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Marine biodiversity in Southeast Asian and adjacent seas: Part 1 Palomares, Maria D. Lourdes; Pauly, Daniel 2010

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   ISSN 1198-6727  Fisheries Centre Research Reports   2010 Volume 18 Number 3    MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN AND ADJACENT SEAS Part 1      Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada   MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN AND ADJACENT SEAS PART 1.     edited by Maria Lourdes D. Palomares and Daniel Pauly                    Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3) 96 pages © published 2010 by  The Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia  2202 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C., Canada, V6T 1Z4       ISSN 1198-6727   Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3) 2010   MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIAN AND ADJACENT SEAS PART 1.   edited by Maria Lourdes D. Palomares and Daniel Pauly   CONTENTS    DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................................... 1 BIODIVERSITY Toward an account of the biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters:      the roles of SeaLifeBase and FishBase Bonnie Huang, William Cheung, Vicky W.Y. Lam, Maria Lourdes D. Palomares,      Patricia M. Sorongon, Daniel Pauly.......................................................................................................................2 An annotated checklist of Philippine flatfishes: ecological implications Annadel Cabanban, Emily Capuli, Rainer Froese, Daniel Pauly ........................................................................... 15 Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea Patricia M. E. Sorongon, Maria Lourdes D. Palomares..........................................................................................32 Crustacean diversity of the South China Sea Marianne Pan.............................................................................................................................................................43 BIOLOGY Life history of Sepia recurvirostra in Philippine waters  Maria Lourdes D. Palomares, Christine Dar ...........................................................................................................53 Size structure of Acanthaster planci populations in       Tubbataha Reefs Natural Parks, Sulu Sea, Philippines Marianne Pan, Vincent Hilomen, Maria Lourdes D. Palomares............................................................................70 MANAGEMENT The effect of tourism on cetacean populations in southern Philippines Patricia M. E. Sorongon, Jo Marie Acebes, Louella Dolar,      Vincent V. Hilomen, Maria Lourdes D. Palomares .............................................................................................78     A Research Report from the Fisheries Centre at UBC  96 pages © Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2010   FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE ABSTRACTED IN THE FAO AQUATIC SCIENCES AND FISHERIES ABSTRACTS (ASFA) ISSN 1198-6727  FISHERIES CENTRE RESEARCH REPORTS ARE FUNDED IN PART BY GRANT FUNDS FROM THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT. A LIST OF ALL FCRRS TO DATE APPEARS AS THE FINAL PAGES OF EACH REPORT.  Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  1 DIRECTOR’S FOREWORD I was informed by the authors of this report that this contribution is part one of a two-part final report of the results of a SeaLifeBase mini-project funded by the ASEAN Center for Biodiversity (Los Baños, Philippines) whose goals were to improve the coverage of marine biodiversity, notably of invertebrates, of Southeast Asia. Also, this project was to make the assembled data on nomenclature, geography, biology and ecology available online through the SeaLifeBase website (www.sealifebase.org) and the ASEAN Center for Biodiversity’s information sharing service (www.aseanbiodiversity.org/biss). The latter is a regional node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System, devoted to repatriating biodiversity data to Southeast Asia. Part 1 of this final report includes 4 contributions on national and regional biodiversity accounts, 2 papers on life history and a paper on tourism and management of the biodiversity it depends on and affects. Part 2 of this series will include 4 additional regional biodiversity accounts (on the South China Sea) and 2 contributions on biology. In the process of performing this task, the SeaLifeBase team unearthed a trove of information which comprises important studies of invertebrate groups, and which, as part of SeaLifeBase, contributes to a comprehensive picture of marine biodiversity of Southeast Asia and, in particular, the South China Sea. In addition, a few ‘relict’ manuscripts were unearthed, e.g., on the flatfishes of the Philippines (Cabanban et al., this volume), which had not found their way into the scientific literature, and merited being included in this two-part series. SeaLifeBase’s focus on this region, the world’s center of marine biodiversity, also identified important information gaps, concerning groups which had not been studied adequately, e.g., the smaller species of cuttlefishes, which are usually lumped with the larger species when reported in fisheries catch statistics and are therefore not properly studied (Palomares and Dar, this volume). Other, apparent, information is created when Southeast Asian scientists publish in their own languages, e.g., Thai, Vietnamese, Bahasa Indonesia/Malaysia or Chinese. Biodiversity databases such as SeaLifeBase (and FishBase for that matter) are limited in the capture of data published in non-English languages. However, this can be overcome, as exemplified by the work of Huang et al. (this volume) for the marine biodiversity of China. I congratulate the editors and authors of this report for their efforts in helping to overcome the various obstacles which have so far prevented the emergence of a full account of marine biodiversity in Southeast Asia.  Ussif Rashid Sumaila Director and Associate Professor, The Fisheries Centre   Biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters, Huang, B. et al.  2 BIODIVERSITY TOWARD AN ACCOUNT OF THE BIODIVERSITY IN CHINESE SHELF WATERS: THE ROLES OF SEALIFEBASE AND FISHBASE1, 2 Bonnie Huang, William Cheung, Vicky W.Y. Lam, Maria Lourdes D. Palomares The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4; Email: m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca Patricia M.E. Sorongon SeaLifeBase Project, Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office Khush Hall, IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: p.sorongon@cgiar.org Daniel Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4; Email: d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT Global online databases exist, in the form of FishBase (www.fishbase.org) and SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org) which can be used to make a huge amount of marine biodiversity information available for all maritime countries of the world. This applies also to China. For that country, however, most of data sources used are non-Chinese, which may lead to the impression that these databases were designed with non-Chinese sources in mind. This is not the case, and to correct this impression, this account presents an overview of the marine biodiversity of China based predominantly on Chinese sources. It is then planned to use the documents cited here as our sources to complement the present coverage of Chinese waters by FishBase and SeaLifeBase, following standardization of the sources’ nomenclature. This will not only lead to a nearly complete coverage of the marine biodiversity for China and some neighbouring countries, but also highlight the role of FishBase and SeaLifeBase and of global species databases in general in building bridges between cultures and languages, in particular among marine biologists, and people who love the oceans and the species living therein. INTRODUCTION Assembling a comprehensive list of the biodiversity occurring along the coast of a major country such as China requires a huge amount of work, ranging from identifying and locating compilations of species accounts and validating the species names and identifications they contain, to creating databases that organize this information and make it accessible to a wide range of users. Global online databases exist, in the form of FishBase (www.fishbase.org) and SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org), which can be used to                                                  1 Cite as: Huang, B., Cheung, W., Lam, V.W.Y., Palomares, M.L.D., Sorongon, P.M.E., Pauly, D. 2010. Toward an account of the biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters: the roles of SeaLifeBase and FishBase. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine Biodiversity of Southeast Asian and Adjacent Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3), p. 2-14. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. 2 Presented at the FishBase Mini-Symposium, Innovation Building, YSFRI, Qingdao, China, September 1, 2008. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian seas, Palomares and Pauly  3 make marine biodiversity information available for all maritime countries of the world, and which already contain a huge amount of data, including on China. However, most of data sources used for that country are non-Chinese, which may lead to the impression that these databases were designed with non-Chinese sources in mind. This is not the case, and to correct this impression, we have assembled an overview of the marine biodiversity of China based mainly on Chinese sources. The living marine resources of China and the state of marine biodiversity have been reviewed by Huang (2000) and Zhou et al. (2005). In this contribution, we briefly review the status of that biodiversity in terms of functional groups, i.e., groups of species with similar functions within the marine ecosystem. The ecosystem structure we used follows roughly that of a food web model of the Southern China Sea (Figure 1c), the most biodiverse part of the Chinese coast, constructed and documented by Cheung (2007) and consisting of 31 functional groups, of which 10 are fishes (Figure 2). For each of the non-fish functional groups, we present, so far available the number of species; the habitat requirements and other key biological information; IUCN Status of component species; treaties and/or protection measures relevant to these species; sources of additional information on these species.  Our list is incomplete, and biased towards fishes, bivalves and crustaceans, which are commercially important and thus well studied. However, this list may serve as an example of what we believe is the minimum database each country should create and maintain to document its marine biodiversity (see also Palomares and Pauly, 2004; Pan et al., 2008). BRIEF REVIEW OF THE CHINESE COASTAL (INCLUDING SHELF) ECOSYSTEMS The marine ecosystems of China are extensive, with latitudinal range extending from around 4o to 41o N and include the continental shelf, slope and the abyssal plains of the Northwest and West Pacific. These ecosystems consist of three marginal seas: the Yellow Sea (Figure 1a), the East China Sea (Figure 1b) and the South China Sea (Figure 1c), each of which a Large Marine Ecosystem (LME; Sherman et al., 2003) with well-defined physical features, fauna, and patterns of human exploitation (see also www.seaaroundus.org). Major rivers discharging into these systems include the Yalu River in the North, and the Yangtze, Qiantang and Min Rivers to the South, the Yangtze River estuary representing the transition from the Yellow to the East China Sea (Jin et al., 2003). The Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystems are semi-enclosed temperate (32°-42°N) and sub-tropical (23°-33°N) seas, respectively. The relatively small and shallow Yellow Sea has an area of 380,000 km² and average depth at 44 m. Northwest of Yellow Sea is an inner sea, the Bohai Sea, covering an area of 80,000 km² (Tang et al., 2000). The East China Sea has an area of 770,000 km², with average and maximum water depth of 370 m and 2,719 m, respectively. Plankton diversity is high in both the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, with A  B  C  Figure 1. The three Chinese Large Marine Ecosystems in the Northwest Pacific (dark blue): (A) Yellow Sea, with the Bohai Sea in the northeast; (B) East China Sea and (C) South China Sea (in part). This paper focuses on the northern part of the South China Sea, roughly corresponding to the area north of the straight (or red) line in (c), and representing the southern boundary of FAO area 61, i.e., the Northwest Pacific. Biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters, Huang, B. et al.  4 over 400 recorded phyto- and zooplankton species. Patterns of fisheries exploitation and the status of fisheries resources parallel those in the South China Sea, i.e., many resource species have strongly declined, and are threatened by overfishing, pollution and coastal development, which we described in detail in the following paragraphs. The South China Sea is a tropical system that includes diverse habitats ranging from mangrove forests, seagrass beds, estuaries and coastal and offshore coral reefs (Morton and Blackmore, 2001). It lies within the Tropic of Cancer, and has an area of approximately 3.5 x 106 km2 (Caihua et al., 2008), of which 30% of the region is deep sea, with average depth at 1,400 m. It is heavily influenced by monsoonal climate with Southwest Monsoon in summer and Northeast Monsoon in winter. The complexity of the surface current patterns greatly influences the structure and distribution of marine species. For example, the Kuroshio Current brings warm and high salinity water to the northern margin of the South China Sea such as the area around Taiwan and Hong Kong, there allowing for a mixture of tropic and subtropical biological communities (Morton and Blackmore, 2001). Major rivers discharging into the South China Sea includes the Pearl and Mekong Rivers. The South China Sea exhibits a diverse fauna and flora, with over 2,300 species of fishes (Caihua et al., 2008), 58 species of cephalopods and many other invertebrates (Jia et al., 2004). Fishery resources are exploited mainly by trawlers (demersal, pelagic and shrimp), gillnets, hook and line, purse seine and other fishing gears such as traps.    Figure 2. A modified version of the food web model of the South China Sea based on which we summarized marine biodiversity in the 3 Chinese marine ecosystems (Cheung, 2007). The figure shows the trophic level of each functional group only, while the linkages between groups are not displayed. The model consists of 27 functional groups, including 2 mammal groups, 1 reptile group, 1 bird group, 10 fish groups, 10 invertebrates groups, 2 primary producer groups and 1 group representing detritus.  The fisheries of the South China Sea have suffered dramatic depletion over the past five decades (Cheung and Pitcher, 2008). After the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949, there was a rapid growth of the marine capture fisheries. This growth slowed down towards the 1970s, but increased again after the end of 1978, with a large increase in the number of fishing boats and improvement in fishing technology (Pang and Pauly, 2001). The dramatic expansion of fishing fleets resulted in over-exploitation of near-shore, and later, offshore fisheries resources (Shindo, 1973; Cheung and Sadovy, 2004) – a change that is similar to most other fisheries globally (Pauly et al., 2002). A range of species with high Biodiversity of Southeast Asian seas, Palomares and Pauly  5 vulnerability to exploitation were extirpated locally or regionally by fishing (Sadovy and Cornish, 2000; Sadovy and Cheung, 2003; Cheung and Sadovy, 2004). For instance, the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), now at an all-time low, was once one of the most important fishery resource species in the East and South China Sea (Liu and Sadovy, 2008). In addition, critical habitats for marine species such as coral reefs and seagrass beds have been damaged or degraded as a result of the use of destructive fishing methods and coastal development (Hutchings and Wu, 1987; Morton and Blackmore, 2001). Overall, over-exploitation in the South China Sea raises serious fishery management and biodiversity conservation concerns, and this also applies to the Yellow and East China Seas. PROTECTION OF MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN CHINA International Legislation China ratified and joined a number of international treaties and conventions to protect its marine biodiversity and environment. They include (Wang et al., 2000; Chen and Uitto, 2003): 1) Conventions for conserving biodiversity: a) Convention on Biological Diversity (1992); b) RAMSAR Convention; c) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES); d) Migratory Bird Convention; and, e) National Biodiversity Action Plan (1994). 2) Conventions for controlling marine pollution from various sources: a) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1973); b) Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution of Wastes and Other Matter (1985); and, c) UN Convention on Law of the Sea (1996). After participating in successive UN environmental summits since 1972, China created the China Ocean Agenda 21 based on the model of the global Agenda 21 formulated at the 1992 Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro. The China Ocean Agenda 21 proposed a sustainable development strategy for China’s marine waters, emphasizing the involvement of all levels of government for coordinating the development and protection of marine resources (Chen and Uitto, 2003). China also cooperated with many international organizations such as WWF, IUCN and the World Bank, etc., on conserving marine biodiversity. The Biodiversity Working Group (BWG) of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development (CCICED), a high level non-governmental advisory body established in 1992 for enhancing international cooperation on environment and development, has a particular focus on biodiversity. Domestic Legislation The State Council of China started to draft legislation for specific environmental issues since 1973 (Chen and Uitto, 2003), and earlier legislations included the 1994 Provisional Regulations on the Prevention of Pollution of Coastal Waters (Palmer, 1998). Several studies (e.g., Palmer, 1998; Li et al., 1999; Wang et al., 2000; Chen and Uitto, 2003) provide a comprehensive overview of the development and implementation of environmental and biodiversity conservation legislation in China. The major laws, measures and regulations in China for conserving marine biodiversity were extracted from these reviews. The laws and regulations for conserving marine and coastal biodiversity and environment include: 1) Laws a) Marine Environmental Protection Law (1982, revised in 1999); b) Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law (1984, revised in 1996); c) Fishery Law (1986); d) Wildlife Protection Law (1988); e) Environmental Protection Law (1988); f) Water and Soil Conservation Law (1991);  g) Prevention and Control of Water Pollution Law (1996). Biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters, Huang, B. et al.  6 2) Administrative Regulations a) Regulations about Aquatic Resources Conservation (1979); b) State Council’s General Order of Strictly Protecting Rare Wild Animals (1983); c) Regulations of the PRC on the Control over Prevention of Pollution by Vessels in Sea Waters (1983); d) Administrative Regulations about Prevention of Pollution and Damage of Marine Environment by Seashore Construction Projects (1983); e) Regulations on the Control over Dumping Wastes into Sea Waters (1985); f) Provisional Regulations on Environment Control for Economic Zones Open to Foreigners (1986); g) Regulations for the Implementation of the Fishery Law (1987); h) Regulations on Protection and Administration of Wild Medicinal Material Resources (1987); i) Regulations on the Implementation of the Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution (1989); j) Administrative Regulations on the Prevention and Control of the Pollution and Damage Caused to the Marine Environment by Coastal Construction Projects (1990); k) Regulations for the Protection of Aquatic Wild Animals (1993). Central Government Institutions There are two main institutions in the central government of China that are in charge of marine environment protection: the State Commission on Environmental and Natural Resources Protection and the State Council Committee for Environmental Protection. These institutions are responsible for general environmental policy maters such as drafting legislation, regulations and guidelines on the environmental welfare issues. They also supervise and coordinate other provincial environmental agencies and activities in protecting the environment (Chen and Uitto, 2003). Five other central institutions are also working complementary to each other for protecting the marine environment under the 1999 Marine Environmental Protection Law. Their responsibilities are listed in Table 1. Problems Although China has participated in international treaties, developed comprehensive environmental policies, laws and regulations for protecting its marine resources, the marine environments and biodiversity in China continue their downward spiral (Palmer, 1998). Liu and Diamond (2005) suggested that these policies, laws and regulations listed above, which seem to be adequate, actually do not do the job, because their enforcement is usually ineffective to non-existent. In fact, at least at the local level, economic development has a far higher priority than biodiversity and environmental conservation.  Table 1. Responsibilities of some central institutions on protecting marine environment (adapted from Chen and Uitto, 2003; www.novexcn.com, 2008). Institutions Responsibilities State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) Coordinating, supervising and providing guidelines for the country’s marine environment protection. Conducting scientific research. Prevention of marine pollution caused by land-based sources and coastal construction projects. State Oceanic Administration (SOA) Monitoring and managing the marine environment, organizing marine environment surveys, and conducting scientific research. Prevention and control of pollution from offshore construction projects and marine dumping. State Harbor Superintendence Administration (SHSA) Managing and monitoring pollution from non-fishing and non-military vessels.  State Fishery Administration (SFA) Managing and supervising pollution from fishing vessels, and protecting ecosystems in fishing areas. Environmental Protection Department of the Peoples’ Liberation Army Monitoring pollution by naval vessels Biodiversity of Southeast Asian seas, Palomares and Pauly  7 SOURCES FOR REVIEWING THE MARINE BIODIVERSITY OF CHINA In the following, we describe the data sources we tapped to assemble the biodiversity lists presented further below. The list of marine species of China by Huang (2000) was used as starting point, while Zhou et al. (2005) supplied a great amount of additional information on marine biodiversity in China. Li (1990) and Wang (1999) contributed to the species diversity of seabirds and marine mammals. Dai and Yang (1991), Zheng et al. (1999), Wang et al. (2000) and Hong (2002) provided a considerable part of the marine invertebrate list. The list of marine mammals was improved with additional information from Zhu et al. (2002). Birdlife International (2008; see www.birdlife.net) supplied information and data on seabirds as well. Information on fish groups was obtained from Jiao and Chen (1997), Li and Luo (2004), Ma et al. (2006) and Caihua et al. (2008). The list of threatened species was obtained from the Internet version of IUCN (2007; see www.redlist.org); the list of internationally protected species was obtained from CITES (2007). Our presentation of Chinese marine biodiversity is organized by ecosystem functional groups. We adopted the functional group structure of an ecosystem model of the South China Sea (Cheung, 2007), slightly modified, based on the ecosystem model of Tang et al. (2000), to make it applicable to the three Large Marine Ecosystems in China (Figure 2). RESULTS Group-specific results The following describe in some detail results obtained for each of the groups for which information is available (see Figure 3). Note that viruses, microflagellates, bacteria, macroalgae and phytoplankton species are not discussed. Birds A total of 62 species of seabirds, including 13 endangered species, were recorded by Li (1990). He lists 35 coastal birds and also provides detailed morphological, distributional and behavioral information for the following species: Short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus), Streaked shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas), Swinhoe's storm-petrel (Oceanodroma monorhis), Red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus), Spot-billed pelican (Pelecanus philippensis), Red-footed booby (Sula sula), Pelagic cormorant A 0 10 20 30 40 Po lyc ha ete s Cr ab s Ec hin od er m s Je llyf ish es Sh rim ps Zo op lan kto ns Ce pha lop od s Bir ds Ma rin e m am m als Se a tur tle s Pe rc en t o f r ec o rd ed  sp p.  B Reptiles Mammals Birds  C Shrimps Zooplanktons Cephalopods Echinoderms Crabs Polychaetes Jellyfishes  Figure 3. Composition of species richness by major functional groups in Chinese marine ecosystems: (A) percentage of species number of all recorded non-fish species, (B) percentage of species of higher marine vertebrates, and (C) percentage of species of marine invertebrates. Biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters, Huang, B. et al.  8 (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Christmas Island frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi), Pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus), Black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), Indian skimmer (Rynchops albicollis) and Ancient murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Fifteen endangered bird species are listed in the Birdlife International species database for the Chinese mainland, including three seabirds: Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), Chinese crested tern (Sterna bernsteini) and Christmas frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi). Li (1990) and Birdlife International also list three commercially important guano producing species: White pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and Red-footed booby (Sula sula). Christmas frigatebird (Fregata andrewsi) is the only species included in the IUCN Red List species of seabirds in China. Only 16 of those listed in the Birdlife database are listed by CITES (2007). Marine mammals Wang (1999) reports 36 species of cetaceans (eight baleen whales and 28 toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises) occurring in Chinese waters, with detailed information on morphology, distribution, migration, biology, and ecology. A new species of cetaceans, Sousa huangi, found in South China Sea, 21°31’N, 109°10’E, was recorded for the first time by Wang (1999). Zhu et al. (2002) reports 35 species of cetaceans (eight baleen whales and 27 toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises) as well as five pinnipeds and one sirenian (Dugong dugong). The number of cetaceans in Chinese waters represents a considerable 41% of the total number of species worldwide. Of these, only one is endemic, Baiji (Lipotes vexillifer), found in freshwater, particularly in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (Wang, 1999), but which is now considered functionally extinct (Guo, 2006; Reeves and Gales, 2006). Two otter species, Eurasian river otter (Lutra lutra) and Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) also appear to be occurring in China (see www.sealifebase.org). The use of stranded cetaceans can be traced back to thousands of years ago (Wang, 1999). Zhu et al. (2000) concluded that the human-induced threat to the cetaceans and other marine mammals in Chinese waters has been reduced by the late 1970s ban on whaling. However, a number of species are currently threatened by human activities such as fisheries, where marine mammals occur as by-catch, coastal development and aquatic pollution. Moreover, despite of the protection of marine mammals through national and international programmes, many of the once heavily exploited species are still vulnerable and rare. Also, as a result of the development and expansion of commercial fisheries, fish populations also consumed by marine mammals have declined tremendously in terms of their size and quality, while pollution and habitat destruction also contribute to population declines (Zhu et al., 2000). Sea turtles Of the seven species of sea turtles known worldwide, five occur in Chinese waters: Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), Olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate) and Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) (Cheng, 1998). Of these five species, only Green sea turtles, Loggerhead and Hawksbill turtles nest along the east coast of China, with most individuals found in the South China Sea, especially around the Xisha and Nansha Islands. From 16,800 to 46,300 sea turtles are thought to occur in China, of which Green sea turtle is thought to contribute about 87% (Zhou et al., 2005). All five species are listed as endangered species in the 2007 IUCN Red List, with the Hawksbill and the Leatherback turtle being critically endangered. However, none of them are listed in the CITES database. According to 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Fis h Se a t ur tle s Ce ph alo po ds Ma rin e m am ma ls Bi rd s De ca po ds Je lly fis he s An ne lid s Ec hin od er ms N um be r of  s pe ci es  re co rd ed (%  o f e st im at ed  n um be r)  Figure 4. Current coverage of global species databases as %of reported estimates of Chinese marine biodiversity recorded in this study. FishBase accounted for 3,421 fish species, i.e., more than the 3,048 species reported by Jiao and Chen (1977), which explains the above 100% record in this figure. SeaLifeBase accounted for 4,831 species across the non-fish groups and is almost complete for marine mammals, sea turtles and cephalopods (see Discussion). Biodiversity of Southeast Asian seas, Palomares and Pauly  9 Cheng (1998), at least 30,000 sea turtles were slaughtered between 1959 and 1989 in the South China Sea. Although nominally protected by Chinese regulation and international programmes, sea turtles in China are under critical threat from habitat destruction and illegal hunting. Fishes The diversity of fish in Chinese waters is high and shows a clear latitudinal gradient. Overall, 3,048 species of marine fish, belonging to 288 families, have been recorded in China (Jiao and Chen, 1997). This represents over 20% of fish species in the world. Species richness is lowest in the Bohai and Yellow Sea, with 327 species (Jiao and Chen, 1997). The East China Sea has a total of 760 fish species belonging to 173 families (Li and Luo, 2004). Fish diversity is highest in the South China Sea, with 2,321 species belonging to 236 families (Ma et al., 2006; Caihua et al., 2008). However, this figure includes fish that are recorded from areas of the South China Sea far away from Chinese territories, including offshore reefs. Shelf diversity in the northern part of the South China Sea (as defined in Figure 1) is currently 1,066 species. The present coverage of FishBase relative to these numbers is discussed further below (see also Figure 4). Cephalopods Zheng et al. (1999) reported 95 species of cephalopods occurring in Chinese waters, representing 18% of the total number of cephalopod species worldwide. Of these, 78 species, over 21 families and 6 classes, occur in the South China Sea. The most abundant species are in the Family Sepiidae and Octopodidae, which are all included in SeaLifeBase (see www.sealifebase.org). None of the cephalopod species are listed in the IUCN or in the CITES Appendices I-III. Cephalopods are abundant in the South China Sea where 89 species have been reported (Guo and Chen, 2000). In the South China Sea, 78 species of cephalopods have been reported (Zheng et al., 1999) with 21 species, including Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus), Mitre squid (Uroteuthis chinensis), Swordtip squid (Uroteuthis edulis), Whiparm octopus (Octopus variabilis) and Common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), that are commercially important or potentially important species (Cheng and Zhu, 1997; Guo and Chen, 2000; Zheng et al., 2003). From the 1950s to the 1970s, Spineless cuttlefish (Sepiella inermis) was one of the four main fisheries in China; the Golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) was first exploited in the Yellow Sea prior to the 1970s; later became a primary target of fisheries in the East China Sea in 1990s (Zheng et al., 2003). Shrimps There are more than 300 species of shrimps (free swimming and benthic decapods) reported by Wang et al. (2000) in Chinese waters, including 135 species in the South China Sea (Zhang, 2002). The common commercially important shrimps include Fleshy prawn (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), Southern rough shrimp (Trachysalambria curvirostris), Japanese sand shrimp (Crangon affinis), Kishi velvet shrimp (Metapenaeopsis dalei) and Chinese ditch prawn (Palaemon gravieri) (Cheng and Zhu, 1997). Crabs Dai and Yang (1991) report over 800 species of marine crabs occurring in Chinese waters, including a list of 604 species with description of morphological characteristics, ecology and geographical distributions. In the East China Sea, 324 species, over 22 families, have been found. Fifty species belong to the Family Majidae, and 37 species belong to the Leucosiidae (Yu et al., 2003). Despite this diversity, only about 20 species are considered edible. Among these, 8-9 are commercially important species, such as Horse crab (Portunus trituberculatus), Three-spot swimming crab (Portunus sanguinolentus), Sand crab (Ovalipes punctatus), Crucifix crab (Charybdis feriatus) and Japanese swimming crab (Charybdis japonica) (Yu et al., 2004). Usually found at depths 20-120 m, Horse crabs have been overexploited since 1980s; Sand crabs, meanwhile, have become the most abundant species with the highest exploitation potential (Yu et al., 2004).  Biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters, Huang, B. et al.  10 Jellyfishes About 400 species of jellyfishes are know from Chinese waters, about 40% of the total number of species worldwide (Hong, 2002): 250 species of Hydromedusa, 100 species of Siphonophora, 50 species of Scyphomedusae and 10 species of ctenophores. The South China Sea alone has 270 species of jellyfish, of which 160 are Hydromedusa. Five edible jellyfish species have been reported from China, i.e., Rhopilema esculentum, Rhopilema hispidum, Stomolophus meleagris (Cannonball jelly), Lobonema smithi and Lobonemoides gracilis (Hong, 2002). Some species, such as Rhopilema esculentum have been used as traditional Chinese medicine since the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 AD), for the treatment of asthma, the flu and other ailments (Hong, 2002). Recently, jellyfish blooms in the East China Sea, mainly caused by large jellyfishes such as Stomolophus meleagris and Aequorea sp., have resulted in negative impacts on populations of fishes and commercial invertebrates. Because these jellyfishes, as part of their zooplankton diet, consume fish eggs and shrimp and fish larvae, the populations of commercial fishes and shrimps exposed to such blooms have declined (Cheng et al., 2005). Echinoderms According to Zhou et al. (2005), 553 species of echinoderms have been reported from Chinese waters. Echinoderms are most diverse in the South China, which harbors 76% of the species reported from Chinese waters. Over 100 species of sea urchins are reported in China, of which only 10 are deemed edible. Catches of sea urchins are composed mainly of Anthocidaris crassispina, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Strongylocentrotus nudus. In 1989, Strongylocentrotus intermedius was introduced to China from Japan, and has since become a major commercial species. Glyptocidaris crenularis has recently become an important farmed species (Liu, 2000). More than 100 species of sea cucumbers are reported from China, of which 20 are edible, and 10 commercially important, such as Apostichopus japonicus (Liao, 2001). Sea stars, or starfishes, widely distributed worldwide, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean, and are found at depths ranging from 0 to 6,000 m (Wang et al., 1999). More than 1,000 species of sea stars are known worldwide, of which over 100 occur in Chinese waters. The most common sea stars in the Bohai and Yellow Seas are Luidia quinaria, Asterias rolleston and Solaster dawsoni (Zhou et al., 2005). Other common echinoderms include Amphioplus japonicus and Amphioplus lucidus (Sun and Liu, 1991). Polychaetes Zhou et al. (2005) report 1,123 species of marine annelids in China, including more than 900 species of polychaetes (see also Figure 3); of these 404 were reported from the western Taiwan Strait, 213 from the Bohai and the Yellow Seas region (Wu, 1993; Bi and Sun 1998). Common species include Sthenolepis japonica, Ophiodromus angustifrons, Nephtys oligobranchia, Lumbrineris latreilli and Sternaspis scutata (Sun and Liu, 1991). Xu (2008) also lists 20 species of pelagic polychaetes from the East China Sea, the most abundant being Pelagobia longicirrata, Tomopteris elegans and Sagitella kowalevskii. Benthic invertebrates Sun and Liu (1991) and Hu et al. (2000) reported 338 benthic species, including 71 species of crustaceans, 75 species of mollusks, 115 species of polychaetes, 23 species of echinoderms, 9 species of coelenterates and 7 species of others benthic organisms from the Bohai and Yellow Seas The dominant species include Scapharca suberenata, Bullacta exarata, Horse crab (Portunus trituberculatus), Palaemon gravieri, Ophiopholis mirabilis and Acila mirabilis. Zheng et al. (2003) reported 855 of benthic species occurring in the East China Sea, i.e., 268 species of polychaetes, 283 of mollusks, 171 of crustaceans, 68 of echinoderms and 65 of other groups. Jia et al. (2004) reported on 851 benthic species from the South China Sea, mostly benthic fish, but also including 154 species of crustaceans and 42 species of cephalopods. More than 230 species of crustaceans are known from the South China Sea, about half of them benthic (Zhang, 2002). About 150 species of benthic crustaceans appear in commercial fisheries catches in the East China Sea, but they do not contribute more than about 3% of the catch in weight. Shrimps, especially Parapenaeus fissuroides, are dominant (Jia et al., 2004). Other commercially important crustaceans include Tellina Biodiversity of Southeast Asian seas, Palomares and Pauly  11 emarginata, Atrina pectinata, Cultellus scalprum, Macoma candida, Solenocera koelbeli and Metapenaeopsis lata (Zheng et al., 2003). Zooplankton Meng et al. (1993) listed 133 species of zooplankton in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, including 36 species of hydromedusae and 69 species of copepods. Aidanosagitta crasssa and Labidocera euchaeta are the two species that tend to dominate the zooplankton for the whole year. Other dominant species include Acartia pacifica, Calanus sinicus and Euphausia pacifica. Xu (2004) reported 316 species of zooplankton from the East China Sea, belonging to more than seven phyla. The dominant group was the crustaceans, consisting of 208 species; among these, the copepods were dominant (36.7%) with regard to the total number of species, followed by the Hyperiidea (11.1%). In the Taiwan Strait, 1,329 species of zooplankton were reported by Li et al. (2001), with two dominant groups, copepods and jellyfishes, consisting of 298 and 232 species, respectively. The dominant species included Temora turbinata, Canthocalanus pauper, Pseudophausia sinica, Akiami paste shrimp (Acetes japonicus), Euphausia diomedeae, Flaccisagitta enflata and Calanoides carinatus, which occurred below 200 m. Li et al. (2004) reported 709 zooplankton species from the South China Sea, in over eight phyla. The crustaceans, the dominant group, consisted of 470 species. The dominant species included Temora discaudata, Undinula vulgaris, Canthocalanus pauper, Centropages furcatus, Eucalanus subcrassus, Euchaeta concinna, Flaccisagitta enflata and Lucifer intermedius. DISCUSSION China is one of the mega-centers of biodiversity (Hicks, 2008) with probably over 20,000 marine species. We, however, located sources for only about 15,000 of them. It is clear, however, that Chinese marine biodiversity increases from North to South, with species being reported in the hundreds from the Yellow Sea and Bohai Seas, while over 4,000 metazoans species are reported from the East China Sea and nearly 6,000 from the South China Sea (Huang 2000; Zhou et al. 2005). Another clear result is that unwary Internet users would be misled by many of the biodiversity databases available online. To illustrate this, we performed a search for ‘China’ through the IUCN (www.iucn.org) species search. This resulted in a list of 218 marine species, 32 of which were marine mammals, 56 fish (sharks) and 5 marine turtles. A similar search for species listed in the UNEP-WCMC database for ‘China’ yielded 364 amphibians, 1,232 birds, 515 fishes, 659 invertebrates, 650 mammals, 431 reptiles and 131 other species. Also, since habitats were not provided, we examined the list for distinctions by habitat. This yielded 22 species (17 reptiles, four corals and one bird species) listed in CITES Appendices I-III, ratified July 1st 2008, and which are protected by the Chinese government. It is thus obvious that FishBase and SeaLifeBase, which, jointly, are meant to cover all marine metazoans of the world, including those of China, have a big task ahead. The most difficult, but necessary, task is the identification of valid (versus synonymous) scientific names, which will help establish the actual number of valid species per functional group. Preliminary comparisons of the results of this study with what is currently available in FishBase (Figure 4) resulted to a total count of 3,421 fish species, which is more than the number of species reported by Jiao and Chen (1997). FishBase accounts 50.1% of this total to the South China Sea, 25.1% to the East China Sea, 34.2% to the Yellow Sea and 8.0% to the Sea of Japan. Ray-finned fishes are dominant in all of these large marine ecosystems followed by sharks and rays. This shows that FishBase already has a very good coverage of the marine fishes of China and can be used as a reliable online biodiversity resource for China. SeaLifeBase, has almost 50% coverage of the marine non-fish metazoans occurring in China (including Taiwan; see Figure 4), with data for 4,831 species. Of these, 62% are assigned to the South China Sea, 26% to the East China Sea and 5.5% in the Yellow Sea. This is heavily biased towards i) mollusks, which makes up 40.2% of the species distribution; ii) crustaceans, 29.2%; and iii) annelids, 10.4%. If we accept the estimate of 20,000 species for Chinese marine areas, these two global databases together already account for more than 41% of China’s marine biodiversity. We intend to use the documents cited here to complement the present coverage of Chinese waters by FishBase and SeaLifeBase, following standardization of their nomenclature. This will not only lead to a Biodiversity in Chinese shelf waters, Huang, B. et al.  12 nearly complete coverage of biodiversity for China and some neighboring countries, but also highlight the role of FishBase and SeaLifeBase in building bridges between cultures and languages, in particular among marine biologists, and people who love the oceans and the species living therein. 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Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  15 AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF PHILIPPINE FLATFISHES: ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS1 Annadel Cabanban IUCN Commission on Ecosystem Management, Southeast Asia Dumaguete, Philippines; Email: annadel_cabanban@yahoo.com.sg Emily Capuli SeaLifeBase Project, Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office Khush Hall, IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: e.capuli@cgiar.org Rainer Froese IFM-GEOMAR, University of Kiel Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany; Email: rfroese@ifm-geomar.de Daniel Pauly The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4; Email: d.pauly@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT An annotated list of the flatfishes of the Philippines was assembled, covering 108 species (vs. 74 in the entire North Atlantic), and thus highlighting this country's feature of being at the center of the world's marine biodiversity. More than 80 recent references relating to Philippine flatfish are assembled. Various biological inferences are drawn from the small sizes typical of Philippine (and tropical) flatfish, and pertinent to the "systems dynamics of flatfish". This was facilitated by FishBase, which documents all data presented here, and which was used to generate the graphs supporting these biological inferences. INTRODUCTION Taxonomy, in its widest sense, is at the root of every scientific discipline, which must first define the objects it studies. Then, the attributes of these objects can be used for various classificatory and/or interpretive schemes; for example, the table of elements in chemistry or evolutionary trees in biology. Fisheries science is no different; here the object of study is a fishery, the interaction between species and certain gears, deployed at certain times in certain places. This interaction determines some of the characteristics of the resource (e.g., recruitment to the exploited stock), and generates catches. For conventional fisheries research to work, however, the underlying taxonomy must have been done: the species caught must be known, and catch statistics must be available, at least at species level. Without these, state-of-the art methods of fisheries research cannot be used, and emphasis must then be given, to various indirect methods and to inferences by analogy. This, indeed, is the reason for the renaissance of comparative methods in fishery research (Bakun, 1985). Flatfish (Order Pleuronectiformes) support substantial single-species fisheries in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, besides forming a sizeable by-catch in various medium-latitude trawl fisheries. On the other hand, the many species of flatfish occurring in the inter-tropical belt do not support directed fishery, nor                                                  1 Cite as: Cabanban, A., Capuli, E., Froese, R., Pauly, D. 2010. An annotated checklist of Philippine flatfishes: ecological implications. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine Biodiversity of Southeast Asian and Adjacent Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3), p15-31. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Checklist of Philippine flatfishes, Cabanban, A. et al.  16 do they contribute much to the by-catch of the multispecies (trawl) fisheries common in tropical shelves (Pauly, 1994). Thus, studying the fishery biology of tropical flatfish cannot proceed as does the study of flatfish resource species in temperate waters, and comparative approaches must make use of the facts that are known about the distribution and occurrence, the morphology and other features of the fish under study, in an attempt to compensate as far as possible for the unavailability of abundance data and of catch time series. Relational databases are ideal for assembling, recombining and analyzing such facts, and this report relied heavily on the FishBase 96 CD-ROM (Froese and Pauly, 1996), and subsequent updates2 which anticipates the release of FishBase 97. The usefulness of FishBase for the comparative study of flatfish in general (and by extension, of any other fish group) was highlighted in Froese and Pauly (1994). Hence this contribution focuses on the narrower issue of its use for generating inferences on the ecology of flatfishes (here taken as representing any other group of teleosts) in data-sparse, but species-rich tropical areas, here represented by the waters within the Philippine EEZ. MATERIALS AND METHODS  The first task was to complete the FishBase coverage of Philippine flatfish; this was achieved by (1) scanning the Philippines (Evermann and Scale, 1907; Fowler, 1934; Herre, 1953) and regional taxonomic literature (e.g., Weber and de Beaufort, 1929; Menon and Monkolprasit, 1974; Amaoka and Hensley, 2001; Hensley and Amaoka, 2001), and (2) interacting with taxonomists, notably at the FAO/ICL ARM/MS I workshop held on 1 - 10 October 1995 for the production of an FAO Identification Guide to Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, and at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The pleuronectids in Herre (1953) were checked against Menon's (1977) revision of the Cynoglossidae and revisions of Engyprosopon (Amaoka et al., 1993) and Paraplagiisia (Chapleau and Renaud, 1993), while Eschmeyer (1990) was consulted for the validity of the generic names. Distribution records were taken from Herre (1953), from revisions, redescriptions (e.g., Pseudorhombus megalops; Hensley and Amaoka 1989), museum records, and the general scientific literature on Philippine demersal fish and fisheries. Biological and ecological information on Philippine flatfish were gleaned mainly from the Philippine Journal of Fisheries, the Philippine Journal of Science, and the Philippine Scientist. Also, various bibliographies were examined for entries on flatfish (Blanco and Montalban, 1951; Gomez, 1980; Aprieto et al., 1986; Pauly et al., 1986), complemented by a search of the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts CD-ROM, and of the personal reprint collections of colleagues both at ICLARM3, Manila and the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. The second task was to create, for each species of flatfish reported from the Philippines at least one georeferenced occurrence record with sampling depth and environmental temperature. The plot of                                                  2 The original version of this, now slightly updated, paper was presented at the Symposium on System Dynamics of Flatfish, held 2-8 November 1996 at the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, The Netherlands and was previously available from http://filaman.uni-kiel.de/geomar/rfroese/Philippines%20Flatfish.pdf. The coverage of flatfishes by FishBase now includes the data therein and additional information. 3 Now the WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia.  Figure 1. Relationship between mean annual sea temperature (in °C) and depth (in m) for various locations in the Philippines. Source: Dalzell and Ganaden (1987) based on Selga (1931) and Labao (1980). Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  17 temperature vs. depth in Figure 1 was used to infer temperature from position and depth in cases where the temperatures had been missing from an original record. Our major source of occurrence records was a printout from the Smithsonian Institution listing all Philippine flatfish in their collection (courtesy of Dr. Leslie W. Knapp), the results of the MUSORSTOM Expedition to the Philippines (Fourmanoir, 1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981), and the definitions of the type locality for the species described (mainly by Fowler, 1934). Biological characteristics (catch data and derived features do not exist for Philippine flatfish) were entered into the appropriate fields of FishBase, which also documents their sources. Also, the FishBase coverage of non-Philippine flatfish was boosted such as to provide sufficient contrast to Philippine species. The various graphing and reporting routines of FishBase were then evoked, and used to generate the exhibits presented below. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION There are at least 108 species of flatfish in the Philippines, distributed in 8 families and 36 genera (Appendix 1). The type locality of 22 nominal flatfish species is in the Philippines (W.N. Eschmeyer, pers. comm.). As predicted by Pauly (1994) for tropical species in general, Philippine flatfish tend to remain small, ranging from 6 to 80 cm in standard length (SL) with most species reaching 15 cm (SL) or less. During the October 1995 FAO-ICLARM workshop for the testing of the FAO Western Central Pacific Field Guide, the fish markets of Cebu, Manila, and Bolinao were sampled by groups of taxonomists, and specimens were bought for identification and collection purposes. The relatively few flatfish found by that survey consisted of 19 flatfish species with an average maximum size of about 21 cm SL (Table 1), thus confirming the low abundance, high diversity, small size, and low economic importance of Philippine flatfish. Figure 2 compares the maximum size distribution of Philippine flatfish with that of North Atlantic species (FAO areas 21 and 27). Two ecological implications of this are that Philippine flatfish are limited to smaller prey than their North Atlantic counterpart, while simultaneously being susceptible to (numerous) smaller predators. The implications of reduced size and increased temperature for population dynamics are faster turnover rates, i.e., the asymptotic size is approached rapidly due to high values of the parameter K of the von Bertalanffy growth function (Pauly, 1980, 2010). This leads to reduced longevity (Figure 3), and high natural mortality (Figure 4). Table 1. List of flatfishes surveyed during the October 1995 FAO-ICLARM workshop. Family Species Length (cm) Bothidae Arnoglossus aspilos –  Arnoglossus taenio –  Bothus pantherinus 15.4 SL  Chascanopsetta micrognathus –  Engyprosopon grandisquama – Citharidae Citharoides macrolepidotus – Cynoglossidae Cynoglossus cynoglossus 10.4 SL  Cynoglossus kopsii –  Pseudorhombus arsius 24.5 SL  Pseudorhombus arsius 25.2 SL  Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus 29.0 SL Psettodidae Psettodes erumei 25.5 SL  Psettodes sp. – Soleidae Aseraggodes sp. –  Dexillichthys muelleri 21.0 SL  Euryglossa sp. 23.8 TL  Pardachirus pavoninus 13.2 SL  Synaptura orientalis –  Synaptura sorsogonensis 20.5 SL  Figure 2. Frequency distribution of maximum reported lengths in Philippine and North Atlantic flatfish, highlighting small sizes of Philippine species (data from FishBase, August 1996). Checklist of Philippine flatfishes, Cabanban, A. et al.  18   Figure 3. Longevity is in most organisms related to size, and neither the fish nor the Pleuronectiformes are an exception (data from FishBase, August 1996). Figure 5. Within groups of similar fishes (here in the Pleuronectiformes), the maximum size reached by different species decreases with environmental temperature, although this effect is not seen when data for all orders of fish are pooled.   Figure 4. In Pleuronectiformes, as in other fishes, natural mortality (M) is strongly related to the parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation, K and L∞. The plot in the right panel also shows the effect of temperature.  The maximum size that can be reached by fish of various taxa is largely independent of temperature; there are small and large fish at almost all temperatures. However, within groups, the size reduction of maximum size imposed by environmental temperature (for which Pauly, 1994 suggests a mechanism) does show, and this is confirmed by Figure 5 for the Pleuronectiformes. Tropical demersal environments are usually characterized by high fish diversity (Aprieto and Villoso, 1979; Gloerfelt-Tarp and Kailola, 1984; Sainsbury et al., 1985; Dredge, 1989a, 1989b; Kulbicki and Wantiez, 1990; Cabanban, 1991). Several surveys of demersal fishes were conducted in the Philippines (Warfel and Manacop, 1950; Ronquillo et al., 1960; Villoso and Hermosa, 1982) which provided checklists of fishes and their relative abundances (Aprieto and Villoso, 1979; Villoso and Aprieto, 1983). Furthermore, catch rate data are available for several decades but have tended to remain underutilized (Silvestre et al. 1986b). These data allow rough assessments of the status of the demersal stocks (Silvestre et al. 1986a, 1986b) and inference on growth, mortality and recruitment patterns based on analysis of lengthfrequency data (Ingles and Pauly, 1984), though inferences on Pleuronectiformes are few, due to their scarcity. The flatfish of the Philippines are diverse but compose a small percentage of the total catch of demersal fisheries. To date, there is a lack of scientific investigation on the systematics, biology, population ecology, and fisheries of Philippine flatfish. The high diversity and low abundance of flatfish in the tropics [e.g., Sunda Shelf (see contributions in Pauly and Martosubroto, 1996); North Western Australia (Sainsbury et al., 1985); northern part of Australia (Rainer and Munro, 1982; Rainer, 1984); Cleveland Bay, Australia (Cabanban, 1991)) has been highlighted by Pauly (1994), who argued that the low biomass and recruitment rates of flatfish in the tropics are primarily based on environmental physiology (temperature- mediated difference of metabolic rate) and diet. He also suggests that flatfish are overadapted to feeding on zoobenthic epi- and infauna such that low availability of food limits the production of biomass and recruitment. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  19 Flatfish are considered ‘trashfish’ (Saila, 1983; Dredge, 1989a, 1989b) in most warm water developed countries, e.g., in Australia (Rainer, 1984), but enter markets in the Philippines, often as dried packs of juveniles of various species used for snacks. As for the adults, their small sizes reduce their value, substantially, except for Psettodes erumei, a high "quality" fish (Aprieto and Villoso, 1979). Flatfish in Southeast Asia generally feed on benthic invertebrates (Chan and Liew, 1986). In turn, these fish form part of the prey items of medium-sized (Saurida spp.; Cabanban, 1991) and large-sized carnivores. As such they may form a significant link in those demersal ecosystems where terrigenous input of nutrients leads to high benthos biomasses (Belperio, 1983). We conclude by pointing out that there is a need to revise the systematics of the Philippine Pleuronectiformes, many species of which have not been reported since they were originally described. Also there is a need to study their spatial and temporal distribution and abundances in various habitats. Furthermore, studies on the diet, growth, reproduction, and recruitment of these fish are required if understanding of their population dynamics is to improve. Except for taxonomic studies, dedicated work on flatfish may not be of high priority in the Philippines. However, it is hoped that Philippine Pleuronectiformes will be studied further, at least in the context of their relationships in multispecies assemblages. REFERENCES Amaoka K., Hensley, D.A., 2001. Paralichthyidae. Sand flounders. In: Carpenter, K.E., Niem, V. (eds.), The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. 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Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  23 APPENDIX 1. ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE FLATFISHES OF THE PHILIPPINES Bothidae Arnoglossus aspilos (Bleeker 1851) Max. length: 19 cm TL; Museum: Eastern Luzon, 4.9 miles off Caringo I., in 11 fathoms (20 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5461, USNM 137659 (Anon. 1994). Sold in dried form called palad. See also Kuronuma and Abe (1996). Arnoglossus brunneus (Fowler 1934) Max. length: 18.3 cm TL; Museum: R/V Albatross collections, as Bothus bnmneus'. east coast of Luzon, in 146 fathoms (267 m), Stn. D. 5453, USNM 93074 (holotype, 18.3 cm) (Fowler, 1934); Sombrero I., Batangas, 118 fathoms (216 m), USNM 93543, and Uanivan I., Batanes, USNM 93544 (paratypes) (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Hensley and Amaoka (2001). Arnoglossus elongatus Weber 1913 Max. length: 11 cm TL; Inhabits coral-sand bottoms from depths of 100-224 m (Hensley and Amaoka, 2001). Arnoglossus polyspilus (Günther 1880) Max. length: 24 cm TL; Museum: East coast of Luzon, in 195 fathoms (357 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5475, USNM 93076 (as Bothus tchangi, 21 cm) (Fowler, 1934). See also Hensley and Amaoka (2001). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Arnoglossus tapeinosoma (Bleeker 1865) Max. length: 13 cm TL; Museum: R/V Albatross collections: western coast of Luzon, off San Fernando Pt., 45 fathoms (82.4 m), USNM 138709; Sulu Sea, off western Mindanao I., off Panabutan Pt., USNM 138712 (Anon., 1994). Asterorhombus fijiensis (Norman 1931) Max. length: 15 cm TL; Museum: Palawan, Putic I., 0-15 ft (0- 4.6 m), USNM 260364. Ajong, Negros I., 0-8 ft (0-2.4 m), USNM 260365. Balicasag I., 0-80 ft (0-24.4 m), USNM 260366. Siquijor I., 0-35 ft (0-11 m), USNM 260367 (Anon., 1994). See also Hensley and Amaoka (2001). Asterorhombus intermedius (Bleeker 1865) Max. length: 15 cm TL; Museum: Bais Bay, Negros I., 0-120 ft (0-36.6 m), USNM 260363 (Anon., 1994). Additional reference: Morphology in Myers (1991). Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) Max. length: 42 cm SL; Museum: Tagburos, Puerto Princesa, USNM 227085. West of Engano Point, Barrio Anqib., Santa Ana, Cagayan Prov., USNM 309422. Fuga I. (Babuyan Is.) USNM 318329. Maybag I., (Babuyan Is.), USNM 318330 (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Randall et al. (1990). Additional references: Morphology in Myers (1991). Diet in Randall (1985). Bothus myriaster (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) Max. length: 27 cm TL; A rare species found in sand and mudd bottoms of continental shelves (Hensley and Amaoka, 2001). See also Conlu (1979). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Bothus pantherinus (Rüppell 1830) Max. length: 30 cm TL; Reported from southern to western Luzon to Cagayan Prov., Palawan, the Visayas (Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol), and northern Mindanao. Museum: ANSP 63543, 63483; LACM 347416, 42485-7; USNM 260373, 260471. Two specimens, 5.2 and 6 in (13 and 15 cm), were collected from Bacon, Sorsogon (Evermann and Scale, 1907). See also Herre (1953), Randall et al. (1990), Myers (1991), and Anon. (1994). Additional reference: Morphology in Myers (1991). Chascanopsetta lugubris Alcock 1894 Max. length: 38 cm SL; Museum: Balayan Bay, Luzon, USNM 138016. Gulf of Davao, Dumalag I. USNM 138017. Northern Mindanao, USNM 138018. Luzon coast, USNM 138019-20 (Anon. 1994). See also Masuda et al. (1984a, 1984b). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Chascanopsetta micrognatha Amaoka & Yamamoto 1984 Max. length: 27.4 cm. Reported by Kunio Amaoka (pers. comm.) using samples collected by him during the WCP Workshop 1995. Checklist of Philippine flatfishes, Cabanban, A. et al.  24 Crossorhombus valderostratus (Alcock 1890) Max. length: 14 cm TL; Museum: China Sea, vicinity s. Luzon, Malavatuan I., 80 fathoms (146 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5277, USNM 137391 (Anon., 1994). Engyprosopon grandisquama (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) Max. length: 15 cm TL; Reported from Sulu archipelago to Corregidor I., Manila Bay. Museum: USNM 137924-41 (Anon., 1994). Sold in the market in dried form called palad. See also Herre (1953). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Engyprosopon latifrons (Regan 1908) Max. length: 8 cm SL. Inhabits sandy bottoms at depths of 37-68 m (Hensley and Amaoka, 2001). Engyprosopon macrolepis (Regan 1908) Max. length: 5.9 cm SL. Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms (Hensley and Amaoka, 2001). Museum: BPBM 26860; USNM 260378; CAS-SU 33678. Species redescribed by Hensley and Randall (1990). Additional reference: Morphology in Hensley and Randall (1990). Engyprosopon maldivensis (Regan 1908) Max. length: 12.7 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections, as Arnoglossus maculipinnis: vicinity of Jolo, in 20 to 76 fathoms (37-139 m), Stn. D. 5140, USNM 93098 (10.1 cm) (Fowler, 1934); between Samar and Leyte, vicinity of Surigao Strait, Tabuc Pt., (Leyte), 62 fathoms (113.5 m), Stn. 5480, USNM 93570 (Anon., 1994). See also Amaoka et al. (1993) and Hensley and Amaoka (2001). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Engyprosopon mogkii (Bleeker 1854) Max. length: 11 cm SL. Known from Mindanao, southern Negros, Palawan, to southern Luzon. Museum: USNM 137960-81, 260468 (Anon., 1994). Based on records, this species occurs in estuarines, reef sand flats, and embayments. Engyprosopon obliquioculatum (Fowler 1934) Max. length: 7.6 cm. Museum: collected most likely from deep water, R/V Albatross collection, as Bothus obliquioculatits, USNM 93077 (holotype, 7.6 cm); USNM 93078 (4 paratypes) (Anon., 1994). Grammatobothus polyophthalmus (Bleeker 1865) Max. length: 21 cm TL. Reported from southern Negros to Masbate Is. and off entrance to Manila Bay (Herre, 1953). Museum: USNM 260448, 160480-1 (Anon., 1994). See also Weber and de Beaufort (1929). Kamoharaia megastoma (Kamohara 1936) Max. length: 22.5 cm TL. Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms (Hensley and Amaoka, 2001). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Laeops clarus Fowler 1934 Max. length: 15.5 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: between Cebu and Bohol, in 162 fathoms (296.5 m), Stn. D. 5412, USNM 93083 (holotype, 15.5 cm) (Fowler, 1934); east coast of Luzon, San Bernadino Strait to San Miguel Bay; Atulayan I., 0-560 fathoms (1025 m), USNM 93560 (paratype) (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Hensley and Amaoka (2001). Laeops cypho Fowler 1934 Max. length: 14.9 cm. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: off northern Mindanao, in 182 fathoms (333 m), Stn. D. 5519, USNM 93085 (holotype, 14.9 cm) (Fowler, 1934); Sombrero I., Batangas, 118 fathoms (216 m), USNM 93567 (paratype) (Anon., 1994). Type locality identified as off Point Tagolo, Zamboanga (Herre, 1953). Laeops gracilis Fowler 1934 Max. length: 16.5 cm TL. Museum: East of Masbate, in 108 fathoms (197 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. D. 5212, USNM 93084 (holotype, 16.5 cm) (Fowler, 1934). See also Herre (1953) and Hensley and Amaoka (2001). Laeops guentheri Alcock 1890 Max. length: 14 cm TL. Museum: West coast of Luzon, from Manila Bay to Lingayen Gulf, S. Fernando Pt., in 45 fathoms (82.4 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5442, USNM 137394 (Anon., 1994).  Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  25 Laeops parviceps Günther 1880 Max. length: 14 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: east coast of Luzon, San Bernardino Strait to San Miguel Bay, Legaspi, 146 fathoms (267 m), Stn. 5453, USNM 137395; west coast of Luzon, Manila Bay to Lingayen Gulf, San Fernando Pt., 45 fathoms (82.4 m), Stn. 5442, USNM 137396; Visayan Sea between northern Negros and Masbate Is., se. Tanguingui I., 0-69.5 m, USNM 260451 (Anon., 1994). Neolaeops microphthalmus (von Bonde 1922) Max. length: 21 cm SL. Inhabits sandy and muddy bottoms (Hensley and Amaoka, 2001). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Psettina brevirictis (Alcock 1890) Max. length: 8 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: western Samar, Taratara I., 20 fathoms (37 m), Stn. D.5209, USNM 137389; off eastern Panay, Antonia I., 24 fathoms (44 m), Stn. 5182, USNM 137390 (Anon., 1994). Psettina gigantea Amaoka 1963 Max. length: 13 cm SL. Museum: Visayan Sea between northern Negros and Masbate Is. northwest Guintacan I., 0-80.5 m, USNM 260446; southwest of Caduruan Point, 0- 78.7 m, USNM 260482 (Anon., 1994). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Psettina variegata (Fowler 1934) Max. length: 9.2 cm SL. Museum: between Samar and Leyte Islands in 61 fathoms (112 m), R/V Albatross collection Stn. D. 5481, USNM 93091 (as Bothus variegatus, holotype, 9.2 cm) (Fowler, 1934; Herre, 1953). See also Hensley and Amaoka (2001). Taeniopsetta ocellata (Günther 1880) Max. length: 11.4 cm. Specimens 6.9 to 11.4 cm were trawled from Stn. 16, at depth of 150 to 164 m during the R/V Vauban expedition (Fourmanoir, 1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981). Additional reference: Morphology in Masuda et al. (1984a). Citharidae Brachypleura novaezeelandiae Günther 1862 Max. length: 14 cm TL. Museum: Marinduque and vicinity, USNM 137708. Off Luzon, Sueste Pt., USNM 137709-10. Manila Bay, Corregidor Lt., USNM 137711. S. Mindanao, eastern Illana Bay, USNM 137712. E. Mindanao, Nagubat I., USNM 137714. Visayan Sea, between northern Negros and Masbate I., USNM 261361, 261363-4, 261526. Carigara Bay, Samar Sea, USNM 228536-9 (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Kuronuma and Abe (1986). Citharoides axillaris (Fowler 1934) Max. length: 19.5 cm. Museum: Albatross collections, as Erachyphurops axillaris: Balayan Bay and Verde Island Passage, in 118 fathoms (216 m), R/V, Stn. D. 5117, USNM 93080 (holotype, 19.5 cm) (Fowler, 1934; Herre, 1953); China Sea, vicinity of southern Luzon, Malavatuan I., USNM 93545; Balabac Strait, Cape Melville, USNM 93547 (Anon., 1994). Citharoides macrolepidotus Hubbs 1915 Max. length: 29 cm TL. A rare species found at depths of 121- 240 m (Hensley, 2001). Lepidoblepharon ophthalmolepis Weber 1913 Max. length: 36 cm TL. Museum: Balanja Pt., Mindoro Is., in 234 fathoms (428 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5260, USNM 137408 (Anon., 1994). Cynoglossidae Cynoglossus arel (Bloch & Schneider 1801) Max. length: 40 cm TL. Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of the continental shelf down to 125 m (Munroe, 2001). Additional references: Growth in Pauly (1980). Food, Diet, Reproduction, and Spawning in Rajaguru (1992). Cynoglossus bilineatus (Lacepède, 1802) Max. length: 44 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Cavite Mkt., USNM 137616; Manila Mkt., USNM 137617, 137652; Palawan, Verde del Sur, reef sand flat, USNM 137618; Manila Bay, USNM 137620; Limbones Cove, USNM 286919 (removed from 113179 and recatalogued) (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Menon (1977). Additional reference: Food in Blaber (1980). Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Hamilton 1822) Max. length: 20 cm TL. Museum: ANSP 49038-9; NHV 43826. See also Herre (1953) and Menon (1977). Checklist of Philippine flatfishes, Cabanban, A. et al.  26 Cynoglossus kopsii (Bleeker 1851) Max. length: 17.7 cm SL. Museum: Iloilo, U.S.N. Eclipse Expedition USNM 112872-4. collections: Pt.Tagalo, 102 fathoms (187 m), Stn. 5520, USNM 113186; Lingayen Gulf, e. of Pt. Guecet, Stn. 5442, USNM 113187; Marinduque and vicinity, Tayabas, Stn. 5371, USNM 113188; Tawi Tawi, 34 fathoms (62.6 m), Stn. D.5152, USNM 137653; Cotabato, USNM 137656; Off San Fernando, 45 fathoms (82 m), Stn. D.5442, USNM 137657; Corregidor, 12 fathoms (22 m), Stn. 5360, USNM 137658; Panay, Iloilo, USNM 148586 (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Menon (1977). Cynoglossus lida (Bleeker 1851) Max. length: 21.3 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Davao, USNM 137952; Abuyog, Leyte, USNM 137953, 137957; Hinunangan B., USNM 137954; Iloilo Mkt., USNM 137955; offcast coast of Leyte I., Tacloban Anchorage, USNM 137956; Palawan, Mantaquin B., USNM 137958; Cotabato, below river mouth, USNM 137959 (Anon., 1994). BMNH 1872.4.6.96 (Menon, 1977). See also Herre (1953) and Heemstra (1986a). Additional references: Growth, Food, Diet, Reproduction, and Spawning in Rajaguru (1992). Cynoglossus lingua Hamilton 1822 Max. length: 45 cm TL. Museum: China Sea, off s. Luzon, 17.5 miles from Malavatuan I., 525 fathoms (961 m), Stn. D.5274, USNM 137410 (Anon., 1994). Cynoglossus monopus (Bleeker 1849) Max. length: 18.8 cm SL. Found on muddy substrates from 13- 18.3 m (Menon, 1977). Museum: AMNH 19645. Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson 1846) Max. length: 18 cm TL. Specimens were collected during the U.S.N. Eclipse Expedition and R/V Albatross from Cotabato, Mindanao, central and eastern Visayas to southern Philippines (Anon., 1994). Museum: ANSP 63524, 82548; LACM 42475-47. See also Herre (1953) and Menon and Monkolprasit (1974). Additional references: Morphology in Fischer and Whitehead (1974). Growth in Pauly (1994). Cynoglossus suyeni Fowler 1934 Max. length: 27.5 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: off southern Luzon, China Sea (Verde I. Passage, off Escarceo Light, Mindoro), in 173 fathoms (317 m), Stn. D. 5291, USNM 93086 (holotype, 15.5 cm) (Fowler, 1934); USNM 113189-113194, 137941-8,- 137950 (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Menon (1977). Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch 1787) Max. length: 60 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Iloilo Mkt., USNM 138070, 138071; Manila Mkt, USNM 138072; Chase Head Endeavor St., Palawan, USNM 138073; Paluan Bay, Mindoro, USNM 138074; Mansalay Bay, southeastern Mindoro, USNM 138075; Lingayen Gulf, USNM 138076; Siquijor I., Santa Maria, USNM 138077; Abuyog, Leyte, USNM 138079; Subig Bay, USNM 138080; Port San Pio Quinto, Camiguin I., 1-6 m, USNM 138082; Panabutan Bay, Mindanao, USNM 138083; Cotabato, USNM 138084; Davao, USNM 138085; Balayan Bay, Luzon, Taal Anchorage, USNM 138086; Bolinao lagoon, Pangasinan, USNM 228535; northeastern side of Siquijor, tidal lagoon, USNM 273773; USNM 138081 (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Heemstra (1986a). Additional references: Growth in Pauly (1978) and Erzini (1991). Food in Livingston (1993). Paraplagusia blochii (Bleeker 1851) Max. length: 20 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Philippine Sea, off Daet, Luzon, 15 June 1909, USNM 138087 (7, 11.6-22 cm) (Chapleau and Renaud, 1993); Limbones Cove, USNM 113179. Iloilo, U.S.N. Eclipse Expedition, USNM 112870 (Anon., 1994). ANSP 77427. Also known from Dumaguete, Negros Oriental (Herre, 1953). See also Winterbottom (1993) and Randall (1995). Symphurus gilesii (Alcock 1889) Max. length: 14 cm. Two specimens collected between 70 to 215 m during the R/V Vauban expedition (Fourmanoir, 1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981). Symphurus marmoratus Fowler 1934 Max. length: 9.8 cm. Museum: Jolo I. and vicinity, in 10 fathoms (18.3 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. D. 5561, USNM 93092 (holotype, 9.8 cm) (Fowler, 1934). Symphurus regani Weber & Beaufort 1929 Max. length: 12 cm. Museum: Between Siquijor and Bohol Is., Balicasag I., 805 fathoms (1473 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5526, USNM 138045 (Anon., 1994).  Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  27 Symphurus septemstriatus (Alcock 1891) Max. length: 10 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Verde I. Passage and Batangas Bay, Matocot Pt., 135 fathoms (247 m), Stn. 5265, USNM 138023 and in 170 fathoms (311 m), Stn. 5268, USNM 163654; between Burias and Luzon, Anima Sola I., 215 fathoms (393 m), Stn. 5216, USNM 138026; China Sea, vicinity s. Luzon, Matocot Pt., 140 fathoms (256 m), Stn. 5298, USNM 138028; between Samar and Masbate, Tubig Pt., Destacado I., 118 fathoms (216 m), Stn. 5391 and in 135 fathoms (247 m), Stn. 5392, USNM 138032; between Cebu and Bohol, Lauis Pt., 145 fathoms (265 m), Stn. 5411, USNM 138037; off n. Luzon, Hermanos I., 230 fathoms (421 m), Stn. 5326, USNM 138040; between Burias and Luzon, Bagatao I., 226 fathoms (414 m), Stn. 5388, USNM 138041 and in 209 fathoms (382 m), Stn. 5387, USNM 138042; Camp Overton Lt, Iligan Bay, Stn. 5508, USNM 163655; Dupon Bay (Leyte) and vicinity, Ponson I., 262 fathoms (479 m), Stn. 5405, USNM 163657 (Anon., 1994). Symphurus strictus Gilbert 1905 Max. length: 14 cm. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Verde I. Passage and Batangas Bay, Matocot Pt., 220 fathoms (402 m), Stn. 5269, USNM 138024; China Sea, vicinity s. Luzon, Matocot, 214 fathoms (392 m), Stn. 5290, USNM 138027 and, Escarceo, 244 fathoms (446 m), Stn. 5294, USNM 138030 (Anon., 1994). Symphurus woodmasoni (Alcock 1889). Known in the Visayan and Mindanao area, R/V Albatross collections (Anon., 1994). Paralichthyidae Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) Max. length: 80 cm SL. Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of shallow waters (Amaoka and Hensley, 2001). Additional reference: Diet in Dou (1992). Pseudorhombus argus Weber 1913 Max. length: 25 cm SL. Museum: Buton Strait, Kalono Pt., in 39 fathoms (71.4 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5641, USNM 137393 (Anon., 1994). Additional reference: Morphology Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Pseudorhombus arsius (Hamilton 1822) Max. length: 45 cm TL. Known from northwestern Mindanao to southern and western Luzon, R/V Albatross collections. Museum: Davao, USNM 137985. Malabang, USNM 137986. Cavite Mkt, USNM 137987. Manila Mkt., USNM 137988, 137993, 137996. North of Malampaya R., USNM 137989. Mantaquin B., Palawan, USNM 137990. Endeavor Pt., in 14-25 fathoms (26-46 m), Stn. 5342, USNM 137991. Abuyog, Leyte, USNM 137992] Outside Harbor of Manila Bay, USNM 137994. Iloilo Mkt, USNM 137995, 138000. Ragay R., tidewater, USNM 137998. Samar I., Catbalogan, USNM 137999. Cuyo Is., USNM 138001 (Anon., 1994). LACM 42475-33. See also Weber and de Beaufort (1929) and Herre (1953). Additional references: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Growth in Bawazeer (1987). Food in Blaber (1980). Pseudorhombus cinnamoneus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) Max. length: 35 cm SL. A 17.7 cm specimen was caught between 150 to 164 m during the 1976 R/V Vauban expedition (Fourmanoir, 1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981). Museum: Puerto Princesa Market, USNM 227078 (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953) and Masuda et al. (1984a). Additional references: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Growth in Matsuura (1961). Pseudorhombus diplospilus Norman 1926 Max. length: 40 cm SL. Museum: Visayan Sea between northern Negros and Masbate Is., southwest of Caduruan Point, in 75 m, USNM 260477 (Anon., 1994). Additional reference: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Pseudorhombus dupliciocellatus Regan 1905 Max. length: 40 cm SL. Museum: Visayan Sea, between northern Negros and Masbate I., southwest of Caduruan Pt., 0-75 m, USNM 260478; north of Tanguingui I., USNM 260479; northwest Guintacan I., USNM 260687 (Anon., 1994). One large sample collected from Bulan, Sorsogon, USNM 55898 (as Platophrys palad, holotype, 15.5 in (39 cm)) (Evermann and Scale, 1907). Additional reference: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001).   Checklist of Philippine flatfishes, Cabanban, A. et al.  28 Pseudorhombus javanicus (Bleeker 1853) Max. length: 35 cm SL. Museum: Bulan, USNM 55967. Panabutan Bay, Mindanao, USNM 138714. Buena Vista, Guimaras I. (Iloilo Strait), USNM 138715. Manila Bay, Corregidor Lt., USNM 138716. Visayan Sea between northern Negros and Masbate Is., southeast south Gigante, USNM 260447 (Anon., 1994). ANSP 49030, 49272. One specimen, 8.25 in. (21 cm), collected from Bulan, Sorsogon (Evermann and Scale, 1907). See also Herre (1953) and Nielsen (1984a). Additional references: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Growth in Chan and Liew (1986). Pseudorhombus malayanus Bleeker 1865 Max. length: 35 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: off east coast of Leyte I., Mariquitdaquit I., 15 fathoms (27 m), Stn. 5204, USNM 137420; Manila Bay, Corregidor Lt., 12 fathoms (22 m), Stn. 5361, USNM 137421; Bacoor Beach, USNM 137422; Manila Mkt., USNM 137423; Western Samar, Taratara I., 20 fathoms (37 m), Stn. D.5209, USNM 137424 (Anon., 1994). LACM 35964-9, 35957-15. Additional reference: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Pseudorhombus megalops Fowler 1934. Max. length: 22 cm SL. Museum: Between Samar and Masbate in 135 fathoms (247 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn D.5392, USNM 93082 (holotype, 22 cm) (Fowler, 1934). USNM 93548-51 (paratypes). Morphological information found also in Hensley and Amaoka (1989). Pseudorhombus micrognathus Norman 1927. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Balayan Bay, Luzon, C. Santiago Lt, 214 fathoms (392 m), Stn. 5365, USNM 137654; Sulu Archipelago, Tawi-tawi group, Tinakta I., 18 fathoms (33 m), Stn. 5157, USNM 137655 (Anon., 1994). Pseudorhombus neglectus Bleeker 1865 Max. length: 25 cm SL. Museum: Bulan I., USNM 55968. Panay I., Iloilo, Naval Eclipse Expedition, USNM 102648 (Anon., 1994). Three specimens collected from San Fabian, Pangasinan, 3.5-6.75 in (9-17 cm) (Evermann and Seale, 1907). Also known from Dumaguete, Negros Oriental. Additional reference: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Pseudorhombus oligodon (Bleeker 1854) Max. length: 30 cm SL. Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of continental shelves. Morphological information found also in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). See also Weber and de Beaufort (1929). Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus Günther 1862 Max. length: 18 cm SL. Museum: Samar I., Catbalogan, USNM 137923. Visayan Sea between northern Negros and Masbate, southeast south Gigante, USNM 260384. Visayan Sea, east of Sicogon I., USNM 260385 (Anon., 1994). See also Masuda et al. (1984a, 1984b). Additional reference: Morphology in Amaoka and Hensley (2001). Pseudorhombus polyspilos (Bleeker 1853) Max. length: 27 cm. Inhabits muddy and sandy bottoms of shallow waters (Amaoka and Hensley, 2001). See also Weber and de Beaufort (1929). Pseudorhombus russellii (Gray 1834) Max. length: 23 cm. Museum: ANSP 63710, 63544 (12.81 and 16.34 cm). One specimen, 23 cm, was also collected from Bulan, Sorsogon (Evermann and Seale, 1907). Pleuronectidae Nematops macrochirus Norman 1931 Max. length: 8.2 cm TL. Museum: China Sea, off southern Luzon at 135 fathoms (247 m), R/V Albatross collection, D. 5110, USNM 93087 (holotype, 8.2 cm) (Fowler, 1934). Type locality described as near Corregidor I. See also Herre (1953) and Hensley (2001). Poecilopsetta colorata Günther 1880 Max. length: 17 cm TL. Museum: Vicinity of southern Luzon, Malavatuan I., 117 fathoms (214 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. 5275, USNM 137392 (Anon., 1994). Poecilopsetta megalepis Fowler 1934 Max. length: I8 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Balayan Bay and Verde I. Passage, in 118 fathoms (216 m), Stn. D. 5117, USNM 93094 (holotype, 12.8 cm) (Fowler, 1934;  Herre, 1953). Balabac Strait: Cape Melville, 148 fathoms (271 m), USNM 93576 (Anon., 1994). Poecilopsetta plinthus (Jordan & Starks 1904) Max. length: 19 cm TL. Fourmanoir (1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981) reported two specimens (9.6 and 9.9 cm) caught between 185 and 200 m during the R/V Vauban expedition. See also Herre (1953). Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  29 Poecilopsetta praelonga Alcock 1894 Max. length: 17.5 cm TL. Reported from Davao, Mindanao, central Visayas to the west coast of Luzon; specimens caught between 247-511 m, USNM 138004-138015 (Anon., 1994). Psettodidae Psettodes erumei (Bloch & Schneider 1801) Max. length: 64 cm. Known from Iloilo, west to Palawan, and north to western Luzon (Herre, 1953). Occurs from shallow waters to over 300 m deep; most abundant between 22 to 40 m (Warfel and Manacop, 1950). Museum: LACM 35957-12. Off El Nido, gill net, FRLM 11761 (Kimura, 1995). Additional references: Morphology in Nielsen (1984b). Growth in Pradhan (1969), Pauly (1978), and Edwards and Shaher (1991). Food in Devadoss et al. (1977) and Cabanban (1991). Diet and Reproduction in Devadoss et al. (1977). Spawning in Devadoss et al. (1977) and Ramanathan and Natarajan (1979). Samaridae Plagiopsetta glossa Franz 1910 Max. length: 19 cm TL. Specimens were collected between 150 and 164 m (Fourmanoir, 1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981). Samaris cristatus Gray 1831 Max. length: 22 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Between Samar and Leyte, vicinity of Surigao Strait, Tabuc Ft., 62 fathoms (114 m), Stn. 5480, USNM 00137649; Buton Strait, Kalono Ft., 39 fathoms (71 m), Stn. 5641, USNM 137650. Samar Sea collection, Carigara Bay, USNM 228532 (Anon., 1994). A specimen, 12 cm, was caught between 70 and 76 m. See also Herre (1953) and Heemstra (1986b). Additional reference: Morphology in Hensley (2001). Samariscus huysmani Weber 1913 Max. length: 11.5 cm TL. Museum: Samar Sea, Carigara Bay, 0-65 m, USNM 27534 (Anon., 1994). Samariscus longimanus Norman 1927 Max. length: 12 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collection: Between Cebu and Bohol, Lauis Ft., 145-162 fathoms (265-297 m), Stns. 5411, 5412, 5418, USNM 137384- 6; Ft. Tagolo, 182 fathoms (333 m), Stn. 5519, USNM 137387; Balayan Bay and Verde I. Passage, Sombrero I., 118 fathoms (216 m), Stn. 5117, USNM 137388 (Anon., 1994). Samariscus luzonensis Fowler 1934 Max. length: 7.6 cm TL. Museum: West coast of Luzon, in 45 fathoms (82.4 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. D. 5442, USNM 93089 (holotype, 7.6 cm) (Fowler, 1934). Type locality identified as off San Fernando, La Union, Luzon. See also Herre (1953), Anon. (1994), and Hensley (2001). Samariscus macrognathus Fowler 1934 Max. length: 5.5 cm TL. Museum: West coast of Luzon, in 45 fathoms (82.4 m), R/V Albatross collection, Stn. D. 5442, USNM 93088 (holotype, 5.4 cm) (Fowler, 1934). Type locality identified as San Fernando, La Union, Luzon (Anon., 1994). See also (Hensley, 2001). Samariscus triocellatus Woods 1960 Max. length: 9 cm TL. Museum: Siquijor L, 80-100 ft (24-30 m), USNM 273792. White Beach, past Mahatae, Batan I., Batanes, 50-70 ft (15-21 m), USNM 298212 (Anon., 1994). Additional reference: Morphology in Myers (1991). Soleidae Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858 Max. length: 20 cm SL. Caught by trawl in the seagrass beds of Bolinao (McManus et al., 1992). Aesopia heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) Max. length: 11 cm SL. Museum: As Soleichthys heterorhinos: Bacon, USNM 55963; R/V Albatross collections-Cebu Mkt. USNM 137412 and Batan I., Caracaran Bay, USNM 137413; Sombrero I., Batangas, USNM 28550; west side of Solino (Selinog) I., Zamboanga del Norte, Mindanao, 0-15 ft (4.6 m), USNM 273795; near Tonga Pt., Siquijor I., 0-1.2 m, USNM 273796; tidal lagoon, northeastern side of Siquijor, 0-1 m, USNM 273800 (Anon., 1994). A 4.2 in (11 cm) specimen was collected from Bacon, Sorsogon (Evermann and Scale, 1907). See also Weber and de Beaufort (1929). Additional reference: Morphology in Myers (1991). Checklist of Philippine flatfishes, Cabanban, A. et al.  30 Aseraggodes cyaneus (Alcock 1890) Max. length: 8.3 cm SL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Balayan Bay and Verde I. Passage, Sombrero I., 340 fathoms (622.2 m), Stn. 5114, USNM 137674; China Sea, vicinity of southern Luzon, Corregidor, in 114 fathoms (208.6 m), USNM 137675 and in 118 fathoms (216 m), USNM 137676; east coast of Luzon, Legaspi, USNM 137678 (Anon., 1994). LACM 42475-47. Aseraggodes dubius Weber 1913 Max. length: 8.5 cm. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Davao, USNM 137667; China Sea, off s. Luzon, Sueste Pt., 25 fathoms (46 m), Stn. 5105, USNM 137668; Verde I. Passage and Batangas Bay, Matocot Pt., 100 fathoms (183 m), Stn. 5266, USNM 137669; Marinduque I. and vicinity, Tayabas, 90 fathoms (165 m), Stn. 5376, USNM 137671 and in 83 fathoms (152 m), Stn. 5371, USNM 137672; Batangas River, Luzon, USNM 137673 (Anon., 1994). Aseraggodes filiger Weber 1913 Max. length: 11 cm. Collected from Manila Bay, 8 miles from Corregidor Is. in 15-25 fathoms (27-46 m) (Herre, 1953). Aseraggodes kaianus (Günther 1880) Max. length: 11.3 cm. Forty specimens, ranging from 7.2-9 cm, were collected between 150-164 m, during the R/V Vauban expedition (Fourmanoir, 1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981). Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852) Max. length: 38 cm. Museum: Ulugan Bay near mouth of Baheli River, USNM 137679; Cebu Mkt., USNM 137680-1; Nasugbu Bay, Luzon, USNM 137682 (Anon., 1994). Brachirus muelleri (Steindachner 1879) Max. length: 18 cm. Museum: Carigara Bay, Samar Sea, 50-70 m, USNM 228530. Sorsogon Mkt., USNM 286939 and 291084 (Anon., 1994). Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) Max. length: 30 cm SL. Inhabits shallow sand and muddy bottoms of coastal waters (Menon and Monkolprasit, 1974). Brachirus sorsogonensis Evermann & Seale 1907. Max. length: 23 cm. Museum: Bacon, Sorsogon, USNM 55916 (holotype, 9 in. (23 cm)) (Evermann and Seale, 1907). Cuyo Is., USNM 72194 (Anon., 1994). Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker, 1853) Max. length: 11.4 cm; Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Leyte, Hinunangan B., USNM 137718; Mindanao, Davao, USNM 137719; Cotabato, USNM 137720; Palawan, Verde del Sur, USNM 137721; Port Bais, eastern Negros, USNM 137722; Mantaquin Bay, Palawan, USNM 137723; Subic Bay, Olongapo, USNM 137724 (Anon. 1994). A 4.5 in (11.4 cm) specimen was collected from the country (Evermann and Seale 1907). See also Herre (1953). Liachirus melanospilus (Bleeker 1854) Max. length: 7.5 cm SL. Reported from Manila Bay (Herre, 1953). Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) Max. length: 25 cm TL. Museum: Cebu Mkt., USNM 137624-29. Bacon, USNM 55966. Zamboanga, USNM 84258. Jolo Mkt. USNM 137622. Bolinao Bay, USNM 137623. Pagapas Bay, Santiago R., USNM 137630. Senora Ascion, n. of Dumaguete, Negros O., USNM 273799. Tagburos, Puerto Princesa City Mkt., USNM 286974 (Anon., 1994). LACM 37398-9, 37397-2, 37398-9, 42471-4. Marketable in Jolo, Sulu, and Cebu. A specimen, 5.5 in (14 cm) in length, was collected from Bacon, Sorsogon (Evermann and Scale, 1907). See also Herre (1953) and Randall et al. (1990). Additional references: Morphology in Myers (1991). Food in Sano et al. (1984). Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851) Max. length: 6.6 cm TL. Museum: Rio Grande, Mindanao, USNM 56164 (Anon., 1994). Three specimens were caught at depths between 122 and 205 m during the 1976 R/V Vauban expedition (Fourmanoir, 1976 in Fourmanoir, 1981). See also Herre (1953) and Kottelat (1993). Solea humilis Cantor 1849 Max. length: 8.9 cm. Considered a commercial fish in the country (Warfel and Manacop, 1950). See also Weber and de Beaufort (1929). Solea ovata Richardson 1846 Max. length: 10 cm TL. Museum: R/V Albatross collections: Manila Mkt. USNM 137397, 137399-404; Sorsogon Mkt., USNM 137405 (Anon., 1994). See also Munroe (2001). Synaptura marginata Boulenger 1900 Max. length: 50 cm TL. Caught in seagrass beds. Museum: Tagburos, Puerto Princesa City Mkt., USNM 226832 (Anon., 1994). Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  31 Synaptura megalepidoura (Fowler 1934) Max. length: 24.3 cm. Museum: R/V Albatross collections, as Brachirus megalepidoura: offcast coast of Leyte, 15 fathoms (27 m), Stn. D. 5204, USNM 93081 (holotype, 24.3 cm) (Fowler, 1934); western Samar, Taratara I., 20 fathoms (37 m), Stn. D.5209, USNM 93554 (Anon., 1994). See also Herre (1953). Zebrias lucapensis Seigel & Adamson 1985 Max. length: 8.4 cm SL. Museum: Lingayen Gulf, LACM 37436-6 (holotype); LACM 37436-8 (paratype). Morphological information found also in Seigel and Adamson (1985). Zebrias quagga (Kaup 1858) Max. length: 15 cm TL. Inhabits shallow coastal waters (Menon 1984). Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) Max. length: 19 cm TL. Museum: Tigbauan, Panay, USNM 106828 (Anon., 1994).  Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea, Sorongon, P.M.E. and Palomares, M.L.D.  32 NON-FISH VERTEBRATES OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA1 Patricia M.E. Sorongon The SeaLifeBase Project, Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office, Khush Hall, IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: p.sorongon@cgiar.org Maria Lourdes D. Palomares Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver BC V6T1Z4, Canada; Email: m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT A preliminary checklist of the non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea, recently identified as a hotspot of marine biodiversity, was assembled using SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org), a global information system on non-fish marine organisms of the world. The current checklist covers 102 non-fish vertebrates, i.e., 36% marine mammals, 36% seabirds and 27% reptiles. Data were assembled from books, reports, and journal articles identified through targeted searches, complemented and checked by experts collaborating with SeaLifeBase. Vertebrates, sitting at the top of the food chain, are a resource heavily exploited by humans and highly ‘visible’. However, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature lists only a few of these in their assessments, leaving 35% marine mammals, 8% seabirds, 78% reptiles with a ‘not evaluated’ or ‘data deficient’ assessment. A strategy to fill-in gaps and to store information in SeaLifeBase that may be of use to such assessments is discussed. INTRODUCTION The South China Sea (2-23°N, 107-119°E) is bordered by ten countries (China, including Hong Kong and Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines), spread over 3.8 million km2 including the Gulf of Thailand and Gulf of Tonkin with depths to 5,377 m (Morton and Blackmore, 2001). A recent meeting of the Coral Triangle Initiative in the Philippines identified the South China Sea as a region of interest by virtue of its proximity to the Coral Triangle and of conservation concerns notably of heavily exploited resources. At the top of the marine food chain, vertebrates maintain the balance of the ecosystem (ACCOBAMS and CMS, 2004). However, these slow growing, long-lived and large species are, in most cases and certainly so in the South China Sea, the target of various fisheries. The absence of a complete census of non-fish vertebrates hinders conservation efforts on this group of marine organisms (Morton and Blackmore, 2001; Perrin, 2002), and even more pertinent in areas like the South China Sea which is managed by 10 different administrations and cultures. Thus, to contribute to conservation efforts of South China Sea non-fish vertebrates, this study assembled the scattered bits of data in the scientific literature on country and ecosystem distribution, IUCN status, and treaties governing the protection of tetrapods in the South China through SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org), an information system on all non-fish marine organisms of the world. This permitted the identification of information gaps which might help colleagues in the region in deciding the direction towards which future research might be channelled.                                                  1 Cite as: Sorongon, P.M.E., Palomaers, M.L.D., 2010. Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine Biodiversity of Southeast Asian and Adjacent Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3), p. 32-42. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  33 MATERIALS AND METHODS A target search per group was conducted with search engines Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge and Aquatic Science and Fisheries Abstract (ASFA). The keywords applied were based on functional groups, e.g., ‘marine mammal’, ‘seabird’ and ‘reptile’, or by ecosystem, e.g., ‘South China Sea’, ‘Gulf of Thailand’ or ‘Gulf of Tonkin’, and coupled with theme or topic, e.g., distribution, ecology, growth, diet, food, etc. In addition, targetted country searches were performed, i.e., keyword search by country, e.g., ‘Thailand’ and ‘checklist’, etc. We also asked the help of some SeaLifeBase collaborators, who took part in providing species lists, distribution, diet and ecological information as well as translations for non-English references. These references provided data on nomenclature, distribution, and ecological information. Taxonomic global system databases like the Catalogue of Life (www.catalogueoflife.org), the World Register of Marine Species (www.marinespecies.org), and AviBase – The World Bird Database (www.avibase.bsc-eoc.org) were used to check the validity of scientific names obtained from published checklists. Country and ecosystem distribution records were extracted from checklists, species accounts with maps, and references reporting the occurrence of a species in a given locality, e.g., water body or country. Depth distribution, maximum sizes, habitat preference, trophic ecology were obtained from English language books, reports, scientific journal and popular science articles. IUCN (www.iucnredlist.org) 2009 assessments, integrated in the SeaLifeBase information system (www.sealifebase.org) used as the repository of the above gathered information, were used to list species with ‘data defficient’ or ‘not evaluated’ assessments. The categories on which the IUCN bases its assessment on the status of a listed species requires data on ecology, distribution, maturity, population size/trends, population dynamics (length-weight relationships, maximum sizes, and growth), threats, and conservation measures. The availability of such data in SeaLifeBase was used to establish which species currently in the IUCN ‘data deficient’ or ‘not evaluated’ list might be recommended for re-assessment. In the same manner, gaps in information required to assess other species listed in the IUCN were identified. An additional search for laws, protection and conservation efforts of IUCN listed species was performed to complement the SeaLifeBase data. RESULTS A total of 63 references (Appendix 1) were exhausted for marine mammals (36), seabirds (11) and reptiles (16) listed for the South China Sea. The reference search with keywords ‘South China Sea’ and ‘tetrapod’ identified 37% of these, while the search by country and keyword ‘tetrapod’ identified 63%. These are mostly species accounts (60%) and country lists (35%) and a few are ecosystem lists (5%), i.e., checklist of functional groups for the South China Sea. The earliest publications are reports dating back to 1956 while the more recent ones are species accounts and checklists per country or ecosystem in connection to their conservation status. Journal articles and reports provided the most coverage for non-fish vertebrates (see Figure 1, upper panel). These publications accounted for 102 non-fish vertebrate species specifically listed in a country, Journal articles 41% Reports 29% Database 11% Books 10% Book chapters 6% Theses 3%  Distribution 102 Ecology 102 Nomenclature 102 Maximum size 50 Length-weight 34 Maturity 34 Growth 27 Population size 14  Figure 1. Upper piechart: Distribution of references by type (%; n=63) obtained from reference searches for non-fish vertebrate species occurring in the South China Sea. Lower piechart: Data coverage, i.e., number of species for which data is available, of non-fish vertebrate species in the South China Sea assembled in SeaLifeBase. Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea, Sorongon, P.M.E. and Palomares, M.L.D.  34 locality within or in the South China Sea (Figure 2). All these species have information on their synonyms, ecology and distribution within the South China Sea. Abundance data was obtained for only 14% of these species, usually through the population size of the functional group. Maturity data was obtained for 33% of these species while data on population dynamics were obtained for 26-49% (see Figure 1, lower panel). IUCN listed species which are not evaluated due to lack of available information (‘not evaluated’ category) include 8% seabirds and 3% marine mammals, and a large number of reptiles  (78%; see Figure 2, right panel). Species with ‘data defficient’ IUCN category make up 32% (see Figure 2, right middle panel). Table 1. Number of non-fish vertebrates species occurring in countries bordering the South China Sea obtained from target reference searches and assembled in SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org; see Palomares and Pauly, 2010) as compared to country estimates from published literature (values in brackets) only available for marine mammals and marine reptiles. SCS=South China Sea; BrD=Brunei Darusalaam; Cam=Cambodia; MCh= Mainland China; HK=Hong Kong; Tai=Taiwan; In=Indonesia; Mal=Malaysia; Phi=Philippines; Sin=Singapore; Tha=Thailand; VN=Viet Nam. Class  Countries in the South China Sea Sources  SCS BrD Cam MCh HK Tai In Mal Phi Sin Tha VN  Aves 37 6 11 29 17 15 10 7 10 7 13 16 Karpouzi (2005) Mammalia 37 29 (12)  30 (10)  33 (40) 27 (16)  26 (31) 32 (30)  32 (29)  31 (26)  31 (6)  32 (15)  31 (19)  Beasley and Davidson, (2007; BrD, Cam, In, Mal, Phi, Sin, Tha, Vie); Chou (2002; Ta); Jefferson and Hung (2007; HK); Mazlan, et al. (2005; Mal); Sabater (2005; Phi); Zhou (2002; Ch). Reptilia 28 5 20 17 2 23 24 (38) 24 (40) 17 8 22 24 Hutomo and Moosa (2005; In); Mazlan, et al. (2005; Mal).               Totals 102 40 61 79 46 64 66 63 58 46 67 71 –  There is very little coverage of seabirds and marine reptiles on a per country basis, the only checklists of marine organisms available are for Indonesia (Hutomo and Moosa, 2005) and Malaysia (Mazlan, et al., 2005) and the only large marine ecosystem checklist available is that for sea snakes of the Gulf of Thailand (Murphy, et al., 1999), which listed 24 species, increasing SeaLifeBase’s previous count by 2. Based on the results of this study, the number of species listed in SeaLifeBase as occurring in the countries bordering the South China Sea is, on the average, higher by 20% than those of published estimates (Table 1). Also, marine mammals are the most studied of the three non-fish vertebrate groups considered here. DISCUSSION The fact that there are more studies on marine mammals and turtles and less on marine reptiles is quite understandable, i.e., snakes and crocodiles are known threats to humans, snakes for their deadly venom and crocodiles for their monstrous bite. On the other hand, dugongs, dolphins, whales, turtles and seabirds are charismatic species listed by the IUCN as threatened animals, no doubt because they (particularly marine mammals and turtles) are also the target of traditional fisheries (Chang et al., 1981; Liang et al., 1990; Dolar et al., 1994) with high commercial values (Beasley and Davidson, 2007; Hines, et al., 2008) which encourage fishers in the mostly poor countries bordering the South China Sea to catch and trade them (Beasley and Davidson, 2007). Misidentified as fish, they are caught as by-catch by unmonitored fishing gear, e.g., nylon nets and monofilament line gillnets with varying mesh sizes particularly in Cambodia (Beasley and Davidson, 2007), Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia (Jaaman, et al., 2009) and Philippines (Dolar, 2004) and other fishing gears, e.g., trawls, fish stakes, driftnets and purse seines (Perrin, 2002; Dolar, 2004; Jaaman, et al., 2009). In addition, marine mammals are caught as show animals in oceanariums, e.g., in Thailand, Jakarta, Indonesia and Japan (Perrin, et al., 1996; Stacey and Leatherwood, 1997; Perrin, 2002). Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  35 Delphinidae 48% Balaenopteridae 19% Mustelidae 8% Ziphiidae 8% Dugongidae 3% Kogiidae 5% Eschrichtiidae 3% Phocoenidae 3% Physeteridae 3%  LC 35% DD 32% EN 14% VU 8% NT 5% CR 3% N.E. 3%  Laridae 65% Sulidae 5% Anatidae 3% Phaethontidae 3% Phalacrocoracidae 11% Fregatidae 5% Hydrobatidae 3% Pelecanidae 5%  LC 78% N.E. 8% VU 8% CR 3% NT 3%  Hydrophiidae 60% Elapidae 18% Cheloniidae 14% Crocodylidae 4% Dermochelyidae 4%  N.E. 78% CR 7% EN 7% LR/lc 4% VU 4%  Figure 2. Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea listed in SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org). the piecharts on the left show the distribution by family of 37 species of marine mammals (upper), 37 seabirds (middle) and 28 marine reptiles (lower). The piecharts on the right show the distribution by IUCN Red List status of marine mammals (upper), seabirds (middle) and marine reptiles (lower). CR: critically endangered; EN: endangered; LC: least concern; LR/lc: lower risk, least concern; N.E.: not evaluated; NT: near threatened; VU: vulnerable.   Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea, Sorongon, P.M.E. and Palomares, M.L.D.  36 Destructive fishing practices, e.g., blast or dynamite fishing in Hong Kong and Hainan Island (Morton and Blackmore, 2001), Indonesia (Pet-Soede and Erdmann, 1998) and the Philippines (Alcala and Gomez, 1979) and cyanide fishing in the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, China, and in Hong Kong (Morton and Blackmore, 2001), though mainly targeting fishes, are known to have indirect effects on non-fish marine vertebrates. These, in addition to small and big-scale non-selective trawlers, pollution, and run-off which destroy habitats, e.g., coral reefs, and thus the prey organisms that depend on these habitats (Perrin, 2002; Beasley and Davidson, 2007; Hines, et al., 2008; Chan, 2010). Seabirds in particular are affected by pollution from heavy metals and exploitation and disturbance due to egg gathering and unprotected breeding areas, e.g., the Chinese crested tern (Thalasseus bernsteini) now considered at high risk of extinction (Chan, 2010). These threats and the recorded decline, notably in seabird and marine mammal populations, initiated a wave of legislation and conventions for the protection and conservation of this group of marine animals (Table 2). Global conventions treating all tetrapods (i.e., marine vertebrates including fish) include the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), The RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands (RAMSAR), Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), IUCN and CITES (Karpouzi and Pauly, 2008; IUCN, 2009; CITES, 2010). These conventions establish regional agreements covering large marine ecosystems dealing with habitat conservation, research, sustainable use of resources, threat reduction, e.g., by-catch and pollution. They also provide platforms for capacity building, trainings and incentives for public participation (Perrin, 2002; CBD, 2005; CBD, 2009). The Law of the Sea, an international agreement on the protection of the marine environment, provides a framework for the sustainable management of fish stocks and conservation of marine mammals (Borgerson, 2009). In Southeast Asia, turtles are being conserved through the Indian Ocean – Southeast Asia Marine Turtle Memorandum of Understanding (IOSEA) ratified by 5 ASEAN countries bordering the South China Sea (see Table 2). It aims to protect and conserve sea turtles by reducing causes of mortality, rehabilitating habitats, promoting awareness through information dissemination, and encouraging public participation through international efforts (IOSEA, 2010). National conservation and protection of marine resources platforms are also in place. In Eastern Malaysia, a structure of regulations and laws governing fisheries management, protection of aquatic animals and turtles, and establishment of MPA and reserves are in place, in addition to laws governing trade regulations with Cambodia. Malaysians, unfortunately and in spite of this well- structured platform of marine resources protection, ignore the implemented ban on the fishing of marine mammals (Perrin, et al., 2005; Jaaman, et al., 2009). Cambodians, on the other hand, have not gotten around to establishing such laws, but, they follow the Mininstry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries Fisheries Law, i.e., against hunting, trade, confiscation, captive breeding, import and export of rare and endangered species (Beasley and Davidson, 2007; Hines, et al., 2008). In Vietnam, existing laws are mainly to protect the welfare of dugongs and turtles (Hines, et al., 2008). China, a top consumer of marine vertebrates, has in addition to the national laws already in place (Huang et al., this volume), implements province-wide regulations (Hong Kong and Taiwan; Chan et al., 2007). Non-government organizations help implement these laws and regulations, e.g., Taiwan Cetacean Stranding Network (TCSN) and Taiwan Cetacean Society (TCS) responds to strandings on the Taiwanese coast. In spite of the already long list of conventions summarized in Table 2, there is an overlying concern that enforcement is weak. In addition, the lack of a structured monitoring and documentation system hinders assessment as would benefit, e.g., the IUCN (Beasley and Davidson, 2007; Perrin, 2002; Jaaman, et al., 2009). Transboundary cooperation between countries surrounding the South China Sea, e.g., a set of unified laws and conventions implemented by all countries in the South China Sea, may help mitigate threats on these animals. And to support these conventions, the setting-up of information and education campaigns may help nationals of each country understand the need to conserve these animals and thus increase compliance and/or encourage: 1) monitoring through log books, photographs or video documentations (Beasley and Davidson, 2007; Jaaman, et al., 2009); and 2) monitoring of by-catch from fishing gear, landings, marine protected areas, and habitats (Perrin, 2002). As most of the species in this group are migratory and are not easy research subjects, i.e., observation and field work require expensive equipment and trained personnel, the knowledge base available through searchable online global information systems like FishBase (www.fishbase.org) and SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org) present a formidable tool most helpful in the assessment of the status of threat of species in this group. By working with national experts and institutions, these information systems endeavour to provide platforms for conservation assessments; FishBase was used for national assessments for Philippine fresh water fishes (22 April 2009, A session under the 2nd National Training Course on Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  37 Freshwater Fish Identification and Conservation c/o Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development-Zonal Center 2, UPLB & WorldFish) and with SeaLifeBase for national assessments of marine mammal species of the Philippines (13-14 August 2009, Conservation International in collaboration with the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources). Extending such collaborations to the other 9 countries bordering the South China Sea seems to be a logical ‘next step’ in the conservation of these much appreciated animal group. Table 2. Treaties and conventions as well as laws and regulations ratified and implemented in the countries bordering the South China Sea. Convention/Law Country Group Sources Government Regulations of the Republic of Indonesia Number 07 (1999) In A Chan, et al., 2007 Protection of Wildlife Act (1972) Ma A Chan, et al., 2007 The RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands (RAMSAR) Ca, TCh, In, Ma, Ph, Th, Vi A Karpouzi and Pauly, 2008; RAMSAR, 2010 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Ca, TCh, In, Ma, Ph, Si, Th, Vi A, M, R Chan, et al., 2007; IUCN, 2009 Convention on International Trade In Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Br, Ca, TCh, In, Ma, Ph, Si, Th, Vi A, M, R CITES, 2010 Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife MCh, HK A, M, R Sharma, 2005 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Br, Ca, TCh, In, Ma, Ph, Si, Th, Vi A, M, R Karpouzi and Pauly, 2008; CBD, 2009 Fishery Law of PRC  MCh, HK M Zhou, 2002 Wildlife Protection Law of PRC MCh, HK M Zhou, 2002 Marine Environment Protection Law of PRC MCh, HK M Zhou, 2002 Wildlife Conservation Law 1989 Ta M Chou, 2002 Fisheries Act 1985 Ma M Jaaman, et al., 2009 Wildlife Conservation Enactment 1997 Ma M Jaaman, et al., 2009 Wild Life Protection Ordinance 1998 Ma M Jaaman, et al., 2009 Fisheries Department Law  Vi M, R Hines, et al., 2008 Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) Ph M, R Karpouzi and Pauly, 2008; CMS, 2010 MAFF Fisheries Law Ca M, R Hines, et al., 2008 Indian Ocean – Southeast Asia Marine Turtle Memorandum of Understanding (IOSEA) Ca, In, Ph, Th, Vi R IOSEA, 2010  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This contribution was made possible through collaboration between the Sea Around Us Project (UBC, Vancouver, Canada), the SeaLifeBase Project (funded by the Oak Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland), and the Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office (Los Baños, Laguna). Thanks are due to the SeaLifeBase team for their continued effort in populating information for non-fish vertebrate species and the following SeaLifeBase collaborators: Vasiliki Karpouzi (Vancouver, Canada) for providing data on seabirds, Kristin Kaschner (Hamburg, Germany) for validating global marine mammal distributions, Andrea Hunter (Vancouver, Canada) for providing marine mammal growth data, Dr. Louella Dolar and Dr. Jo Marie Acebes (Philippines) for providing data on Philippine marine mammals, IOSEA for providing occurrence data for sea turtles, and to the FAO for allowing SeaLifeBase to use information from species catalogues on marine mammals and sea turtles of the world.   Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea, Sorongon, P.M.E. and Palomares, M.L.D.  38 REFERENCES ACCOBAMS and CMS, 2004. Investigating the role of cetaceans in marine ecosystems. CIESM Workshop Monographs. 16 p. Alcala, A.C., Gomez, E.D., 1979. Recolonization and growth of hermatypic corals in dynamite blasted coral reefs in the Central Visayas, Philippines. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Marine Biogeography and Evolution in the Southern Hemisphere, Auckland, New Zealand, 1978. DSIR Information Services 137(2). Beasley, I.L., Davidson, P.J.A., 2007. Conservation status of marine mammals in Cambodian waters, including seven new cetacean records of occurrence. Aquatic Mammals 33(3), 368-379. Borgerson, S.G., 2009. Council on Foreign Relations: The National Interest and the Law of the Sea. Council Special Report 46, 82 p. Chan, S., Chen, S.H., Yuan, H.W., 2010. International single species action plan for the conservation of the Chinese crested tern (Sterna bernsteini). Tokyo: Japan. BirdLife International Asia Division, Technical Report Series 21, 1-22. Chang, K.-H., Jan, R.-Q., Hua, C.-S., 1981. Scientific note inshore fishes at Tai-pin Island (South China Sea). Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology Academia Sinica 20, 87-93. Chou, L.-S., 2002. Progress report of cetacean research and conservation in Taiwan. Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University, pp. 248-251. Convention on Biological Diversity, 2005. Indicators for assessing progress towards the 2010 target: trends in abundance and distribution of selected species. 10th Meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 7-11 February 2005. http://www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/sbstta/sbstta-10/information/sbstta-10-inf-11-en.pdf [Accessed 03/08/2010]. Convention on Biological Diversity, 2009. Country profiles. http://www.cbd.int/countries/profile.shtml [Accessed 03/08/2010]. Convention on International Trade In Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 2010. List of Contracting Parties. http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/parties/alphabet.shtml [Accessed 05/08/2010]. Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 2010. National Participation in Convention on the Conservation Migratory Species of Wild Animals and its Agreements at 1 August 2010: List of all countries in the World indicating their participation in CMS and its Agreements and MOUs. http://www.cms.int/about/all_countries_eng.pdf [Accessed 05/08/2010]. Dolar, M.L.L., 2004. Incidental takes of small cetaceans in fisheries in Palawan, central Visayas and northern Mindanao in the Philippines. Reports of the International Whaling Commission (special issue) 15, 355-363. Dolar, M.L.L., Leatherwood, S.J., Wood, C.J., Alava, M.N.R., Hill, C.L., Aragones, L.V., 1994. Directed fisheries for cetaceans in the Philippines. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 44, 439-449. Hines, E., Adulyanukosol, K., Somany, P., Ath, L.S., Cox, N., Boonyanate, P., Hoa, N.X., 2008. Conservation needs of the dugong Dugong dugon in Cambodia and Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam. Oryx 42(1), 113-121. Hutomo, M., Moosa, M.K., 2005. Indonesian marine and coastal biodiversity: present status. Indian J. of Marine Sciences 34(1), 88- 97. IUCN, 2009. Members database. http://www.iucn.org/about/union/members/network/members_database/ [Accessed 05/08/2010]. Jaaman, S.A., Lah-Anyi, Y.U., Pierce, G.J., 2009. The magnitude and sustainability of marine mammal by-catch in fisheries in East Malaysia. J. of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 89(5), 907-920. Karpouzi, V.S., Pauly, D., 2008. A framework for evaluating national seabird conservation efforts. In: Alder, J., Pauly, D. (eds.), A Comparative Assessment of Biodiversity, Fisheries, and Aquaculture in 53 Countries' Exclusive Economic Zones, p. 62-70. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(7), 90 p. Kharin, V.E., 2006. An annotated checklist of sea snakes of Vietnam, with notes on a new record of the yellow-lipped sea krait, Laticauda colubrine (Schneider, 1799) (Laticaudidae, Hydrophiidae). Russian J. of Marine Biology 32(4), 223-228. Kideys, A.E., 2002. Fall and rise of the Black Sea ecosystem. Science, New York, 297, 1482–1484. Liang, W.-L., Jwang, W.-S., Liu, C.-W., Liu, W.-S., Sung, J.-S., Chen, T.-T., Chen, I.-Z., Shu, Y.-K., Lu, S.-J., Chang, Z.-S., Chang, C.- Z., Lin, J.-Z., 1990. The investigation of sea turtle resources in the South China Sea, and the development of artificial hatching techniques of the sea turtles. Report of the Conservation Stations of Southsea Turtle Resources, Gangdong Province, China, PRC., 37 pp. Mazlan. A.G., Zaidi, C.C., Wan-Lotfi, W.M., Othman, B.H.R., 2005. On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia. Indian J. of Marine Sciences 34(1), 76-87. Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries: Fisheries Administration, 2007. Law on Fisheries: (Unofficial Translation supported by ADB/FAO TA Project on Improving the Regulatory and Management Framework for Inland Fisheries). http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/cam82001.pdf [Accessed 03/08/2010]. 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The Irrawaddy dolphin Orcaella brevirostris: A summary of current knowledge and recommendations for conservation action. Asian Marine Biology 14, 195-214. The RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands, 2010. Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 30/07/2010. http://www.ramsar.org/cda/en/ramsar-about-parties-contracting-parties-to-23808/main/ramsar/1-36- 123%5E23808_4000_0__ [Accessed 05/08/2010]. Zhou, K. 2002. Marine mammal research and conservation in China. Fisheries Science 68(Supplement 1), 244-247. Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea, Sorongon, P.M.E. and Palomares, M.L.D.  40 APPENDIX 1. LIST OF REFERENCES FOR TETRAPODS OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA USED IN SEALIFEBASE Acebes, J.M.V., Lesaca, L.A.R., 2003. Research and conservation of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) and other cetacean species in the Babuyan Islands, Cagayan Province, northern Luzon, Philippines. pp, 34-42. In: Van der Ploeg, J., Masipiquena, A., Bernardo, E.C. (eds), The Sierra Madre Mountain Range: Global relevance, local realities, Papers presented at the 4th Regional Conference on Environment and Development. Cagayan Valley Program on Environment and Development, Golden Press, Tuguegarao City. Argeloo, M., 1993. Black-headed gulls wintering in Sulawesi (and notes on their occurrence elsewhere in the Indo-Australia region). Kukila, Bulletin of the Indonesian Ornithological Society 6(2), 110-114. Beasley, I., Robertson, K.M., Arnold, P., 2005. Description of a new dolphin, the Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni sp. n. (Cetacea, Delphinidae). Marine Mammal Science 21(3), 365-400. Beasley, I.L., Davidson, P.J.A., 2007. Conservation status of marine mammals in Cambodian waters, including seven new cetacean records of occurrence. Aquatic Mammals 33(3), 368-379. BirdLife International, 2008. BirdLife Internationalhttp://www.birdlife.org/index.html Bishop, K.D., 1992. New and interesting records of birds in Wallacea. Kukila, Bulletin of the Indonesian Ornithological Society 6(1), 8-34. Cao, L., Pan, Y.L., Liu, N.F., 2007. Waterbirds of the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea. Waterbirds 30(2), 296-300. Chan, E.H., Liew, H.C., 1999. Decline of the leatherback population in Terengganu, Malaysia, 1956-1995. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2, 196-203. Cogger, H.G., 1975. Sea snakes of Australia and New Guinea. In: Dunson, W.A. (ed.), The biology of sea snakes. Baltimore, University Park Press. Chapter 4, 59-139. Dunson, W.A., Minton, S.A., 1978. Diversity, distribution and ecology of Philippine marine snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). J. of Herpetology 12(3), 281-286. Foster-Turley, P., 1992. Conservation aspects of the ecology of Asian small-clawed and smooth otters on the Malay Peninsula. IUCN Otter Species Group Bulletin 7, 26-29. Golden Forests, Landscapes and Seascapes: Governance and Local Development for Endangered Forests, Landscapes and Seascapes Projects, 2050. Green sea turtle. Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources. http://www.haribon.org.ph. Handley, G.O.J., 1966. A synopsis of the genus Kogia (pygmy sperm whales). In: Norris, K.S. (ed.), Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises. University of California Press, 62-69. Hin, H.K., Stuebing, R.B., Voris, H.K., 1991. Population structure and reproduction in the marine snake, Lapemis hardwickii Gray, from the west coast of Sabah. Sarawak Museum J. 42, 463-475. Hulsman, K., 1988. The structure of seabird communities: an example from Australian waters. In Burger, J. (ed.), Seabirds and other marine vertebrates. Competition, predation, and other interactions. Columbia University Press, New York, USA, 59-91. Hung, S.K., 2003. Monitoring of Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong waters - data collection: final report (2002- 03). Unpublished report to the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, 74 pp. Hung, S.K., 2004. Monitoring of Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong waters - data collection: final report (2003- 04). Unpublished report to the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, 87 pp. Hung, S.K., 2005. Monitoring of Chinese white dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Hong Kong waters - data collection: final report (2004- 05). Unpublished report to the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, 107 pp. Hung, S.K., 2005. Monitoring of finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) in Hong Kong waters - data collection: final report (2003-05). Unpublished report to the Hong Kong Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, 95 pp. Hussain, S.A., Kanchanasakha, B., de Silva, P.K., Olson, A., 2008. Lutra sumatrana. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>. [Accessed 26/03/2010]. Ineich, I., Laboute, P., 2002. Sea snakes of New Caledonia. IRD Éditions.  Institut de Recherche pour le Développement. Muséum national d'histoire naturelle.  Collection Faune et Flore Tropicales 39, 302 pp. IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU Secretariat. 2010. Online National Report Viewer: results of species/habitat searchIOSEA Marine Turtle - Online Reporting Facility (Version 3.0 - Beta). www.ioseaturtles.org; Retrieved Jan 27, 2010. IUCN, 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.www.iucnredlist.org [Accessed 04/07/2007]. Jefferson, T.A., Leatherwood, S., Webber, M.A., 1993. FAO Species Identification Guide: Marine Mammals of the World. Rome, FAO, 320 p. + 587 figures. Jefferson, T.A., Hung, S.K., 2004. Neophocaena phocaenoides. Mammalian Species 746, 1-12. Jefferson, T.A., Hung, S.K., 2007. An updated, annotated checklist of the marine mammals of Hong Kong. Mammalia 71(3), 105-114. Kahn, B., 2005. Indonesia oceanic cetacean program activity report: January - February 2005. The Nature Conservancy, 22 pp. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  41 Kanda, N., Goto, M., Kato, H., McPhee, M.V., Pastene, L.A., 2007. Population genetic structure of Bryde’s whales (Balaenoptera brydei) at the inter-oceanic and trans-equatorial levels. Conservation Genetics 8, 853-864. Karpouzi, V.S., 2005. Modelling and mapping trophic overlap between fisheries and the world's seabirds.MSc thesis, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Kasuya, T., Miyashita, T., Kasamatsu, F., 1988. Segregation of two forms of the short-finned pilot whales off the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Report of the Whale Research Institute 39, 77-90. Kasuya, T., Nishiwaki, M., 1971. First record of Mesoplodon densirostris from Formosa. Scientific Report of the Whale Research Institute 23, 129-137. Kasuya, T., 1976. Reconsideration of life hisotry parameters of the spotted and striped dolphins off the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Report of the Whale Research Institute 28, 73-106. Kasuya, T., 1985. Effect of exploitation on reproductive parameters of the spotted and striped dolphins off the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Report of the Whale Research Institute  29, 1-20. Kharin, V.E., 2006. An annotated checklist of sea snakes of Vietnam, with notes on a new record of the yellow-lipped sea krait, Laticauda colubrine (Schneider, 1799) (Laticaudidae, Hydrophiidae). Russian J. of Marine Biology 32(4), 223-228. Kreb, D., Budiono, 2005. Cetacean diversity and habitat preferences in tropical waters of East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 53(1), 149-155. Lepage, D., 2007. Avibase - the World Bird Database. http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp [Accessed 09/07/2007]. Li, X., 1990. Seabirds in China. Bulletin of Biology 4, 8-11. Lobo, A.S., Vasudevan, K., Pandav, B., 2005. Trophic ecology of Lapemis curtus (Hydrophiinae) along the western coast of India. Copeia 3, 637-641. Mahakunlayanakul, S., 1996. Species distribution and status of dolphins in the inner Gulf of Thailand. Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. MS thesis, 130 p. Mao, S., Chen, B., 1980. Sea Snakes of Taiwan: A natural history of sea snakes. The National Science Council. NSC Publication 4, v- 57pp. Márquez, M.R., 1990. FAO species catalogue. Sea Turtles of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sea turtle species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis. Rome, FAO. 11(125), 81 p. McKean, J.L., 1987. A first record of Christmas Island frigatebird Fregata andrewsi on Timor. Kukila, Bulletin of the Indonesian Ornithological Society 3(1-2), 47. Minton, S.A., 1975. Geographic distribution of sea snakes. In: Dunson, W.A. (ed.), The Biology of Sea Snakes. University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. p. 21-31. Miyazaki, N., 1977. Growth and reproduction of Stenella coeruleoalba off the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Report of the Whale Research Institute 29, 21-48. Miyazaki, N., 1984. Further analyses of reproduction in the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba off the Pacific coast of Japan. Reports of the  International Whaling Commission (special issue 6), 343-353. Murphy, J.C., Cox, M.J., Voris, H.K., 1999. A key to the sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 47, 95-108. Parsons, E.C.M., Felley, M.L., Porter, L.J., 1995. An annotated checklist of cetaceans recorded from Hong Kong's territorial waters. Asian Marine Biology 12, 79-100. Porter, L., Morton, B., 2003. A description of the first intact dwarf sperm whale from the South China Sea and a review of documented specimens of Kogiidae (Cetacea) from Hong Kong. Systematics and Biodiversity 1, 127-135. Rasmussen, A.R., 2001. Sea Snakes. pp. 3987-4008,  In: Carpenter, K.E., Niem, V.H. (eds.), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles, sea turtles, sea snakes and marine mammals. Rome, FAO. pp. 3381-4218. Rice, D.W., 1998. Marine Mammals of the World Systematics and Distribution. Special Publication number 4: The Society for Marine Mammalogy, 231 p. Ross, G.J.B., 1979. Records of pygmy and dwarf sperm whales, genus Kogia, from Southern Africa, with biological notes and some comparisions. Annals of the Cape Provincial Museum of Natural History 11, 259-327. Sah, S.A.M., Stuebing, R.B., 1996. Diet, growth and movements of juvenile crocodiles Crocodylus porosus Schneider in the Klias River, Sabah, Malaysia. J. of Tropical Ecology 12, 651-662. Sea Around Us Database, 2006. The Sea Around Us Database. www.seaaroundus.org. Stuebing, R., Shahrul, A.M.S., 1992. Population characteristics of the Indo-Pacific crocodile (Crocodylus porosus Schneider) in the Klias River, Sabah. Paper presented at the 2nd Regional Conference of the IUCN-SSC, Crocodile Specialist Group, 12-19 March 1993, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Tan, J.M.L., 1995. A Field Guide to the Whales and Dolphins in the Philippines. Makati City: Bookmark, 125 p. Tu, A.T., Stringer, J.M., 1973. Three species of sea snake not previously reported in the Strait of Formosa. J. of Herpetology 7, 384- 386. Non-fish vertebrates of the South China Sea, Sorongon, P.M.E. and Palomares, M.L.D.  42 Wang, M.C., Walker, W.A.,  Shao, K.-T., Chou, L.S., 2003. Feeding habits of the pantropical spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata, off the eastern coast of Taiwan. Zoological Studies 42(2), 368-378. Wang, P., 1956. Small-type whaling. Technology of Fisheries Monthly 25(5), 13-16. Wang, P., 1956. Small-type whaling. Technology of Fisheries Monthly 25(6), 11-13. Wang, P., 1956. Small-type whaling. Technology of Fisheries Monthly 26(1), 1-3. Wang, P., 1976. Offshore whaling in China. J. of Fisheries Technology 4, 14-31. Wang, P., 1978. Analysis of Mysticeti in the Yellow Sea. Zoology Report 24(3), 269-277. Wang, P., 1999. Chinese Cetaceans. Ocean Enterprises Ltd. Hong Kong, 325 p. Ward, T.M., 2001. Age structures and reproductive patterns of two species of sea snake, Lapemis hardwickii (Grey, 1836) and Hydrophis elegans (Grey, 1842), incidentally captured by prawn trawlers in northern Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 52, 193-203. Zuo Wei, D.L., Mundkur, T., 2004. Numbers and distribution of waterbirds and wetlands in the Asia-Pacific region. Results of the Asian Waterbird Census: 1997-2001. Wetlands International. CG Print, Selangor, Malaysia, 166 pp.  Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  43 CRUSTACEAN DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA1 Marianne Pan SeaLifeBase Project, Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office, Khush Hall, IRRI at Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: m.pan@cgiar.org ABSTRACT An update on the status of the crustacean diversity in the South China Sea, ca. 1,766 crustacean species in 216 families and 649 genera is presented through SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org), a FishBase-like biodiversity information system that records data, information and knowledge on non-fish marine organisms of the world. An estimation of the potential number of crustaceans by higher taxa from a review of the literature is presented and a gap analysis of potential missing information is obtained from what is already encoded in SeaLifeBase. A discussion on how SeaLifeBase can help to complete such inventories and how this can be turned into a tool for assessing national and regional marine biodiversity is included. INTRODUCTION The Subphylum Crustacea is one of the most speciose taxa in the Kingdom Animalia with 47,000 described species (Chapman, 2009), 44,950 of which are marine (Bouchet, 2006). These species are well- represented in all marine habitats, at all depths. Thus, many crustacean species are expected to be thriving in the biologically rich waters of the South China Sea. Ng and Tan (2000) reported the status of marine biodiversity of the South China Sea (SCS) as part of an on-going effort to understand the rich biodiversity of SCS. Along with this status report are checklists of different crustacean groups, i.e., Cirripedia (Jones et al., 2000), Thalassinidea and Anomura (Decapoda; Komai, 2000) and Stomatopoda (Lowry, 2000). However, a comprehensive report on SCS crustacean diversity is yet to be published. In 2009, the SeaLifeBase Project made an effort to assemble lists of species reportedly occurring in the SCS, from published literature (including reports, theses, and other gray literature), i.e., faunal lists, country lists, new species reports and occurrence records from survey reports. SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org) is an online FishBase-like global information system that provides nomenclatural and biological information for all non-fish marine species of the world, like FishBase does for fishes. The SeaLifeBase SCS initiative came in response to a need for data to feed into ecosystem models such as those published by Cheung et al. (2009) and in response to the Sea Around Us project’s need for species lists for large marine ecosystems. This work made use of an intensive review of available literature on crustacean diversity in SCS and published estimates of numbers of species by taxa in the SCS. It demonstrates how such disaggregated and disparate data can be assembled, standardized and made available through SeaLifeBase as congruent lists of species by country and region, e.g., the SCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS Reference searching primarily targeted published checklists, i.e., species lists for countries bounding the SCS as well as large and small ecosystems (including oceanic islands falling within the SCS). Searches were done using the ISI Web of Knowledge, Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstract (ASFA) and Google Scholar with the keywords “Crustacea” and “South China Sea” occurring specifically in the title field. This search scheme did not identify published checklists for all crustacean groups, i.e., only the most (commercially) important crustacean groups (e.g., decapods) were inventoried. In order to fill this evident gap, a more detailed reference search was performed targetting all other publications mentioning anywhere in their text the SCS, i.e., new species descriptions and taxa revisions with mention of distribution in countries or                                                  1 Cite as: Pan, M. 2010. Crustacean diversity of the South China Sea. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine Biodiversity of Southeast Asian and Adjacent Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3), p. 43-52. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Crustaceans of the South China Sea, Pan, M.  44 ecosystems within the SCS, other country and ecosystem checklists with mention of SCS and related countries and ecosystems in their distribution information. Thus, the same keywords were used to search in the subject or topic field and any part of the text. In addition, reports dating as early as the 1950s, e.g., reports for the Albatross Expedition as well as reports of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History obtained from previous initiatives were scanned for species occurring in the SCS. All references identified in this process were analyzed for taxonomy and nomenclature, distribution, ecology and biology. All pertinent data were extracted and standardized in the SeaLifeBase platform, following this process: 1) taxonomic validity was checked against the SeaLifeBase taxonomic backbone, the Catalogue of Life (www.catalogueoflife.org), against the World Register of Marine Species (www.marinespecies.org), Integrated Taxonomic System (www.itis.gov) and a crustacean taxonomic expert if the name was not found in any of these global databases; 2) the distribution was checked against known distribution sources; 3) additional reference searches were made on a per species basis to identify habitat, ecology and life history data. RESULTS A total of 123 references (Appendix 1) were identified. The first reference search scheme identified 19% of these publications from species lists for countries surrounding the SCS and 16% on large and small ecosystems including islands. The second search scheme resulted in 54% of these publications from species accounts and revisions mainly from The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology dating back to the 1970s. The earliest publications were of a collection of crabs from Aor Island by Tweedie (1950) and a collection of copepods from the Albatross Expedition by Wilson (1950). The most recent publication was that of Poltarukha (2010) on deep-sea barnacles of Southern Vietnam. Most of the SCS crustaceans (68%) were extracted from published journals, notably, Crustaceana, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology and The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. Others came from books (18%), reports (12%) and global species and other online databases (2%; see Figure 1). These publications resulted in a list of 1,766 crustacean species reportedly occurring in the SCS in comparison with 144 listed by the World Register of Marine Species and the 406 by the Catalogue of Life. Decapoda, as the most speciose and probably best- studied order of Crustacea is, expectedly, well documented. Of these 1,766 species, 42% have synonyms (Figure 2, upper left panel), 35% have depth information (Figure 2, upper right panel), 70% have common names (Figure 2, lower left panel) and 98% have ecological information (Figure 2, lower right panel). With photos, being also of major importance in such online information systems, SeaLifeBase strived to provide these for each SCS species. However, not all species are well documented and not many photos were gathered, i.e., only 196 species portraits were obtained for the SCS, 58% of which belong to Decapoda, 38% are Stomatopoda and the rest belonging to Sessilia and Pedunculata. List of crustacean species along with other species in South China Sea can be viewed in the SeaLifeBase website through this link: http://sealifebase.org/trophiceco/FishEcoList.php?ve_code=11.  