  1950-1993 Avg anchors’ per cap (’94-’99)    1994 Anchor 0 Anon. (2001) 1995-2002 Anchors Range: 0-35 Georgette et al. (2003)   2003-2006 Avg catch (’00-’02)    sheefish 1950-1993 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’99 & ’00)    1994 Anchor 716 Anon. (2001)   1995-1998 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’99 & ’00)    1999-2000 Anchors 840; 1033 Georgette and Utermohle (2000)   2001-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’99 & ’00)    smelt 1950-1993 Pop * per cap (’94)    1994 Anchor 15 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 Pop * per cap (’94)    sockeye salmon  1950-1993 Raised anchors’ avg catch (’94-’02)    1994-2002 Anchors Range: 0-10 Georgette et al. (2003)   2003-2006 Raised anchors’ avg catch (’94-’02)    broad whitefish  1950-1971 1972 catch   1972 Anchor 183 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled    1994 Anchor 116 Anon. (2001)   1995-1999 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)     2000 Anchor 119 Georgette and Utermohle (2000)   2001 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)    2002 Anchor 130 Georgette et al. (2003)  2003-2006 2002 catch            Table A1.8 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Noatak (cont’d) humpback whitefish 1950-1971 1972 catch    1972                                                                                   Anchor 8,864 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled    1994 Anchor 5,639 Anon. (2001)   1995-1999 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)     2000 Anchor 5,768 Georgette and Utermohle (2000)   2001 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)    2002 Anchor 6,320 Georgette et al. (2003)  2003-2006 2002 catch  round whitefish  1950-1971 1972 catch   1972 Anchor 331 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled    1994 Anchor 210 Anon. (2001)   1995-1999 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)     2000 Anchor 215 Georgette and Utermohle (2000)   2001 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)    2002 Anchor 236 Georgette et al. (2003)  2003-2006 2002 catch  Bering cisco  1950-1971 1972 catch   1972 Anchor 555 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled    1994 Anchor 353 Anon. (2001)   1995-1999 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)     2000 Anchor 361 Georgette and Utermohle (2000)   2001 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)    2002 Anchor 396 Georgette et al. (2003)  2003-2006 2002 catch  least cisco  1950-1971 1972 catch   1972 Anchor 226 Patterson (1974)   1973-1993 Pop * per cap scaled    1994 Anchor 144 Anon. (2001)   1995-1999 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)     2000 Anchor 147 Georgette and Utermohle (2000)   2001 Pop * avg per cap (’94, ’00 & ’02)    2002 Anchor 161 Georgette et al. (2003)  2003-2006 2002 catch           Table A1.9. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Nuiqsut. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Nuiqsut  Arctic cisco 1973-1984 Pop * avg per cap (’85-’87)                                                                                 1985 Anchor 31,489 Anon. (2001)   1986-1992 Scaled to changes presented in (Anonymous, 2005a)     1993 Anchor  42,221 Anon. (2001)   1994-1998 Scaled to changes presented in (Anonymous, 2005a)     1999 Avg catch (’98 & ’00)     2000-2003 Scaled to changes presented in (Anonymous, 2005a)     2004-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’01-’03)    least cisco  1973-1984 Pop * avg per cap (’85-’87)    1985 Anchor 7,649 Anon. (2001)   1986-1992 Scaled to changes presented in (Anonymous, 2005a)     1993 Anchor  4,369 Anon. (2001)   1994-1998 Scaled to changes presented in (Anonymous, 2005a)     1999 Avg catch (’98 & ’00)     2000-2003 Scaled to changes presented in (Anonymous, 2005a)     2004-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’01-’03)    Dolly varden  1973-1984 Pop * per cap 1985    1985 Anchor 3,959 Anon. (2001)   1986-1992 Pop * per cap scaled    1993 Anchor 2,252 Anon. (2001)  1994-2006 1993 catch  broad whitefish  1973-1984 Pop * per cap 1985    1985 Anchor 35,815 Anon. (2001)   1986-1992 Pop * per cap scaled    1993 Anchor 55,273 Anon. (2001)  1994-2006 1993 catch  humpback whitefish  1973-1984 Pop * per cap 1985    1985 Anchor 4,635 Anon. (2001)   1986-1992 Pop * per cap scaled    1993 Anchor 1,699 Anon. (2001) 1994-2006 1993 catch  round whitefish  1973-1984 1985 catch    1985 Anchor 13 Anon. (2001)   1986-2006 1985 catch  rainbow smelt  1973-1984 Pop * per cap 1985    1985 Anchor 585 Anon. (2001)   1986-1992 Pop * per cap scaled     1993 Anchor 56 Anon. (2001)   1994-2006 1993 catch        Table A1.9 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Nuiqsut (cont’d)   Arctic cod 1973-1992 1985 catch                                                               1993 Anchor 9 Anon. (2001) 1994-2006 1985 catch  chinook salmon  1993 Anchor 140 Anon. (2001) 1994-2006 1993 catch  chum salmon 1973-1992 Pop * per cap (’93)   1993 Anchor 618 Anon. (2001) 1994-2006 1993 catch  coho salmon 1993 Anchor 99 Anon. (2001) 1994-2006 1993 catch  pink salmon 1973-1984 Pop * per cap 1985   1985 Anchor 1,821 Anon. (2001)   1986-1992 Pop * per cap scaled   1993 Anchor 488 Anon. (2001) 1994-2006 1993 catch                          Table A1.10. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Point Hope. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Point Hope   chum salmon 1950-1956 Pop * per cap (’57)    1957                                                                     Anchor 21,672 Mattson (1962)   1958-1963 Pop * per cap scaled     1964-1965 Derived anchors from Kivalina 7,182; 585    1966-1971 Pop * per cap scaled     1972 Derived anchor from Kivalina 3,024    1973-1980 Pop * per cap scaled   1981-1984 Derived anchors from Kivalina 5,045; 9,843; 9,475; 8,266    1985-1991 Pop * per cap scaled     1992 Derived anchor from Kivalina 28,076    1993-2006 Avg of derived anchors (’84 & ’91)    pink salmon  1950-1955 Pop * avg per cap (’56 & ‘72)    1956 Anchor 1,680 Smith et al. (1966)   1957-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’56 & ‘72)    Arctic cod 1950-1958 Pop * avg per cap (’59 & ’60)    1959-1960 Anchors 6,775; 4,000 Foote & Williamson (1966)   1961-1970 Pop * per cap scaled    1971 Anchor 3,750 Patterson (1974)  1972-2006 1971 catch  Dolly varden 1950-1958 Pop * per cap (’59 & ’60)     1959-1960 Derived anchors from Kivalina 14,040; 16,390    1961-1963 Pop * per cap scaled     1964-1965 Derived anchor from Kivalina 13,718; 4,107    1966-1967 Pop * per cap scaled   1968-1970 Derived anchors from Kivalina  17,545; 22,923; 11,591   1971 Anchor 10,000 Patterson (1974)   1972 Derived anchor from Kivalina 16,731    1973-1978 Pop * per cap scaled     1979 Derived anchor from Kivalina     1980 Avg catch (’79 & ’81)     1981-1986 Derived anchors from Kivalina Range: 7,380-18,568    1987-1991 Pop * per cap scaled     1992 Derived anchor from Kivalina   13,581  1993-2006 1992 catch  smelt 1950-1970 Pop * per cap (’71)     1971 Anchor 1,000 Patterson (1974)  1971-2006 1971 catch whitefish 1950-1970 1971 catch 1971 Anchor 2,500 Patterson (1974)   1972-1981 Pop * per cap scaled     1982 Derived anchor from Kivalina 1,608    1983-1991 Pop * per cap scaled     1992 Derived anchor from Kivalina   1,295  1993-2006 1992 catch     Table A1.11. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Point Lay. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Point Lay chum salmon 1950-1956 1957 catch   1957 Derived anchor from Kivalina 134    1958-1963 Pop * per cap scaled                                                                             1964-1972 1963 catch   1973-1980 Pop * per cap scaled     1981-1984 Derived anchors from Kivalina 83; 172; 173; 158    1985-1986 Pop * per cap scaled   1987 Anchor 323 Anon. (2001)   1988-1991 Pop * per cap scaled     1992 Derived anchor from Kivalina   720  1993-2006 1992 catch  pink salmon 1950-1986 Scaled to chum salmon    1987 Anchor 243 Anon. (2001) 1988-2006 1987 catch herring 1950-1986 1987 catch 1987 Anchor 7 Anon. (2001) 1988-2006 1987 catch  smelt 1950-1986 Pop * per cap (’87)    1987 Anchor 49 Anon. (2001) 1988-2006 1987 catch  broad whitefish 1950-1958 Pop * per cap (’59)     1959-1960 Derived anchors from Kivalina 57; 47    1961-1964 Pop * per cap scaled     1965 Derived anchor from Kivalina 7    1966-1971 Pop * per cap scaled     1972 Derived anchor from Kivalina 6    1973-1981 Pop * per cap scaled     1982 Derived anchor from Kivalina 123    1983-1986 Pop * per cap scaled   1987 Anchor 111 Anon. (2001)   1988-1991 Pop * per cap scaled     1992 Derived anchor from Kivalina 116    1993-2006 1992 per cap * pop                Table A1.12. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Point Lay. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Selawik  sheefish 1950-1966 Avg catch (’67 & ’68)                                                                      1967-1968 Anchors 46,566; 30,480 Anon. (1967, 1968)   1969-1971 Pop * per cap scaled    1972 Anchor 113,439 Patterson (1974)   1973-1985 Pop * per cap scaled     1986 Derived anchor from Kotzebue 108,605    1987-2006 Pop * avg per cap (’72 & ’86)    whitefish 1950-1971 Pop * per cap (’72)    1972 Anchor 472,467 Patterson (1974)  1973-2006 1972 catch  smelt 1950-1971 Pop * per cap (’72)    1972 Anchor 84 Patterson (1974)  1973-2006 1972 catch  flounder 1950-1971 Pop * per cap (’72)    1972 Anchor 11 Patterson (1974)  1973-2006 1972 catch  herring 1950-1971 Pop * per cap (’72)    1972 Anchor 67 Patterson (1974)  1973-2006 1972 catch  chum salmon  1950-1971 Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue catches    1972 Anchor 933 Patterson (1974)   1973-2006 Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue catches    Dolly varden  1950-1971 Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue catches    1972 Anchor 133 Patterson (1974)   1973-2006 Scaled as proportion of Kotzebue catches                     Table A1.13. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Shishmaref. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Shishmaref chum salmon 1950-1956 1957 catch                                                                                                    2006 1995 catch   1957 Anchor 1,462 Mattson (1962)   1958-1966 Pop * per cap scaled   1967-1968 Anchors 930; 359 Banducci et al. (2007)   1969-1970 Pop * per cap scaled   1971-1972 Anchors 1,061; 264 Banducci et al. (2007) 1973 Anchor 3,640 Patterson (1974) 1974-1975 Anchors 1,700; 1,978 Banducci et al. (2007)   1976-1988 Scaled via exploitation rate     1989 Anchor 6,783 Conger and Magdanz (1990)   1990-1994 Avg exploitation rate (’89 & ’95)    1995 Anchor 56,000 Banducci et al. (2007)   1996-2004 Avg exploitation rate (’89 & ’95)     2005-2006 2004 catch  Dolly varden 1950-1972 1973 catch 360 Patterson (1974)  1973 Anchor   1974-1988 Pop * per cap scaled     1989 Anchor 2,039 Conger and Magdanz (1990)   1990-1994 Pop * per cap scaled   1995 Anchor 5,959 Anon. (2001) 1996-2006 1995 catch  sockeye salmon 1950-1972 1973 catch     1973 Derived anchor from pink salmon  17    1974-1988 Pop * per cap scaled     1989 Anchor 280 Conger and Magdanz (1990)   1990-1994 Pop * per cap scaled   1995 Anchor 3,058 Anon. (2001) 1995-2006 1995 catch  pink salmon 1950-1972 1973 catch   1973 Anchor 53 Patterson (1974)   1974-1988 Pop * per cap avg (’89 & ’95)     1989 Anchor 871 Conger and Magdanz (1990)   1990-1994 Pop * per cap scaled   1995 Anchor 3,868 Anon. (2001) 1996-2006 1995 catch  coho salmon 1950-1972 1973 catch     1973 Derived anchor from pink salmon     1974-1988 Pop * per cap scaled     1989 Anchor 6,608 Conger and Magdanz (1990)   1990-1994 Pop * per cap scaled Anchor   1995 1996- 5,194 Anon. (2001)      Table A1.13 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Shishmaref (cont’d) chinook salmon 1950-1972 1973 catch    1973 Derived anchor from pink salmon      1,285 Anon. (2001)        Conger and Magdanz (1990) ch (’89 & ’95)       Anon. (2001) ch (’89 & ’95)        Patterson (1974) ap scaled ap scaled      Anon. (2001) p * avg per cap (’89 & ’95)     1973 catch          ap scaled Conger and Magdanz (1990) ap scaled     Anchor 12,989 Anon. (2001)   2006 1995 catch   sculpin 1950-1988 Pop * avg per cap (’89 & ’95)  Anchor 101 Conger and Magdanz (1990) 1994         2006 1995 tch     1950-1972 1973 catch      Anchor 267   1988 Pop * per cap scaled  Anchor 1,017 1994 Pop * per cap scaled               sheefish      1973 1974-1994   1995      1996-2006       1974-1994 Pop * per cap scaled Anchor  1995 1996-2006 1995 catch  king crab 1989 Anchor Avg cat 3,000    1990-1994 1995 Anchor Avg cat 1,289    1996-2006  flounder 1950-1972 Pop * per cap (’73)  1973 Anchor Pop * per c 320   1974-1988     1989 Anchor Pop * per c 675  Conger and Magdanz (1990)    1990-1994 1995 Anchor Po 36    1996-2006 herring 1950-1972 1973 Anchor Pop * per c 2,667  Patterson (1974)    1974-1988   1989 Anchor Pop * per c 5,226    1990-1994 1995 1996-     1989 1990-  Pop * per cap scaled    1995 1996- Anchor ca 743 Anon. 2001 smelt 1973 1974- Patterson 1974      1989 1990- Conger and Magdanz (1990)     1995 Anchor 6,161 Anon. (2001)  1996-2006 1950-1972 1995 catch 1973 catch     Derived anchor  58  Pop * per cap scaled    Anchor 548 Anon. (2001)  1995 catch     Table A1.13 (cont’d). Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Shishmaref (cont’d) broad whitefish 1950-1972 1973 catch    1973 or 94 Patterson (1974) Pop * per cap scaled   Conger and Magdanz (1990) ap scaled                    Patterson (1974) ap scaled  ap scaled      Anon. (2001)          or 543 Patterson (1974) 817 Conger and Magdanz (1990) Pop * per cap scaled        Anon. (2001)    1995 tch   1973 catch                        646 atterson (1974) 7,710     10,452 Anon. (2001)        ering cisco      491                    31               Anch   1974-1988   1989 Anchor Pop * per c 142    1990-1994 1995 Anchor 133 Anon. (2001)  1995-2006 1995 catch 1973 catch  humpback whitefish  1950-1972  1973 Anchor Pop * per c 2,029    1974-1988   1989 Anchor Pop * per c 3,054  Conger and Magdanz (1990)    1990-1994 1995 Anchor 2,940 1995-2006 1995 catch  round whitefish  1950-1972 1973 catch Anch   1973   1974-1988 Pop * per cap scaled Anchor     1989   1990-1994 1995 Anchor ca 769 1995-2006  Arctic cod 1950-1972  1973 Anchor 667  Patterson (1974)      1974-1988 Pop * per cap scaled 1989 Anchor 243 Conger and Magdanz (1990)   1990-1994 Pop * per cap scaled    1995 Anchor 329 Anon. (2001)   1995-2006 1995 catch  saffron cod 1950-1972 1973 catch   P1973 Anchor    1974-1988 Pop * per cap scaled    1989 Anchor Conger and Magdanz (1990)  1990-1994 Pop * per cap scaled    1995 Anchor 1995-2006 1995 catch  B 1950-1972 1973 catch   1973 Derived anchor   1974-1994 Pop * per cap scaled  1995 Anchor 4,604 Anon. (2001) 1996-2006 1995 catch    least cisco 1950-1972 1973 catch   1973 Derived anchor   1974-1994 Pop * per cap scaled  1995 Anchor 291 Anon. (2001) 1996-2006 1995 catch       Table A1.14. Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Wainwright. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Wainwright Chum salmon 1950-1956 Pop * per cap  (’57)     1957 1958- Derived anchor from Kivalina 342    1963   1985-1987  1992     ink salmon ap (’71)       125   Chinook salmon    Anchor 488   1988 Pop * per cap scaled     Anchor 216     2006 1989 catch   Pop * avg per cap (’69 & ’60) Derived anchors from Kivalina 1,713; 2,000 1961-1963 Pop * per cap scaled  Derived anchors from Kivalina 1,674; 501 Pop * per cap scaled  Derived anchor from Kivalina 2,140; 2,720; 1,414    1971 Anchor 1,220   Derived anchor from Kivalina 2,041 1978 Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1,300 Avg catch (’79 & ’81)  1981-1986 Derived anchor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchor from Kivalina 1,657    1992 catch   Smelt 1971 per cap * pop    Anchor 1,250   1987 Pop * per cap scaled    Anchors 3,231; 8,653 Avg catch (’88-’89)  Pop * per cap scaled       1964-1965 Derived anchors from Kivalina 113; 9  1966-1971 1972 Pop * per cap scaled    Derived anchor from Kivalina 64      1973-1980 1981-1984 Pop * per cap scaled   Derived anchors from Kivalina 80; 155; 149; 130    Pop * per cap scaled     1988-1989 1990-1991 Anchors 41; 553 Anon. (2001)  Pop * per cap scaled    Derived anchor from Kivalina   443  1993-2006 1950-1970  1992 catch Pop * per c P  1971 Anchor Patterson (1974)   1972-1987 Pop * per cap scaled Anchors     1988-1989 25; 215 Anon. (2001)   1990-2006 1950-1970 Avg  catch (’88 & ’89) Pop * per cap (‘71)      1971 1972- Patterson (1974)    1989 1990- Anon. (2001)  Dolly varden 1950-1958 1959-1960            1964-1965 1966-1967      1968-1970 Patterson (1974)    1972 1973-       1979 1980       Range: 900-2,265 1,832    1987-1991 1992     1993-2006 1950-1970    1971 1972- Patterson (1974)     1988-1989 1990-2006 Anon. (2001)        Table A1.14 (cont’d). Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Wainwright. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Wainwright (cont’d)   Saffron cod 1950-1958 1959 catch    1959 Derived anchor from Kivalina 137    1960-1963 Pop * avg per cap (’59, ’64, ’65)      ors’ catch lounder Avg catch (’88 & ’89) Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89) hor from Kivalina Pop * per cap scaled Anchors Avg catch (’88 & ’89) Round whitefish 1971 catch Derived anchor from Kivalina 1987 Pop * per cap scaled  1988-1989 h (’88 & ’89) Least cisco 1971 catch Derived anchor from Kivalina 1987 Pop * per cap scaled     h (’88 & ’89)  1964-1965 Derived anchors from Kivalina 0; 683    1966-1971 Pop * avg per cap (’64, ’65, ‘72)   1972 Derived anchor from Kivalina 118       1973-1981 Pop * per cap scaled  1982-1983 Derived anchors from Kivalina 1; 422   1984-1987 Pop * per cap scaled      1988-1989 Anchors 305; 179 Anon. (2001)  1990-2006 Avg  catch (’88 & ’89) Avg  catch (’88 & ’89)     Sculpin 1950-1987    1988-1989 Anchors Avg anch 3; 7 Anon. (2001)    F 1990-2006   1950-1987      1988-1989 1990-2006 0; 3 Anon. (2001)     Bering cisco  1950-1970 1971 1971 catch Derived anc    411     1972-1987 1988-1989    15; 568 Anon. (2001)   1990-2006 1950-1970         1971 1972- 381      Anchors Avg catc 540; 0 Anon. (2001)   1990-2006 1950-1970         1971 1972- 10,627     1988-1989 1990-2006 Anchors Avg catc 6,161; 8,901 Anon. (2001)                   Table A1.15. . Methods, anchor points and data sources used for expansion of reconstructed catches by taxon for Wales. Community Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Wales   chum salmon 1950-1956 1957 catch  1957 or 1,290    om Shishmaref 821; 317 1969-1970 Pop * per cap scaled  1993-1994 Anchors 7,194; 6,295   2006   1950-1972 Pop * avg per cap (’73 & ’94)     160   1992 p* avg per cap (’73 & ’94)  1993-1994 Anchors 5,414; 5,474 Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994) 1973 hor from coho  Avg catch (’93 & ’94) Pop * avg per cap (’93 & ’94) Anchors Avg catch (’93 & ’94) oho salmon 1973 catch    Anchor 100  1992 Pop * per cap scaled Anchors 1,903; 2,000 Avg catch (’93 & ’94)  Pop * per cap (’73)   Anchor 800   Pop * per cap scaled  Anchor 1,508 Anon. (2001)   1993 catch   Pop * per cap (’73)      Patterson (1974) ap scaled      Anon. (2001)  1993 tch    Anch Mattson (1962)   1958-1966 1967-1968 Pop * per cap scaled Derived anchors fr          1971-1975 1976-1992 Derived anchors from Shishmaref Scaled via exploitation rate 936; 233; 803; 1,500; 1,745        Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)   1995-2004 2005- Avg exploitation rate (’93 & ’94) 2004 catch    pink salmon   1973 1974- Anchor Po Patterson (1974)        1995-2006 1950-1972 Po p* avg per cap (’73 & ’94)    chinook salmon 1973 catch Derived anc         1974-1992 1993-1994 Pop * per cap scaled Anchors    1,136; 851  Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)   1995-2006 1950-1992    sockeye salmon    1993-1994 178; 135 Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)   c 1995-2006 1950-1972      1973 1974-      1993-1994 1995-2006 Anon. (2001); Magdanz and Utermohle (1994)     Dolly varden  1950-1972 1973   Patterson (1974)    1974-1992  1993   1994-2006  flounder 1950-1972   1973 Anchor Pop * per c 400    1974-1992  1993 Anchor  ca 427  1994-2006     Table A1.15 (cont’d). Communit   y Common name Year(s) Method Reported catch (lbs) Source Wales (cont’d) herring 1950-1992 Pop * per cap (’93)     Anon. (2001)       Anon. (2001)       404 Anon. (2001)               615           atterson (1974)               atterson (1974)                    