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Environmental data for the eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea. Gregr, Edward J.; Coatta, Ryan 2008

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   ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 2008 Volume 16 Number 6   Environmental data for the  eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea      Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada   Environmental data for the eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea     by Edward J. Gregr and Ryan Coatta Marine Mammal Research Unit, Fisheries Centre University of British Columbia gregr@zoology.ubc.ca                  Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(6) 76 pages © published 2008 by  The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2202 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4       ISSN 1198-6727   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(6) 2008  EVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC AND BERING SEA  by Edward J. Gregr and Ryan Coatta  CONTENTS   Page DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD ...................................................................................................................................... 1 ABSTRACT ...........................................................................................................................................................2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................3 METHODS ...........................................................................................................................................................4 RESULTS ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 Chlorophyll ...............................................................................................................................................6 Sea surface temperature ........................................................................................................................... 7 SST slope...................................................................................................................................................8 Sea level anomaly......................................................................................................................................9 Surface wind speed ................................................................................................................................. 10 Eastern North Pacific climatologies ........................................................................................................11 ROMS model output................................................................................................................................11 DISCUSSION ...................................................................................................................................................... 13 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................................................................................................................................... 13 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................................... 13 APPENDICES...................................................................................................................................................... 14 Appendix 1 – Data sets prepared for economic and habitat studies  of the eastern North Pacific / Bering Sea..................................................................................... 15 Appendix 2 – Federal Geographic Data Committee compatible metadata .......................................... 16 Appendix 2.1 – 3x3 km2 Bathymetry................................................................................................. 16 Appendix 2.2 – 9x9 km2 Bathymetry ................................................................................................ 19 Appendix 2.3 – 3x3 km2 Bottom slope..............................................................................................22 Appendix 2.4 – 9x9 km2 Bottom slope.............................................................................................. 25 Appendix 2.5 – 3x3 km2 Chlorophyll concentration.........................................................................28 Appendix 2.6 – 9x9 km2 Chlorophyll concentration ........................................................................32 Appendix 2.7 – 3x3 km2 Sea surface temperature............................................................................36 Appendix 2.8 – 9x9 km2 Sea surface temperature ...........................................................................39 Appendix 2.9 – 9x9 km2 Sea surface temperature slope ..................................................................43 Appendix 2.10 – 3x3 km2 Sea level anomaly .................................................................................... 47 Appendix 2.11 – 9x9 km2 Sea level anomaly .....................................................................................50 Appendix 2.12 – 3x3 km2 Sea surface wind speed ............................................................................ 54 Appendix 2.13 – 9x9 km2 Sea surface wind speed............................................................................58 Appendix 2.14 – Eastern North Pacific chlorophyll concentration..................................................62 Appendix 2.15 – Eastern North Pacific sea surface temperature ..................................................... 65 Appendix 2.16 – Eastern North Pacific sea level anomaly ...............................................................68 Appendix 2.17 – Eastern North Pacific sea surface wind speed ........................................................71 Appendix 2.18 – Northern Gulf of Alaska ROMS model outputs..................................................... 74  A Research Report from the Fisheries Centre at UBC 76 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2008   FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  1 DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD There is, in the Fisheries Centre, a strong emphasis on global assessments and databases, but it is also true that British Columbia and the eastern North Pacific are our hinterland, and the place where the Marine Mammal Research Unit concentrates much of its field work. It is thus appropriate that Edward Gregr and Ryan Coatta have completed and made available for wider distribution a dataset of spatial information on temperatures, chlorophyll and other environmental parameters for the eastern North Pacific. All ecosystem modelling work done by researchers at the Fisheries Centre in various subsystems of the Eastern North Pacific confirms that both top-down and bottom-up effects shape the dynamics of the ecosystem and the fluctuation of individual species. This insight is not as obvious as it seems: There are ecosystems where changes in fishing regime are all that is needed to explain the different ecosystem states that are observed, and the changed abundances of the species embedded therein. This does not apply to the eastern North Pacific. Conversely, there are ecosystems that are driven predominantly from the bottom-up. The eastern North Pacific is not among those either, notwithstanding much talk about all- encompassing ‘regime shifts’. Rather, the eastern Noth Pacific ecosystem appears to be genuinely controlled both by bottom-up and top-down processes, acting simultaneously, if with different intensities, on the different species groups within the system. This combination of top-down and bottom-up controls can, in many cases, only be demonstrated by judicious choice of the scale at which local data sets are thought to apply. It is therefore extremely helpful to have a choice. The data sets presented in this report will help in this, as they range in coverage from the entire eastern North Pacific (120°E to 155°W, and 31.6°N to 66.5°N), through an intermediate scale covering the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska (130°E to 170°W, and 50°N to 65°N), to a higher resolution dataset of the northern Gulf of Alaska (129°E to 166°E, and 51°N to 61°N).  Finally, I want to laud the authors for devoting much energy to assembling and documenting their datasets such that they not only will later back their own work, but can be used by others working on the eastern North Pacific. Selfless undertakings of this sort are uncommon enough to deserve special praise.        Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  2 ABSTRACT As part of our investigations into Steller sea lion habitat use and fisheries economics, we have prepared a collection of physical oceanographic data for the eastern North Pacific and the Bering Sea. Data include rectified grids of chlorophyll-a concentrations, sea surface temperature, slope of sea surface temperature, sea level anomaly, wind speed, current velocity and direction, mixed layer depth, and bathymetry. Geographic Information System-compatible raster (gridded) data were created from available on-line sources as both monthly and long-term averages. Monthly averages were produced for all available years for each sensor at a spatial scale of 9x9 km2 for the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. We prepared long-term averages (climatologies) at 3x3 km2 for the northern Gulf of Alaska, and for the entire eastern North Pacific we prepared each source data set at its native resolution. We evaluated the sea surface temperature data at the 9x9 km2 scale using available quality data, and improved the data provided by interpolating through low quality pixels. Considerable processing was required to create a continuous North Pacific perspective, and to ensure that the data sets were correctly aligned at the different spatial scales. We also present 2-week averaged data from the output of a Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) implemented for the northern Gulf of Alaska (3x3 km2) for the year 2001. These data provide a representation of the changing, vertical structure of the ocean. Given the significant investment to create a rectified data collection, we have prepared the data for distribution to interested researchers. The ROMS data are provided in MS Access format, and the remote sensing data as binary float files. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compatible metadata have been prepared. The data described herein are available from the Marine Mammal Research Unit web site1 or on request.                                                   1 www.marinemammal.org/MMRU/data Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  3 INTRODUCTION Studies of marine animals and how their habitats are distributed in the ocean are constrained by the availability of data on the state of the ocean. Significant advances have been made describing the general distribution of species based on average ocean conditions (e.g., www.aquamaps.org). These approaches are demonstrably suitable for basin-scale analyses of population trends and fisheries economics. However they do not necessarily reflect the ecology of the marine species, which respond to seasonal and inter- annual dynamics and species interactions that cannot be well represented in global biogeographic studies. Habitat studies of widely distributed marine species require data at similar extents. Data from remote sensing are one of the few sources of the broad-extent, comprehensive data sets necessary for such analyses. While many of these data are now available via on-line servers, they are often available only as global coverages, at various temporal resolutions, and occasionally at different spatial resolutions. The data are also often provided at various levels of processing, from the raw satellite data to the end product (i.e., temperature), which is typically what is relevant to marine habitat analyses.  Ocean circulation models provide another comprehensive view of the ocean, in this case including ocean dynamics and vertical structure, typically at high temporal resolution. To investigate the suitability of such models for habitat studies, we included the output from a ROMS (Regional Ocean Modelling System) model of the northern Gulf of Alaska, developed by Al Hermann and colleagues2. The volume of data created by circulation models means the output typically needs to be scaled for use in ecological studies. The use of such data for ocean habitat studies is rich with possibilities.  Data availability constrains both the attributes that are available, and their spatial and temporal resolution. One of the motivating factors was the desire to investigate how spatio-temporal scaling affects predictive models. This required the preparation of a large number of data sets, at variable resolutions. The work required to make such data sets compatible for analysis in typical Geographic Information System (GIS) tools begins after the data of interest are obtained. While there are on-going improvements to the accessibility and compatibility of the data products available from the live-access servers, different variables are often in different digital formats. Typically, the spatial extents of global coverages range from -180 to +180 degrees longitude, adding an extra step to the data preparation for North Pacific analyses. We conducted a series of analyses investigating the relationship between Steller sea lions, their prey, and various indicators of their physical habitat. We conducted these studies for two different spatial extents, at two spatial resolutions, and three temporal scales. To support this work, we built a collection of physical oceanographic data from satellite-borne remote sensors and ROMS model output. Given the level of processing required to make these various data sets suitable for use with standard, PC-based, analytical software (e.g., R, S-Plus, ArcGIS, IDRISI), we felt that making the processed data sets freely available to other researchers may benefit marine research in the North Pacific.  Remote sensing data for the northern Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea data sets are provided in Alaska Albers (NAD27) equal-area projection with default (ESRI) parameters. The larger extent, eastern North Pacific data are provided in Mercator projection, using default parameters except the central meridian set to 180°. Bathymetric and remote sensing variables are provided as rasters in floating point file format. The circulation model output is provided as a series of 28 comma-delimited text files, one for each 2-week time period, referenced in geographic coordinates. In this report, we describe the data sets, providing example images of each, and a brief description of the processing. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)-compatible metadata have also been prepared to facilitate the use of these data sets in future analyses.                                                   2 Al Hermanna, Dave Musgraveb, Kate Hedstromb, and Elizabeth Dobbinsa. a. Pacific Marine Ecology Laboratory, NOAA, 7600 Sand Point Way NE Seattle, WA 98115. Phone: (206) 526-6239. b. Arctic Region Supercomputing Center, UAF Fairbanks, PO Box 756020, Fairbanks, AK 99775. Phone: (907) 450-8600.  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  4 Figure 1: Extents of data sets described in this report. The largest extents include the entire eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea; the 9x9 km2 study area (purple) includes the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea, while the 3x3 km2 study area (red) includes the northern Gulf of Alaska. The extents of the Hermann circulation model are overlaid in grey.  