Book 9% Book chapter 9% Report 12% Journal article 68% Database 2%  Country list 19% Ecosystem list 16% Expedition 6% Species account 54% Name list 5%  Figure 1. Distribution of 129 references by type obtained from reference search schemes (see text) to identify crustacean species occurring in the South China Sea and used in SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org). Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  45  Decapoda 58% Stomatopoda 25% Others 4% Sessilia 4% Calanoida 3% Pedunculata 3%Harpacticoida 3%  Decapoda 51% Stomatopoda 15% Pedunculata 13% Sessilia 11% Euphausiacea 5% Isopoda 4% Others 1%  Decapoda 91% Others 4% Halocyprida 3% Stomatopoda 2%  Decapoda 37% Amphipoda 16% Sessilia 11% Others 10% Stomatopoda 9% Pedunculata 8% Calanoida 6% Isopoda 3%  Figure 2. Distribution of information for 1,766 South China Sea crustacean species accounted for in SeaLifeBase. Upper left panel: 745 species have synonyms (‘Others’ include Euphausiacea, Mysida, Akentrogonida, Arguloida, Cyclopoida, Siphonostomatoida, Halocyprida, Tanaidacea, Poecilostomatoida, Isopoda and Amphipoda). Upper right panel: 622 species have depth information (Others include Amphipoda and Tanaidacea). Lower left panel: 1,244 species have common names (Others include Calanoida, Myodocopida, Pedunculata, Amphipoda, Sessilia, Poecilostomatoida, Mysida and Isopoda). Lower right panel: 1,739 species have ecological information (Others include Mydocopa, Siphonostomatoida, Mysida, Diplostraca, Arguloida, Platycopoda, Halocyprida, Kentrogonida, Podocopida, Akentrogonida, Cyclopoida, Tanaidacea, Cumacea, Poecilostomatoida, Euphausiacea and Harpacticoida). Note that those grouped in the ‘Others’ category are groups with only 3-5% of required data inputs filled in.  DISCUSSION Revisions, species accounts and scientific reports of expeditions provided valuable complementary data completing publications of species lists and online checklists for crustaceans occurring in the SCS. Noteworthy are those extracted from reports of scientific expeditions (6%) because these reported species sampled in the SCS whose occurrence were not reported again in recent publications, e.g., Alpheus bidens, an alpheid shrimp reported from the Albatross Expedition during 1907-1910 (Chace, 1988). Though no published estimate of overall number of crustacean species exists for the SCS, SeaLifeBase’s coverage of Amphipoda (95%), Stomatopoda (>100%), Cirripedia (95%), and Harpacticoida (58%; see Table 1) provides some basis of comparison to determine the extent of its coverage, i.e., an average of 88% for the four cited groups. Though not complete, this checklist of crustaceans of the SCS is probably the first of its kind assembled, especially since no global species database exists for crustaceans anywhere else in the Crustaceans of the South China Sea, Pan, M.  46 world. By continuing to assemble data from new publications, SeaLifeBase might one day provide a nearly complete list of crustaceans described as occurring in the SCS. In addition to knowing which species of crustaceans occur in the SCS, SeaLifeBase also endeavoured to provide life history parameters for the better documented species. Figure 2 illustrates what SeaLifeBase has assembled so far from the publications gathered in this exercise, showing quite large chunks of information gaps, notably, depth data (an essential parameter for the generation of Aquamaps in order to model a species’ probable distribution) as well as photo portraits of species. Evidently, the work we describe here is just the beginning. SeaLifeBase continues to actively seek collaborations with crustacean experts worldwide, in addition to current collaborations already in place, e.g., with Dr. P.K.L. Ng and Dr. Tim-Yan Chan, to provide quality checks of assembled data in SeaLifeBase. Table 1. Number of species, genus and families of crustaceans occurring in the South China Sea obtained from targeted references searches and encoded in SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org) compared to species estimates published in the literature, i.e., available only for Amphipoda (95% coverage), Stomatopoda (>100%), Cirripedia (95%), and Harpacticoida (58%). Class Order SeaLifeBase   Other sources   Sources   Fam. Gen. Sp. Fam. Gen. Sp.  Branchiopoda Diplostraca 1 1 1 – – – – Malacostraca Amphipoda 47 111 259 48 113 272 Lowry (2000) Malacostraca Cumacea 4 12 22 – – – – Malacostraca Decapoda 65 219 663 – – – Komai (2000; Thalassinidea, Anomura) Malacostraca Euphausiacea 2 6 34 – – – – Malacostraca Isopoda 4 31 50 – – – Kussakin and Malyutina (1993; Sphaeromatidae) Malacostraca Mysida 1 5 6 – – – – Malacostraca Stomatopoda 12 54 141 13 52 120 Moosa (2000) Malacostraca Tanaidacea 4 9 11 – – – – Maxillopoda; Cirripedia  23 90 299 21 76 315 Jones et al. (2000; Cirripedia) Maxillopoda; Cirripedia Akentrogonida 1 2 4 – – – – Maxillopoda; Cirripedia Arguloida 1 1 1 – – – – Maxillopoda; Cirripedia Kentrogonida 1 1 3 – – – – Maxillopoda; Cirripedia Pedunculata 9 35 122 – – – – Maxillopoda; Cirripedia Sessilia 11 51 169 – – – – Maxillopoda; Copepoda  – – – – – 467 Razouls et al. (2010) Maxillopoda; Copepoda Calanoida 24 56 141 – – – – Maxillopoda; Copepoda Cyclopoida 1 1 9 – – – – Maxillopoda; Copepoda Harpacticoida 18 32 45 19 57 77 Chertoprud et al. (2010) Maxillopoda; Copepoda Poecilostomatoida 4 5 33 – – – – Maxillopoda; Copepoda Siphonostomatoida 1 1 1 – – – – Ostracoda Halocyprida 1 7 34 – – – – Ostracoda Myodocopida 2 6 13 – – – – Ostracoda Platycopida 1 1 1 – – – – Ostracoda Podocopida 1 2 3 – – – –          Totals  216 649 1766 ? ? ? –   Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  47 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This contribution was made possible through collaboration between the Sea Around Us Project (UBC, Vancouver, Canada), the SeaLifeBase Project (funded by the Oak Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland), and the Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office (Los Baños, Laguna). Thanks to Patricia Marjorie Sorongon and Bonnie Huang for encoding considerable data on South China Sea crustaceans mainly from Chinese language literature. 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Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  53 BIOLOGY LIFE HISTORY OF SEPIA RECURVIROSTRA IN PHILIPPINE WATERS 1 Maria Lourdes D. Palomares The Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4; Email: m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.caAbstract Christine Dar The SeaLifeBase Project, Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office, Khush Hall, IRRI at Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: m.pan@cgiar.org ABSTRACT Life history parameters of the curvespine cuttlefish, Sepia recurvirostra Steenstrup, 1875 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Sepiidae) were assembled from population-based studies within its known native range. Length-weight, fecundity, reproductive load and maturity parameters were estimated from results of an unpublished study of the Visayan Sea and Guimaras Strait (Philippines) populations. There are no known estimates of growth parameters for Philippine populations of this species and, the literature being very scarce, does not offer analogous data for comparisons. Thus, growth estimates were obtained using observed maximum lengths and the growth coefficient (θ’) obtained for other Sepia species occurring in the region. Comparisons of the growth of Atlantic and Pacific/Indian Ocean populations are discussed. INTRODUCTION The curvespine cuttlefish Sepia (Acanthosepion) recurvirostra Steenstrup, 1875 (Nateewathana, 1997) belongs to the Family Sepiidae Keferstein, 1866, Class Cephalopoda, Phylum Mollusca and is also known under the name Sepia singaporensis Pfeffer, 1884 (Rooper et al., 1984). It is native to the tropical western Pacific (Okutani, 2005), occurring between Burma to the Philippines including the East and South China Sea (Norman and Lu, 2000; see Figure 1) and is a common composite of commercial Southeast Asian trawl fisheries catches, notably those from Hong Kong (Chikuni, 1985; Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986). S. recurvirostra can be identified from other sepiid species by the following characteristics: the club protecting membrane is fused in the carpal part; the sucker-carrying surface is separated from the stalk; 5- 6 median suckers of the club are slightly enlarged (Jereb and Roper, 2005). Newly fertilized eggs, white and coated with a sticky, gelatinous material, are usually found hanging from a substrate in dense clusters (Jereb and Roper, 2005). Cuttlefish eggs hatch 4 months after fertilization to 25 mm long larvae with all parental traits (Boyle, 1983, 1987; Wood, 2004). Predation rates on larvae are high and very few of the newly hatched cuttlefish survive past their first few hours (Wood, 2004; Boyle and Rodhouse, 2005). Those that survive grow quickly, make their way to and live in deeper waters (Nixon and Young, 2003; Wood, 2004). Mature S. recurvirostra with gravid ovaries are found all year round, with possibly two spawning peaks, November to February and June to September (Jereb et al., 2005). Age at first maturity is between 1.5-2.0 years, with spawners mating head to head, locking their tentacles together and the male placing a sealed sperm packet into the pouch just below the female's mouth (Wood, 2004). The female retreats into a den (usually a deep crack or fissure in the rocks or a small cave) where it draws each egg                                                  1 Cite as: Dar, C. 2010. Life history of Sepia recurvirostra in Philippine waters. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine Biodiversity of Southeast Asian and Adjacent Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3), p. 53-69. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Sepia recurvirostra in the Philippines, Palomares, M.L.D. and Dar, C.  54 individually (which may count to 200 or more) out of its mantle passing it over the sperm; then it becomes lethargic and dies off (Pierce and Guerra, 1994; Jereb and Rooper, 2005).  Cephalopods are an important commodity and cephalopod fisheries have increased over time leading to overfished populations notably in Taiwan (Lu, 2002), Thailand (Nootmorn and Chotiyaputta, 2002) and European waters (Payne et al., 2006). Threats to cephalopod populations worldwide (overfishing, pollution, etc.) become even more serious because they are short-lived and spawn only once in their short lifetime (Boyle, 1990; Pierce and Guerra, 1994). Biological studies on the curvespine cuttlefish are scarce. A Google Scholar search using “Sepia recurvirostra” anywhere in the article returned only 17 results (searching in the title of articles returned zero results) while a Web of Science search using the same keyword in the topic or in the title of the article returned only 1 result. On the other hand, a Google search using the same keyword in PDF format returned 47 results (a search for “any format” returned 3,310 results, mostly images). All of these 47 documents were checklists of species where the curvespine cuttlefish is included, i.e., none of the identified articles contained life-history information for this species. Another literature search, this time using the list of references of the 17 documents identified in the Google Scholar search came up with 10 documents half of which are on the fisheries of Thailand (Chikuni, 1985; Chullasorn et al., 1986, Chotiyaputta et al., 2002; Nootmorn et al., 2002; Jindalit et al., 2005), the rest on biodiversity reviews (Norman, 2000; Okutani, 2005; Tan et al., 2010), predators of cephalopods (Barros et al., 2002) and effects of cooking on cephalopods (Intajarurnsan, 2003). Thus, we can truly state that very little is known on this species and very little is available in the scientific literature. This contribution extends knowledge on this species with a field study on fecundity, length-weight relationship, and maximum size of Philippine populations and an assemblage of growth parameters for other species of the genus Sepia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Field sampling Sepia recurvirostra females were caught 30 June and 15 September 2004 from fishing grounds in the Visayan Sea and Guimaras Strait (Figure 2). Individuals were weighed (g) and measured (mantle length, cm). Ovaries were carefully removed, weighed and preserved in 10% formalin until hardened (making counting easier), and the total number of eggs per ovary were counted under a microscope and using a grid and mechanical counter. Preserved ovaries were dehydrated, cleared, infiltrated with and embedded in paraffin, dissected and mounted in slides for further microscopic examination. Life-history parameters Fecundity was estimated as the total number of maturing ova (with striations) and mature ova (large smooth ova) in the ovary and oviducal glands (proximal and distal glands; see definition by Gabr et al., 1997). The relationship between ovary   Figure 1. Distribution map of Sepia (Acanthosepion) recurvirostra  shown using AquaMaps which includes Andaman Islands (India), Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China (High Seas), Hong Kong (China) , Indonesia , Korea (South), Macau (China), Malaysia (East Peninsula), Malaysia (Sabah), Malaysia (Sarawak) , Malaysia (West Peninsula), Myanmar, Singapore, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands (Japan), Philippines and Thailand (Jereb and Roper, 2005).   Figure 2. Sampling sites (Visayan sea and Guimaras strait) were samples where collected. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  55 weight and total number of eggs is expressed as Wo = a + b*number of eggs, where Wo is expressed in grams. The relationship between total egg count with total body weight and with mantle length was also investigated using Total egg count=a+b*W and Total egg count=a+b*ML. Gonado-somatic indices were estimated for the September 15 sample using the relationship GSI=100*Wo/W (Pauly and Munro, 1984, Rodhouse et al., 1994). Assuming isometric growth, condition factors were calculated for the September sample using the relationship, c.f.=W*100/L3. The average c.f. was used as the variable a in the equation W=aLb, where W, the total body weight, is expressed in grams and L, the mantle length, is expressed in centimeters, a=c.f./100 and where b is set equal to 3 (see Pauly, 1984). This was performed in lieu of the log-log regression analysis of weight vs. length because the September sample (for which length-weight pairs were available) is not representative of the population as it is composed mainly of gravid females. Length-weight relationships for other species of the genus Sepia were assembled for comparison. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters for species of the genus Sepia were obtained from the literature in order to obtain estimates of the growth efficiency coefficient θ’ using the relationship θ’=logK+2*logL∞ (see Pauly and Munro, 1984), where K is the growth coefficient expressed in years and L∞ is the asymptotic length expressed in mantle length centimeters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation, i.e., Lt=L∞(1–e–K(t–t0)) (Pauly, 1984). The growth parameters of sepiids (in the Western Central Pacific and the Indian Ocean) were used to compute a mean value of θ’, which was then used with an estimate of L∞ (=Lmax/0.95; Taylor, 1958) to estimate a value of K applicable to Southeast Asia. RESULTS A total of 103 curvespine cuttlefishes were sampled (54 in June and 49 in September), with mantle length range of 7-11 cm (valid only for the September sample); body weight range of 50-144 g (all gravid females, except for 2 in the June and 1 in the September samples); ovary weights ranged between 0.05-3.3 g (GSI range of 0.065-2.55); while egg count ranged between 44-486 eggs. Plotting the number of eggs vs. ovary weight for the two samples separately resulted in only slightly different regression curvess, i.e., log10 number of eggs = 0.486·log10 ovary weight + 2.568 (June sample, dashed line in Figure 3; r2=0.504, d.f.=52) and log10 number of eggs = 0.3209·log10 ovary weight + 2.471 (September sample, dotted line in Figure 3; r2 = 0.6066, d.f.=47), the main difference being that the September sample contained individuals with heavier ovaries. This justifies pooling the two samples and expressing this in one regression relationship as: log10 number of eggs = 0.365*log10 ovary weight + 2.486 r2 = 0.599; df = 101; s.e. = 0.121** 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 Ovary weight (g; log10) To ta l n um be r of  e gg s (l og 10 ) June sample September sample  Ovary weight (g) = 0.0142*Body weight (g) - 0.130 R2 = 0.330; d.f. = 47; s.e. = 0.528** 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Body weight (g) O va ry  w ei gh t ( g)   Figure 3. Upper panel: relationship between number of eggs and ovary weight (g) of curvespine cuttlefish, Sepia recurvirostra, sampled in the Visayan Sea and Guimaras Strait, Philippines in June (black dots) and in September (white dots) of 2004 (solid line). Each sample separately regressed resulted in only slightly different regression curves: log10 number of eggs = 0.486·log10 ovary weight + 2.568 (June sample, dashed line; r2=0.504, d.f.=52) and log10 number of eggs = 0.3209·log10 ovary weight + 2.471 (September sample, dotted line; r2 = 0.6066, d.f.=47), the main difference being that the September sample contained individuals with heavier ovaries. Lower panel: relationship between ovary weight and body weight of cuttlefishes from the September sample. Sepia recurvirostra in the Philippines, Palomares, M.L.D. and Dar, C.  56 log10number eggs=0.3654·log10ovary weight+2.486; r2=0.599, d.f.=101 and s.e.=0.121, significant to P=0.01 (solid line in Figure 3, upper panel). Heavier ovaries here might also imply bigger individuals. This could only be tested for the September sample since the June sample did not include total body weights. The September sample contained individuals with mantle lengths of 7-11 cm, body weights of 50-144 g, ovary weights of 0.05-3.3 g and egg numbers of 170-486 for gravid females. Ovary weight increased proportionally with body weight, i.e., ovary weight (g) = 0.0142*Body weight (g) - 0.130, r2=0.330 for d.f.=47 and an s.e.=0.528 significant at the 0.01 level (see Figure 3 lower panel). This result confirms that the September sample is also composed of larger individuals. An analysis of the GSI indicates, however, that though the September sample is composed of larger individuals, not all of these mature females had full ovaries. The frequency histogram presented in Figure 4 shows a high GSI peak at 1.1 and a smaller peak at 2.1-2.3 with an intermediate peak at 1.5, implying at least two classes of gravid female cuttlefishes, probably as part of continued spawning from the June sample. The mean GSI value is 1.24 (s.e.=0.0828, n=50). The average condition factor of 14.38 obtained for the September sample of gravid females was applied to obtain the length-weight equation of W=0.1438*L3. This equation gives estimates of body weights about twice as heavy as the length-weight relationship for female curvespine cuttlefish from Thailand reported in Supongpan and Kongmuag (1976; see Table 1) and may therefore be biased. Length-weight relationships for other species of the genus Sepia were assembled in Table 1 for comparison. The smallest mature ovary weighing 0.05 g, i.e., for a 4 g individual (obtained using the average GSI above), and, given the length-weight equation for gravid females, may have a mantle length of around 3 cm. Similarly, for an average mature ovary weight of 1.7 g, the average size at maturity is 135 g or 9.75 cm. Roper et al. (1984) reported a maximum length of 17 cm (with maximum reported weight of 400 g) for the curvespine cuttlefish leading to an estimate of L∞=17.9 cm. The mean growth performance index (θ’) of Indian Ocean species of Sepia is 2.76 (see Table 2); with the estimate of L∞=17.9 cm, this suggests a K value of 1.81 year-1. Assuming that the growth parameters we obtained here correctly represent the Visayan Sea population, then the reproductive load (i.e., Lm/L∞, Cushing, 1981) is 0.545, meaning that this population reaches maturity at a size halfway through the largest size it can attain and hence conforms to what is known for fishes (Froese and Binohlan, 2000). DISCUSSION Supongpan and Kongmuag (1976) reported that spawning of the curvespine cuttlefish in Thailand occurs throughout the year with peaks in February-March and in June-October. The results of this study fall within the second peak observed for Thailand. The smallest size at first maturity recorded in this study is twice smaller than the reported 6.7 cm by Supongpan and Kongmuag (1976) and the 6.0 cm by Jindalikit et al. (2005) and may imply that the Visayan Sea population is maturing at an earlier age/size. However, Jindalikit et al. (2005) reported most mature individuals in their study to measure 8.0 cm, which corroborates with the average size at maturity obtained in this study. Fecundity of the Thailand population is much higher (egg count range of 310-1,370) than that of the Visayan Sea population, implying that these maturing females are in a better condition. Note that the 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 Gonadosomatic Index (mid-class) Fr eq ue nc y Average GSI=1.24; s.e.=0.0828; n=50   Figure 4. Frequency histogram of gonadosomatic indices for Sepia recurvirostra sampled in September 2004 in the Visayan Sea and Guimaras Strait, Philippines showing median GSI value peaks at 1.1, 1.5 and 2.1-2.3. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  57 Visayan Sea study was conducted about 30 years after the Thailand study, i.e., this population may have evolved in response to high exploitation rates. Fisheries statistics for the curvespine cuttlefish does not exist for the Philippines, since cuttlefishes are aggregated with squids, so we cannot directly measure the effect of exploitation on size at maturity of these cuttlefishes. Catch statistics for Philippine ‘Loligo’ obtained from the Sea Around Us website (www.seaaroundus.org; see Figure 5), showed an increase in cephalopod catches from 1950-2006. Note that ‘Loligo’ represents, on the average, 3.0% of total Philippine catches, ranging from 3.9% in 1950, peaking in 1995 to 5.5% and decreasing again in 2006 to 2.7%. Cuttlefish catch statistics in Thailand, on the other hand, are reported only since the early 1960s, and on the average, represent 1.3% of the total catch, e.g., in the Adang-Rawi Archipelago (Thailand), this cuttlefish accounted for 2.10% of 1998-1999 cephalopod catches of 321 t (Nootmorn et al., 2002). A 2002 survey, however, reported this cuttlefish to represent about 28% of the 0.0425 t survey catch from the upper Gulf of Thailand (abundant in and spawning in offshore waters; Jindalikit et al., 2005). Figure 5 indicates that catches peaked in the early 1970s, sustained over the 1980s and 1990s and in spite of reports of overexploitation, started picking up again in the last decade, mostly as a result of fishery expansion (Chotiyaputta et al., 2002). Philippine ‘Loligo’ catches are 7-fold higher than the cuttlefish catches for Thailand (Figure 5), suggesting equally strong or stronger exploitation pressures on all cephalopod species and most likely as well on the curvespine cuttlefish. Such high exploitation rates may contribute to earlier maturity suggested by our results, similar to studies on fishes, e.g., Salvelinus fontinalis (Hutchings, 1993; Magnan et al., 2005) and Lepomis gibbosus (Fox and Keast, 1991; Fox, 1994). Note also that maturity at smaller sizes can be brought on by higher temperatures, i.e., gonad development is accelerated and thus stimulates maturity as already reported for Sepia by Richard (1966a, 1966b) and for Octopus by van Heukelem (1979). With the increase in ocean water temperatures brought about by El Niño events and the escalating climate change, our results might well be a record of this effect caused by two factors, increased water temperatures and fisheries expansion to offshore waters. The length-weight relationship reported here from the average condition factors of 49 gravid females cannot be used in predicting weights from lengths in general, even though isometry is assumed for the Philippine population. There are only two independent length-weight relationships for the curvespine cuttlefish, i.e., for the male and female populations of the Gulf of Thailand reported by Supongpan and Kongmuag (1976; see Table 1). Using these relationships and assuming that the estimate of L∞ from Lmax is acceptable (see above), the W∞ for the curvespine cuttlefish would be 447 g and 405 g for females and males, respectively. These values match with the reported 400 g maximum weight of this cuttlefish by Roper et al. (1984). The paucity of growth data on the curvespine cuttlefish prompted us to find analogous data for other species of Sepia (see Tables 2) in order to obtain informed estimates on its growth. SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org; Palomares and Pauly, 2010) lists 77 species of Sepia worldwide, 65% of which are found in the Pacific (mostly with Lmax <20 cm), 31% in the Atlantic and the rest in the Mediterranean (Figure 6). The curvespine cuttlefish is a medium-sized species, in the same maximum mantle length range as 16 other Indo-Pacific sepiids (Table 3), none of which have available growth parameter estimates. 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year Ca tc h (t on ne s '0 00 ) Philippines (squids) Thailand (cuttlefishes)   Figure 5. Cephalopod catch statistics obtained for the Philippines (mostly of loliginid squids) and for Thailand (mostly of sepiid cuttlefishes) from the Sea Around Us database (www.seaaroundus.org, accessed 11 August 2010). Sepia recurvirostra in the Philippines, Palomares, M.L.D. and Dar, C.  58 Growth parameter estimates (Table 2) are available only for three Indian Ocean species, i.e., S. aculeata (third most important cuttlefish resource worldwide), S. inermis (main commercial species in Thailand, India and Sri Lanka), S. pharaonis (major industrial and artisanal target species) and one Atlantic species, i.e., S. officinalis (traded worldwide) all of which are in the >20 cm Lmax categories. The availability of studies on these 4 species is very likely directly related to their high commercial values. The growth curves of these species were compared by regressing K vs. L∞, i.e., in an auximetric plot (Figure 7). Only the growth parameters for S. officinalis and S. pharaonis could be used in this analysis because, a) growth parameters of S. aculeata exhibited a positive trend and thus did not follow the assumptions of this analysis (i.e., growth coefficient K, is negatively related to asymptotic length); and b) Sepiella inermis, is a smaller sepiid which is not in the genus Sepia and does not follow the expected trends, i.e., small species grow faster and therefore should have higher K values. Figure 6 shows that the pair of L∞ and K for S. recurvirostra estimated from maximum size and the mean θ’ follows snugly along the regression line for S. pharaonis, and suggests that S. recurvirostra grows similarly to populations of S. pharaonis with small mantle sizes. Figure 6 also suggests that at similar mantle lengths, the Atlantic species (common at depths of 100 m; Roper et al., 1994) grows faster than the Indian Ocean species (common at depths of 40 m; see Roper et al., 1994). Though this study extended what we know of this species, the knowledge base on it is still appalingly poor. As cephapolopod resources are continually being exploited, and in some cases, the target of fisheries expansion, notably in offshore waters, it is important that further studies be made on smaller species such as S. recurvirostra before it is too late to save them from being listed as threatened by the IUCN. We therefore recommend that, e.g., fisheries departments of universities in the Philippines make these small species of cephalopods the subject of M. Sc. theses in order to gather data that can be used in their assessment. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 5 15 25 35 45 Mid mantle lengths (cm) N um be r of  s pe ci es Pacific Atlantic Mediterranean   Figure 6. Maximum mantle length frequency distribution of 77 species of Sepia listed in SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org; Palomares and Pauly, 2010).  -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 Asymptotic mantle length (L∞, cm; ln) G ro w th  c oe ff ic ie nt  (K , y ea r- 1 ; ln ) S. recurvirostra S. officinalis ; Atlantic Ocean lnK = -2.514*lnL∞ + 8.872 R2 = 0.7693; s.e.=0.08213* S. pharaonis ; Indian Ocean lnK = -1.522*lnL∞ + 4.884 R2 = 0.9034; s.e.=0.06918**   Figure 7. Relationship between the von Bertalanffy growth coefficients (K) with asymptotic mantle lengths (L∞) for Sepia officinalis (black squares) from the Atlantic Ocean and S. pharaonis (black dots) from the Indian Ocean. White dots are data not included in this analysis, pertaining to S. aculeata and Sepiella inermis. Note position of the growth parameters obtained from this study, along the regression line for S. pharaonis, suggesting that S. recurvirostra (black triangle) grows similarly to S. pharaonis. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  59  Table 1. Length-weight relationships of 9 species of the genus Sepia assembled from published sources. Note that c.f.=W*100/L3 and denotes condition factor, which is used to obtain the parameter ‘a’ using a=c.f./100. Sex: F=females; IF=immature females; M=males; IM=immature males; U=unsexed; B=mixed. These parameters are available for the species in www.sealifebase.org (see Palomares and Pauly, 2009). Species N Sex a b r2 Remarks Sepia aculeata  M 0.2090 2.6671  1985-1989; east coast, India; Indian Ocean; Rao et al. (1993)   F 0.1913 2.7427  1985-1989; east coast, India; Indian Ocean; Rao et al. (1993)   M 0.1457 2.6070  Gulf of Thailand, Pacific Ocean; Supongpan and Kongmuag (1976, 1976a; in Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986)   F 0.2320 2.6770  Gulf of Thailand, Pacific Ocean; Supongpan and Kongmuag (1976, 1976a; in Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986)  281 M 0.4838 2.3852 0.937 Apr. 1982-Mar. 1986 Mangalore, Kartanaka, India; Indian Ocean; Rao (1997)  396 F 0.1950 2.5033 0.967 Apr. 1982-Mar. 1987; Mangalore, Kartanaka, India; Indian Ocean; Rao (1997)  82 IM 0.1402 2.9119 0.890 Apr. 1982-Mar. 1988; Mangalore, Kartanaka, India; Indian Ocean; Rao (1997)  66 IF 0.1064 3.2075 0.930 Apr. 1982-Mar. 1989; Mangalore, Kartanaka, India; Indian Ocean; Rao (1997)   M 0.2752 2.5974  1985-1989; west coast, India; Indian Ocean; Rao et al. (1993)   F 0.3145 2.5562  1985-1989; west coast, India; Indian Ocean; Rao et al. (1993) Sepia brevimana  M 0.2411 2.5990  Gulf of Thailand; Pacific Ocean; Chotiyaputta (1982; in Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986)   F 0.2705 2.5490  Gulf of Thailand; Pacific Ocean; Chotiyaputta (1982; in Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986) Sepia dollfusi 960 B 0.1886 3.0000  a from mean cf; lengths 5-14 cm; weights 36.4- 405 g; Oct 1994-Apr 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean; Gabr et al. (1998)  700 M 0.5100 2.4200 0.960 lengths 1-14 cm; Suez Canal Indian Ocean; Gabr et al. (1999b)  900 F 0.3600 2.6300 0.980 lengths 1-14 cm; Suez Canal Indian Ocean; Gabr et al. (1999b) Sepia elegans 63 M 0.2680 2.3440  lengths 2.33-5.42 cm; weights 1.9-13.1 g; May 1999; Mola di Bari, Itally, Adriatic Sea; Bello (2006)  65 F 0.2360 2.5140  lengths 3.07-6.37 cm; weights 3.9-27.4 g; May 1999; Mola di Bari, Itally, Adriatic Sea; Bello (2006) Sepia officinalis  F 0.1235 3.0000  a from mean cf; lengths 8-247 cm; weights 100- 1908 g; Jan 17-Feb 2, 2002; Aegean Sea; Laptikhovsky et al. (2003) Sepia officinalis 246 U 0.1304 3.0000  a from mean cf; lengths 6-18 cm; weights 43- 652.3 g; Sept 2002-Mar 2004; Antalya Bay, Turkey from Guven et al. (2007)   U 0.2204 2.7730  Baltic Sea; Manfrin Piccinetti and Giovanardi (1984)  512 M 0.3049 2.6390  Apr. 1994-Mar. 1996; English Channel; Atlantic Ocean; Dunn (1999)  519 F 0.2427 2.7830  Apr. 1994-Mar. 1996; English Channel; Atlantic Ocean; Dunn (1999)  1031 B 0.0010 2.5640  Apr. 1994-Mar. 1996; English Channel; Atlantic Ocean; Dunn (1999)  89 M 0.4656 2.3466 0.954 lengths 2.8-15.6 cm; Sado Estuary, Portugal; Atlantic Ocean; Neves et al. (2009)  106 F 0.0692 3.1547 0.988 lengths 2.8-16.5 cm; Sado Estuary, Portugal; Atlantic Ocean; Neves et al. (2009)        Sepia recurvirostra in the Philippines, Palomares, M.L.D. and Dar, C.  60 Table 1. (Continued).       Sepia orbignyana 61 M 0.2320 2.5200  lengths 1.76-8.1 cm; weights 1.2-44.9 g; May 1999; Mola di Bari, Italy, Adriatic Sea; Bello (2006)  63 F 0.2200 2.5940  lengths 2.51-9.25 cm; weights 2.5-70.3 g; May 1999; Mola di Bari, Italy, Adriatic Sea; Bello (2006) Sepia pharaonis  M 0.2427 2.6000  lengths 9-15 cm; east coast, India; Indian Ocean; Nair et al. (1993)   F 0.2384 2.6286  lengths 9-17 cm; east coast, India; Indian Oceanl; Nair et al. (1993)   M 0.2571 2.6290  Gulf of Thailand; Pacific Ocean; Chotiyaputta (1982; in Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986).   F 0.2869 2.6090  Gulf of Thailand; Pacific Ocean; Chotiyaputta (1982; in Chullasorn and Martosubroto, 1986).   B 0.1058 3.0000  a from mean cf; lengths 9-24 cm; weights 100- 1216 g; Oct. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal; Indian Ocean; Gabr et al. (1998)  966 F 0.2700 2.6500 0.990 Sept. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal; Indian Ocean; Gabr et al. (1999a)  723 M 0.2800 2.6000 0.990 Sept. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal; Indian Ocean; Gabr et al. (1999a)   M 0.3166 2.5058  lengths 13-21 cm; west coast, India; Indian Ocean; Silas et al. (1986)   F 0.2563 2.5478  lengths 15-23 cm; west coast, India; Indian Ocean; Silas et al. (1986)   U 0.2777 2.6930  Jun-Nov 1979; Yemen; Indian Ocean; Ayoma et al. (1989) Sepia recurvirostra  M 0.4357 2.3690  lengths 3.2-12.3 cm; Gulf of Thailand; Pacific Ocean; Supongpan and Kongmuag, (1976, 1976a); Chotiyaputta (1982); in Chullasorn and Martosubroto (1986)   F 0.3613 2.4680  lengths 3.2-12.3 cm; Gulf of Thailand; Pacific Ocean; Supongpan and Kongmuag, (1976, 1976a); Chotiyaputta (1982); in Chullasorn and Martosubroto (1986) Sepiella inermis 42 M 0.9372 1.9320  lengths 2.1-11.2 cm;.Mandapam and Rameswaram, India; Indian Ocean; Unnithan (1982)  92 F 0.5909 2.3080  lengths 6.9-7.1 cm, Mandapam and Rameswaram, India; Indian Ocean; Unnithan (1982)  Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  61 Table 2. Growth parameters (L∞, K), total mortality (expressed as Z/K; resulting from the Powell-Wetherall method of estimating L∞), reproduction load, length at first maturity, spawning season and fecundity data for 10 species of Sepia from 79 populations from the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Length types: mDML=mid-dorsal mantle length; DML: dorsal mantle length; ML= mantle length. All lengths are expressed in cm. Sex: F=females; M=males; U=unsexed; B=mixed. Rn is the score obtained by fitting growth curves to monthly length-frequency data using the ELEFANI software (Pauly and David, 1981) while r is the regression coefficient of the Powell- Wetherall routine (Wetherall et al., 1987). ‘Repro. load’ is the reproductive load (Cushing, 1982), here estimated as Lm/L∞. Ө' is the growth performance index from logK+2*logL∞ (Pauly and Munro, 1984). Lm is the mantle length at first maturity and may be given as a range. These parameters are available for the species in www.sealifebase.org (see Palomares and Pauly, 2009). Species N Type Sex L∞ K (Z/K) Rn (r) Ө' Repro. load Lm (range) Spawning season (month) Fecundity Remarks Sepia aculeata  mDML F      13   1985-1989; Cochin and Bombay, India; Silas et al. (1986)   mDML M      12.4   Cochin, India ; Silas et al. (1986)   mDML B 20.30 0.90  2.57 0.96 19.5 (18-21) All year round  east coast, India; VBGF parameters from Rao et al. (1993)   mDML U      19.5 (7-19)   east coast, India; Silas et al. (1986)   mDML M      7   east coast, India; Silas et al. (1986)   mDML B      8.1 All year round; Mar.-Apr., Jul.-Sept. 650-3900 Gulf of Thailand; Supongpan and Komgung (1976, 1976a)   mDML M 12.37 (1.68) (-0.909)  0.57 7   Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct., 2002; Gulf of Thailand; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Jindalikit et al. (2005; Fig. 5, p. 280)  132 mDML F 16.91 (2.83) (-0.989)  0.35 6   Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct., 2002; Gulf of Thailand; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data Jindalikit et al. (2005; Fig. 5, p. 280)  220 mDML B 16.10 (0.98) (-0.988)      Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct., 2002; Gulf of Thailand; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data Jindalikit et al. (2005; Fig. 5, p. 280)   mDML B      8.5 (8-9)   1986-1988 ; Kakinada, India; Silas et al. (1986)   mDML M      10   Madras, India; Silas et al. (1986).   mDML F      11.8   Madras, India; Silas et al. (1986).   mDML M      8.3   Mandapan, India; Silas et al. (1986).   mDML F      11   Mandapan, India; Silas et al. (1986).   mDML B      8.5 (8-9)   1982-1986; Mangalore, Kartanaka, India; Silas et al. (1986)  825 DML B 23.10 1.49  2.90 0.37 8.6   Apr. 1982-Mar. 1986; Mangalore, Kartanaka, India; VBGF parameters from Rao (1997; Fig. 8, p. 252)  396 DML F       Oct.-Mar. 206-1568 Apr. 1982-Mar. 1986; Mangalore, Kartanaka, India; Rao (1997)   DML U         southeast coast, India; Silas et al. (1986)              Sepia recurvirostra in the Philippines, Palomares, M.L.D. and Dar, C.  62 Table 2. (Continued).             Sepia aculeata  DML M      7.7   Visakhapatnam, India; Silas et al. (1986)   DML F      10.2   Visakhapatnam, India; Silas et al. (1986)   mDML M 20.60 1.10  2.67 1.06 21.8 (19-24.5) All year round  1985-1989; west coast, India; VBGF parameters from Rao et al. (1993)   mDML F 20.50 1.00  2.62 1.09 22.3 (20-24.5) All year round  1985-1989; west coast, India; VBGF parameters from Rao et al. (1993)   mDML U      14.5 (9-20)   west coast, India; VBGF parameters from Rao et al. (1993) Sepia bertheloti   U        50-100 Roper et al. (1984; in Caddy 1996) Sepia brevimana  mDML M         Gulf of Thailand; Chotiyaputta (1982).   mDML F         Gulf of Thailand; Chotiyaputta (1982).   mDML B        3312-6565 Gulf of Thailand; Chotiyaputta (1982). Sepia dollfusi 459 ML M 14.00 (0.99) (-1)  0.54 9.5 (5-14)   Oct. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Gabr et al. (1998; Fig. 4, p. 106)  501 ML F 14.99 (0.98) (-1)  0.56 8.5 (8-9) Jan.-Apr. 30-273 Oct. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Gabr et al. (1998; Fig. 4, p. 106)  960 ML B 14.76 (0.95) (-0.998)   9.5 (5-14)   Oct. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Gabr et al. (1998; Fig. 4, p. 106)  900 DML F       Dec.-Apr.  Nov. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean; Gabr et al. (1999b). Sepia hierredda  DML F        250-1400 Rao (1997) Sepia officinalis   U        200-550 Mature ova only; Mangold-Wirz (1963)   ML F        99-543 Jan. 17-Feb. 2, 2002; Aegean Sea; mean Lm from Laptikhovsky et al. (2003)  246 ML U 14.60 (1.79) (-0.994)      Sept. 2002-Mar. 2004; Antalya Bay, Turkey; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Guven et al. (2007; Fig. 1, p. 494)  244 ML F 14.53 (1.59) (-0.991)      Sept. 2002-Mar. 2004; Antalya Bay, Turkey; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Guven et al. (2007; Fig. 1, p. 494)  244 ML M 14.10 (1.49) (-0.977)      Sept. 2002-Mar. 2004; Antalya Bay, Turkey; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Guven et al. (2007; Fig. 1, p. 494)                                        Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  63 Table 2. (Continued).             Sepia officinalis 1002 DML B 39.00 0.59 0.53 2.95     Jun. 1988-Jun. 1990; Bay of Biscay, France; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Gauvrit et al. (1997; Fig. 2, p. 21)  512 ML M 33.00 1.45 0.30 3.20 0.20 6.7 (8.1-17) Feb.-Mar. (2nd year)  Apr. 1994-Mar. 1996; English Channel; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Dunn (1999; Fig. 7, p. 285)  519 ML F 28.38 1.33 0.64 3.03  18.6 (14.2-23) May-Oct. (2nd year)  Apr. 1994-Mar. 1996; English Channel; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Dunn (1999; Fig. 8, p. 286)  1031 ML B 32.20 1.30 0.34 3.13     Apr. 1994-Mar. 1996; English Channel; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Dunn (1999; Fig. 7 & 8, p. 285-6)  326 DML IU 8.21 0.09  0.76     2000; English Channel; VBGF parameters of juveniles from Challier et al. (2005; Tab. 4, p. 1678); hatching length=0.3 mm  374 DML IU 9.21 0.06  0.71     2002; English Channel; VBGF parameters of juveniles from Challier et al. (2005; Tab. 4, p. 1678); hatching length=1.5  2232 DML U 35.63 (1.12) (-0.809)      Jul. 1998-Jun. 1999; Kavala, Greece; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Belcari et al. (2002; Fig. 4, p. 193)  7246 DML U 21.70 (4.67) (-0.967)      Jul. 1998-Jun. 1999; Livorno, Italy; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Belcari et al. (2002; Fig. 4, p. 193)  89 ML M      5.9 All year round  May 2001-Apr. 2002; Sado estuary, Portugal; Neves et al. (2009)  106 ML F      8 Feb.-Jun.  May 2001-Apr. 2002; Sado estuary, Portugal; Neves et al. (2009)  195 ML B 26.60 1.80  3.11     May 2001-Apr. 2002; Sado estuary, Portugal; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Neves et al. (2009; Tab. 2, p. 583)    U        252-676 Senegal; large maturing and mature ova; Bakhayokho (1983; in Gabr et al. 1998)  3475 DML U 34.36 (7.69) (-0.982)      Jul. 1998-Jun. 1999; Villanova, Spain; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Belcari et al. (2002; Fig. 4, p. 193)                           Sepia recurvirostra in the Philippines, Palomares, M.L.D. and Dar, C.  64 Table 2. (Continued).             Sepia officinalis hierredda   U        150-500 English Channel; mature ova only; Richard (1971;in Gabr et al. 1998) Sepia pharaonis  ML U        1000- 2000 Boletzky (1975, 1987; in Gabr et al. 1998)   ML U 38.60 0.46  2.84     Mar.-Apr. 2003; Aden-Abyan area, Yemen; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Abdul- Wahab (2003; Fig. 4, p. 12)   mDML M 32.00        Cochin, India; Silas et al. (1986; in Nair et al. 1993).   mDML F 29.60        Cochin, India; Silas et al. (1986); M=1.08-1.8 year-1; F=1.65-2.9 year-1 for 17 cm   DML M 27.00 0.94  2.84  12   East coast, India; VBGF parameters from Nair et al. (1993) ; M=1.08- 1.8 year-1; F=1.65-2.9 year-1 for 17 cm   DML F 23.00 1.00  2.72  12.9 (11.9-12.1)   East coast, India; VBGF parameters from Nair et al. (1993); M=1.08-1.8  year-1; F=1.65-2.9 year-1 for 17 cm    B      14.3 All year round; Jan., Jul. 780-2500 Gulf of Thailand; Chotiyaputta (1982).    U       Mar.-May  Hong Kong; Voss and William (1971, in Nair et al. 1993)   mDML M 27.00        Madras, India ; Silas et al. (1986, in Nair et al. 1993)   mDML F 23.00        Madras, India ; Silas et al. (1986, in Nair et al. 1993)    U       Aug.-Oct.  Red Sea; Sanders (1981, in Nair et al. 1993)  1096 ML M 24.95 (1.72) (-0.964)  0.24 6.1 (4-20) Mar.-Jun.  Oct. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean;L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Gabr et al. (1998; Fig. 4, p. 106)  1329 ML F 21.55 (1.09) (-1.087)  0.57 12.2 (5-24)  517-1525 Oct. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Gabr et al. (1998; Fig. 4, p. 106)   ML B 26.52 (3.07) (-0.831)      Oct. 1994-Apr. 1996; Suez Canal, Indian Ocean; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Gabr et al. (1998; Fig. 4, p. 106).   mDML M         Visakhapatnam, India ; Silas et al. (1986, in Nair et al. 1993).   mDML M 36.50        Vizhinjam, India, Silas et al. (1986, in Nair et al. 1993).   mDML F 34.20        Vizhinjam, India ; Silas et al. (1986)   DML U       Oct.-Apr. (may extend to Aug.)  West and east coast, India; Silas et al. (1986).                           Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  65 Table 2. (Continued).             Sepia pharaonis  DML M 32.00 0.72  2.87     West coast, India; VBGF parameters from Nair et al. (1993).   DML F 29.60 0.82  2.86 0.54 15.9 (15.7-16)   West coast, India; VBGF parameters from Nair et al. (1993)   ML B 45.90 0.85 0.32 3.25     Jun.-Nov. 1979; Yemen; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Ayomana et al. (1989; Fig. 10, p. 70) Sepia recurvirostra 141 DML B 14.65 (0.11) (-0.998)      2002; Cochin, India; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Jindalikit et al. (2005; Fig. 5, p. 280)   DML B      6.7 All year round; Feb.-Mar., Jun.-Oct. 310-1370 Gulf of Thailand; Supongpan and Kongmuag (1976, 1976a) and Chotiyaputta (1982)  141 DML F      6   Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. 2002; Gulf of Thailand; Jindalikit et al. (2005) Sepiella inermis 69 DML B      5   Jan., Apr., Jul., Oct. 2002; Gulf of Thailand; Jindalikit et al. (2005)  69 DML B 14.61 (0.05) (-0.998)      2002; Madras, India; L∞ from length frequency analysis of data from Jindalikit et al. (2005; Fig. 5, p. 280).  42 mDML M 20.90 0.41 0.35 2.25 0.24 5   Jan. 1973-May 1974; Mandapam and Rameswaram, India; L∞ and K from length frequency analysis of data from Unnithan (1982; Fig. 2, p. 104).  92 mDML F      3.1  470-850 Jan. 1973-May 1974; Mandapam and Rameswaram, India; Unnithan (1982). Sepia recurvirostra in the Philippines, Palomares, M.L.D. and Dar, C.  66 Table 3. Indo-Pacific species of Sepia with length ranges of 10-20 cm. Data assembled from SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org; Palomares and Pauly 2010). Species Mantle length (cm) Distribution Source S. andreana 12.0 Western Pacific Ocean: Philippines, China and Japan Roper et al. (1984) S. aureomaculata 16.0 Northwest Pacific:  Japan Jereb and Roper (2005) S. brevimana 11.0 Indo-West Pacific: Southern India to Anaman Sea, Gulf of Tonkin, Java, Sulu and Celebes seas Roper et al. (1984); Jereb and Roper (2005) S. cultrata 12.0 Indo-West Pacific: Australia Jereb and Roper (2005) S. elliptica 17.5 Indo-West Pacific: Austalia, New Guinea, South China Sea and possibly the Philippines Jereb and Roper (2005) S. esculenta 18.0 Western Pacific: South and East China seas, Japan to Philippines and Indonesia Roper et al. (1984) S. foliopeza 11.0 Northwest Pacific: East China Sea and Taiwan Jereb and Roper (2005) S. opipara 15.0 Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Australia Jereb and Roper (2005) S. papuensis 11.0 Indo-West Pacific: Australia to Philippines Jereb and Roper (2005) S. peterseni 12.0 Southwest Pacific: Japan to South Korea Jereb and Roper (2005) S. plangon 13.5 Western Pacific: Australia and Papua New Guinea Jereb and Roper (2005) S. recurvirostra 17.0 Indo-West Pacific: China to the Philippines, Indonesia and Pakistan Roper et al. (1984) S. rozella 14.0 Southwest Pacific: Australia Jereb and Roper (2005) S. smithi 14.0 Indo-Pacific: Northern Australia Jereb and Roper (2005) S. stellifera 12.0 Indo-West Pacific:  Arabian Sea and west coast of India to Viet Nam Jereb and Roper (2005) S. tenuipes 10.5 Northwest Pacific: Japan and Korea to East China Sea Jereb and Roper (2005) S. whitleyana 17.4 Western Central Pacific; Southwest Pacific: Australia Jereb and Roper (2005)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study was encouraged by Prof. Kosaku Yamaoka of Kochi University and Michelle Tumilba who made the samples available to Ms Dar for her B. Sc. degree special project requirement. Ms Dar also wishes to thank Olive Olivo, Jimmy Angelo Balista, Pablo Española, Julie Vi Cemine and the technical staff of the Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanology, University of the Philippines in the Visayas, Iloilo (IMFO). 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Crown of thorns starfish in Tubbataha Reefs, Pan, M., Hilomen, V., Palomares, M.L.D.  70 SIZE STRUCTURE OF ACANTHASTER PLANCI POPULATIONS IN TUBBATAHA REEFS NATURAL PARKS, SULU SEA, PHILIPPINES1 Marianne Pan SeaLifeBase Project, Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office, Khush Hall, IRRI at Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: m.pan@cgiar.org Vincent Hilomen Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: vvhilomen@yahoo.com Maria Lourdes D. Palomares Sea Around Us Project, Fisheries Centre, Aquatic Ecosystems Research Laboratory, University of British Columbia, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver BC V6T1Z4, Canada; Email: m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT Since 2007, Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorns or COT) outbreaks in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (TRNP, Sulu Sea, Philippines), one of UNESCO’s World Heritage Site, has prompted the Tubbataha Marine Office (TMO) to conduct COT clean-up activities and invite initiatives on COT studies. This study, invited by the TMO, attempts to identify outbreak areas within the TRNP, measure the density of COTs within these areas and conduct size-frequency surveys using bucket view and SCUBA methods in three islets, i.e., North Atoll, South Atoll and Jessie Beazeley Reef. Six sites were identified where outbreaks have been reported. Total diameter and number of arms for 425 COTs were measured from 18 belt transects (30x5 m) and a COT clean-up activity. The largest individuals measured had a total diameter of 56 cm (with 15 arms) while a 43 cm individual had the most number of arms at 20 arms. Asymptotic length (L∞=52.6 cm) and growth coefficient (K=0.0367) was estimated using the Powell-Wetherall Plot and the average growth performance index (θ’) from growth parameters of COT populations in the Western Pacific region. Crown-of thorns starfishes were not widespread in the area but were observed to aggregate, average density being 0.011 ind·m-2 (maximum observed density of 0.547 ind·m-2). This is lower compared to reported densities in similar ecosystems but is higher than the maximum sustainable density of 0.002 ind·m-2 estimated for a Panamian coral reef ecosystem, notably since most individuals sampled (98%) were adults, and may be enough to produce another outbreak within 2-4 years. Therefore, further monitoring of COT populations in the area is highly recommended. INTRODUCTION Acanthaster planci outbreaks have, since the late 1940s, devastated coral reefs across the Indo-Pacific (Shirai, 1956). Some think that outbreaks are a natural phenomenon (Vine, 1973), while others think that outbreaks are a response to exogenous factors, e.g., nutrient influx (Brodie et al., 2005) from terrestrial run-off (Birkeland, 1982) and removal of natural predators (Dulvy et al., 2004). The first outbreak of crown of thorns starfish, A. planci, in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (TRNP) was reported in 2007 (Dr. Theresa Aquino, Tubbataha Management Office, Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines, pers. comm., 20 August 2009), and it continues, the most recent being in June 2009, when Bos (2010) reported up to 8 A. planci individuals per coral colony at Amos Rock (8°50.978’N, 119°53.493’E). Moran (1990) reported that the natural density of A. planci in a coral reef ecosystem ranges from 6-20 adults km-2 and that outbreak                                                  1 Cite as: Pan, M., Hilomen, V., Palomares, M.L.D., 2010. Size structure of Acanthaster planci populations in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Parks, Sulu Sea, Philippines. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine Biodiversity of Southeast Asian and Adjacent Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3), p. 70-77. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  71 densities may go up to 20.6 juveniles m-2 or more than 1,150 adults counted over a 20-minute swim and may last for 1-5 years depending on reef complexity and food availability (Moran, 1990). In spite of the extent of this seemingly catastrophic problem, nothing is much is known of crown of thorns starfishes in the Philippines. This study, reports on the spatial distribution and size structure of Acanthaster planci (Asteroida: Echinodermata) populations in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Sulu Sea, Philippines and provide an overview of the extent of the most recent COT outbreak and of the size structure of this COT population. Such baseline information is important for the management of this problem, notably since the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park is a world heritage site. METHODOLOGY Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (Figure 1) is a 33,200 hectare park that was established under the Philippine government’s Proclamation No. 306 and is protected under Presidential Decree No. 705. It is located between 8°41’33” to 9°6’5”N and 119°45’46” to 120°3’20”E in the middle of the Sulu Sea, 175 km southeast of Puerto Princesa City, Palawan Island. It contains more than 10,000 ha of coral reefs, considered by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site of global ecological importance (UNEP-WCMC, 2008). The history of COT outbreaks within the TRNP was established through park ranger interviews and by going through a series of Tubbataha Marine Office (TMO) internal reports. Tubbataha Reefs’ North and South atolls and Jessie Beazeley (Figure 2) were surveyed from April 4 to May 1, 2010 using bucket view (acrylic glass bottom buckets handmade for this study) and SCUBA methods, modified from Bass and Miller’s (1996) Standard Operating Procedure for COT survey (i.e., bucket view, recommended for reconnaissance, in lieu of manta tow, a method designed for small survey areas already exhibiting outbreaks). Environmental parameters were measured, i.e., temperature (°C); depth (m); wind strength and sea state based on the categories adopted from Bass and Miller (1996; see Table 1). Crown of thorns starfishes were counted along a belt transect as recommended in Hill and Wilkinson (2004), to provide density estimates while diameter and number of arms were measured/counted to provide a preliminary picture of their population structure. Sites for more detailed SCUBA surveys were selected using the bucket viewing method. Two buckets were ballasted with lead weights such that they can be held steadily on both sides of the dinghy when the bottom of the buckets were submerged 30 cm deep on the water surface. The dinghy’s path was set parallel to the reef crest, close enough for the observers to see the reef slope, traveling at a speed of 3.4 km h-1 or slower to allow observers to see the bottom through the bucket. A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver was used to mark the start and end of two-minute transects along the entire perimeter of the three islets, i.e., North and South atolls and   Figure 1. Map of Tubbataha Reefs’ South and North atolls and Jessie Beazeley Rock, Philippines where crown of thorns survey was performed. Source of digital data: Conservation International (2008).    Figure 2. Bucket viewing survey path (dotted lines) and SCUBA survey areas (encircled) of the crown of thorns survey of the Tubbataha Reefs South and North Atolls and Jessie Beazeley Rock, Philippines. Areas where COT individuals were sited were marked with asterisks (*) Source of digital data: Conservation International (2008). Crown of thorns starfish in Tubbataha Reefs, Pan, M., Hilomen, V., Palomares, M.L.D.  72 Jessie Beazeley, and to keep track of the dinghy’s path. Temperature, depth, number of COTs and live hard coral cover estimates (eye-balled, as % of transect) were recorded for each transect. The bucket view method identified three sampling sites for detailed SCUBA surveys. In addition, three sites with known COT outbreaks were included in the SCUBA survey. For each site, three 30 x 5 m transect belts surveys were performed (see Figure 2). Crown of thorns found within the transect were measured, i.e., diameter from leftmost arm tip to rightmost arm tip in cm, and number of arms were counted. The absence of a weighing scale that could be used underwater prevented the recording of individual weights. Total diameter of COTs was used to obtain the size-frequency distribution for the surveyed populations. As all observed COTs were measured in the 6 survey sites, we assume that our data is representative of the ‘outbreak’ population for the TRNP as a whole and thus valid for analysis using the Powell-Wetherall method (Powell, 1979). This method estimates the von Bertalanffy parameters, asymptotic length, L∞, or the length towards which a population can grow and the ratio of total mortality, Z, to the growth coefficient, K, expressed as Z/K, which provides a measure of how fast the population grows. Under basic assumption that the size-frequency distribution is representative of the population, i.e., sampled the breadth of the population size range, this relationship shows that the mean length of n selected individuals (Lmean) is a linear function of the knife-edge selection length (L’), thus, Li-Li’=a+b*Li and where L∞=a/-b and Z/K=(1+b)/-b (Pauly, 1986). Because this was a one-time survey, and therefore not valid for length-frequency analyses as required by the ELEFAN software (Pauly, 1987) for von Bertalanffy growth parameter estimations (Bertalanffy, 1938), the value of K was obtained from the growth performance index (θ’) using the relationship, θ’=logK+2*logL∞ as defined by Pauly and Munro (1984), from DL∞ and K data pairs obtained from other COT populations across Western Pacific Region (see Table 2). A correlation matrix was used to identify which among the parameters measured significantly affect the number of COTs per transect area observed (defined here forth as COT density). It is expected that coral cover (though eye-balled) will have a direct relationship with the density of COTs since this is their habitat (Moran, 1990). It is also expected that in areas with regular water column exchange (through currents caused by winds and the lunar cycle), i.e., non-eutrophic habitats, will have healthier coral cover and be less prone to COT outbreaks. This follows from Bell’s (1992) conclusion that high nanoplankton concentrations characteristic of eutrophic habitats can sustain A. planci larvae and thus promote outbreaks. Once identified, significant independent variables were regressed with COT density to obtain a preliminary predictive equation that can be used to identify possible areas of COT outbreaks within the TRNP. RESULTS In his 10 years as a park ranger, Segundo Canales (Tubbataha Management Office, pers. comm., 4 April 2010) recalls observing the first COT outbreak one slow summer evening in 2007 while picking shells in knee-deep water in the lagoon northeast of the ranger station. Patches of bleached branching corals were later observed in the lagoon near the ranger station and further investigations identified COT aggregations scattered in the lagoon and outer reefs throughout the atolls. The rangers reported this to the Tubbataha Management Office (TMO), which started COT ‘clean-up’ drives within the TRNP. As the COT were immediately blamed for the seemingly rapid and extensive destruction of coral reefs in the TRNP, tourists and dive boat operators also started collecting COTs. Roy Magbanua (Tubbataha Management Office, Table 1. Categories of wind strength and sea state adopted from the standard operating procedures for crown of thorns surveys from Bass and Miller (1996, p. 9-10). Note that Bass and Miller (1996) refers to the wind strength scale used here as a modified Beaufort Scale. Parameter Category Description Wind strength 1 0-5 knots  2 6-10 knots  3 11-15 knots  4 16-20 knots  5 21-25 knots Sea state Calm Mirror-like to small ripples  Slight Small waves, small whitecaps  Moderate Moderate waves, many whitecaps  Rough Large waves, 2-3 m whitecaps everywhere, some spray Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  73 pers. comm., 4 April 2010), another park ranger who worked in the TRNP for 8 years, added that they were able to collect 12,000 COTs in just three months of collections after the first sighting. The number of COT sightings has since declined (park rangers collected 2,500 in 2008; this study observed 72 with the bucket view survey and measured 425 in the SCUBA surveys), but, park rangers still observe and receive reports of aggregations from time to time. The entire perimeter of the Tubbataha islets were reconnoitered using the bucket view method for 10 days along the coast at 0-10 m depths with water surface temperatures at 28.5-33.5°C. This reconnaissance exercise sighted 72 COTs and concluded that the COT outbreak was not horizontally spread throughout the park, but rather, form scattered aggregations. The six SCUBA sampling sites were surveyed for a week. Aggregating COTs had an average density of 0.011 indivudals m-2, with maximum density observed at 0.547 indivudals m-2, which is well above the sustainable density of 0.002 individual·m-2 (Glynn, 1973). The majority (98%) of the individuals measured were of adult size (>15 cm) (Figure 3), with diameters ranging from 13-56 cm (average of 27.3 cm +/-0.73; s.e.=0.37) and with 10-20 arms (average of 13.9 arms +/- 0.15; s.e.=0.077). The largest individual measured 56 cm had 15 arms while the individual with most number of arms (20 arms) measured 46 cm. The diameter-frequency distribution in Figure 3 was run through the FiSAT (Gayanilo and Pauly, 1997) Powell-Wetherall routine to obtain the linear regression correlation coefficients a=13.0 and b=-0.224 (r=0.95) which led to the asymptotic diameter (D∞) of 58 cm and Z/K=3.46. Growth parameter estimates of other COT populations in the Western Pacific Region assembled in Table 3 provided von Bertalanffy parameters for COTs with D ∞ ranging from 23.7 cm (Guam) to 44.4 cm (Davies Reef, Australia). This puts our estimate of 58 cm beyond the largest asymptotic diameter reported for this species in the Pacific Ocean. The average θ’ value obtained from the 6 growth parameter estimates is 2.920 and resulted in a K value of 0.247 for the Tubbataha population. Table 2. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters for crown of thorns starfish in the Western Pacific Region. The L∞ estimate for Tubbataha population was obtained from the diameter-frequency distribution described in Figure 3 and K was obtained from the average θ’ value of 2.008 from the Australia, Fiji and Guam populations. Locality Country Year N D∞ K Source Davies Reef (pre-outbreak cohorts) Australia 1988-91 106 44.4 0.50 Stump, 1994 Davies Reef (post-outbreak cohorts) Australia 1988-91 106 42.2 0.61 Stump, 1994 Hospital Point Guam 1992 40 23.7 1.70 Stump, 1994 South Tumon Bay Guam 1992 40 29.4 0.76 Stump, 1994 Double Reef Guam 1992 36 31.1 0.83 Stump, 1994 Suva Reef Fiji 1992 56 34.2 0.53 Stump, 1994 Tubbataha Reefs Philippines 2010 425 58.0 0.25 This study  The correlation analysis (Table 3) identified temperature, wind strength and coral cover as possible variables for testing with a regression analysis on COT density. This also identified relationships between sea state and temperature, depth, wind strength and coral cover. Temperature and depth are auto- correlated, i.e., temperature decreases with depth. Similarly, wind strength and sea state are also auto- correlated, i.e., the water column is disturbed or ‘shifted’ by stronger winds and therefore determines sea state. Thus, we accepted the linear regression results of COT density vs. temperature, wind strength and coral cover. This regression, which explained 34% of the variability (r2=0.341, s.e.=0.117, d.f.=17) is significant at P = 0.11, is expressed as: COT density = -0.7885 + 0.02894*Temp -0.1029*Wind strength +0.005481*Coral cover; where COT density is the number of COTs in a 150 m-2 survey area; temperature is in °C; wind strength is a rank based on Bass and Miller’s (1996; see Table 1 above); coral cover is an eye- 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Diameter class (cm) Fr eq ue nc y   Figure 3. Size structure of crown of thorns starfish (n=425) sampled from the North and South Atolls and Jessie Beazeley islet of the Tubbataha Reefs National Park (Palawan, Philippines) in April and May 2010. Crown of thorns starfish in Tubbataha Reefs, Pan, M., Hilomen, V., Palomares, M.L.D.  74 ball estimate of the live hard corals present in the 150-m-2 belt transects expressed in percent. The standard errors obtained for the intercept ‘a’ and each of the slopes (coefficient of regression ‘b’) of the independent variables included here are: 0.6763, 0.0240, 0.0452 and 0.0036, respectively; these are significant to P levels, 0.26, 0.25, 0.039 and 0.15, respectively. Given that coral cover is a ‘guesstimate’, we dropped it from the regression analysis and rerun the analysis with surface temperature and wind strength alone as independent variables. This resulted in the relationship: COT density = -1.386 +0.06756*Temp -0.1571*Wind strength; with r2=0.339, s.e.=31.0, d.f.=19, significant to P level=0.036 and where the intercept has s.e.=1.179, the slopes have s.e. values of 0.0394 and 0.0614, respectively, and where the intercept and slopes are significant at P levels 0.26, 0.10 and 0.02, respectively. This implies that COT density will be higher in areas with high temperature (i.e., shallow waters) and in calm areas where wind strength is between 0-5 knots. Table 3. Correlation matrix of crown of thorns density and independent environmental variables of three islets (North and South Atolls and Jessie Beazeley) surveyed within the Tubbataha Reefs National Park (Palawan, Philippines) in April and May 2010. Environmental variables and COT density were obtained from a summary of the 425 crown of thorns in the SCUBA surveys while number of arms and diameter here were obtained from individual measures of these.  