68                 267        1993 Anchor 143   1994-2006 Pop * per cap (’93)   sculpin 1950-1992 Pop * per cap (’93)   1993 Anchor 11    1994-2006 Pop * per cap (’93)  Bering cisco 1950-1972 Pop * per cap (’73)   1973 Derived anchor from whitefish 519      1974-1992 Pop * per cap scaled  1993 Anchor 1994-2006 1993 catch  broad whitefish  1950-1972 Pop * per cap (’73)    1973 Anchor 790 Patterson (1974)   1974-1992 Pop * per cap scaled    1993 Anchor Anon. (2001)  1994-2006 1993 catch  humpback whitefish  1950-1972 Pop * per cap (’73)    P1973 Anchor 386    1974-1992 Pop * per cap scaled   1993 Anchor 300 Anon. (2001)  1994-2006 1993 catch  round whitefish  1950-1972 Pop * per cap (’73)    P1973 Anchor 158   1974-1992 Pop * per cap scaled     1993 Anchor 123 Anon. (2001)  1994-2006 1993 catch  Arctic cod 1950-1972 Pop * per cap (’73)    1973 Anchor 108 Patterson (1974)   1974-1992 Pop * per cap scaled    1993 Anchor Anon. (2001)  1994-2006 1993 catch  saffron cod 1950-1972 Pop * per cap (’73)    1973 Anchor 425 Patterson (1974)   1974-1992 Pop * per cap scaled    1993 Anchor Anon. (2001)  1994-2006 1993 catch       Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 43 APPENDIX 2: INUPIAT NAMES, COMMON NAMES AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES FOR SPECIES REPORTED   Common name Scientific name Inupiat name Source Arctic cisco Coregonus autumnalis Qaataq Anon. (2007) Bering cisco Coregonus laurettae Tiipuq Anon. (2007) least cisco Uugaq/Iqalugaq Anon.  Oncorhynchus keta Iqalugrauq Anon. Iqalugrauq Anon.  Aanaaqliq Anon. t  Sii l   Ilhaugniq Anon.   Coregonus sardinella Iqalusaaq Anon. (2007) Arctic cod Boreogadus saida (2007) saffron cod Eleginus gracilis Uugaq Anon. (2007) chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Iqalugrauq Anon. (2007) chum salmon (2007) coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (2004) pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Amaqtuuq Anon. (2007) sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka -  broad whitefish Coregonus nasus (2007) humpback whitefish Coregonus pidschian Piquktuuq Anon. (2007) round whitefish Prosopium cylindraceum Aanaaqliq/Savigunaq Craig (1987) sheefish S enodus leucichthys Magdanz et al.  (2002) Dolly varden Salve inus malma Iqalukpik Anon. (2007) capelin Mallotus villosus Panmigriq Anon. (2007) flounder Liopsetta glacialis Nataagnaq/Puyyagiaq Anon. (2007) herring Clupea pallasii Uqsruqtuuq Anon. ( 2007) rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax (2007) sculpin Triglopsis quadricornis Kanayuq Anon. (2007)                               Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 44 APPENDIX 3: COMMUNITY INFORMATION Atqasuk  Atqasuk is a community that was re-established on traditional lands around 1977 primarily by former residents of Barrow (www.dced.state.ak.us). Estimated population grew from 74 in 1977 to 237 in 2006 (Figure 3.1).       Atqasuk had the catches of all taxa summed over all years to derive a taxonomic breakdown for catches. For non-anchor years, the catches were apportioned to taxa based on the average reported proportion for the two anchor years (1983 & 1994). Atqasuk had its 1977 catch total scaled from the 1983 anchor point by using the change in Barrow’s catch over the same time period. Barrow was used to scale the catches because this community was established by former residents of Barrow. 0 50 100 150 200 250 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 Year Figure A3.1. Estimated population of Atqasuk 1977-2006; solid circles indicate census years. Po pu la tio n      0. 0. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. C at ch  (t ) 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 0 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 Year 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 Year C at ch  (t ) Broad whitefish Humpback whitefish Least cisco Whitefish Chum C at ch  (t ) a) b) Figure A3.2. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line) and, b) taxonomic breakdown of reconstructed catches.                               Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 45 Barrow  Barrow is the northernmost community in North America and residents still participate in traditional marine mammal hunts. The development of oil fields at Prudhoe Bay has established it as the economic center of the North Slope Borough, and tax revenues from the North Slope oil fields fund services throughout the borough (www.dced.state.ak.us). The population is estimated to have grown from 951 people in 1950 to 4,065 people in 2006.  Patterson (1974) identified (6,250 lbs) of “herring” being taken. However, C. George (pers. comm.1) noted that Pacific herring were not caught in subsistence nets, but rather these should be identified as cisco. He also noted that it was only recently (1990s) that king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) appeared in local waters and that there was no local Inupiaq name for them, and coho salmon (O. keta) were also likely to have been misidentified, as a result of chum salmon being called ‘silver’ salmon- the common name in Alaska for coho salmon.  Also, Arctic charr were split between Dolly varden (anadromous) and Arctic charr (freshwater) based on information provided by Craig George. He noted that about 10% of what was formerly identified as Arctic char was taken in lakes near Barrow and that the other 90% were taken in marine waters and therefore would be Dolly varden.                                                                 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure A3.3. Estimated population of Barrow 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years.   Thus, what was originally identified as herring (Patterson, 1974) was changed to cisco in the present study, and records of coho salmon and king salmon were changed to chum salmon (Patterson, 1974;  Anonymous, 2001).  It should also be noted that Craig (1987) in a survey of salmon streams in this area only identified appearances of coho and king salmon as strays, usually with only one specimen being caught.   Chum salmon catch data for the years 1987 and 1988 (1,587 and 853 pounds) as indicated in the CPDB were ignored. This was because the values were low in relation to the other anchor points and because the Community Profiles Database indicated that these years were not the most representative for the community.   Figure A3.4. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) the taxonomic breakdown with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, Bering cisco, capelin, Dolly varden, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, round whitefish, saffron cod and sculpin. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) a) b) Broad whitefish Chum Least cisco Humpback whitefish Others C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t )               1 Craig George, Division of Wildlife Management, North Slope Borough,  P.O. Box 69, Barrow, Alaska 99723, (907)-852-2611 [date information received January 24, 2008].  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 46 Buckland  Buckland is located on the Buckland River, and a herd of more than 2,000 reindeer are managed, with the workers being paid in meat (www.dced.state.ak.us). In 1972, Buckland experienced a food shortage (Moore, 1979) and was given special permits for increasing the subsistence food supply in that year. The population is estimated to have grown from 102 people in 1950 to 457 in 2006.  Buckland’s reported catch of chum salmon declined dramatically after 1960. Part of this decline may have been due to the introduction of the snowmobile. However, the decrease demand for protein sources due to the introduction of the snowmobile does eem to match with the noted food shortage in 1972. It is possible that the Japanese high-seas fishing fleet may have catching chum salmon destined for the Buckland River, resulting in the depressed catches after 1968.  However, it should also be noted that hatcheries were  in response to record low returns of wild stocks in the 1960s and 1970s and therefore it is possible that the low ction levels may signal other factors  low returns during this period noaa.gov/japan/aquaculture not s been developed produ in the (www.lib. 2).                                                                                              2 Heard, W.R. (2001) Alaska salmon enhancement: a successful program for hatchery and wild stocks. In: Nakamura, Y., J.P. McVey, K. Leber, C. Neidig, S. Fox, and K. Churchill, (eds.). 2003. Ecology of Aquaculture Species and Enhancement of Stocks. Proceedings of the Thirtieth U.S. – Japan Meeting on Aquaculture. Sarasota, Florida, 3-4 December. UJNR Technical Report No. 30. Sarasota, FL: Mote Marine Laboratory.  0 100 200 300 400 500 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure A3.5. Estimated population of Buckland 1950-2006;  solid circles indicate census years. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 80 C at ch  (t ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Chum Sheefish Smelt Whitefish 80 C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.6. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 47 Deering  located on Kotzebue Sound at the mouth of the Inmachuk River. Moose, seal and beluga provide most meat sources (www.dced.state.ak.us  Deering is ). The population was estimated at 174 in 1950 and has declined to 138 in 2006. Charlie Lean3 stated that 1984, 1994 and 2004 were record pink salmon runs; therefore, the 1994 per capita rate was applied to these years.  Deering’s reported catch of chum salmon declined dramatically after 1960, and coincides with Buckland’s decline. Part of this decline would have been attributed to the introduction of the snowmobile. However, the decrease demand for protein sources due to the introduction of the snowmobile does not seem to match with the noted food shortage in 1972. It is possible that the Japanese high-seas fishing fleet may have been catching chum salmon destined for the rivers in the area, resulting in the depressed catches after 1968. However, it should also be noted that hatcheries were developed in response to record low returns of wild stocks in the 1960s and 1970s and therefore it is possible that the low production levels may signal other factors in the low returns during this period (www.lib.noaa.gov/japan/aquaculture).                                                                                               3 Charlie Lean, Norton Sound Fisheries Research and Development Director,  P.O. Box 358, Nome, Alaska, 99762, 1-888-650-2477 [date information received: January 24, 2008]. 0 50 100 150 200 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure A3.7. Estimated population of Deering 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year h (t) C at c 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Chum Dolly varden Pink Others a) b) h (t) C at c C at ch  (t ) h (t) at c C C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.8. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with others consisting of Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, flounder, herring, humpback whitefish, least cisco, Pleuronectidae, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin, sheefish, smelt and sockeye salmon.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 48 Kaktovik located on the north shore of Barter Island along the Beaufort Sea. Previously, it was a trading enter for the Inupiat and was a bartering place for the Inupiat communities in Alaska and the Inuit of The Community Profile Database for 1992 identifies 3 species of cisco being caught (Arctic       Kaktovik is c Canada. Currently, the people carry out some subsistence activities within the Mackenzie Delta, which overlaps with the harvests by people of Aklavik, Canada (Pedersen et al., 1985). In 1985, the main subsistence resource harvests, in order of importance, were Bowhead whale, fish, and caribou. In 1985 all households participated in fishing activities (Pedersen et al., 1985). The population was estimated as 115 people in 1950 and has grown to 288 in 2006.   0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Figure A3.9. Estimated population of Deering 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. 350 Po pu la tio n cisco-7lbs edible weight; Bering cisco-5,672 lbs edible weight; and least cisco-349 lbs edible weight). Pedersen (2005) did not list Bering cisco as being harvested by Kaktovik residents and therefore the catch for Bering cisco was changed to Arctic cisco. The subsistence fishery targets Arctic cisco migrating out of the Mackenzie River and the catches are influenced by wind direction, westerly winds are associated with higher catches.     0 2 4 6 8 10 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Dolly varden Arctic cisco12 14 Others 0 2 4 6 8 10 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) a) 12 14 b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t )            Figure A3.10. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, flounder, least cisco, salmon (unidentified), pink salmon, and saffron cod.                   Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 49 Kivalina Kivalina is situated on a barrier island along the Chuckchi Sea coast by the Kivalina River, but the community will re-locate due to severe coastline erosion and wind-driven ice damage (www.dced.state.ak.us  ).  The near-by Wulik River is also important for subsistence use. Kivalina has grown from an estimated population of 117 people in 1950 to 391 people in 2006.   The Wulik River supports small populations of chum, pink, and sockeye salmon.  