METHODS We first defined two study frameworks using the Smith and Sandwell global elevation model (Smith and Sandwell 1997) to interpolate the 3x3 and 9x9 km2  study areas. We then prepared remotely-sensed data for sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), surface winds, and chlorophyll-a (chl-a) for the 3x3 km2 northern Gulf of Alaska (nGOA) study area, and at 9x9 km2 for the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska (BS/GOA) study area. The nGOA data were prepared as monthly, long-term averages (climatologies). The BS/GOA data were prepared as monthly averages, for all months of available data (Appendix 1). We also generated monthly climatologies for the entire eastern North Pacific, at the native resolution of the various sensors. This will provide some flexibility with respect to the spatial resolution of these monthly averages when used for other studies. These dynamic physical data are underlaid with a bathymetric rasters derived from the Smith and Sandwell global bathymetric coverage.  We processed the results from a Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) implementation for the nGOA region for the year 2001 from output provided by A. Hermann and colleagues at the Alaska Fisheries Science Centre, Seattle Washington. Two-week averages for all of 2001 were obtained as NetCDF files, and processed to ASCII text files using MatLab scripts. The text files were then combined into an MS Access database. Variables extracted from the NetCDF files included temperature, salinity and current velocities at surface, mixed layer, and bottom depths. The data were provided on a rotated, geographic grid, with a nominal resolution of 3x3 km2. The processed data are provided as a series of 28 tables in an MS Access database. Each table contains 230,400 records, each representing a ROMS model point. Each record contains its geographic coordinate, and a value for all variables for the specific 2-week time period. Detailed processing steps and attribute descriptions are contained in the FGDC meta-data provided for each data set (Appendix 2).  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  5 RESULTS Study areas The GOA study area includes the on-shelf waters of the Gulf of Alaska, extending from approximately Unimak Bight (-163.5°) in the west to Prince of Wales Island (-132.5°) in the east. A grid cell size of 3x3 km2 was determined to best support the available data. This corresponds to the nominal resolution of the bathymetric and biological data, and the output of the circulation model used. The resulting study area grid contained 300 rows and 665 columns giving a total of 199,500 cells. The portion of the study area within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) contained about 36,000 cells. The Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska (BS/GOA) study area encompassed the range of the western stock of Steller sea lions within U.S. waters. It also captured all the recorded NMFS Alaska Region observer data for 2001. We used a 9x9 km2 grid because it represents the finest scale supported by the resolution of the environmental indicators available from satellite. The study area contained approximately 45,000 marine cells within the U.S. EEZ. Bathymetry and slope We used the original Smith and Sandwell (1997) data to interpolate a 3x3 km2, Albers Alaska projected grid of the study area (Figure 2). The Smith and Sandwell data are a global coverage, in geographic coordinates, delivered as an ASCII XYZ file. Once the data were projected, we found that we needed to shift the points 3 km N, and 2 km W to align them with a correctly registered 1:63,360 scale State of Alaska coastline file (MMS 2002). The commonly distributed Smith and Sandwell data are shifted as a result of being moved from a point to a raster representation (Marks and Smith 2006). All on land points were removed prior to generating the bathymetric coverage. This included both points whose depth was >= 0, and those that occurred on land based on the Alaska coastline file). Figure 2: Bathymetry for the 9x9 km2 Bering Sea / Gulf of Alaska study area. We used the ArcGIS TopoRaster function to interpolate the 3x3 km2 bathymetric grid for the North Pacific. Given the extents of this region, the process was completed using a mosaic of 4 rasters. The raster was then clipped to the specific regions of interest, using predefined rectangular coordinates. For the 9x9 km2 GOA/BS study area, the data were extracted from the 3x3 km2 North Pacific raster and spatially aggregated onto the coarser, 9x9 km2 study grid. A number of revised bathymetric products are now available including an updated global bathymetry from Smith (http://www.africanmarineatlas.net/BASE/pages/relief_grids.htm) and a competing ETOPO2  Alaska 9 km Bathymetry  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  6 product (http://ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/fliers/06mgg01.html). The differences between these data sets are well described by Marks and Smith (2006). Slope was calculated separately for each of the study area bathymetries using the IDRISI SURFACE slope function, with a scaling factor of 1 (because both the vertical and horizontal units were metres) and units of degrees. Maximum slopes of 19.4° was obtained for the 3x3 km2 scale, and 15.5° for the 9x9 km2 scale. The bathymetry and slope files are provided as binary float files (*.flt & *.hdr pair) for each study area (Appendix 1). Chlorophyll Estimates of basin-scale primary production are typically produced by processing multi-spectral (colour) images (e.g., Figure 3) with algorithms that estimate chlorophyll concentration (chl-a) from ocean reflectance. Colour sensors can be masked by cloud cover, and the processing of reflectance is confounded (particularly near shore) by inorganic particulate matter.  Figure 3: Example of chlorophyll-a concentrations for the  9x9 km2 Bering Sea / Gulf of Alaska study area for July, 2005. Global area coverage (GAC) Ocean Level-3 Standard Mapped Images (SMI) of predicted chlorophyll concentration (mg/m3) were downloaded as monthly averages, in binary HDF (Hierarchical Data Format) files from the Ocean Color website (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/). While the web interface provides standard map images suitable for browsing available data, using the FTP server is more efficient for downloading large groups of files. To process these products for use with GIS software, we used IDRISI to import and manipulate the data to match our study area extents and resolution. We imported the HDF files using the PARE function. This required the number of rows and columns, and the geographic extents to be entered as parameters. While this method proved adequate, we would recommend the use of the HDFEOS import function instead because it automatically retrieves the number of rows and columns from the files header information (see following section for details on HDFEOS).  The GAC images are centered on the Atlantic. To achieve a Pacific orientation, the imported images were clipped into two halves such that each half contained values from either the positive or negative side of 180° longitude. The column that determines this cutoff is dependent on the import function used above. The split images were then concatenated in reversed orientation such that their mutual 180 lines become the center of the image.   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  7 The chlorophyll images were provided in 256 byte format, meaning that the values range from 0 to 255. These values are converted to units of mg/m3 using a logarithmic scaling equation: mg / m3 = 10 (0.015 * [pixel_value]) – 2 Equation 1 Descriptions of the scaling equations for all Ocean Color products are described in http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/DOCS/ocformats.html. The slope and intercept values for each data product are contained in its HDF header. They can also be found at http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/seadas/doc/smigen/smigen.html.  Finally, each GAC image was clipped to our lat/long study area and projected to the Alaska Albers projection. Note that the projection is dependent on correct assignment of latitude and longitude to the raster image during import.  The MODIS data were used for the monthly nGOA climatologies, while the SeaWiFS data were used for the BS/GOA monthly averages to provide the longest possible time series (Appendix 1). For the 3x3 km2 nGOA study area, we created monthly climatologies from monthly MODIS images for 2002 to 2005. These have a nominal resolution of 4x4 km2. When calculating the climatologies pixels occupied by cloud cover were ignored, making the sample size for each pixel average variable. The resulting pixels were assigned a NoData value only if all of the months spanning all years from 2002 to 2005 had cloud cover. For the 9x9 km2 Gulf of Alaska / Bering Sea study area, we used monthly, 9x9 km2 SeaWiFS images for 1998 to 2005. December was omitted for all years because of excessive cloud coverage and low light levels in the study region during this month.   Sea surface temperature  For the 3x3 km2 nGOA study area, we used MODIS temperature images for 2002 to 2005 with a nominal resolution of 4x4 km2. These images were processed in the same manner as the chl-a data described above. For the 9x9 km2 BS/GOA study area, we downloaded monthly, 4x4 km2 images of global sea surface temperature from the Pathfinder AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) sensor from the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/) for 1992 to 2005 (e.g., Figure 4). Available data included ascending (day) and descending (night), and quality images. The AVHRR data are compiled from sensors spanning a number of NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmosphere Administration) polar orbiting satellites. Global coverage data are offered in binary HDF-SDS format at varying spatial and temporal resolutions from 1985 to present (temperature from ocean colour only begins in 1998).  Data were downloaded as binary HDF files. We imported the binary into IDRISI grids using HDFEOS import. HDFEOS automatically applies a planar (XY) projection to the surface and assigns extents equal to the number of rows and columns. These values need to be edited in the IDRISI RDC file (raster document). However before assigning the correct extents and spatial reference to the RDC file, the images were edited to create a Pacific-centric orientation, as described for chl-a, above. In this case, HDFEOS import provided an advantage because the imported image was oriented so that it could be split exactly down the middle during clipping.  SST was obtained in byte format, with values ranging from 0 to 255. The pixel values were converted to degrees Celsius a scaling equation (Equation 2) described in the AVHRR user manual (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/sog/pathfinder4km/userguide.html/). [pixel_value] * 0.075 – 3 Equation 2   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  8 Figure 4: Example of sea surface temperature for the  9x9 km2 Bering Sea / Gulf of Alaska study area, for July 2005. Updated values for the scaling equations are contained in http://poseidon.jpl.nasa.gov:2031/DATASET_DOCS/avhrr_pathfinder_sst_v5.html Finally, each image was projected to the Alaska Albers projection. During this step, the images were re- sampled to match the 9x9 km2 target grid by specifying the number of rows and columns required in the output image. We also downloaded SST quality images corresponding to the temperature data. The quality images were in the same format and orientation as the data themselves, and were thus imported using the same process, with the exception of the pixel value conversion step.  The quality values ranged from 0 (low) to 7 (high) and indicated the quality of the corresponding pixel in the associated data file. According to the reference manual, good quality data have flag values of 4 or greater (http://poseidon.jpl.nasa.gov:2031/DATASET_DOCS/avhrr_pathfinder_sst_v5.html). We therefore created binary (0 and 1) rasters by classifying pixels with quality values from 0-3 as 0, and  4-7 as 1. We used this binary quality surfaces to eliminate poor quality data pixels from the data images with the OVERLAY function. We converted the good quality pixels into vector point features and interpolated back on to the raster so that areas formerly containing low quality data were now interpolated from the surrounding good quality data. In the final processing step, a land mask was applied using the OVERLAY function to remove any data values on land as a result of the interpolation process. SST slope For the 9x9 km2 BS/GOA study area only, we generated slope surfaces for each SST raster using the SURFACE slope function (e.g., Figure 5). The slope for a pixel is calculated based on the values of its neighbors (top and bottom, left and right – Equation 3). 22 2*res bottomtop 2*res leftright slopetan_ ⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ −+⎟⎠ ⎞⎜⎝ ⎛ −=  Equation 3 The function does not ignore land/NoData values, leading to invalid slope values for pixels around coastlines and the edges of the study area. We therefore removed the invalid slope pixels using a buffered land mask and the OVERLAY function.  Surface temperature Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  9 Figure 5: Example of sea surface temperature slopes for the 9x9 km2 Bering Sea / Gulf of Alaska study area for July, 2007. Sea level anomaly We retrieved weekly merged sea level anomaly (SLA, cm) data processed from altimetry data gathered by the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 satellite missions (e.g., Figure 6). The merged data provide delayed-time, gridded SLA datasets. The delayed-time data sets have increased precision over near real-time datasets because they combine altimetry information from multiple satellites. Data sets produced from these missions are available as far back as October 1992, and data collection is ongoing. We downloaded the weekly data from the AVISO live access server (www.aviso.oceanobs.com) as binary NetCDF files, for the years 1993 to 2005.  We processed both monthly climatologies (GOA) and monthly averages (BS/GOA) using VBA scripts that referenced the IDRISI object library. As with the chlorophyll climatologies, the average calculation ignored no data cells to maximize data coverage, making the sample size for each pixel calculation variable. The nominal resolution of the source data is 1/3°, and thus improves somewhat towards the poles.  We imported the binary data files into IDRISI raster format using the HDFEOS function and found we had to rotate the imported SLA files 90° to achieve the appropriate orientation. The images were rotated counterclockwise using the TRANSPOSE function. We manually edited the associated IDRISI RDC files after they were rotated to reflect the adjusted latitude/longitude extents, and to assign a proper spatial reference system (the HDFEOS function assigned incorrect spatial reference and extent information because of the rotation). After editing the RDC files, the images were clipped to match the extents and resolution of the target study area. Monthly averaged SLA images were not available from AVISO so we computed our own using the weekly data files. We summed the values of common pixels from multiple weeks for each month, and then divided the result by the number of the values used in the sum. The count of valid pixels rather than the number of input images was used as the denominator when computing the monthly averages to avoid including NoData pixels. If a specific pixel had NoData for every week of a particular month then it was assigned a 0. The resulting monthly average data files were then projected and re-sampled to match the 9x9 km2 study area, by explicitly stating the number of rows and columns of the output image generated by the PROJECT function. The data of interest for each study area were extracted from the global coverages by modifying the extent and resolution as the data were clipped, and moved from geographic to projected space. Surface temperature slope  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  10 Figure 6: Example of sea level anomalies for the 9x9 km2 Bering Sea / Gulf of Alaska study area for July 2005. The resolution of the source data (1/3°) is evident along the coastline, where a number of geographic features (i.e., Aleutian Islands) are un-resolved. The GOA SLA data (12 monthly climatologies) are provided as a list of 12 float files. For the GOA/BS, the monthly averages are provided as a set of monthly float files for all available months (Appendix 1).  