Sea state Temperature Depth Wind strength Coral cover COT density Sea state 1.00      Temperature (°C) 0.557 1.00     Depth (m) 0.371 -0.408 1.00    Wind strength 0.605 0.239 0.343 1.00   Coral cover (%) 0.588 0.388 0.220 0.573 1.00  COT density (#·m-2) 0.000158 0.303 -0.00337 -0.294 0.1849 1.00 # of Arms -0.114 -0.138 0.0792 -0.0837 -0.0150  Diameter (cm) -0.0522 -0.182 -0.170 0.0509 0.335   Similarly, we correlated diameter and number of arms with the environmental variables in Table 3 in order to test which of these could have an effect on the size structure shown in Figure 3. The correlation matrix in Table 3 shows that sea state and temperature have testable effects on number of COT arms, while temperature, depth and coral cover may affect the diameter of COTs. We performed several regression analyses to test these as well as to test for a relationship between diameter and number of arms, i.e., larger COTs might have more arms. The best fitting regressions are shown in Table 4, the most interesting and viable being that diameter is a function of depth, sea state and coral cover, i.e., smaller COTs are found in deeper waters, smaller COTs are found in rougher waters and that larger COTs are found in areas of higher coral cover. DISCUSSION The bucket view method served as an effective and safe method for reconnaissance survey of COT outbreak especially in the TRNP where large pelagics, i.e., barracudas, can easily snap at objects on the water surface. However, in the absence of aggregations, it was difficult to spot COTs because of their cryptic behavior, notably since this survey method only allowed for a two-dimensional view of the reef. Thus, we decided not to complement the SCUBA survey data with the more than 83,000 2-minute transects obtained through the bucket view method in order to discount the method’s natural bias. Table 4. Summary of multiple linear regression statistics obtained for crown of thorns starfishes sampled in the Tubbataha Reefs National Park, Palawan, Philippines in April-May 2010. Diameter is in cm, depth in m, sea state is a rank category following the standard operating procedures of Bass and Miller (1996; see Table 1), coral cover is an eye-ball estimate in %of live hard coral cover. Parameter r2 s.e. d.f. P level a b No. of arms 0.0468 1.549 425 0.0001 12.73  Depth  0.1149  0.002  0.3578 Sea state  0.1129  0.0001  -0.4728 Coral cover  0.007001  0.007  0.01907        Diameter 0.338 6.234 425 0.0001 19.86  Depth  0.04626  0.04  -0.9483 Sea state  0.4545  0.0001  -4.707 Coral cover  0.02821  0.0001  0.3959 Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  75 We showed in Figure 3 that the COTs we sampled at depths of 1-10 m were 98% adults, implying that juveniles do not occur in shallow waters, in line with Black and Moran’s (1991) suggestion that juveniles settle in deeper waters at bases of reef slopes where most outbreaks originate. Though the regression results in Table 4 support Black and Moran’s (1991) suggestion, there remains the possibility that juveniles were too small, cryptic and nocturnal, e.g., algae- feeding juveniles with diameters <10 cm (Johnson et al., 1991), and were not seen during the sampling period. Note also that 13% of these adults had diameters >40 cm, the largest being 56 cm, implying that the asymptotic diameter (58 cm) we obtained from the Powell-Wetherall relationship is a viable estimate. However, this D∞ estimate is much larger than any of the 6 populations reported by Stump (1994), whose samples fell in the same size range as those sampled in this study. Assuming that Stump’s (1994) results are viable, we plotted ln K vs. ln D∞ in a linear regression analysis, which gave an auximetric relationship significant at P=0.02 (see Figure 4). This indicates that the use of the average θ’ obtained in Table 2 to estimate K for the Philippine population is reasonable. Accepting the asymptotic diameter and K values we obtained in this exercise, we estimated ages at diameters for the 425 COTs we sampled (Figure 5), suggesting that the largest individual we sampled may have been 14 years old, the smallest may have been one year old and that the majority (76%) of the individuals we sampled were of 2-3 years of age, about the same age as those sampled by Stump (1994), i.e., spawning adults (CRC Reef Research Center, 2003). These samples, similar to those reported in Stump (1994), were aggregating individuals, which supports Moran’s (1990) report that aggregates form to ensure reproductive success, i.e., spawning COTs need to be within at least 1- 2 m to ensure the mixing of the eggs and sperms. Thus, logic compels us to think that aggregations such as those observed in the TRNP are effectively spawning swarms of a native population and not an outbreak of ‘introduced pests’, though others may argue the opposite. The TRNP outbreak was reported only recently (2007) and is expected to last 3-5 years, though some outbreaks may last longer, e.g., 15 years in the Great Barrier Reefs and 20 years in the Ryukyu Islands, depending on reef complexity, which affects the rate of COT larvae transport (Moran, 1997). There is growing speculation that this population was brought in from a previous outbreak reported from mainland Palawan in the early 2000s through ballast waters of dive-tour boats frequenting the site every summer, similar to Bos’s (2010) suspicion of massive influx of larvae from other sites. This predominantly adult population were sampled in shallow areas (0-10 m), dominated by large lnK = -1.684*lnDiameter + 5.617 R2 = 0.762; s.e. = 0.247*; d.f. = 5 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 Asymptotic diameter (cm; ln) G ro w th  c oe ff ic ie nt  (y ea r- 1 ; ln ) Guam Fiji Australia Philippines   Figure 4. Comparison of von Bertalanffy growth parameters for seven populations of COT across Western Pacific Region (see Table 2 for details). 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Age (years) D ia m et er  (c m )  0 50 100 150 200 250 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Age (years) Fr eq ue nc y   Figure 5. Growth and age composition of crown of thorns starfish from Tubbataha Reefs National Park, Palawan, Philippines sampled by SCUBA in April-May 2010. Upper panel: age at length curve estimated using von Bertalanffy growth parameters D∞=58 cm and K=0.247years-1. Lower panel: age composition resulting from our samples and the growth curve in the upper panel. Crown of thorns starfish in Tubbataha Reefs, Pan, M., Hilomen, V., Palomares, M.L.D.  76 formations of branching corals, which offer refuge to spawning adults, i.e., COTs have better chances of getting a good grasp of branching corals than of massive coral forms (Chesher, 1969), notably in an area exposed to strong currents, which are favorable to the spreading and transport of pelagic COT larvae (Black et al., 1995). If we accept that this population settled in the three islets sampled in this study because of the favorable environmental conditions, and given that a gravid female can produce up to 65 million eggs (Moran, 1990), we might see another ‘outbreak’ in this area in the next 2-4 years. If we accept that our results are indicative of spawning swarms, then the relationship we presented above on COT density as a function of temperature and wind strength may be used by the TMO to predict where COT spawning aggregations may occur in other areas of the TRNP in addition to these three islets. This might be instrumental in preempting aggregations that might threaten coral reef health, but hopefully not in decimating entire cohorts, notably since there is evidence that the cleansing effect of a COT ‘outbreak’ sweep may enhance reef recovery and promote diversity, i.e., the cleaned surfaces serve as suitable substrates for new hard coral recruits (Colgan, 1987). As these results were based only on one sampling, and are thus preliminary, we strongly recommend continued monitoring (i.e., regular sampling surveys) of the COT population in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study, a part of the M.Sc. thesis (Zoology) of the first author, was born from discussions between the last author and Dr. Teri Aquino, at the East Asian Seas Congress (October 2009), who made it possible for our study to be part of the many projects of the Tubbatha Protected Area Management Board (TPAMB) through the Tubbataha Management Office (TMO). M. Pan wishes to thank the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) through the Accelerated Science and Technology Human Resource Development (ASTHRD) for the additional field work funding they provided. Special thanks to Jennifer Selgrath (Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada), Renante Bonales and Manny Bundal (TMO Park Rangers) for assisting M. Pan during the month-long data gathering and the 8 park rangers of the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, with whom J. Selgrath and M. Pan shared a month of isolated existence. Last but not least, many thanks to Christine Dar for helping us with FiSAT data manipulation, as well as Jeniffer Espedido, Laurence Ramos and Luvie Paglinawan for map lay-outs. This contribution was made possible through collaboration between the Sea Around Us Project (UBC, Vancouver, Canada), the SeaLifeBase Project (funded by the Oak Foundation, Geneva, Switzerland), and the Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office (Los Baños, Laguna). REFERENCES Bass, D.K., Miller, I.R., 1996. Crown-of-thorns starfish and coral surveys using the manta tow and scuba search techniques. Long- term Monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef. Standard Operating Procedure No. 1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, 38 p. Bertalanffy, L. von, 1938. A quantitative theory of organic growth (Inquiries on growth laws. II). Human Biology 10, 181-213.  Birkeland, C., 1982. Terrestrial runoff as a cause of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Marine Biology 69, 175-185. Black, K.P., Moran, J.P., 1991. Influence of hydrodynamics on the passive dispersal and initial recruitment of larvae of Acanthaster planci on the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 69, 55-65. Black, K., Moran, P., Burrage, D., De’ath, G., 1995. Associations of low-frequency currents and crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks. Marine Ecology Progress Series 125, 185-194.  Bos, A.R., 2010. Crown-of-thorns outbreak at the Tubbataha Reefs UNESCO World Heritage Site. Zoological Studies 49(1), 124. Brodie, J., Fabricius, K., De’ath, G., Okaji, K., 2005. Are nutrient inputs responsible for more outbreaks of crown-of thorns starfish? An appraisal of the evidence. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51, 266-278. Chesher, R.H., 1969. Destruction of Pacific corals by the sea star Acanthaster planci. Science 165, 280-283. Dulvy, N.K., Freckleton, R.P., Polunin, N.V.C., 2004. Coral reef cascades and the indirect effects of predator removal by exploitation. Ecology Letters 7, 410-416. 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Crown of thorns starfish: Questions and answers. Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, Townsville. Accessed at http://www.aims.gov.au/pages/reflib/cot-starfish/pages/cot-000.html on 2009-10-13. Pan, M., (in progress). Crown of thorns outbreaks: standardizing abundance observations for meta-analyses with a case study in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Sulu Sea, Philippines. MSc thesis, University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Pauly, D., 1987. A review of the ELEFAN system analysis of length-frequency data in fish and aquatic invertebrates. p. 7-34. In D. Pauly and G.R. Morgan (eds.) Length-based methods in fisheries research. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 13, 468 p. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Philippines and Kuwait Institute for Research, Safat, Kuwait. Pauly, D., Munro, J.L., 1984. Once more on the comparison of growth in fish and invertebrates, Fishbyte 2(1), p. 21. Powell, 1979. Estimation of mortality and growth parameters from the length frequency in the catch. Rapp. P.-v. Réun. CIEM 175, 167-169. Pratchett, M.S., 2005. Dynamics of an outbreak population of Acanthaster planci at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef (1995-1999). Coral Reefs 24, 453-462. Shirai, S., 1956. Ecological notes on the Amami-Oshima (II), Okinawa. Collecting and Breeding 18(10),301-307. [in Japanese] Stump, R.J.W., 1994. Age determination and life-history characteristics of Acanthaster planci (L.) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). PhD dissertation, James Cook University, 405 p. United Nations Environment Program World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), 2008. Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park, Philippines. 7 p. Vine, P.J., 1973. Crown of thorns (Acanthaster planci) plagues: The natural causes theory. Atoll Research Bulletin 166, 1-10, figs. 1-4.  Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  78 MANAGEMENT THE EFFECT OF TOURISM ON CETACEAN POPULATIONS IN SOUTHERN PHILIPPINES1 Patricia M. E. Sorongon The SeaLifeBase Project, Aquatic Biodiversity Informatics Office, Khush Hall, IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; Email: p.sorongon@cgiar.org Jo Marie Acebes Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia; jomacebes@yahoo.com Louella Dolar Tropical Marine Research  for Conservation (TMRC), LLC, San Diego, California, U.S.A.;ldolar@san.rr.com Vincent V. Hilomen School of Environmental Science and Management, University of the Philippines Los Baños Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; vvhilomen@yahoo.com  Maria Lourdes D. Palomares The Sea Around Use Project, Fisheries Center, UBC, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4, Canada; Email: m.palomares@fisheries.ubc.ca ABSTRACT The Bohol Marine Triangle has the highest marine mammal diversity in the Philippines with a total of 13 species. Popularity of cetacean watching among local and international tourists increased by an average of 23 boats annually since the early 2000s, e.g., as seen in number of tour boats in the area, i.e., 40 boats for Pamilacan and about 250 for Panglao. The conduct of tour boats was assessed with observations obtained from a one month survey of different boats from Panglao and Pamilacan during the peak month of cetacean watching. The results of this study aim to: 1) identify where cetacean species are sighted; 2) determine what factors affect cetacean behavior; and 3) document cetacean behavior during human- cetacean interactions. This will provide preliminary information on the compliance of tour boats to the code of conduct legislated by the Philippine government for cetacean watching activities for conservation and management. INTRODUCTION Cetacean ecotourism (watching, swimming, and feeding encounters) is an increasingly popular activity among tourists (Scarpaci et al., 2003). The human desire to experience and interact with these animals in their natural habitat has become an income generating activity among local communities and may sometimes contribute to environmental awareness of the public at large (Amante-Helweg, 1996; Scarpaci et al., 2003). However, increase in such activities also alters cetaceans’ normal behavior and may bring about death, as in the case of whales colliding with large vessels (30 m or more in length) at speeds of                                                  1 Cite as: Sorongon, P.M.E., Acebes, J.M., Dolar, L., Hilomen, V.V., Palomares, M.L.D., 2010. The effect of tourism on cetacean populations in southern Philippines. In: Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine Biodiversity of Southeast Asian and Adjacent Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 18(3), p. 78-96. Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia [ISSN 1198-6727]. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  79 18 knots or faster (Weinrich, 2005). Human interactions with cetaceans may cause increased inter-breath intervals, i.e., dive time, and active evading behavior thus affecting their energy expenditure and may impact on their foraging strategies (Williams et al., 2009). If feeding strategies are affected, it follows that reproductive patterns are also altered (Lusseau and Bejder, 2007; Schaffar and Garrigue, 2008). Due to these observed impacts, codes of conduct to proper whale watching were legislated to protect the welfare of marine mammals exploited by the ecotourism industry (Cunningham-Smith et al., 2006; Lusseau and Bejder, 2007). Garrod and Fennel (2004) reviewed 54 codes of conduct from North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, New Zealand, Australia and Micronesia. These codes slightly differ in presentation and in context, i.e., a minority have species specific guidelines while the majority deals mainly on the minimum distance of boat to cetaceans. The biggest challenge in standardizing these codes is the identification of which guideline works best and which is based on sound scientific evidence (Garrod and Fennel, 2004). In the Philippines, whale watching started in 1996 in Bais City, and was eventually followed by other jurisdictions (Evacitas, 2001). The consistent increase of whale watching in the Philippines prompted a Joint Administrative Order No. 1 (JAO-1; see Sorongon, 2010, Appendix A) between Department of Tourism (DOT) and Department of Agriculture’s Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DA-BFAR; signed in 2004) to establish a set of guidelines governing people interacting with whales, dolphins and porpoises. This code complements the existing Fisheries Adminstrative Order 185-1 which prohibits the killing, taking and transporting of dolphins and whales which was used to stop the cetacean fishery in San Francisco, Negros Oriental (Blue Ocean Institute, 2005) and in 2003 by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in establishing marine mammal marine protected areas (MPA’s) in Negros, Cebu and the Bohol Sea (Alcala et al., 2003). In addition, JAO-1 is being used as a guideline for the protection of humpback whales in Cagayan along with their provincial ordinances (Acebes, personal communication), whales and dolphins in the Bohol Marine Triangle and in other Philippine sites (WWF, 2008). In spite of the evident importance of validating the applicability of such legislations to help ensure strict enforcement (Hoyt, 2009), an evaluation of the compliance to the different sections of this code and the possible impacts of compliance and non-compliance to cetacean behavior are yet to be studied. In the Philippines, cetacean studies revolve around species identification, distribution and feeding ecology (Dolar et al., 1993; Acebes and Lesaca, 2003; Dolar et al., 2003; 2006) and little is done on evaluating the impact of tourism on exploited populations, e.g., in the Bohol Marine Triangle (BMT) where previously prevalent hunting was replaced with active ecotourism. Mapping local perceptions of inhabitants within the BMT, similar to the initiatives in Shark Bay, Australia (Bejder, et al., 2006), may help in identifying changes in observed species of cetaceans and their abundance. Data on cetacean abundance estimates and shifts from fishing to whale watching and the subsequent effects of livelihood changes on cetaceans may also be inferred from perception mapping. The aim of this study is to determine which of the parameters in selected sections of JAO-1 significantly influence cetacean response to ecotourism by comparing two locations in close proximity to each other, where guidelines are, on one hand followed, and ignored on the other. This study focuses on Pamilacan and Balicasag Islands in the Bohol Sea, hotpots of cetacean diversity in the Philippines (Calumpong, 2004; Sabater, 2005) and aims to identify factors that may have long-term impacts on marine mammals (Dolar, 1995). This study also aims to help the Municipality of Baclayon and Panglao in creating viable interventions to strongly enforce compliance of tour boat operators for cetacean watching to ensure not only the safety of the tourists but also to protect marine mammal populations. Cetaceans in the Bohol Marine Triangle There are 124 marine mammal species worldwide belonging to the three main groups namely: Cetacea (83), Pinnipedia (36), and Sirenia (5). Aside from these, several species of carnivores such as bats, bears, foxes and otters occur in marine waters, thus adding to the list of marine mammals of the world (Rice, 1998). A total 26 species and one subspecies of cetaceans have confirmed Philippine occurrences based on fishery data (Leatherwood et al., 1992; IUCN, 2009), which is similar to the list obtained through SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org; see Palomares and Pauly, 2009), i.e., 28 species listed for the Philippines belonging to Cetacea (27) and Sirenia (1). Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  80 The Bohol Marine Triangle (BMT) is home to 13 species of cetaceans out of the 26 confirmed in Philippine waters (Calumpong, 2004; Sabater, 2005; see Table 1). The latest addition to the list is the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus plus one unidentified ziphiid (Sabater, 2005). This constitutes 11% of the total number of marine mammal species known worldwide. The most frequent animals seen in the BMT are Stenella longirostris and Tursiops truncatus. These are followed by Lagenodelphis hosei, Grampus griseus, and Peponocephala electra (Calumpong, 2004). Table 1. Species composition of cetaceans in the Bohol Marine Triangle (adapted from Sabater, 2005). Family Species Common name Delphinidae Globicephala macrorhynchus Shot-finned pilot whale  Grampus griseus Risso's dolphin  Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser's dolphin  Peponocephala electra Melon-headed whale  Stenella attenuata Pantropical spotted dolphin Delphinidae Stenella longirostris Long-snouted spinner dolphin  Tursiops truncatus Bottlenose dolphin  Feresa attenuata Pygmy killer whale Ziphiidae Mesoplodon densirostris Blainville's beaked whale Physeteridae Physeter catodon = (macrocephalus) Sperm whale Kogiidae Kogia sima Pygmy sperm whale Balaenopteridae Balaenoptera musculus Blue whale  Balaenoptera edeni Bryde's whale  Cetacean watching In the mid-1940’s, students of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (San Diego, CA) observed and counted gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) from boats (Hoyt, 2009). This academic study gave birth to cetacean watching, i.e., a form of nature-based tourism involving tour boats and planes (Bejder et al., 2003a), and sometimes swimming (Scarpaci et al., 2003). Governments have acknowledged this as a ‘sustainable use’ of cetaceans, provided that codes of conduct are followed (Evacitas, 2001). Thus, being ‘sustainable’, whale watching replaced whale hunting (primarily for the products of the hunt, e.g., oil, baleen, meat, ivory) as a source of livelihood, which was practiced worldwide, probably since humans learned to hunt, e.g., in Tonga (Orams, 2001), Newfoundland and Labrador (Lien, 2000), Scotland (Parsons et al., 2003), New Zealand and Australia (Lusseau et al., 2007), Philippines (Evacitas, 2001), Iceland, North America, and South Africa (Reeves et al., 2003), and as part of cultural, ceremonial, and social functions (Renker, 2007). Recreational fishing, diving and whale watching, generate an annual revenue of 47 billion USD (Cisneros-Montemayor et al., 2010), with whale watching possibly generating 413 million USD (Cisneros-Montemayor et al., 2010) given that in 2006 alone, the industry recorded 12 million whale watchers (Hoyt, 1995; 2009). Cetacean behavior Cetacean behavioral states are species or group specific and include feeding, resting, traveling, and communicating or socializing (Shane et al., 1986; Fish et al., 2006; Lusseau, 2006). Associated with these states are actions such as leaping in the air displayed during feeding and socializing/playing. Socializing actions include spinning, bow riding, tail slaps, and breaching, which are also considered playful behaviors. In the ‘resting’ state, pods move slowly in the same direction, i.e., slower than boat speed of an observing vessel, with short dive intervals. In the ‘traveling’ state, pods move steadily but faster than boat speed, with short dive intervals (Lusseau, 2006). ‘Spy-hopping’, which displays curiosity or orientation behavior, i.e. using signs from the surface to determine their movement, is also observed by cross ocean travelers or when vessels approach an individual or group of cetaceans (Dalheim, 1981; Pryor, 1986). This kind of behavior is commonly seen in whales and is usually followed by evasive behavior (Perryman, 2009). Being social animals, marine mammals respond to stimuli, whether it is favorable or unfavorable to them. Thus, stimuli injected by whale watching activities, e.g., presence of a significant number of tour boats (Buckstaff, 2004; Mattson et al., 2005; Bejder et al., 2006b; Lusseau, 2006), are considered as primary causes of altered cetacean behavior (IUCN, 2008). The two main changes in cetacean behavior observed Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  81 on whale watching tours are avoidance and longer bottom time, e.g., in the tropical Pacific, Fraser dolphins reportedly swam away from tour boats (Wursig, 2000), while melon-headed whales exhibited evasive to curious behavior towards divers and swimmers (Perryman, 2009). This is commonly observed when whale watching is conducted in areas where feeding, mating, and resting occurs and where smaller cetacean populations reside (Hoyt, 2009). Cetaceans in captivity are known to exhibit aggressive behavior, e.g., ramming their heads or biting (Perryman, 2009). With the growing interest in a multi-billion dollar industry, understanding the impact of exogenous activities on natural populations of cetaceans is paramount to making it a truly ‘sustainable’ industry. Impacts Sizes of marine mammal populations have declined since the 1950s (Schneider, 1973; Christensen, 2006). Perceived causes of this decline include whaling, commercial and indigenous fisheries and climate change (Dolar, 1994; Dolar et al., 1994). Many studies blame the fisheries sector as the major cause for this decline, thus discounting ecotourism. However, some reports claim that decline in sightings is observed only in areas where there is an increase in whale watching tours (Garrod and Fennell, 2004; Bejder et al., 2006b; Hoyt, 2009; Williams et al., 2009); and that cetacean behavior changes, such as exhibited in diving, aerial and communication behavior in response to presence of tour boats (Buckstaff, 2004; Mattson et al., 2005; Lusseau, 2006) lead to disruptions in their daily activities, e.g., foraging strategies and social/mating relationships, the repeated occurrences of which may change their biological and natural clock to adapt to human presence, thus leading to ‘human dependency’ (Bryant, 1994). Such ‘forced’ adaptation varies depending on the length of time of exposure to the disturbance (Bejder et al., 2006a). Persistent and repeated short-term disturbances decrease cetaceans’ reproductive fitness (Lien, 2001; Bejder, 2005). Wells and Scott (1997) show that long-term disturbances, i.e., increased exposure to tour boats, may cause population decline, which is confirmed by Bejder et al. (2006b) for the dolphin population in Shark Bay, Australia where the increase in number of tour boats in an ecotourism site decreased the population by 14%. In Fiordland, New Zealand, at the peak of the tourist season, high tour boat traffic forced resting resident dolphins, notably pregnant females, to move away, thus increasing their energy expenditure (Lusseau, 2003; 2004). This disruption, repeated over a long period resulted to an area avoidance strategy by the dolphin population, effectively mimicking a population decline (Lusseau, 2004). Displaced cetacean populations may return to their preferred areas once disturbance stops. However, they may also permanently transfer to an area with a lower level of disturbance (Bejder et al., 2006a). High boat traffic may also affect foraging behavior, as in the resident killer whales of waters off Vancouver, Canada whose foraging opportunities were decreased because they could not compete for water surface space with the large cargo vessels (including salmon fishing vessels) coming in and going out of the Vancouver harbor, thus again affecting their energy expenditure (Williams et al., 2006). In the Bohol Marine Triangle, the observed increase in whale watching tours in both Pamilacan and Balicasag Islands is identified as one of the causes of disturbance affecting resident marine mammal populations. Code of Conduct Observing cetaceans in their natural habitat is being promoted as a prime tourist activity in the Philippines. The resulting increase in demand for whale watching boat operators and the absence of a regulating authority nurtured the sprouting of non-registered tour boats and untrained tour boat operators, e.g., in the BMT, a priority marine protected area (MPA) since its declaration as a marine mammal sanctuary in 1998 (Alcala et al., 2003). Unregulated cetacean watching activities aroused concerns amongst Philippine marine mammal scientists and conservationists, which initiated the drafting and signing of the JAO-1 between the DOT and DA-BFAR (Evacitas, 2001; see Sorongon, 2010, Appendix A) to govern the code of conduct of people interacting with cetaceans, i.e., to ensure the safety of these animals while they are sustainably exploited (WWF, 2008). This guideline is similar to those implemented in other countries where whale watching has replaced whale hunting as a primary source of fisher’s livelihood, e.g., in Canada (Lien, 2000), New Zealand and Australia (Lusseau et al., 2007), Scotland (Parsons et al., 2003), Tonga (Orams, 2001).  Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  82 Management Management, i.e., training of tour boat operators and monitoring of compliance by these operators to JAO-1 is essential for the sustainable use in ecotourism of cetacean populations (Quiros, 2007). The logical implementing bodies of JAO-1 are the Department of Tourism and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, notably in the apprehension of violators, controlling licensure and boat dispatch schedules, trainings and seminars on the proper conduct in cetacean watching as well as in activating propaganda campaigns to promote incentives to comply with JAO-1 and to encourage inhabitants of the BMT to protect and conserve these animals. Implementation of JAO-1 requires an analysis of the carrying capacity of the tourism area in order to determine the optimal number of tour boat operators and encounter time (Higham and Bejder, 2008), notwithstanding, boat speed, type of approach and pursuit and noise level within sites. These regulations aim to decrease the impact of tourism activities in disruptions of cetacean life processes (Lien, 2001). Thus, effective implementation of JAO-1 requires the identification of critical habitats, i.e., feeding, mating or resting areas, in order to restrict access to cetacean populations when they are within these areas (Lusseau and Higham, 2004). Furthermore, implementing bodies of JAO-1 need to continuously assess its efficiency and should also implement regular evaluations in order to amend the code, e.g., to cater to species specific responses to ecotourism (Lien, 2001; Ritter, 2003). Moreover, educating people as to how the code can be properly implemented (and why) will help disseminate information for boat operators, tourists, resort owners, and other mariners in whale watching areas and motivate them to follow the code. Having a naturalist on board the trips may aid in increasing awareness of tourists in conserving whales and dolphins by treating them with utmost respect (Hoyt, 2009). Finally, emphasis on enforcement of the code and not just on compliance by some should be the utmost goal of JAO-1. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study site The Bohol Marine Triangle (Figure 1), home to 14 species of cetaceans (Sabater, 2005), covers over 1,120 km2 (112,000 ha) around Pamilacan (9°29’43.55”N, 123°55’39.40”E, Baclayon municipality) and Balicasag Islands (9°30’57.00”N, 123°41’02.00”E; Panglao municipality), composed of 92% water and 8% land (Calumpong, 2004; BMT, 2006), are the main cetacean watching sites in Bohol. Panglao and Baclayon together are home to 207,573 inhabitants (NSO, 2007), whose main source of livelihood is fishing. Specifically for Pamilacan Island, it also involved hunting whales and dolphins for subsistence. These harvests accelerated at a dangerous scale, i.e., for commercial purposes, in the 1990’s (Dolar et al., 1994), which prompted authorities to impose a ban on cetacean harvesting in 2000, and which led to the establishment of nature-based tourism. As cetacean watching developed into an alternative source of livelihood, fishers permanently gave up whale hunting (Edgar Baylon, BRAABO, Baclayon, Bohol, personal communication). Evaluation of compliance A field survey conducted 1 April to 8 May 2009 permitted observation of cetaceans from tour boats over a 30-day period, i.e., 15 boats per island or a total of 30 boats boarded depending on the availability of boats at the docking sites and based on the assumption that tour operators in both islands are composed of those who attended trainings as boat operator, boat mechanic, and spotter, and untrained boat personnel who basically trained themselves. During the study, the code was not yet used as a basis for trainings held in relation to whale watching activities although parts of the code were discussed with different specifications, i.e., allowed distance from the pod based on the training is 20 meters while prescribed  Pamilacan Island http://www.bohol.ph/backgrounds/pamilacan- 800.jpg Balicasag Island http://z.hubpages.com/u/273694_f 520.jpg  Figure 1. The Bohol Marine Triangle, surface area of 1,120 km2, showing Pamilacan (9°29’43.55”N, 123°55’39.40”E, Baclayon municipality) and Balicasag (9°30’57.00”N, 123°41’02.00”E; Panglao municipality) Islands in the southern Philippines. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  83 distance by JAO-1 is 50-300 m. Boat personnel were informed that the study involved observing cetacean behavior during a whale watching tour operation. Tour boat operators, resort owners, and a member of the BRAABO NGO helped in getting permission from tourists to let observers board during the whale watching tour. Volunteer observers were trained prior to boarding, i.e., familiarization with cetaceans occurring in the BMT using pictures; familiarization with cetacean behavior as illustrated in Table 2 and using pictures and videos; and familiarization with video documentation equipment (Sony DCR-SR45 video camera with a 40 x optical zoom lens). A list of cetaceans, tour operator and tourist behavior, pictures of confirmed species in the BMT, and an interview sheet (see Sorongon, 2010, Appendix B) for tour boat operators were provided to the observers as reference during the survey. A test survey conducted on the first day of assessment helped to assess the understanding of observers with respect to the sampling methodology. Daily briefing and de-briefing sessions assessed progress of data gathering and helped adjust the schedule of tasks for the next day. A binocular (Bushnell Marine 7x50 Waterproof/Fogproof) was used for ease of species identification and estimation of the number of individuals in a pod. The proximity of the boat from the pod being observed was estimated using the binocular’s internal rangefinder. This distance was later estimated from the rangefinder reading using the relationship: D=(OH/Mil)*100, where, D is the distance to the object being observed in meters, OH is the observed height, and Mil is the rangefinder reading (1 rangefinder line is equal to 5 Mil). The parameter OH was based on average values of dorsal fin heights, a species-specific trait (Nowak, 2003). Species identification, GPS (ETREX GPS) readings per sighting and cetacean behavior (see Table 2) in response to JAO-1 criteria (Table 3), e.g., boat proximity and approach, number of boats per encounter, human behavior towards cetaceans and observation (surface) time were documented by the first author while volunteer observers documented human-cetacean encounters with the video camera. Informal interviews of boat personnel were conducted to assess the possible reasons for compliance or non- compliance to the FAO. Table 2. Types of cetacean behaviour described in marine mammal scientific literature. Type of behaviour Action Restinga The school moves slowly in the same direction, slower than the boat speed of an observing vessel, with short dive intervals Socializing/Playfulab Leaping in the air and spinning, and those described below for tail slap, breaching and bow riding. Tail slap/Lobtaila Forcefully slaps the water surface with the tail Breaching/Side flopa Jumps clearing its entire body out of the water and lands on its side Bow ridingb Positioning themselves near the bow in such a manner as to be lifted up and pushed forward by the circulating water generated to form a bow of pressure wave of an advancing vessel. Curiousa Goes near the vessel advancing in short distances Spy hopa  Lifts its head above water until its eye-out Avoidancec Diving or swimming away from tour boats from a resting behavior aLusseau (2006); bHertel (1969); cPerrin et al. (2009).  