Pink salmon spawn in the lower 6 miles of the Wulik River, chum salmon spawn in the lower 15 miles of the river, while sockeye salmon spawn below Wulik Forks (www.nwabor.org/planning/4.05%20Coastal% 20Mgt/Chapter%206%20Description%20of% 20Designated%20Areas.htm4).  The early report by Saario and Kessel (1966) resents data by harvest year (Aug-July) and c depending on the year neither species was caught, only o                                                                  p therefore these harvest years were used as surrogates for calendar years. Therefore, for instance, the first harvest from Aug 1959 to July 1960 was treated as the calendar year 1959. Arctic cod and Saffron cod had their hes for years of no data. This was done because ne species was caught, but in some years both species were caught. This allowed the catch to be split (by using the average proportion for each species for anchor years) between both species for years when an interpolation was done.   catch totals combined in order to interpolate total cod cat                        4 Anonymous (2005) Northwest Arctic Borough coastal management plan-public review draft. [Accessed: January, 4, 2008]. 0 100 200 300 400 500 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure A3.11. Estimated population of Kivalina 1950- 2006; solid circles indicate census years. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Dolly varden Whitefish Chum Others a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.12. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, flounder, herring, rainbow smelt, saffron cod, sheefish, coho salmon, pink salmon, chinook salmon and sockeye salmon.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 50  Kotzebue The regional economic centre of Kotzebue is located on the Baldwin Peninsula, which is surrounded by Kotzebue Sound. There are three near-by rivers, the Kobuk, Noatak and Ssezawick Rivers. As well, Hotham Inlet, which is the outlet for the Kobuk and Selawik Rivers, is located on the east side of the peninsula and this inlet is linked to Selawik Lake (www.dced.state.ak.us  ). The estimated population has grown from 623 people in 1950 to 3,104 in 2006.   Although there are several reports that quantify subsistence chum catches (e.g., erson, 1974, Banducci et al., 2007), we e totals from Eggers and Clark (2006) for the period 1962-2004 because they accounted for underreporting of chum salmon es for this community. Pink salmon runs in the management area fluctuate drastically between years; usually alternating between very strong and very weak returns. The nt cycle is strong on even numbered years and weak on odd numbered years www.sf.adfg.state.ak.us/Management/Areas. Patt used th catch curre ( cfm/FA/northwestOverview.fishInfo5).  erson (1974) stated the recent average pink r pink salmon in 1991 was estimated as 1,295 lbs (0.47 lbs·person ). Patterson’s catch total was not used for Pink salmon because the total seemed low, especially if the strength in cyclical abundance is for even years. The 1991 catch for halibut was assigned to the family Pleuronectidae because workshop participants believed that this was mis-identified and was likely a flounder6. Whitefish (excluding sheefish) had the species breakdown from 1991 applied to all other years’ estimated catch, with the catch of 2,647 lbs in 1971 (Patterson, 1974) being excluded as this was for one species only.                                                                        Patt salmon catch as being 50 lbs (0.028 lbs·person-1). Catch fo -1               5 The fish of the Northwest Management Area. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Sport Fish Division. [Accessed: February 8, 2008]. 6 Reconstruction data and validation workshop held as part of the 2008 Alaska Marine Science Symposium on January 24, 2008 in Anchorage, Alaska. 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure A3.13. Estimated population of Kotzebue 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. 0 100 200 300 400 500 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 600 C at ch  (t ) 0 100 200 300 400 500 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Chum Sheefish Dolly varden Others 600 a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.14. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, flounder, herring, rainbow smelt, saffron cod, sheefish, coho salmon, pink salmon, chinook salmon and sockeye salmon.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 51  Noatak  located on the west bank of the Noatak River. During the summer, many people still travel to heshalik spit to fish. The estimated population has grown from 326 people in 1950 to 470 in 2006. Catches for cisco and whitefish (excluding sheefish/inconnu) had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total catches for years of no data. The species breakdown was based on the percent contribution of each species in 1994.                      Noatak is S 0 100 200 300 400 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure 3.15. Estimated population of Noatak 1950-2006;  solid circles indicate census years. 0 50 100 150 200 250 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Chum Dolly varden Others 300 a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.16. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, Bering cisco, broad whitefish, chinook salmon, coho salmon, humpback whitefish, least cisco, pink salmon, round whitefish, saffron cod, sheefish, smelt and sockeye salmon. 500                                 Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 52  Nuiqsut   located on the Nechelik Channel of the Colville River Delta, about 35 miles inland from the Beaufort Sea coast. The community was re-established in 1973 on traditional land by 27 families from Barrow (www.dced.state.ak.us Nuiqsut is ). The estimated population has grown from an estimated 108 people in 1973 to 417 people in 2006.  Nuiqsut catches are dominated by broad whitefish and two species of ciscos. Subsistence es have increased in comparison to the ial fishery since the Helmerick’s family has limited its commercial operation. It is t to note in the context of salmonid range extension that in the 2000s, the Trapper ol in Nuiqsut released coho salmon fry as part of an enhancement program www.cf.adfg.state.ak.us/geninfo/pubs/rir/5j04 catch commerc importan Scho ( -02/rir-5j04-02_p3.pdf7).                                                                                                    7 Farrington, C. (2004). Alaska salmon enhancement program 2003 report. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisehries. Juneau, Alaska, 50 p.  0 100 200 300 400 500 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 Year Po pu la tio n Figure 3.17. Estimated population of Nuiqsut 1973-2006; solid circles indicate census years 0 10 20 30 40 50 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 Year 60 C at ch  (t ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 Year C at ch (t) Least cisco Broad whitefish Arctic cisco Others 60 a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch (t) C at ch  (t ) C at ch (t) C at ch (t) Figure A3.18. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, chinook salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, Dolly varden, humpback whitefish, pink salmon, rainbow smelt, and round whitefish.  Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 53  Point Hope  located along the Chuckchi Sea. The earliest studies used for this report arose from environmental studies for Project Chariot, which in the 1950s aimed to create a harbor near Point Hope by detonating nuclear material. Although this project never occurred, nuclear material from Nevada was used in some experiments and buried and forgotten until the mid-1990s, when the nuclear material was removed (http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/SEEJ/chariotseej.html  Point Hope is ). The estimated population of Point Hope has grown from 264 people in 1950 to 737 in 2006.   Dolly varden, whitefish, and chum salmon catch tals had additional anchor points derived from             to Kivalina. Anchor years from Kivalina for these species were used to derive changes in catch totals for these species because the latest data for these species caught in Point Hope was in 1971                   0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure A3.19. Estimated population of Point Hope 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Dolly varden Pink Chum Arctic cod Smelt + Whitefish              C at ch  (t ) a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) h (t) C at c Figure A3.20. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches.   Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 54  Point Lay es between the communities of Point Hope and Wainwright along the Chuckchi Sea. The illage was nearly abandoned in the mid-1950s and it was not until the early 1970s that people started to move back.  Point Lay Biographies (Impact Assessment Inc., 1989) states that during the intervening time period one couple lived there, whereas the state census states that no-one lived there between 1950 and 1980, the first non-zero census year. The estimated population has grown from 34 people in 1950 to 235 people in 2006.   Chum salmon, broad whitefish and Dolly varden had additional anchor points derived 1987) presented data for the 1983 y in Point Lay. Total estimated catch monitored during the study; and 3) the camps away from that the harvest away from the village was similar to that             Point Lay li v from Kivalina. However, in this case the derived anchor points used changes in per capita rates. This was done because the village was nearly abandoned in the mid- 1950s.  Craig ( fisher was 143 pounds. These data were not used for several reasons: 1) some of the average weights suggested for species were very low (e.g., Dolly varden @ 2 lbs; commercial average for the same year = 5.8 pounds); 2) camps away from the community were not the community were “conservatively assumed at the village”; and 4) the fall fishery was not monitored.   0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure 3.21. Estimated population of Point Lay 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. 0. 0. 1. 1. 2.0 C at ch  (t ) 0 5 0 5 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Dolly varden ChumPink Broad whitefish Others 2.0 a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.22. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of flounder, herring, and smelt.                    Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 55  Selawik located at the mouth of the Selawik River where the river meets Selawik Lake. The people of the area barter for seal and beluga with the communities that are situated along the coast (www.dced.state.ak.us  Selawik is ). The area is well-known for sheefish; the sheefish populations in this area are slow growing, but attain larger sizes than other populations in Alaska (www.sf.adfg.ak.us). The human population was estimated to grow from 273 in 1950 to 841 in 2006.   The earliest reported catches presented, which were transformed into anchor points fall well       0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure A3.23. Estimated population of Selawik 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years below the reconstructed total catch line because the earliest reported catches only documented the catch for sheefish. Although sheefish are a species of whitefish, no whitefish, which make up the largest portion of the catches, were reported until Patterson (1974).           0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) 350 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Whitefish Sheefish Others 350a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.24. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of chum salmon, Dolly varden, flounder, herring and smelt.                            Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 56  Shishmaref located along the Chuckchi Sea on Sarichef Island. Severe impacts from storms caused rosion of 30 feet of shore in 1997, and since then the shoreline has continued to erode by an average of 3- re  on exploitation rates derived from the work heefish/Inconnu) had their tch totals combined in order to interpolate total         Shishmaref is e 5 feet per year. This erosion has caused several houses to be moved and in 2002 the community decided to re-locate. Two reindeer herds are managed in the area. The estimated population of the community has grown from 194 people in 1950 to 615 in 2006.  Estimated chum salmon catches after 1975 we 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure 3.25. Estimated population of Shishmaref 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years based by Eggers and Clark (2006) and thus, it was assumed that the community intercepts Kotzebue area chum salmon.  Whitefish (except S ca whitefish catches for years of no data. The species breakdown from 1995 was applied to all other years’ catch. Cisco had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total catches for years of no data. The species breakdown from 1995 was applied to all other years’ catch. 0 10 20 30 40 50 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 60 C at ch  (t ) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Chum Herring Saffron cod Coho Bering cisco Pink Dolly varden Smelt C at ch (t) Others a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch (t) C at ch  (t ) C at ch (t) C at ch (t) Fig flou sh ure A3.26. a) Anchor points (solid diamonds), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, chinook salmon, nder, humpback whitefish, king crab, least cisco, round whitefish, sculpin, eefish and sockeye salmon.                               Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 57  Wainwright ted along the Chuckchi Sea between Point Lay and Barrow. The estimated population as grown from 227 in 1950 to 517 in 2006. Catches of chum salmon and Dolly varden were scaled to those in Kivalina. Catches for cisco and that 750 lbs of whitefish hortnose) was caught. This value was not used     Wainwright is loca h  species of whitefish (excluding sheefish/inconnu) had their catch totals combined in order to interpolate total whitefish catches for years of no data. The species breakdown was based on the per cent contribution of each species to the total catches reported over all years.  Patterson (1974) stated (s here because it related to one type of whitefish only.                    0 100 200 300 400 500 600 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure 3.27. Estimated population of Wainwright 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year C at ch  (t ) Least cisco Smelt Dolly varden Others a) b) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.28. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Arctic cod, chinook salmon, flounder, humpback whitefish, king crab, least cisco, round whitefish, sculpin, sheefish and sockeye salmon.                   Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 58  Wales  Wales is located on Cape Prince of Wales at the tip of the Seward Peninsula near the boundary between FAO Areas 18 (arctic) and 67 (Pacific, Northeast). Thus, the estimated total subsistence reconstructed catches for this community were split evenly between the two FAO areas (presented are the total reconstructed catches before the split). Wales was a major whaling station, and the residents still maintain a strong whaling culture, despite the large loss of life during the influenza outbreak at the turn of the 20th century. The estimated population has remained fairly constant over the time period considered her, with an average of 141 people living in the community from 1950-2006.  Wales had the catches of chum salmon scaled to  of Shishmaref to derive other anchor ing eefish/inconnu) had their catch totals        0 50 100 150 200 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Po pu la tio n Figure 3.29. Estimated population of Wales 1950-2006; solid circles indicate census years. those points. After 1975, chum salmon catches for non-anchor years were based on exploitation rates derived from the work by Eggers and Clark (2006) and thus, it was assumed that the community intercepts Kotzebue area chum.   Catches for whitefish (exclud sh combined in order to interpolate total whitefish catches for years of no data. The species breakdown was based on the per cent contribution of each species to the total catches reported in 1993.  0 2 4 6 8 10 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year 12 C at ch  (t ) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Year Chum Pink Coho Chinook Dolly varden Others C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) C at ch  (t ) Figure A3.30. a) Anchor points (solid circles), and estimated reconstructed total catches (solid line), and b) taxonomic breakdown of the reconstructed catches with ‘others’ consisting of Bering cisco, flounder, least cisco, round whitefish, saffron cod, sculpin and smelt. C at ch  (t )                         Marine fisheries of arctic Alaska, Booth & Zeller 59 APPENDIX 4: DATA VALIDATION WORKSHOP HELD IN ANCHORAGE, ALASKA: PARTICIPANTS AND NOTES.  The workshop was held on January 24, 2008 immediately following the 2008 Alaska Marine Science Symposium. Local logistic and organizational support was organized by Jonathan Warrenchuk and Susan Murray of Oceana-Juneau, Alaska. Thirteen people participated in the one day workshop (Table A4.1), with opening comments by Daniel Pauly concerning the state of global fishery statistics, and Dirk Zeller expanding on the purposes and examples of why catch reconstructions are needed. Thereafter, Shawn Booth communicated the preliminary results for the individual catch reconstructions for ten marine coastal communities. After presenting the preliminary data for each community, participants were invited to give feedback on the reconstruction, which was largely related to the subsistence fisheries sector. Two general concerns arose: standardizing common names of fish species used in historical documents to the correct scientific names; and increasing the number of communities to include some which that, although not physically located on the coast, nevertheless are considered significant users of marine species, including anadromous salmon species.  Common names were standardized between communities and assigned both the scientific names and Inupiat names for the species; the catch reconstruction was expanded to include the communities of Selawik, Nuiqsut, Atqasuk, Noatak, and Buckland. However, although workshop participants suggested including catches of Little Diomede Island, the catches were not reconstructed because the island is located south of the boundary for FAO Statistical Area 18. Furthermore, the community is largely dependent on walrus and other marine mammals, and it is only recently that the people have begun to string nets around the islands (J. Menard, pers. comm.8). The five other communities that were included for the expanded reconstruction were located inland, but they do rely on anadromous species of fish (i.e., salmon and whitefish complex), which spend at least a portion of their life-cycle in marine waters.   Table A4.1: Participants (and affiliations) attending the Arctic Alaska Catch Reconstruction Workshop in Anchorage, January 24, 2008. Participant Affiliation  Booth, Shawn University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre Childers, Dorothy Alaska Marine Conservation Council Coon, Cathy Arctic Research Coordinator, Minerals Management Service Lean, Charlie Norton Sound Fisheries Research and Development Oceana, Juneau Pauly, Daniel University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre Senior Scientist, Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association George, Craig North Slope Borough, Department of Wildlife Management MacLean, Steve The Nature Conservancy Menard, Jim Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Commercial Division (Nome) Morse, Muriel  Alaska Marine Conservation Council Murray, Susan Warrenchuk, Jonathan Oceana, Juneau Wright, Bruce Zeller, Dirk University of British Columbia’s Fisheries Centre                                                                   8 Jim Menard, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Commercial Fisheries, P.O. Box 1148 Nome, Alaska, 99762 [date information received: January 24, 2008].  

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