Surface wind speed We used wind speed data (m/s) produced by NASA’s Pathfinder program, provided online by the Remote Sensing Systems research group (http://www.remss.com/). The sensors – Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers or SSMI/I’s – were onboard a series of satellites from 1988 to 2005. The binary data files we retrieved were formatted to a 0.25° grid and stored as monthly time averaged files (e.g., Figure 7). We obtained these data from the REMSS FTP site. Figure 7: Example of surface wind speed for the 9x9 km2 Bering Sea / Gulf of Alaska study area for July, 2005.  Sea level anomaly  cm Wind speed Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  11 Binary data files were imported using the PARE function which required the extents and the spatial reference system for the resulting raster to be input explicitly. The source data contained 3 additional variables aside from the wind speed data in each downloaded image. We thus had to account for these other variables when calculating the PARE extent parameters in order to correctly identify the longitude and latitude extents of the wind speed portion of the composite image. Additionally, the wind speed images were initially inverted, and had to be flipped vertically to correctly orient the images (so that North was up).  We converted the 256 byte integer pixel data values to units of meters per second using a scale factor of 0.2 according to instructions on the source web page. The 5 maximum values in the wind data (251 to 255 prior to the scaling) represented data flags for features such as NoData and sea ice. In order to properly distinguish these flags from data, the flags were reclassified to negative integers ranging from -1 to -5. Finally, we clipped the images to our BS/GOA study area and projected the data to the Albers Alaska spatial projection. The resolution was re-sampled to match our 9x9 km2 target grid by specifying desired number of rows and columns. The 12 nGOA monthly wind speed climatologies are provided as 12 float files for each variable. For the BS/GOA, the monthly averages are provided as monthly float files for all available months (Appendix 1).  Eastern North Pacific climatologies During the process of documenting the processes required to prepare the remote sensing data, we felt that climatologies for broader extents, at a spatial resolution native to the source data, may also constitute a useful data product – one whose inclusion would require minimal additional effort.  We therefore prepared monthly climatologies for chl-a, SLA, SST, and surface winds at their native resolutions, for the entire eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea (Figure 1). The extents are approximately 66.5°N to 32°N, and from 156°E to 117°W.  We did not prepare a bathymetric framework for this data set, as each variable is presented at a different spatial resolution, without a common, rectified grid. Users of these data will therefore need to create a bathymetric raster for their area of interest, and then project the climatologies onto that grid to align the data sets at the resolution of interest. As with the nGOA climatologies, these data are provided as a set of 12 binary floating point files. The data have been projected to a WGS 1984 Mercator projection with standard ESRI default parameters, except the central meridian was changed to 180°. ROMS model output Data on sea level anomaly (SLA), mixed layer depth (MLD), and temperature, salinity, and current velocity were obtained at 3 different depths (surface, below MLD, and bottom) from a Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) model developed by Al Hermann and colleagues (Hermann et al. 2002; Hermann and Stabeno 1996) for the northern Gulf of Alaska. The model uses a rotated coordinate grid with a nominal resolution of 3x3 km2. The data were provided (in 2005) by D. Musgrave (pers. comm.) as text files containing 2-week averages and variances, for March through September 2001 (13 time periods total).  Subsequently, these data were updated with an updated run for the entire 2001 calendar year. It is these data, obtained as NetCDF files, that were ultimately used in the analysis. We wrote MatLab scripts to extract and format the data for this study.  The complete data set contained a total of 230,400 points. After removing invalid points (using flags in the velocity fields), and restricting the points to the US EEZ and depths <= 600 m, a total of 36,280 points remained for the analysis.  For the analysis, the geographic locations on ROMS model grid had to be associated with the cells in the 3x3 km2 GOA study grid. We used the NEAR function to associate the model points with the centroids of  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  12 the GOA study grid, using a tolerance of 3 km. The resulting lookup table provided a relationship between the ROMS model identifier and the study area GridID.  The data are provided as a series of 28 tables in an MS Access database. Each table is comprised of 230,400 records, each representing a model point. Each record contains its geographic coordinate, and a value for all the variables for the specific time period. The tables contain one column per attribute. The column headers are described below. The variables obtained from the ROMS model (Appendix 1) were provided as 2-week averages for the year 2001 (Table 2). Table 1: Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) model variables and their description Variable Description GridID, id GridID: The link to the study area grid; id: The internal ROMS identifier. lon, lat Geographic coordinates to 2 decimal places. mask Marine areas masked as valid (1) or invalid (0) based on flags in the velocity fields. The delivered file contains only the valid points, and therefore all values should be 1.  SLA Sea level anomaly (cm) MLD Mixed layer depth as calculated algorithmically by the ROMS model. Dmld Depth of model layer below the calculated mixed layer depth.  Tsurf, Tbot, Tmld Temperature (°C) at surface, bottom, and depth below MLD. Ssurf, Sbot, Smld Salinity (psu) at surface, bottom, and depth below MLD. Usurf, Vsurf, Wsurf Ubot, Vbot, Wbot Uamld, Vamld, Wamld,  Ubmld, Vbmld, Wbmld Velocity components (U, V, W) at surface, bottom, and at levels both above (amld) and below (bmld) the MLD model level. Velocities are in m/s, but note that vertical (W) velocities are several orders of magnitude smaller.  Table 2: Date ranges for the 2-week time periods for which the Hermann circulation model output was averaged. Period Start End Period Start End 1 2000-12-14 2000-12-27 15 2001-06-28 2001-07-11 2 2000-12-28 2001-01-10 16 2001-07-12 2001-07-25 3 2001-01-11 2001-01-24 17 2001-07-26 2001-08-08 4 2001-01-25 2001-02-07 18 2001-08-09 2001-08-22 5 2001-02-08 2001-02-21 19 2001-08-23 2001-09-05 6 2001-02-22 2001-03-07 20 2001-09-06 2001-09-19 7 2001-03-08 2001-03-21 21 2001-09-20 2001-10-03 8 2001-03-22 2001-04-04 22 2001-10-04 2001-10-17 9 2001-04-05 2001-04-18 23 2001-10-18 2001-10-31 10 2001-04-19 2001-05-02 24 2001-11-01 2001-11-14 11 2001-05-03 2001-05-16 25 2001-11-15 2001-11-28 12 2001-05-17 2001-05-30 26 2001-11-29 2001-12-12 13 2001-05-31 2001-06-13 27 2001-12-13 2001-12-26 14 2001-06-14 2001-06-27 28 2001-12-27 2002-01-09   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  13 DISCUSSION This collection of monthly, physical oceanographic data is suitable for a range of oceanographic analyses at the temporal scale of months and seasons. The spatial scale of 9x9 km2 is suitable for monthly studies, and could be aggregated if seasonal or long-term temporal averages were desired.  The data collection for the 3x3 km2 northern Gulf of Alaska study area, by integrating remote sensing data with water column properties, represents one of the best physical data sets ever assembled for this region. Although the circulation model limits the data to a single year (2001), the breadth of predictive variables should provide a fertile background for further investigations into species-habitat relationships.  The quality control and refinement we applied to the 9x9 km2 sea surface temperature represent an important improvement over the climatology files provided on the live access server. We would encourage anyone using remote sensing data to inspect the associated quality flags, when available.  These data can thus support analyses in the North Pacific and Bering Sea across a range of temporal and spatial scales. We hope this collection will be of use to marine scientists interested in species distributions, habitat description, marine classification, and protected area designation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the North Pacific Research Board, the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium, the North Pacific Marine Science Foundation, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Al Hermann and Dave Musgrave facilitated access to the ROMS model output. Dylan Righi provided technical support with ROMS output processing. REFERENCES NMFS 2007. National Marine Fisheries Service, NMFS Alaska Maps and Images website. NOAA Fiserhies MapViewer. http://www.fakr.noaa.gov/maps/sslmapviewer.htm. Accessed Feb 7, 2008. Smith, W.H.F. and D.T. Sandwell. 1997. Global Sea Floor Topography from Satellite Altimetry and Ship Depth Soundings. Science 277, 1956-1962. Hermann, A.J., D. B. Haidvogel, E. L. Dobbins, and P. J. Stabeno. 2002. Coupling global and regional circulation models in the coastal Gulf of Alaska. Progress in Oceanography. 53: 335-367. Hermann, A. J. and P. J. Stabeno. 1996. An eddy resolving model of circulation on the western Gulf of Alaska shelf: Model development and sensitivity analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research 101: 1129-1149. MMS 2002. Minerals Management Services, Alaska Cadastral Services website. GIS map layer based on USGS Maps 1:63,000. http://www.mms.gov/ld/alaska.htm. Accessed Feb 7, 2008. Marks, K.M., and W.H.F. Smith. 2006. An evaluation of publicly available global bathymetric grids. Marine Geophysical Researches, 27:19-34. DOI 10.1007/s11001-005-2095-4.   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  14 APPENDICES Appendix 1: Data sets prepared for economic & habitat studies of the eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea  Appendix 2: Federal Geographic Data Committee compatible metadata   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  15 APPENDIX 1 – DATA SETS PREPARED FOR ECONOMIC AND HABITAT STUDIES OF THE EASTERN NORTH PACIFIC / BERING SEA Variable Source / Sensor Native resolution Temporal resolution/extents Data delivered Data Product bathy_3km.flt (.hdr) bathy_3km_metadata.txt Bathymetry Smith & Sandwell 2 minute n/a 3x3 km2 – GOA study area 9x9 km2 – GOA/BS study area.  Metadata & binary float files (.flt and .hdr). bathy_9km.flt (.hdr) bathy_9km_metadata.txt slope_3km.flt (.hdr) slope_3km_metadata.txt Slope Smith & Sandwell 2 minute n/a 3x3 km2 – GOA area 9x9 km2 – GOA/BS area Metadata & binary float files (.flt and .hdr). slope_9km.flt (.hdr) slope_9km_metadata.txt MODIS 4 km monthly 2002 to 2005 3x3 km2 – GOA study area monthly climatologies. month_01.flt – month_12.flt (.hdr) chla_3km_metadata.txt Chlorophyll SeaWIFs 9 km monthly  Sep 1997 to May 2006 9x9 km2 – GOA/BS study area monthly averages (96 months). S19972441997273.flt (.hdr) (year/julian day start and end of each month) chla_9km_metadata.txt MODIS 4 km monthly 2002 to 2005 3x3 km2 – GOA area  monthly climatologies.  month_01.flt – month_12.flt (.hdr)  SST_3km_metadata.txt Sea surface temperature (SST)  Pathfinder AVHRR 4 km monthly Jan 1985 to Dec 2005 9x9 km2 – GOA/BS area monthly averages (252 months) separate day and night products  198501.S04M3PFV50-SST-16B.flt (.hdr) (year/month coded in first block)  SST_9km_metadata.txt SST slope  Pathfinder AVHRR 4 km monthly Jan 1985 to Dec 2005 9x9 km2 – GOA/BS area monthly averages (252 months)  separate day and night products 198501.S04M3PFV50-SST-16B.flt (.hdr) (year/month coded in first block)  SSTSlope_9km_metadata.txt weekly  1993 to 2003 3x3 km2 – GOA area  monthly climatologies. month_01.flt – month_12.flt (.hdr)  SLA_3km_metadata.txt Sea level anomaly (SLA) Topex/Posideon 0.33° monthly Oct 1992 to Jan 2006 9x9 km2 – GOA/BS area monthly averages (160 months). SLA_199210.flt (.hdr) (year/month coded in last block)  SLA_9km_metadata.txt 3x3 km2 – GOA area  monthly climatologies. month_01.flt – month_12.flt (.hdr)  wind_3km_metadata.txt Winds SSMI 0.25° monthly Jul 1987 to May 2006 9x9 km2 – GOA/BS area monthly averages (560 months). F08_198707V5.flt (.hdr) (year/month coded in last block)  wind_9km_metadata.txt Water  column properties* Hermann et al.  3 km 2-week averages 2001 GOA area, 2-week averages. (28 time periods) 28 comma-delimited text files containing one column per attribute. ValidHerm_0001.txt – ValidHerm_0028.txt Delivered as ROMS_GOA.zip ROMS_3km_metadata.txt * Water column properties from the ROMS circulation model output include sea surface height, mixed layer depth (MLD), and temperature, salinity, and velocity at three depths – surface, below MLD, and bottom.  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  16 APPENDIX 2 – FEDERAL GEOGRAPHIC DATA COMMITTEE COMPATIBLE METADATA Appendix 2.1 – 3x3 km2 Bathymetry Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia    Publication_Date: 20080222    Title: 3km Bathymetry    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 3km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: This data was collected and prepared for scientific research and analysis. Data available online are not provided in a user friendly format and therefore require extensive processing to achieve desirable study area boundaries, matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The data in this series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The resolution of the bathymetric source data was 2 minutes, provided as point measures.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Single_Date/Time:     Calendar_Date: 2007   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing    Theme_Keyword: Bathymetry    Theme_Keyword: Depth   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Floor  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  17     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained at a resolution of 2 minutes. The rescaling of the processed source images (using nearest neighbour) to match the 3x3 km study area does not affect the accuracy, however it does give the impression of higher precision. The precision of this product remains the same as the nominal precision of the source data.  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data are complete for the study area.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: The source data are known to be displaced. After shifting to rectify with a registered coastline, relative horizontal accuracy seems fine.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: Meghan Miller, Walter H.F. Smith, John Kuhn, & David T. Sandwell      Title: An Interactive Global Map of Sea Floor Topography Based on Satellite Altimetry & Ship Depth Soundings http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/bathy/bathD.pl      Publication_Date: 1997    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2001     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:     We used the original Smith and Sandwell data to create a 3x3 km2, Albers Alaska projected grid of the study area. The Smith and Sandwell data are a global coverage, in geographic coordinates, delivered as an ASCII XYZ file. Since these data are known to be incorrectly registered, we found that a shift of 3 km North and 2 km West rectified the projected point file feature dataset with a correctly registered State of Alaska coastline file (Minerals Management Service 1:63,000 Ak coastline).      All on-land points were removed from the dataset prior to generating the bathymetric coverage. The points were removed by first deleting the points whose depth had a value greater than or equal to zero, and then removing those additional points that intersected our Alaska land polygon.     