Among the behaviors described in Table 2, the main behavior being observed is avoidance behavior, i.e. sudden diving from a resting (logging) position as the vessel approaches and resurfacing to a far distance; this is equivalent to a short surface time, which is gender or species specific (Williams et al., 2002). The initial position of the cetacean(s) and its/their behavior as the vessel approaches was noted for an individual or pod without gender specificity. The estimated number of individuals and species composition per encounter was also noted.  Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  84 Table 3. Criteria for the evaluation of the code of conduct JAO-1 for cetacean watching tour operators in the Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines. Illustrations of boat approach types are presented in Figure 2. Criteria Specifications Definition Sources Boat approach type parallel boat is positioned parallel to the individual or the pod  DA-BFAR (2004)  back of pod boat is positioned at the back of the individual or the pod Scarpaci et al. (2003)  direct boat crosses the path of the individual or the pod DA-BFAR (2004)  j-approach boat blocks the path as it goes in front of the individual or the pod DA-BFAR (2004) Distance to cetacean 50-300 meters  DA-BFAR (2004) Observation time maximum of 20 minutes  DA-BFAR (2004) Interactions NO touching, feeding, swimming or playing of underwater sounds  DA-BFAR (2004) No. of boats/encounter maximum of 4 boats  DA-BFAR (2004)  The initial time, i.e. once cetacean(s) are spotted, and final time (observation time), i.e., once the last individual in the pod dives down and disappears, were recorded for each sighting with a stop watch. The end of each observation time was determined by the tourists, or when the boat moves away to view another pod at a far distance. If a particular pod was still being observed when the tourists decided to end the whale watching activity, that particular sighting was not included in the data analysis. Observations are on a per sighting basis, i.e., not on a per pod or per individual basis. Thus, the same individual or pod may be the subject of several sightings. The code recommends a combination of the parallel and back of pod approaches as these avoid forcing an individual or pod to change direction or to disaggregate. Observation time is set to a maximum of 20 minutes per boat per encounter. The number of boats between 50-300 m of the pod is limited to 4 per pod per encounter. Feeding, touching, swimming and playing of sounds underwater are prohibited as these may compete with cetacean echolocation. Cetacean historical time series perception mapping workshop A historical time series resource mapping workshop, i.e., a process by which the stakeholders’ perceptions of an existing resource is mapped or charted, was held 3-6 August 2009, with 30 key informants from both islands. Marine mammal abundance data and changes in livelihood from 1960 to 2009 were documented and mapped. Workshop participants, i.e., five per age class (Table 4) and type of livelihood, e,g., fishing, tourism, etc., were chosen per municipality with the help of BANGON NGO from the municipality of Panglao and the baranggay captain of Pamilacan island. The participants were limited to fishers and those involved in the tourism industry. The oldest age class, i.e., 65 to 74 years old, would have experienced the earlier years of directed fisheries of marine mammals in the Philippines (1974) as active fishermen during that   Figure 2. Type of boat approaches during cetacean watching activities. Table 4. Age class grouping of perception mapping participants from Pamilacan and Balicasag Islands, Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines. Year Age class (years) 1960 65 to 74 1970 55 to 64 1980 45 to 54 1990 35 to 44 2000 25 to 34 2009 15 to 24 Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  85 time (Dolar et al., 1994). Data on the initiation of cetacean watching in this area and the observed impacts on cetacean populations, particularly their abundance in the BMT through time were gathered. This will measure the shifts in livelihood from whaling to whale watching and decline in sightings through time. Cetacean species assessment BMT coast scaled maps labeled per year (Figure 3) were provided along with stickers, i.e., cetacean species in the BMT, qualitative classification of cetacean abundances (choice of ranges, e.g. 0 to 50, 50 to 100,  100 to 500), and types of fishing methods. These were placed on the specific area of observation during the represented year. A 10 minute presentation of results was allotted per group. Issues and solutions Issues being faced by each community were discussed per group. Information, i.e. locality, resource, benefits, stakeholders, person/institution responsible, other issues and concerns, were provided by each group. A 10 minute presentation of results was allotted to impart concerns and acquire feedback for proper management strategies; this was used to assess qualitative changes in abundance of cetacean species and their species composition through time. The evolution of fishing methods, i.e., blast fishing, cyanide, etc. were also defined in this exercise and was used to assess the possible causes of shift from fishing and hunting cetaceans in the BMT to conducting nature-based tourism, i.e., cetacean- watching. Field survey results provided information on the compliance to the code of conduct of tour boat operators for cetacean watching, and the probable reasons of their compliance and/or non-compliance was based on the output of the perception mapping workshops. Statistical Analyses Hypothesis: The parameters, namely, number of boats, duration of encounter, distance of boat to pod, boat approach and training effect on cetacean behavior during whale watching activities, did not dffer between boat operators who underwent training and those who did not. Expected relationships: High number of boats induces avoidance behavior (lowest behavior rank). Long surface time is concurrent with resting behavior (highest behavior rank). Short distance of boat to pod induces avoidance behavior. Direct and J-approach generate avoidance and curious behavior, while A combination of the parallel and back of pod approach generate resting and playful behavior. Trained boat operators following JAO-1 code of conduct will use the parallel and back of pod approach, observe at a distance of 50 to 300 m during encounters, encourage longer surface time and thus resting and playful behavior. Descriptive statistics (i.e., averages and their standard errors for continuous variables, and median, mode, range of values for variables such as boat approaches - 1: direct; 2: J-approach; 3: back of pod; 4: parallel, and behavior - 1: avoidance, 2: playful, 3: resting, based on rankings) are provided for each parameter. A correlation matrix was used to identify possible relationships of these variables, a multiple regression analysis to test the significance of these relationships and principal components analysis to compare the results of the multiple regression analysis and present trends and relationships in the data gathered. Also, compliance between trained and untrained tour boat operators was compared. These statistical tests aim to produce an output presenting the level or percent of disturbance that each criteria has on cetaceans based on observed behavior during encounters, on the assumption that trained    Figure 3. Scale maps of Pamilacan (top) and Panglao (bottom) Islands (Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines) used for the perception mapping method described in the text. Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  86 tour boats had the proper training and certifications (see Sorongon, 2010, Appendix C), while untrained tour boat operators did not undergo any training in relation to whale watching. This also showed whether the abovementioned criteria of proper conduct had significant effects on cetaceans and whether these criteria are essential in the conservation of cetaceans. RESULTS A total of 26 boats with a total of 23 hours and 22 minutes on-effort (active search for cetaceans), and a total of 10 hours and 36 minutes off-effort (observation time) were evaluated for compliance to JAO-1. There were two days with no sightings due to the rough waters during a storm (‘Dante’) that affected the tides in Bohol. There was a lag of 8 days with no boats to be evaluated due to the privacy preference of tour guides or guests for their tours. A total of 195 videos were taken for 331 sightings during the survey. Note that not all the sightings displayed the specified boat approaches, thus the statistical analysis includes only 175 sightings where the four approaches described above were observed. The historical perception mapping workshop generated a total of 5 maps (1970s to 2009) from 22 participants for Pamilacan and 6 maps (1960s to 2009) from 25 participants for Panglao. For the detailed attendance sheets of participants, please refer to Sorongon (2010, Appendices D and E). Table 5. Percentage of occurrence of cetacean species observed in the Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines. Scientific name Common name % in Pamilacan % in Balicasag Stenella longirostris spinner dolphin 81 60 Tursiops truncatus bottenose dolphin 12 6 Lagenodelphis hosei Fraser's dolphin 1 4 Peponocephala electra melon-headed whale – 6 Globicephala macrorhynchus short-finned pilot whale 5   Table 6. Cetacean species associations in Pamilacan and Balicasag Islands, Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines. N=Not observed; O=Observed. Associations Pamilacan Panglao spinner dolphin - bottlenose dolphin N O melon headed whale - bottlenose dolphin N O melon headed whale - Fraser’s dolphin N O Fraser’s dolphin - bottlenose dolphin O O Fraser’s dolphin - spinner dolphin N O bottlenose dolphin - spinner dolphin - Fraser’s dolphin O N short-finned pilot whale - bottlenose dolphin O N  Species composition Five cetacean species were observed during the survey (Table 5), but only four were seen in each area, i.e., melon-headed whales were not observed in Pamilacan while short- finned pilot whales were not seen in Balicasag. The percentage of occurrence of the species in each area, i.e., frequency of occurrence of each species divided by the total number of sightings multiplied by 100 is presented in Table 5, while observed intra-specific associations are presented in Table 6. Table 7. Food preference of marine mammal species observed in the Bohol Marine Triangle; data obtained from SeaLifeBase (www.sealifebase.org; see Palomares and Pauly, 2010). N=Not observed; O=Observed. Food Preference Species Fish Cephalopods Crustaceans Spinner dolphin O O N Bottlenose dolphin O O N Fraser's dolphin O O O Melon-headed whale O O N Short-finned pilot whale O O N Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  87 There is a high number of pods consisting of spinner and bottlenose dolphins and an equally high number of pods consisting of bottlenose, spinner, and Fraser’s dolphins (Figure 4). The least observed associations are between melon- headed whales and Fraser’s dolphins, and between melon-headed whales and bottlenose dolphins. Results of the perception mapping workshops confirm the availability of prey, mainly fish and squid (Table 7; see Sorongon, 2010, Appendix F). Unfortunately, the participants only identified fish species to the species level through pictures. Some fish species were only identified up to the family level or their local/common names validated through FishBase (Froese and Pauly, 2010), making fish identifications incomplete. Fish surveys are needed, to come up with a complete list of fish species caught in BMT and can be validated by locals through their local or common names. Squids were identified as a group and not to the species level. Perception mapping results indicate a general decline in the ‘eye-balled’ number of individuals of cetacean prey from the 1960s to 2009 (see Sorongon, 2010, Appendices G and H). GPS readings acquired per sighting were used to map cetacean locations around the two islands (see Sorongon, 2010, Appendix I; Figure 5). Spinner dolphins were found to be dominant, followed by the bottlenose dolphins among the five species in both sites. This was followed by melon-headed whales and then short-finned pilot whales. Fraser dolphins were least sighted during this survey. Descriptive statistics On average, there are 5 untrained and 2 trained (1- 16) boat operators per pod (Table 8) per sighting; the regulated maximum number of boats per pod is 4. This implies that the untrained boat operators did not comply with the regulated number of boats required by the code. A total of 13 boats were observed to exceed the regulated number required by the code per sighting. Average surface time is 2 minutes for untrained and 3 minutes for trained boat operators per sighting (Table 8); the regulated maximum duration of encounter per sighting is 20 minutes. However, we cannot conclude from this data that the boat operators complied with the regulated encounter time because the surface time is affected by other factors, e.g., number of boats, distance of boat to pod and boat approach. This will be further discussed below. The average distance of boat to pod is 27 meters for untrained and 26 meters for trained boat operators per sighting (Table 8); the regulated distance of boat to pod ranges from 50 to 300 meters. This implies that there is no compliance with the regulated distance as required by the code in the BMT region as a whole. Table 8. Descriptive statistics of continuous variables tested in compliance to the proper code of conduct of cetacean watching tour boat operators in the Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines.  Number of boats Surface time (min) Distance (m) Untrained    Mean 4.78 1.52 27.01 Standard Error 0.343 0.127 2.783 Number of samples 76 76 76 Trained    Mean 1.90 2.71 26.35 Standard Error 0.127 0.335 2.028 Number of samples 99 99 99 Combined    Mean 3.15 2.20 26.64 Standard Error 0.197 0.202 1.662 Number of samples 175 175 175 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 sd - bd bd - sd - fd spw - bd fd - sd fd - bd mhw - bd mhw - fd Species associations Fr eq ue nc y   Figure 4. Frequency of species associations in the Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines (sd: spinner dolphin; bd: bottlenose dolphin; fd: Fraser’s dolphin; mhw: melon-headed whale; spw: short-finned pilot whale).    Figure 5. Occurrence points of cetaceans observed in Pamilacan and Balicasag Islands, Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines. Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  88  There is no difference in the median boat approach used by trained and untrained boat operators; boat operators in the area favor the parallel approach when feasible (Table 9). Note that the parallel approach is one of the most desired approaches as regulated by JAO-1, the other one being the back of pod approach. This implies that boat operators of the region comply with JAO-1. On the other hand, avoidance behavior is the observed median response of cetaceans to untrained boat operators approaching a pod while resting behavior is the observed median cetacean response to trained boat operators (Table 9). These median values are affected by several factors which will be discussed below. However, these results already imply that training of boat operators may be an important factor in reducing undesirable actions by ecotourism operations. The correlation matrix of parameters tested here (Table 10) shows a relatively high negative correlation between number of boats and surface time, number of boats and boat approach, number of boats and training, number of boats and cetacean behavior, distance of boat to pod and cetacean behavior, and relatively high positive correlation between surface time and training, surface time and behavior, boat approach and training, and training and cetacean behavior. The significance of these correlations was tested in the multivariate analysis. The negative correlation between number of boats and surface time implies that a high number of boats will generate short surface time. The negative correlation between number of boats and boat approach implies that more boats will generate undesirable boat approaches. The negative correlation between number of boats and the dummy variable for training (trained = 1; untrained = 0) implies that higher number of boats were observed among untrained boat operators. The negative correlation between number of boats and behavior implies that high density of boats will generate avoidance behavior. The lower the number of boats, less disturbance is inflicted on cetaceans. The positive correlation between surface time and training rank implies that longer surface time is observed among trained boat operators. The positive correlation between surface time and behavior implies that cetaceans spend more time on the surface during resting and playful behaviors. This as above corroborates with expected results. Moreover, surface time (as a continuous variable) can be used in lieu of behavior rank (non-continuous qualitative variable) in the multiple regression analysis. The positive correlation between boat approach and training rank implies that there is a preponderance of favorable boat approaches, e.g. parallel and back of pod approach, among trained boat operators. Recall, however, that the observed median boat approach reported in Table 9 is parallel approach. Figure 6 demonstrates the preponderance of this approach in the region both for trained and untrained boat operators. Thus, it is assumed here that the favored approach is the parallel approach. The positive correlation between the tour boat operators’ training rank and cetacean response behavior implies that resting and playful behaviors are observed when trained boat operators approach the pods. This is clearly reflected in Figure 7 where the frequency of avoidance is high while that of resting is low with untrained boat operators and the reverse trend is true for trained boat operators. The above results corroborate with the expectations in the methodology section. Table 9. Descriptive statistics of discontinuous variables tested in compliance to the proper code of conduct of cetacean watching tour boat operators in the Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines. (Boat approaches - 1: direct; 2: J-approach; 3: back of pod; 4: parallel; Behavior ranks - 1: avoidance, 2: playful, 3: resting)  Boat approach Behavior Untrained   Median 4 1 Mode 4 1 Minimum 1 1 Maximum 4 3 Number of samples 76 76 Trained   Median 4 3 Mode 4 3 Minimum 1 1 Maximum 4 3 Number of samples 99 99 Combined   Median 4 2 Mode 4 3 Minimum 1 1 Maximum 4 3 Number of samples 175 175 Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  89 The negative correlation between the distance of boat to pod and cetacean behavior implies that the further the boat is from the pod, the more cetaceans avoid them. This deviates from expectations, which assumes that the further the boat is from the pod, the more resting behavior is displayed. This scenario, however, is based on the assumption that boat operators are following JAO-1 to the letter. Thus, this relationship can only be tested for trained boat operators. However, none of the boats observed (even those of trained boat operators) followed the code’s regulated distance, which probably led to this result. Multiple regression analysis After determining relationships between variables from the correlation matrix, a number of multiple regression analyses were performed. The first regression analysis tested behavior rank against all variables of the correlation matrix discussed above. This resulted in a highly significant overall correlation coefficient for df=174. However, the partial slopes were not all significant (Table 11): the significance of distance to pod was weak at the p=0.05 level, while surface time and boat approach were not significant at all. This maybe because of the following: 1) behavior and surface time maybe auto-correlated as discussed in the preceding section; and 2) boat approach is a qualitative rank variable (non-continuous) and might be auto-correlated with distance from the pod. Boat approach may be affected by the number of boats, notably in small surface areas (36 km2 and 128 km2) for Balicasag and Pamilacan Islands, respectively. These values include the surface area where cetacean watching activities were observed during this study. One boat applying one of the regulated approaches would require a distance of at least 50 m from the pod, i.e., a 50 m radius. Several boats in the same area, observing the same pod at the same time, would require least a 300 m radius. As already discussed above, none of the boats applied the regulated distance set by JAO-1, which implies that the high density of boats in one area hindered the application of regulated boat approaches. Furthermore, the variable being tested, i.e., behavior, is also a qualitative rank variable, which may not be an appropriate variable to test with regression statistics. However, as discussed above, surface time may be used as a surrogate for behavior. Thus, a series of regression analyses were performed plotting surface time against continuous independent variables, i.e., number of boats and distance of boat to pod, and a dummy variable for training rank (trained=1, untrained=0). Results in Table 10 indicate that there might still be underlying relationships that have not been detected using the correlation matrix discussed above, and/or that this relationship is not linear. Table 10. Correlation matrix of variables tested in compliance to the proper code of conduct of cetacean watching tour boat operators in the Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines.   Number of boats Surface time (mins) Distance (m) Boat approach Training Behavior Number of boats 1      Surface time (mins) -0.160 1     Distance (m) -0.016 -0.098 1    Boat approach -0.145 0.095 -0.014 1   Training -0.549 0.221 -0.015 0.148 1  Behavior -0.377 0.196 -0.146 0.069 0.387 1  Standardizing for linearity, all variables were transformed to their logarithms and the dummy variable was eliminated by expressing number of boats by the surface area of the locality, assuming that untrained boat operators practiced in Balicasag and trained operators practiced in Pamilacan. This last variable was also log-transformed. The resulting regression was highly significant with all coefficients also being highly significant and suggests the possibility of predicting surface time as a function of distance to pod and number of boat per surface. However, the expected trend for the relationship between surface time and distance was a positive instead of the expected negative correlation. A possible reason for this, as already mentioned above, is that the number of boats determines the distance at which boat operators can approach a pod. Thus again, an auto-correlation is suspected. Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  90  Table 11. Results of regression analyses testing the effect of several measured parameters (data in Sorongon, 2010, Appendix J) on cetacean behavior and surface time for trained and untrained boat operators in the Bohol Marine Triangle. Surface time is expressed here in minutesa and distance in m. X  Distance Locality rank Number of boats Surface time Boat approach Y Behavior      df 174      R 0.461      s.e. 0.806      P-value 1.00E-07      a 2.25      b  -0.0055 0.4202 -0.0797 0.0329 -0.008 s.e. 0.297 0.003 0.15 0.028 0.024 0.066 P-value 2.17E-12 0.0521 0.00555 0.00539 0.168 0.904 X  Distance Locality rank Number of boats   Y Surface time      df 174      R 0.245      s.e. 2.61      P-value 0.0137      a 2.126      b  -0.0117 1.007 -0.0599   s.e. 0.586 0.00901 0.476 0.0908   P-value 0.000377 0.196 0.036 0.511   X  Distance (log10) #boats·km-2 (log10)    Y Surface time (log10)      df 174      R 0.36      s.e. 0.359      P-value 6.43E-06      a 0.0267      b  -0.1411 -0.2065    s.e. 0.0934 0.0441 0.0506    P-value 0.775 0.00164 6.83E-05    X  Distance (log10)     Y Surface time (log10)      df 174      R 0.213      s.e. 0.375      P-value 0.0046      a 0.326      b  -0.1321     s.e. 0.0603 0.046     P-value 2.01E-07 0.0046     X  #boats·km-2 (log10)     Y Surface time (log10)      df 174      R 0.279      s.e. 0.369      P-value 0.000182      a -0.124      b  -0.198     s.e. 0.0827 0.0519     P-value 0.135 0.000182      Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  91 In order to correct for this auto-correlation, regression analyses were performed separately with log-transformed surface time against log- transformed distance and number of boats per surface area. Both regressions, though with low R values, yielded significant F-tests (Table 11). The effect of number of boats per surface area on surface time of cetaceans was higher than that of distance. An earlier principal components analysis (PCA) determined that of all the variables being tested here, number of boats and distance of boat to pod was reported to have a high loading value in untrained boat operators (Figure 8, top panel) while boat approach and number of boats was reported for trained boat operators (Figure 8, bottom panel). The PCA results for untrained boat operators showed that avoidance behavior was observed where there were high number of boats represented by the high loading value in Figure 8 (top panel). Distance also showed a high loading value, negative correlation, i.e., avoidance behavior observed as boats are farther from the pod. Surface time was also observed to be longer where cetaceans displayed resting and playful behaviors. Resting behavior also showed an association with the use of the parallel boat approach. The PCA of trained boat operators showed well distributed data among variables, giving no indication as to which variable elicits a particular behavior. Thus, association between the variables tested and behavior was only observed among untrained boat operators specifically the association between high number of boats and increase in avoidance behavior. The results of the suite of regression analyses corroborates with the results of the principal components analysis. Thus, in conclusion, this study proposes that number of boats present at one point in time over the same area or locality expressed as a ratio of surface area of this locality, is the strongest, most visible and easily measurable parameter that can be used to predict the amount of time that cetacean pods will permit encounters with tour boat operators. Such an empirical equation may help monitor and eventually, once more data of this sort is gathered and analyzed, to also manage the cetacean ecotourism trade in the Bohol Marine Triangle. DISCUSSION Results from this study confirmed some of the cetacean species observed in the Bohol Marine Triangle (Sabater, 2005), though their residency is still in question. However, this study suggests that species associations among cetaceans in the BMT are directly related to foraging activities. Such species associations are reported in other parts of the world. Melon-headed whales and Fraser’s dolphins were reported to travel together in the Gulf of Mexico (Wursig et al., 2000). In the Sulu Sea, Fraser’s are often seen with short-finned pilot whales (Dolar et al., 2006), although the association between these two were not observed in this study. Cetacean interactions such as those reported here can be attributed to foraging and reproductive functions (Rossi-Santos et al., 2009) and are also observed in similar situations in the  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Parallel Direct Back of pod J-approach Boat approach Fr equ en cy trained operators untrained operators   Figure 6. Frequency analysis of boat approaches used in Panglao and Pamilacan Islands, Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines.  0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Avoidance Resting Playful Cetacean behavior Fr eq ue nc y trained operatorsuntrained operators   Figure 7. Frequency analysis of cetacean behavior ranks (1: avoidance, 2: playful, 3: resting) observed in Panglao and Pamilacan Islands, Bohol Marine Trinagle, Philippines. Blue bars represent untrained while red are trained boat operators. Tourism on Philippine cetaceans, Sorongon., P.M.E. et al.  92 Bahamas (Herzing et al., 2003), Hawaii (Psarakos et al., 2002) and the Marquesas Islands (Gannier, 2002). The interaction between melon-headed whales, bottlenose dolphins and spinner dolphins reported in Hawaii (Psarakos et al., 2002), is similar to the interaction observed in the BMT, and is assumed due to foraging behavior, particularly on fish species. There may also be competition or collaborative behavior among these three species when they forage since all of them feed on fish and cephalopods (see Table 7). Furthermore, Melon-headed whales, like Spinner dolphins, feed on deep-water myctophid, paralepid and scopelarchid fishes (Jefferson et al., 1993; Brownell et al., 2009) which migrate vertically between depths of 200 to 3,000 m (Clarke, 1973). Bottlenose dolphins feed on a wider variety of fish prey, and like Fraser’s dolphins, on a variety of crustaceans (www.sealifebase.org; see Palomares and Pauly 2010). Commonality of prey species among these cetaceans seem to explain the associations observed in this study, although further studies on their food and feeding habits within the BMT are needed. Results of similar studies based on local ecological knowledge showed that a number of Brazilian fishers identified dolphins as fish and whales as mammals and vice versa (Souza and Begossi, 2007), the misapplication of vernacular names to species coming from the use of unlabeled photographs. It seems that prelabeled pictures (with vernacular and scientific names, if applicable) of the animals being studied facilitates identification by participants in, e.g., perception mapping exercises, though this methodology does not assure identification to the genus or species level, i.e., vernacular names may vary between fisher/ethnic communities. This reiterates the importance of establishing a comprehensive list of marine species occurring in the area being studied, e.g., the BMT. Though this list is indispensable, it does not overshadow the usefulness of knowledge gathered from fisher’s notably in providing insights on shifts between past and present species occurrences and predator-prey associations. The results of our assessment of compliance to the code of conduct applied within the BMT is comparable to those of Scarpaci et al. (2003) and Scarpaci et al. (2004) for Port Philip Bay, Victoria, Australia, which has a relatively bigger surface area (1,930 km2) than the BMT (1,120 km2). The code of conduct in both Port Philip Bay and the BMT limits interaction with pods to two boats at a time applying the parallel boat approach (DSE, 2009). However, Scarpaci et al. (2003) reported that, although only 4 tour boats operate in Port Philip Bay, these approached pods with the parallel approach but reposition to the less desirable J- approach as they came closer to the pod, thus generating avoidance behavior from the pods. The parallel approach requires a distance of 50-300 m to be done properly, as can be practiced in Port Philip Bay given its large surface area. In the BMT, where whale watching is restricted sometimes to a surface area of 36 km2, and given the high boat density, use of the parallel approach requires a widening of the ‘watching circle’, thus forcing boats to stop at further distances from the pod. In effect, the mere fact that there are many boats circling a pod already generates avoidance behavior (Constantine and Baker, 1997; Nowacek et al., 2001; Constantine et al., 2004; Arcangeli et al., 2008). This may explain why our results showed more avoidance behavior at further distances.    Figure 8. Results of principal components analysis of untrained (top) and trained (bottom) boat operators with cetacean response behavior (black squares: avoidance, white dots: playful, black triangles: resting) in the Bohol Marine Triangle, Philippines. Biodiversity of Southeast Asian Seas, Palomares and Pauly  93 Considering the small population of Port Philip Bay dolphins (80 to 120 individuals), Hale (2002) concludes that an increase in tourism activity may indeed lead to avoidance behavior. Such behavior may in turn cause cetacean populations to migrate to areas with less disturbance levels (Mattson et al., 2005), as exhibited by the fast swimming Fraser’s dolphins traveling in pods of 100 to 1000 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific (Dolar, 2009), thus causing a perceived decline in sightings in whale watching areas (Bejder et al., 2006b). Such changes in behavioral states imply an increase in energy expenditure and metabolic rate which may affect essential life sustainting acitivities such as feeding and reproduction (Lusseau, 2004; Williams et al., 2009). Evading mechanisms, e.g., swimming away from boats or diving, may cause an increase in energy expenditure and may translate to short but frequent breath-intervals (Lusseau, 2003), as observed when untrained boat operators in the BMT approach pods directly. Our results suggest that, in the BMT, high boat density and untrained boat operators are affecting cetacean populations to a degree that may cause a decrease in sightings possibly due to migrations out of the whale watching zone, not to mention the likely physiological and biological changes which may already occur for resident species. Thus, we highly recommend monitoring studies to be set-up by the concerned municipalities in order to properly assess the state of cetaceans in the BMT. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study is part of the M. 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