An interpolated bathymetric grid was generated using the ArcGis TopoRaster function. This process proved to be very resource dependent and had to be completed in multiple stages. Upon completion the individual raster grids were mosaic'd together to form a complete coverage. The raster grid was clipped to a specific region using a predefined rectangular shapefile.    Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 300   Column_Count: 665   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  18     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Bathymetry    Entity_Type_Definition: Ocean depth, deviation of the ocean depth from datum.    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are metres. 0 was used to flag land areas.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3km Alaska Bathymetry  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080222  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  19 Appendix 2.2 – 9x9 km2 Bathymetry Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia    Publication_Date: 20070615    Title: 9km Bathymetry    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 9km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of a research project in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The data series has been compiled and prepared for distribution in the hope that it may be useful to other researchers interested in studies on the same extents and resolution. The intent is make data from online servers, which are often not provided in user friendly formats, more accessible to researchers. The series is comprised of monthly averages for each variable at 9 km x 9 km spatial resolution, for years from 1988 to 2005, though not all data are available for all years, because of the timing of the different sensors. The data in the series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The resolution of the bathymetry source data was 2 minutes, provided as point measures.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Single_Date/Time:     Calendar_Date: 2007   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 170.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -130.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 65.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 50.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing    Theme_Keyword: Bathymetry    Theme_Keyword: Depth   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: Bering Sea    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Floor  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  20     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained at a resolution of 2 minutes. The rescaling of the processed source images (using nearest neighbour) to match the 9x9 km study area does not affect the accuracy, however it does give the impression of higher precision. The precision of this product remains the same as the nominal precision of the source data.  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data are complete for the study area.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: The source data are known to be displaced. After shifting to rectify with a registered coastline, relative horizontal accuracy seems fine.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: Meghan Miller, Walter H.F. Smith, John Kuhn, & David T. Sandwell.      Title: An Interactive Global Map of Sea Floor Topography Based on Satellite Altimetry & Ship Depth Soundings http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/bathy/bathD.pl      Publication_Date: 1997    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2001     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:     We used the original Smith and Sandwell data to create a 3x3 km2, Albers Alaska projected grid of the study area. The Smith and Sandwell data are a global coverage, in geographic coordinates, delivered as an ASCII XYZ file. Since these data are known to be incorrectly registered, we found that a shift of 3 km North and 2 km West rectified the projected point file feature dataset with a correctly registered State of Alaska coastline file (Minerals Management Service 1:63,000 Ak coastline).      All on-land points were removed from the dataset prior to generating the bathymetric coverage. The points were removed by first deleting the points whose depth had a value greater than or equal to zero, and then removing those additional points that intersected our Alaska land polygon.     An interpolated bathymetric grid was generated using the ArcGis TopoRaster function. This process proved to be very resource dependent and had to be completed in multiple stages. Upon completion the individual raster grids were mosaic'd together to form a complete coverage. The raster grid was clipped to a specific region using a predefined rectangular shapefile.     For inclusion in this collection, the original 3km raster data were spatially aggregated onto the coarser, 9x9 km2 study area raster.    Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 235   Column_Count: 464   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  21      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Bathymetry    Entity_Type_Definition: Ocean depth, deviation of the ocean depth from datum.    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are metres. 0 was used to flag land areas.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 9km Alaska Bathymetry  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20070814  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  22 Appendix 2.3 – 3x3 km2 Bottom slope Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia    Publication_Date: 20080222    Title: 3km Bottom Slope    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 3km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: This data was collected and prepared for scientific research and analysis. Data available online are not provided in a user friendly format and therefore require extensive processing to achieve desirable study area boundaries, matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The data in this series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. This data set contains calculated bottom slope. The resolution of the bathymetric source data from which the slope was calculated was 2 minutes.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Single_Date/Time:     Calendar_Date: 2007   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing    Theme_Keyword: Bathymetry    Theme_Keyword: Slope   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Floor  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  23    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained at a resolution of 2 minutes. The rescaling of the processed source images (using nearest neighbor) to match the 3x3 km study area does not affect the accuracy, however it does give the impression of higher precision. The precision of this product remains the same as the nominal precision of the source data.  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Complete for study area.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No specific problems. Depends on underlying bathymetry.   Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: Meghan Miller, Walter H.F. Smith, John Kuhn, & David T. Sandwell      Title: An Interactive Global Map of Sea Floor Topography Based on Satellite Altimetry & Ship Depth Soundings http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/bathy/bathD.pl      Publication_Date: 1997    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2007     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.        Process_Step:    Process_Description:     We applied the IDRISI SURFACE function to the 3x3 km2 bathymetric coverage produced from the Smith and Sandwell data set. Please see the associated bathymetry data file for additional details.     Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 300   Column_Count: 665   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  24   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Slope    Entity_Type_Definition: Difference in elevation across the cell.    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are degrees. 0 flags land areas.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3km Bottom Slope  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080222  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998    Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  25 Appendix 2.4 – 9x9 km2 Bottom slope Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia    Publication_Date: 20070615    Title: 9km Bottom Slope    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 9km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of a research project in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The data series has been compiled and prepared for distribution in the hope that it may be useful to other researchers interested in studies on the same extents and resolution. The intent is make data from online servers, which are often not provided in user friendly formats, more accessible to researchers. The series is comprised of monthly averages for each variable at 9 km x 9 km spatial resolution, for years from 1988 to 2005, though not all data are available for all years, because of the timing of the different sensors. The data in the series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The resolution of the bathymetry source data from which the slope was calculated was 2 minutes, provided as point measures.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Single_Date/Time:     Calendar_Date: 2007   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 170.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -130.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 65.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 50.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing    Theme_Keyword: Bathymetry    Theme_Keyword: Depth    Theme_Keyword: Slope   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: Bering Sea    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Floor  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  26     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained at a resolution of 2 minutes. The rescaling of the processed source images (using nearest neighbor) to match the 9x9 km study area does not affect the accuracy, however it does give the impression of higher precision. The precision of this product remains the same as the nominal precision of the source data.  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Complete for study area.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No specific problems. Depends on underlying bathymetry.   Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: Meghan Miller, Walter H.F. Smith, John Kuhn, & David T. Sandwell      Title: An Interactive Global Map of Sea Floor Topography Based on Satellite Altimetry & Ship Depth Soundings http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/bathy/bathD.pl      Publication_Date: 1997    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2001     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:     We applied the IDRISI SURFACE funtion to the 3x3 km2 bathymetric coverage produced from the Smith and Sandwell data set. For inclusion in this collection, the original 3km raster data were spatially aggregated onto the coarser, 9x9 km2 study area raster. Please see the associated bathymetry data file for additional details.     Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 235   Column_Count: 464   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  27    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Slope    Entity_Type_Definition: Difference in elevation across the cell.    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are degrees. 0 flags land areas.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 9km Bottom Slope  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20070814  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  28 Appendix 2.5 – 3x3 km2 Chlorophyll concentration Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Publication_Date: 20080222    Title: 3 km Monthly Chlorophyll (MODIS) Climatologies (mg/m^3)    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 3 km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: This data was collected and prepared for scientific research and analysis. Data available online are not provided in a user friendly format and therefore require extensive processing to achieve desirable study area boundaries, matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The data in this series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. Monthly climatology chlorophyll concentration rasters were processed for all 12 months using remote sensing data collected between 2002 and 2005. Source data were retrieved in binary format at a 4 km resolution.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 20020701     Ending_Date: 20050630   Currentness_Reference: Contemporary  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Currently no update is scheduled however new source data are being provided on a near real time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Chlorophyll    Theme_Keyword: Primary Production    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing    Theme_Keyword: Upwelling    Theme_Keyword: Photosynthesis   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  29    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data was provided on a 256 value binary image, giving a maximum of 255 possible values. As there are global coverage, the range for the study area was considerably less. The values of 0- 255 were converted to units of mg/cm^3 using a pixel value to concentration unit conversion equation:    CONCENTRATION = 10 ^ ((0.015 * PIXEL_VALUE) - 2)  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data are complete for the study area and time period.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No problems were encountered when rectifying the data with the other data sets. Nominal accuracy is 4 km.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: OceanColor Web      Title: Chlorophyll Concentration Climatology - Level 3 Monthly      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2001     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:      Download hdf binary data files via ftp. Import to IDRISI using HDFEOS import function. This imports the image in a Atlantic Central (-180 to +180) orientation with planar (pixel) coordinates.     The extents (which are by default set to the number of rows and columns in the image) must be modified to allow for proper projection. This is best accomplished by modifying the IDRISI Raster Documentation File (.RDC). Manually edit the RDC file to enter in the max/min xy geographic coordinates (-180 to 180 and -90 90) and change the projection to latlong. (NOTE: This same result can be achieved in ArcMap by rescaling the image with the appropriate scale factor to achieve a 360 scale in the x direction and a 180 scale in the y direction and then shifting the image into place).     Export from IDRISI to ARC RASTER Float format, then import to ArcGIS using the Float to Raster tool.     Assuming the extents were adjusted earlier as described, a geographic projection can now be assigned.     Convert the raster pixel values to chlorophyll concentration values using map algebra to implement the conversion equation: EXP10((0.015 * VALUE) - 2).     Using the Extract by Mask function, the resulting rasters were then clipped, projected to Albers Alaska, and resampled to 3x3 km2 using a pre-defined study area raster mask.     Process_Date: 20070331    Process_Contact:     Contact_Information:      Contact_Person_Primary:       Contact_Person: Edward Gregr       Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit      Contact_Position: Researcher      Contact_Address:       Address_Type: mailing address       Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall       City: Vancouver  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  30       State_or_Province: British Columbia       Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4       Country: Canada      Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181      Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 300   Column_Count: 665   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Chlorophyll    Entity_Type_Definition: Ocean surface color    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are mg/m^3   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3 km Monthly Chlorophyll (MODIS) Climatologies (mg/m^3)  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080222 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  31  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  32 Appendix 2.6 – 9x9 km2 Chlorophyll concentration Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Publication_Date: 20080222    Title: 3 km Monthly Chlorophyll (MODIS) Climatologies (mg/m^3)    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 3 km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: This data was collected and prepared for scientific research and analysis. Data available online are not provided in a user friendly format and therefore require extensive processing to achieve desirable study area boundaries, matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The data in this series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. Monthly climatology chlorophyll concentration rasters were processed for all 12 months using remote sensing data collected between 2002 and 2005. Source data were retrieved in binary format at a 4 km resolution.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 20020701     Ending_Date: 20050630   Currentness_Reference: Contemporary  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Currently no update is scheduled however new source data are being provided on a near real time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Chlorophyll    Theme_Keyword: Primary Production    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing    Theme_Keyword: Upwelling    Theme_Keyword: Photosynthesis   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  33    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data was provided on a 256 value binary image, giving a maximum of 255 possible values. As there are global coverage, the range for the study area was considerably less. The values of 0- 255 were converted to units of mg/cm^3 using a pixel value to concentration unit conversion equation:    CONCENTRATION = 10 ^ ((0.015 * PIXEL_VALUE) - 2)  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data are complete for the study area and time period.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No problems were encountered when rectifying the data with the other data sets. Nominal accuracy is 4 km.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: OceanColor Web      Title: Chlorophyll Concentration Climatology - Level 3 Monthly      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2001     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:      Download hdf binary data files via ftp. Import to IDRISI using HDFEOS import function. This imports the image in a Atlantic Central (-180 to +180) orientation with planar (pixel) coordinates.     The extents (which are by default set to the number of rows and columns in the image) must be modified to allow for proper projection. This is best accomplished by modifying the IDRISI Raster Documentation File (.RDC). Manually edit the RDC file to enter in the max/min xy geographic coordinates (-180 to 180 and -90 90) and change the projection to latlong. (NOTE: This same result can be achieved in ArcMap by rescaling the image with the appropriate scale factor to achieve a 360 scale in the x direction and a 180 scale in the y direction and then shifting the image into place).     Export from IDRISI to ARC RASTER Float format, then import to ArcGIS using the Float to Raster tool.     Assuming the extents were adjusted earlier as described, a geographic projection can now be assigned.     Convert the raster pixel values to chlorophyll concentration values using map algebra to implement the conversion equation: EXP10((0.015 * VALUE) - 2).     Using the Extract by Mask function, the resulting rasters were then clipped, projected to Albers Alaska, and resampled to 3x3 km2 using a pre-defined study area raster mask.     Process_Date: 20070331    Process_Contact:     Contact_Information:      Contact_Person_Primary:       Contact_Person: Edward Gregr       Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit      Contact_Position: Researcher      Contact_Address:       Address_Type: mailing address       Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall       City: Vancouver  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  34       State_or_Province: British Columbia       Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4       Country: Canada      Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181      Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 300   Column_Count: 665   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Chlorophyll    Entity_Type_Definition: Ocean surface color    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are mg/m^3   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3 km Monthly Chlorophyll (MODIS) Climatologies (mg/m^3)  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080222 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  35  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  36 Appendix 2.7 – 3x3 km2 Sea surface temperature Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Publication_Date: 20080222    Title: 3km Sea Surface Temperature Monthly MODIS Climatologies (deg C)    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 3km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: This data was collected and prepared for scientific research and analysis. Data available online are not provided in a user friendly format and therefore require extensive processing to achieve desirable study area boundaries, matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The data in this series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. This data set contains monthly climatologies of sea surface temperature.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 20020701     Ending_Date: 20050630   Currentness_Reference: Contemporary  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Currently no update is scheduled however new source data are being provided on a near real time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Temperature    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  37     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data was provided on a 256 value binary image. This limits the number of valid values that can be represented to 255. As the source was a global coverage, the available range for the study area is considerably less than this.  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data is complete for the time period stated.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No problems were encountered when rectifying the data with the other data sets. Nominal accuracy is 4 km.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: OceanColor Web      Title: Sea Surface Temperature Climatology - Level 3 Monthly      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2001     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.    Process_Step:    Process_Description:      Download hdf binary data files via ftp. Import to IDRISI using HDFEOS import function. This imports the image in an Atlantic-centric perspective (-180 to +180) with planar (pixel) coordinates.     The extents (which are by default set to the number of rows and columns in the image) must be modified to allow for proper projection later on. This is best accomplished by modifying the IDRISI Raster Documentation File (.RDC). Manually edit the RDC file to enter the max/min xy geographic coordinates (-180 to 180 and -90 90) and change the projection to latlong. (NOTE: This same result can be achieved in ArcMap by rescaling the image with the appropriate scale factor to achieve a 360 scale in the x direction and a 180 scale in the y direction and then shifting the image into place).     Export from IDRISI to ARC RASTER Float format, then import to ArcGIS Raster format using the Float to Raster tool.     Given that the extents were properly assigned earlier, a geographic projection can now be assigned to the raster using the Define Spatial Projection tool.     The default pixel values ranging in value from 0-255 were converted to degrees Celsius using the following scaling equation using Map Algebra: ((0.15 * VALUE) - 2)     Using the Extract by Mask function, the resulting rasters were then clipped, projected to Albers Alaska, and resampled to 3km using a pre-defined study area raster mask.     Process_date: 20070301 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 300   Column_Count: 665   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  38      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Sea surface temperature    Entity_Type_Definition: Temperature at ocean surface.    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are degrees C. 0 flags land areas.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3km Sea Surface Temperature (MODIS) Monthly Climatologies  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080222  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  39 Appendix 2.8 – 9x9 km2 Sea surface temperature Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia     Publication_Date: 20070615    Title: 9 km Monthly Average Sea Surface Temperature (ascending/descending)    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 9km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of a research project in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The data series has been compiled and prepared for distribution in the hope that it may be useful to other researchers interested in studies on the same extents and resolution. The intent is make data from online servers, which are often not provided in user friendly formats, more accessible to researchers. The series is comprised of monthly averages for each variable at 9 km x 9 km spatial resolution, for the years 1985 to 2005, though not all data are available for all months, because of the timing of the different sensors. The data in the series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The spatio-temporal resolution of the Sea Surface Temperature source data used were monthly, 4 km x 4km images, though the associated live access server maintains a range of other temporal scales.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 199201     Ending_Date: 200512   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 170.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -130.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 65.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 50.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea Surface Temperature    Theme_Keyword: Sea Surface Fronts    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: Bering Sea    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: None  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  40    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained as 4km resolution images. These were re-sampled to a 9km resolution grid, which represents an accurate averaging of the 4km source data. Precision is limited by the 256 values contained in the original colour images.   Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Complete for study area and time period.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No problems were encountered when rectifying the data with the other data sets. Nominal accuracy is 4 km.   Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center      Title: Sea Surface Temperature AVHRR oceans pathfinder global 4km equal-angle SST V5.      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Range_of_Dates/Times:       Beginning_Date: 199201       Ending_Date: 200512     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:     Source data were downloaded via ftp as monthly binary HDF files with a 4x4 km resolution. The data were processed to match the 9x9 km resolution study area of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. Four files were produced for each month: Mean ascending (day) temperature, Mean descending (night) temperature, processed quality coverage, and a temperature slope coverage. Processing steps were conducted in the IDRISI software package:     IMPORT the binary files using the HDFEOS import function in IDRISI.     The images are split on 180 degrees longitude (i.e., the x range is from -180 to +180). These steps (including correct editing of the metadata and projection information) result in a layer that ranges from 0 to 360 degrees, providing a continuous representation of the North Pacific. WINDOW the image into two separate images and then CONCATENATE them back together in reversed order. Select the appropriate begin and end columns for each of the window images such that when they are CONCATENATED back together in reverse order the +/-180 longitude line will become the center of the image. Modify the associated ASCII RDC file with the new extents of the layer.     WINDOW the image to extract the desired study area extents (-190 to -130, 65 to 50).     To convert the colour image to degrees Celsius, multiply the image by 0.075 and subtract 3.     PROJECT the raster using the Albers Alaska projection using 464 columns x 235 rows to achieve a 9x9 km grid size over the extent of the study area.     OVERLAY the raster with the a mask generated from quality flag information used to categorize the level of quality of the measurements such that low quality measurement pixel are removed from the raster.     Convert the raster in to a point vector files using POINTVEC. NoData values (including those removed by the quality mask) are not exported to points. The points generated represent true data values with acceptable measurement quality. These points are then interpolated to create a continuous SST surface that is not contaminated with low quality inaccurate measurements. The interpolated surface is then masked with a land mask layer.    Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  41   Row_Count: 235   Column_Count: 464   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: SST    Entity_Type_Definition: Monthly averages of sea surface temperature    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    SST (ascending or descending) in units of Celsius.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 9 km Monthly sea surface temperature (ascending/descending/quality/slope)  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20070605  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia   Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  42     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  43 Appendix 2.9 – 9x9 km2 Sea surface temperature slope Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia     Publication_Date: 20070615    Title: 9 km Monthly Average Sea Surface Temperature Slope (ascending/descending)    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 9km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of a research project in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The data series has been compiled and prepared for distribution in the hope that it may be useful to other researchers interested in studies on the same extents and resolution. The intent is make data from online servers, which are often not provided in user friendly formats, more accessible to researchers. The series is comprised of monthly averages for each variable at 9 km x 9 km spatial resolution, for the years 1985 to 2005, though not all data are available for all months, because of the timing of the different sensors. The data in the series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The spatio-temporal resolution of the Sea Surface Temperature source data were monthly, 4 km x 4km images, though the associated live access server maintains a range of other temporal scales.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 199201     Ending_Date: 200512   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 170.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -130.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 65.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 50.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea Surface Temperature    Theme_Keyword: Sea Surface Fronts    Theme_Keyword: Sea Surface Slope    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: Bering Sea    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: None  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  44    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained as 4km resolution images. These were re-sampled to a 9km resolution grid, which represents an accurate averaging of the 4km source data. Precision is limited by the 256 values contained in the original colour images.   Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Complete for study area and time period.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No problems were encountered when rectifying the data with the other data sets. Nominal accuracy is 4 km.   Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center      Title: Sea Surface Temperature AVHRR oceans pathfinder global 4km equal-angle SST V5.      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Range_of_Dates/Times:       Beginning_Date: 199201       Ending_Date: 200512         Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.     Process_Step:    Process_Description:     Source data were downloaded via ftp as monthly binary HDF files with a 4x4 km resolution. The data were processed to match the 9x9 km resolution study area of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. Four files were produced for each month: Mean ascending (day) temperature, Mean descending (night) temperature, processed quality coverage, and a temperature slope coverage. Processing steps were conducted in the IDRISI software package:     IMPORT the binary files using the HDFEOS import function in IDRISI.     The images are split on 180 degrees longitude (i.e., the x range is from -180 to +180). These steps (including correct editing of the metadata and projection information) result in a layer that ranges from 0 to 360 degrees, providing a continuous representation of the North Pacific. WINDOW the image into two separate images and then CONCATENATE them back together in reversed order. Select the appropriate begin and end columns for each of the window images such that when they are CONCATENATED back together in reverse order the +/-180 longitude line will become the center of the image. Modify the associated ASCII RDC file with the new extents of the layer.     WINDOW the image to extract the desired study area extents (-190 to -130, 65 to 50).     To convert the colour image to degrees Celsius, multiply the image by 0.075 and subtract 3.     PROJECT the raster using the Albers Alaska projection using 464 columns x 235 rows to achieve a 9x9 km grid size over the extent of the study area.     OVERLAY the raster with the a mask generated from quality flag information used to categorize the level of quality of the measurements such that low quality measurement pixel are removed from the raster.     Convert the raster in to a point vector files using POINTVEC. NoData values (including those removed by the quality mask) are not exported to points. The points generated represent true data values with acceptable measurement quality. These points are then interpolated to create a continuous SST surface that is not contaminated with low quality inaccurate measurements. The interpolated surface is then masked with a land mask layer.     Slope (in degrees) was calculated using the SURFACE function. Boundary errors from the SURFACE functions at the study area edge and near land were removed using the OVERLAY function and a buffered land raster.    Process_Date: 20070331 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  45 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 235   Column_Count: 464   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: SST    Entity_Type_Definition: Monthly averages of sea surface temperature slope    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    SST slope (ascending or descending) in units of degrees.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 9 km Monthly sea surface temperature slope (ascending/descending)  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20070605  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  46     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  47 Appendix 2.10 – 3x3 km2 Sea level anomaly Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Publication_Date: 20080222    Title: 3 km Sea Level Anomaly Monthly Climatology (cm)    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 3km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: This data was collected and prepared for scientific research and analysis. Data available online are not provided in a user friendly format and therefore require extensive processing to achieve desirable study area boundaries, matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The data in this series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. This data set contains monthly climatologies of sea level anomalies.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 19930106     Ending_Date: 20051228   Currentness_Reference: Contemporary  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Currently no update is scheduled however new source data are being provided on a near real time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea Level Anomaly    Theme_Keyword: Sea Surface Height    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing    Theme_Keyword: Surface   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  48     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report:     The resolution of the weekly source data make the values less reliable in coastal areas, where land- flagged values change from month to month, at least partially in response to ice cover. To limit data loss in the monthly averages, zero (no data) values in the weekly surfaces were ignored. Thus, a monthly climatology value (in coastal regions, particularly in winter months) may be based on 1-4 weekly values per month, per year.  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data is complete for the time period stated.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Minor problems encountered when rectifying the data with the coastline because of the size of the native format. Nominal accuracy is 1/3 degree.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: AVISO live access server - www.aviso.oceanobs.com      Title: Maps of Sea Level Anomalies      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2001     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.    Process_Step:    Process_Description:      NetCDF binary data files were downloaded via ftp. Data were imported to IDRISI using HDFEOS import function. By default the images had a Pacific-centric orientation but were rotated 90 degrees clockwise from a standard East to West map layout. The images were rotated to the proper East to West layout by using the TRANSPOSE function in IDRISI.     Upon import, the extents were automatically assigned as the number of rows and columns in the image. Extents were updated by editing the IDRISI Raster Documentation (RDC) file to change the max/min xy geographic coordinates to -180 to 180 and -90 90, and the projection to latlong.     In order to accommodate the climatology averaging process, the default no data values had to be changed to zero so that they would be ignored during the count and sum steps below. This step was performed using the IDRISI RECLASS function to change the arbitrary no data value from 1.84467440737E19 to zero.     A temporary file was created for each input layer to calculate a count surface that represents the total number of input values for each pixel average. This was required because the IDRISI COUNT function ignores values <=1, and the SLA contains both positive and negative values. Thus all valid values were converted to >1 so that no valid values were ignored. COUNT was then used to create a surface that has 0 for no data/land pixels and 1 for valid data pixels. For each data layer a count layer was also created.     The above steps were performed for all of the input layers for the current month being processed. The monthly files were manually separated into their own individual directories. Once all of the input files were processed the monthly climatology was generated by calculating a sum of all of the count surfaces and a sum of all of the data surfaces. The two layers were then divided to create the resulting climatology.     The climatologies were exported from IDRISI to ARC RASTER Float format and imported into ArcGIS via the Float to Raster tool. After assigning an initial geographic projection, the rasters were clipped, projected to Albers Alaska, and resampled to 3km using a pre-defined study area raster mask with the Extract by Mask tool.    Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 300   Column_Count: 665 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  49   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Sea level anomaly (deviation in cm from long term average) recorded for each cell in the data raster.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3 km Sea Level Anomaly Monthly Climatology  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 2008-02-22  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  50 Appendix 2.11 – 9x9 km2 Sea level anomaly Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia    Publication_Date: 20070615    Title: 9km Monthly Average Sea Level Anomaly    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 9km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of a research project in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The data series has been compiled and prepared for distribution in the hope that it may be useful to other researchers interested in studies on the same extents and resolution. The intent is make data from online servers, which are often not provided in user friendly formats, more accessible to researchers. The series is comprised of monthly averages for each variable at 9 km x 9 km spatial resolution, for the years 1985 to 2005, though not all data are available for all months, because of the timing of the different sensors. The data in the series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The spatio-temporal resolution of the Sea Level Anomaly source data was weekly, on 0.25 degree pixels.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 199210     Ending_Date: 200512   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 170.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -130.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 65.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 50.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea Level Anomaly    Theme_Keyword: Sea Surface Height    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: Bering Sea    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Weekly  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.   Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  51    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained at a resolution of 0.25 degrees. The rescaling of the processed source images (using nearest neighbour) to match the 9x9 km study area does not affect the accuracy, however it does give the impression of higher precision. The precision of this product remains the same as the nominal precision of the source data (0.25 degrees).    The resolution of the weekly source data make the values less reliable in coastal areas, where land- flagged values change from month to month, at least partially in response to ice cover. To limit data loss in the monthly averages, zero (no data) values in the weekly surfaces were ignored. Thus, a monthly value (in coastal regions, particularly in winter months) may be based on 1-4 weekly values.   Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: The data are complete for years where data were available. 1992 is the only year with partial data.   Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No problems were encountered when rectifying the data with the other data sets. Nominal accuracy reported as 0.25 degrees.   Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: AVISO OceanObs      Title: Gridded Sea Level Anomalies, Near Real Time, Merged Jason1 and Topex/Posideon.      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Range_of_Dates/Times:       Beginning_Date: 199210       Ending_Date: 200512     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:      Source data were downloaded via ftp as weekly binary NetCDF format files with a 0.25 degree resolution. The data were processed into monthly averages and manipulated to match the 9x9 km resolution study area of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.      Processing steps were all conducted in the IDRISI software package:     Import to IDRISI using HDFEOS import function.     TRANSPOSE the image in order to rotate it 90 degrees counterclockwise to achieve the correct orientation (source images were found to be rotated 90 degrees clockwise). Update the RDC file to reflect the correct spatial extents (-360 to 0, -90 to 90) to allow proper projection and display.     WINDOW the raster to extract the desired data extents (-190 to -130, and 65 to 50).     RECLASS the extreme positive value used to represent NODATA to zero and use SCALAR to scale the surface by a multiple of 10000. This prepares the weekly images for use by the COUNT function, which treats negative and very small values as zero (note the scaled values were not used, they were simply used to ensure the correct operation of COUNT).     The above steps are repeated for all data files associated with the current year-month being processed.     When all weekly files for a particular month were processed, two new blank rasters were created using INITIAL with the raster parameters from an existing source week raster. These two rasters were used to store the sum of the weekly data files and the sum of the count surfaces for the current month.     OVERLAY the intermediate weekly data layers to sum their values.      OVERLAY the intermediate weekly count layers to sum the counts.     Perform one more OVERLAY to divide the summed data surface by the summed count surface to get a monthly average surface.  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  52     PROJECT the raster to the Albers Alaska projection using 464 columns x 235 rows to achieve a 9x9 km grid and match the existing study area.     Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 235   Column_Count: 464   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: SLA    Entity_Type_Definition: Sea Level Anomaly. Monthly deviation of the sea surface height from datum.    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    Units are cm.     0 was used to flag all areas of No Data in the raster. This includes land and regions outside the study area because of the projected space. While 0 could theoretically be a valid data value, we found no examples of this during extensive examination of the source data sets.    Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 9km Monthly Sea Level Anomalies  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  53 Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20070604  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  54 Appendix 2.12 – 3x3 km2 Sea surface wind speed Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Publication_Date: 20080222    Title: 3km Sea Surface Wind Climatologies (m/s)    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: raster digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 3km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: This data was collected and prepared for scientific research and analysis. Data available online are not provided in a user friendly format and therefore require extensive processing to achieve desirable study area boundaries, matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The data in this series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. This data set contains monthly climatologies of sea surface winds.    Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 19880116     Ending_Date: 20041225   Currentness_Reference: Contemporary  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: Currently no update is scheduled however new source data are being provided on a near real time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -166.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -129.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 61.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 51.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea Winds    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: Bearing Sea    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  55     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained at a resolution of 0.25 degrees. The rescaling of the processed source images (using nearest neighbour) to match the 3x3 km study area does not affect the accuracy, however it does give the impression of higher precision. The precision of this product remains the same as the nominal precision of the source data (0.25 degrees). The attribute data values were originally on a 0- 255 scale where 0-250 represented data values and 251-255 were flag values.  Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data is complete for the time period stated.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: Nominal accuracy is 0.25 degrees. No rectification problems were encountered.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: RSS (Remote Sensing Systems)      Title: SSMI Surface Wind Speeds http://www.remss.com      Publication_Date: 2007    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Single_Date/Time:       Calendar_Date: 2007     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:      QSCAT data were downloaded via ftp (http://www.remss.com/) as monthly binary files with a 0.25 degree resolution. The data were processed to match an existing 3x3 km resolution study area of the Gulf of Alaska. The SSM/I data are composed of composite images representing data for 4 different variables, of which we extracted winds.     The SSM/I data files were imported using the PARE import function in IDRISI. During the PARE import process, the geographic coordinates of -360 to 0 degrees longitude and -630 to 90 degrees latitude were assigned as parameters to define the data extents. These coordinates were used in order to have the winds portion of the composite SSM/I image assigned coordinates of -360 to 0 and -90 to 90. The projection was also assigned as latlong during the PARE process.     The wind data were retrieved as composite images (multiple adjacent variable images). The wind portion was extracted using the WINDOW function to cut out the winds data. The wind image was then flipped upside down using TRANSPOSE in order to achieve proper NORTH-SOUTH orientation (upon import the winds image is upside down.) Multiplying the entire windows image by value of 0.2 is done to convert the 256 scaled values in to values of m/s.     The winds images were manipulated to achieve a Pacific-centric orientation. This was done by cutting the global rasters in to two halves and then concatenating them back together in opposite order. A Pacific orientation was achieved during the clip/projection processing in ArcMap as noted below.     In order to accommodate the climatology averaging process, the default no data values had to be changed to zeros so that they would be ignored during the count and sum steps below. This step was performed using the IDRISI RECLASS function to change the no data value (1.84467440737E19) to zero.     A temporary file was created for each input layer in order to calculate a count surface. The count surface represents the number of input values for each pixel during the average computation. The IDRISI COUNT function ignores values <=0.5. Because SLA contains both positive and negative values, an all positive surface must be used during the count step so that the negative values are not discounted during the COUNT function. Additionally the all positive surface was multiplied by 1000 to ensure that values between 0 and 1 are also not ignored by the COUNT procedure. COUNT was then used to create a surface that has 0 for no data/land pixels and 1 for valid data pixels. A count layer was created for each data layer.     The above steps were performed for all of the input layers for the current month being processed. Once all of the input files were processed the monthly climatology was generated by calculating a sum of all of the  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  56 count surfaces and a sum of all of the data surfaces. These two layers were then divided to create the final climatology average.     The resulting climatologies were exported from IDRISI to ARC RASTER Float format and then subsequently imported in to ARC GIS Raster format via the Float to Raster tool. After assigning an initial geographic projection, the rasters were clipped, projected to Albers Alaska, and resampled to the 3 km study area using a pre- defined study area raster mask with the Extract by Mask tool.    Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 300   Column_Count: 665   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Wind    Entity_Type_Definition: Surface wind speed.    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Units are m/s.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3km Sea Surface Wind Climatologies (m/s)  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  57 Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080222  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Foundation Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  58 Appendix 2.13 – 9x9 km2 Sea surface wind speed Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia     Publication_Date: 20070615    Title: 9 km Monthly Average Sea Winds     Series_Information:     Series_Name: Monthly Oceanographic Data at 9km     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of a research project in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The data series has been compiled and prepared for distribution in the hope that it may be useful to other researchers interested in studies on the same extents and resolution. The intent is make data from online servers, which are often not provided in user friendly formats, more accessible to researchers. The series is comprised of monthly averages for each variable at 9 km x 9 km spatial resolution, for the years 1985 to 2005, though not all data are available for all months, because of the timing of the different sensors. The data in the series have been rectified to the same study area boundaries, with matching raster grids and resolutions, and consistent spatial extents and projections. The spatio-temporal resolution of the Sea Winds source data was monthly, on 0.25 degree pixels.   Purpose: Provide a rectified data set for ecological analyses of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 199210     Ending_Date: 200512   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 170.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -130.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 65.0    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 50.0  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea Winds    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: Bering Sea    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.   Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  59     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: Original data were obtained at a resolution of 0.25 degrees. The rescaling of the processed source images (using nearest neighbour) to match the 9x9 km study area does not affect the accuracy, however it does give the impression of higher precision. The precision of this product remains the same as the nominal precision of the source data (0.25 degrees).  Logical_Consistency_Report: None   Completeness_Report: The dataset is complete, no dates or values were skipped during the processing from source and output data.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: No problems were encountered when rectifying the data with the other data sets. Nominal accuracy reported as 0.25 degrees.   Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: RSS Remote Sensing Systems      Title: SSMI Surface Wind Speeds      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Range_of_Dates/Times:       Beginning_Date: 199210       Ending_Date: 200512     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of data processing.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: None    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:     Source data were downloaded via ftp from http://www.remss.com/ as monthly binary files with a 0.25 degree resolution. The data were processed to match the 9x9 km resolution study area of the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. Processing steps were all conducted in the IDRISI software package:     IMPORT the binary files using the PARE import function in IDRISI (unlike files in HDF or CDF format, these files appear to have no header).     Each binary file contains a composite image of 4 variables. The variable of interest (identified as sea windws) is the top panel in the series of 4 images. Used WINDOW to isolate the top quarter of the image.     The images are also inverted, so the image was flipped using the TRANSPOSE function to reverse the order of the rows.     Convert the 0-255 pixel values into wind speed (m/s) by multiplying the entire dataset by 0.2 (SCALAR function).     WINDOW the image to extract the desired study area extents (-190 to -130, 65 to 50).     PROJECT the raster to the Albers Alaska projection specifying the corrent number of rows/cols to achieve a 9x9 km grid size matching the existing study area.    Process_Date: 20070331 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 235   Column_Count: 464   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Albers Conical Equal Area     Albers_Conical_Equal_Area:  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  60      Standard_Parallel: 55.000000      Standard_Parallel: 65.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: -154.000000      Latitude_of_Projection_Origin: 50.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9001.318696      Ordinate_Resolution: 9001.318696     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Wind    Entity_Type_Definition: Monthly averages of sea surface wind speed    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    Units are metres per second.    The data contains the following flags:    Land: -5    No SSM/I Observations: -4    SSM/I data exist but are bad: -3    Sea Ice: -2    Missing Data due to rain: -1    Outside Study Area: 0     NoData: See data flags above   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 9km Monthly Sea Winds   Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20070605  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  61     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  62 Appendix 2.14 – Eastern North Pacific chlorophyll concentration Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia     Publication_Date: 20080411    Title: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Chlorophyll Concentration    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Surface Climatologies     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of analyses conducted in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The Eastern North Pacific climatologies, provided in the native resolution of the source data, were prepared to provide a more generalized, and consequently more flexible, form of the data used in our studies.    Purpose: To support spatial analyses in the eastern North Pacific.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 199709     Ending_Date: 200605   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.   Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 155.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 120.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 66.5    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 31.6  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Chlorophyll    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Eastern North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology     Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.   Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181 Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  63    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 1575   Column_Count: 2445   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Mercator     Mercator:      Standard_Parallel: 0.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 180.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 9000.000000      Ordinate_Resolution: 9000.000000     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_WGS_1984    Ellipsoid_Name: WGS_1984    Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: Chla    Entity_Type_Definition: Monthly climatologies of chlorophyll concentration    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    Units are mg/m^3.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Environmental Data for the Eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea. Fisheries Centre Research Report, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: Eastern North Pacific Chlorophyll Climatologies  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080411  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  64     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  65 Appendix 2.15 – Eastern North Pacific sea surface temperature Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia     Publication_Date: 20080411    Title: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Temperature Climatologies    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Surface Climatologies     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of analyses conducted in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The Eastern North Pacific climatologies, provided in the native resolution of the source data, were prepared to provide a more generalized, and consequently more flexible, form of the data used in our studies.    Purpose: To support spatial analyses in the eastern North Pacific.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 199210     Ending_Date: 200601   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.   Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 155.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 120.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 66.5    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 31.6  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea surface height    Theme_Keyword: Sea level anomaly    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Eastern North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology     Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.   Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  66    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 1575   Column_Count: 2445   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Mercator     Mercator:      Standard_Parallel: 0.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 180.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 20000.000000      Ordinate_Resolution: 20000.000000     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_WGS_1984    Ellipsoid_Name: WGS_1984    Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: SLA    Entity_Type_Definition: Monthly climatologies of sea level anomaly    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    Sea level anomaly in units of cm.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Environmental Data for the Eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea. Fisheries Centre Research Report, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Sea Surface Temperature Climatologies  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080411  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  67    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  68 Appendix 2.16 – Eastern North Pacific sea level anomaly Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia     Publication_Date: 20080411    Title: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Seal Level Anomalies    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Surface Climatologies     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of analyses conducted in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The Eastern North Pacific climatologies, provided in the native resolution of the source data, were prepared to provide a more generalized, and consequently more flexible, form of the data used in our studies.   Purpose: To support spatial analyses in the eastern North Pacific.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 199210     Ending_Date: 200601   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.   Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 155.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 120.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 66.5    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 31.6  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea surface height    Theme_Keyword: Sea level anomaly    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Eastern North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology  Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.   Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  69    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 1575   Column_Count: 2445   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Mercator     Mercator:      Standard_Parallel: 0.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 180.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 20000.000000      Ordinate_Resolution: 20000.000000     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_WGS_1984    Ellipsoid_Name: WGS_1984    Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: SLA    Entity_Type_Definition: Monthly climatologies of sea level anomaly    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    Sea level anomaly in units of cm.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Spatial Data for teh Eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea. Fisheries Centre Research Report, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Sea Level Anomaly Climatologies  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080411  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  70    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  71 Appendix 2.17 – Eastern North Pacific sea surface wind speed Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia     Publication_Date: 20080411    Title: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Surface Wind Speed    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Surface Climatologies     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: These data were obtained and prepared as part of analyses conducted in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. The Eastern North Pacific climatologies, provided in the native resolution of the source data, were prepared to provide a more generalized, and consequently more flexible, form of the data used in our studies.    Purpose: To support spatial analyses in the eastern North Pacific.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 198707     Ending_Date: 200605   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: No update of this data series is scheduled. However new source data are currently being provided on a near real-time basis.   Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: 155.0    East_Bounding_Coordinate: 120.0    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 66.5    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 31.6  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Sea Winds    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Remote Sensing   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Eastern North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea Surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: Monthly    Temporal_Keyword: Climatology     Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.   Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  72    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Raster  Raster_Object_Information:   Raster_Object_Type: Grid Cell   Row_Count: 1575   Column_Count: 2445   Vertical_Count: 1 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Planar:    Map_Projection:     Map_Projection_Name: Mercator     Mercator:      Standard_Parallel: 0.000000      Longitude_of_Central_Meridian: 180.000000      False_Easting: 0.000000      False_Northing: 0.000000    Planar_Coordinate_Information:     Planar_Coordinate_Encoding_Method: row and column     Coordinate_Representation:      Abscissa_Resolution: 20000.000000      Ordinate_Resolution: 20000.000000     Planar_Distance_Units: meters   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: D_WGS_1984    Ellipsoid_Name: WGS_1984    Semi-major_Axis: 6378137.000000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 298.257224 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Detailed_Description:   Entity_Type:    Entity_Type_Label: SST    Entity_Type_Definition: Monthly climatologies of sea surface wind    Entity_Type_Definition_Source: None  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:    Wind speed in units of m/s.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Spatial Data for teh Eastern North Pacific and Bering Sea. Fisheries Centre Research Report, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: Eastern North Pacific Monthly Wind Climatologies  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080411  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address: Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  73     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia      City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  74 Appendix 2.18 – Northern Gulf of Alaska ROMS model outputs Identification_Information:  Citation:   Citation_Information:    Originator: Marine Mammal Research Unit, University of British Columbia    Publication_Date: 2008/02/22    Title: 3km Gulf of Alaska Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) Output 2001    Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: tabular digital data    Series_Information:     Series_Name: Bi-Weekly ROMS Output for 2001 in the Gulf of Alaska     Issue_Identification: First    Online_Linkage: NA  Description:   Abstract: Output from a Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) circulation model for the northern Gulf of Alaska was obtained as 2-week averages for all of 2001 from Al Hermann and colleagues (NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory). The data were processed from NetCDF files to ASCII text files using MatLab scripts. The text files were then combined into an MS Access database. Variables extracted from the NetCDF files included temperature, salinity and current velocities at surface, mixed layer depth, and bottom. The data were provided on a rotated, geographic grid, with a nominal resolution of 3km x 3km. Data are provided as a series of 28 tables in an MS Access database. Each table contains 230,400 records, each representing a model point. Each record contains its geographic coordinate, and a value for all variables for the specific 2-week time period.   Purpose: These data were obtained as part of North Pacific Research Board Project #529 - Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures. This work was the prototype for an analysis subsequently conducted across the entire the entire Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska within the U.S. EEZ.  Time_Period_of_Content:   Time_Period_Information:    Range_of_Dates/Times:     Beginning_Date: 2000/12/14     Ending_Date: 2002/01/09   Currentness_Reference: Current  Status:   Progress: Complete   Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: None planned  Spatial_Domain:   Bounding_Coordinates:    West_Bounding_Coordinate: -162.68    East_Bounding_Coordinate: -132.16    North_Bounding_Coordinate: 64.16    South_Bounding_Coordinate: 46.7  Keywords:   Theme:    Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Theme_Keyword: Oceanography    Theme_Keyword: Water column    Theme_Keyword: Vertical structure    Theme_Keyword: Velocity    Theme_Keyword: Mixed layer depth   Place:    Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Place_Keyword: Gulf of Alaska    Place_Keyword: North Pacific   Stratum:    Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Stratum_Keyword: Sea floor    Stratum_Keyword: Mixed layer depth    Stratum_Keyword: Sea surface   Temporal:    Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None    Temporal_Keyword: 2001    Temporal_Keyword: bi-weekly       Access_Constraints: None. Available upon request.  Use_Constraints: Data are provided as is, with no warranty expressed or implied.  Point_of_Contact:   Contact_Information: Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  75    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca Data_Quality_Information:  Attribute_Accuracy:   Attribute_Accuracy_Report: The accuracy of circulation model output is generally considered statistically correct (i.e., the long term average will be accurate), but not instantaneously correct. This model run has been shown to show more variability than actual in-situ measurements along the GAK line (K. Coyle, personal communication).   Logical_Consistency_Report: None  Completeness_Report: Data are complete for the time period stated.  Positional_Accuracy:   Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:    Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report: The data are positionally accurate within the limits of the stated resolution (3km x 3km). Minimal rectification problems were encountered with respect the the standard, 1:63,000 Alaskan coastline.  Lineage:   Source_Information:    Source_Citation:     Citation_Information:      Originator: D. Musgrave, K. Hedstrom, E. Dobbins and A. Hermann, personal communication      Title: 3 km ROMS model for the Northern Gulf of Alaska (2001)      Publication_Date: 20070101    Type_of_Source_Media: digital    Source_Time_Period_of_Content:     Time_Period_information:      Range_of_Dates/Times:       Beginning_Date: 20001214       Ending_Date: 20020109     Source_Currentness_Reference: Extent of model run at processing date.    Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Musgrave et al. Pers. comm.    Source_Contribution: The source data form the basis of this data set.   Process_Step:    Process_Description:     We obtained temperature, salinity and current velocity as netCDF (.nc) files, with one file for each 2- week period. Each netCDF file contained averages for all variables across the entire 3-dimensional structure (i.e., lat, long, and 30 vertical levels). The shape of the data was 482x482x30 cells. We used a MatLab script to extract the three depths of interest (surface, mixed layer depth, and bottom) from the netCDF files. We used a MatLab netcdf module to handle the extraction of the variables, and customized coding to 1) identify the model layer associated with mixed layer depth (MLD); and 2) calculate the current velocities at the different levels.     Extraction of the surface and bottom values from the vertical structure was straightforward. However to obtain values at the mixed layer, the correct level at each model point needed to be identified. While the model output included a calculated MLD, this value did not directly correspond to any of the 30 vertical model levels. We therefore wrote a routine to find the model level above and below the calculated MLD for each model point. Temperature and salinity were taken from the first level below the MLD.      Calculating the vertical velocities was complicated because, for computational reasons, the ROMS model represents velocities on an offset model grid. This required velocities to be calculated across the grid points of interest. This required more complex code than was used to extract temperature and salinity.     We extracted the horizontal current components u, and v from the layers both above and below the MLD. We also wrote a routine to calculate the vertical velocity (w) at each of the levels of interest (surface, bottom, above and below MLD). The MatLab code for the extraction of these data from the netCDF files is available on request from the authors.     For the analysis, the data were restricted to depths less than 600 m, within the US Economic Exclusion Zone (EEZ). This was done to more accurately reflect depths where trawl fishing occurs.    Process_Date: 2007/03/31 Spatial_Data_Organization_Information:  Direct_Spatial_Reference_Method: Point  Environmental data for the North Pacific and Bering Sea, Gregr & Coatta  76  Point_and_Vector_Object_Information:   SDTS_Terms_Description:    SDTS_Point_and_Vector_Object_Type: Point    Point_and_Vector_Object_Count: 230400 Spatial_Reference_Information:  Horizontal_Coordinate_System_Definition:   Geographic:     Latitude_Resolution: 0.0195     Longitude_Resolution: 0.03     Geographic_Coordinate_Units: Decimal degrees   Geodetic_Model:    Horizontal_Datum_Name: North American Datum of 1927    Ellipsoid_Name: Clarke 1866    Semi-major_Axis: 6378206.400000    Denominator_of_Flattening_Ratio: 294.978698 Entity_and_Attribute_Information:  Overview_Description:   Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: Each record contains geographic reference, sea surface height (cm), mixed layer depth (calculated), depth of model layer below the calculated mixed layer depth, temperature (°C) at surface, bottom, and depth below MLD, salinity (psu) at surface, bottom, and depth below MLD, velocity components (U, V, W) at surface, bottom, and at levels both above (amld) and below (bmld) the MLD model level. Horizontal velocities are in m/s, but note that vertical (W) velocities are several orders of magnitude smaller.   Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: Gregr and Coatta, 2008. Economic Valuation of Critical Habitat Closures NPRB Project #529 - Data Set Descriptions. Data report to the North Pacific Research Board. February 22, 2008. Distribution_Information:  Distributor:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Person_Primary:     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit    Contact_Position: Researcher    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Resource_Description: 3km Gulf of Alaska Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) Output 2001  Distribution_Liability: Data are provided without warranty. Metadata_Reference_Information:  Metadata_Date: 20080222  Metadata_Contact:   Contact_Information:    Contact_Organization_Primary:     Contact_Organization: Marine Mammal Research Unit     Contact_Person: Edward Gregr    Contact_Address:     Address_Type: mailing address     Address: Room 247, AERL, 2202 Main Mall, University of British Columbia     City: Vancouver     State_or_Province: British Columbia     Postal_Code: V6T 1Z4     Country: Canada    Contact_Voice_Telephone: 604-822-8181    Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: gregr@zoology.ubc.ca  Metadata_Standard_Name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata  Metadata_Standard_Version: FGDC-STD-001-1998  

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