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Branchlines Vol. 2_, No. 1 (1991) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1991

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • N E W S L E T T E R • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 2 No. 1 January 1991 From the Dean's Desk W h a t will the forester of the 1990's and beyond need to know? Our planning process responds to this question in several ways. • A task force on the undergraduate B.S.F. curriculum, chaired by Prof. Peter Pearse, is considering alternative models of undergraduate education as well as the need to expand curriculum content. Approaches under consideration include the current structure (four years in the Faculty), two years of Arts or Sciences followed by two years in the Faculty, and two years of Arts or Sciences followed by three years in Forestry leading to a Master's degree. Agreement on the need to expand the curriculum content centers around written and oral communication skills, professional ethics, and the social and political aspects of forestry. The problem is how to add to the already full curriculum without diminishing the important technical components. • A task force chaired by Prof. Douglas Golding will propose greater emphasis on non- research oriented Master's programs. These will provide the opportunity (i) for specialization in some applied branch of forestry, and (ii) for individuals with Bachelor's degrees in allied areas to complete the courscwork necessary for RPF registration. • A task force chaired by Prof. Don Munro is developing an approach for the Faculty to become more involved with continuing studies in Forestry. The science and practice of forestry change over time: what was taught in the 1970's probably no longer represents the state-of-the-art. Thinking of the B.S.F. as simply the first step in a life-long process of learning will not only improve the practice of forestry, but also the quality of the first degree. • A task force chaired by Prof. A1 Chambers is examining our role in international forestry. We plan to develop closer tics with a few other universities and Pacific Rim countries. Faculty Publications Supplement T h i s mailing of Branch Lines includes a supplement listing publications produced by Forestry Faculty members in 1990. The listing is alphabetically sorted by first author and shows Faculty member names in boldface type. Many of the publications on this list are readily available in libraries, others may be harder to track down. If you have difficulty finding any particular publica- tion, please contact the appropriate Faculty member directly. Contact directions are provided on the back page of the publications supplcment.Q ATTENTION UBC Forestry Alumni T h e Forestry Alumni Division Newsletter, previously distributed to forestry alumni once a year, will in future be included as an annual supplement to Branch Lines starting in May, 1991. This will ensure that the Division communicates to all of its In addition, we are in the early stages of planning a Center for Applied Conserva- tion Biology to focus on the management of parks, natural areas and other kinds of forested landscapes where conservation values are preeminent. This Center would support a new undergraduate and Master's degree programs, a significant research program and a major effort in public information and policy conferences. I would like to hear your views on these initiatives, in person, by letter, fax (604) 222-8645, phone (604) 228-2467 or E-mail (CLARK_BINKLEY@MTSG.UBC.CA).a members, worldwide on an annual basis. Because of budgetary constraints in the past, only two of the past ten newsletters were circulated outside of B.C. The last two wider circulations have re-established contact with many of the more distant alumni and their news will be published in next May's Branch Lines. Hopefully, this will continue to lead to even greater feedback, and the alumni network will expand rather than contract. The Forestry Division executive is currently planning an informal get- together of alumni and UBC Forestry students in early March (tentatively set for March 12, 7:30 pm following the Division's Annual Meeting) at the MacMillan Building on campus. This will be an opportunity for students to meet alumni and discuss any forestry issues. This will also be an opportunity for alumni to meet Clark Binkley, the new Dean of the Faculty, perhaps to convey to him your feelings regarding forestry education priorities, curriculum ideas, or new directions. The Division executive will be contacting local alumni with further details. Out-of-town alumni who could attend should contact Terry Lewis (B.S.F., 1968) at (604) 435-8668.Q Harvesting and Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Moving Towards Smaller Clearcuts and Longer Green-up Periods CLEARCUTTING has been the most commonly used silvicultural system in the province. Historically, opening sizes have been large (100 + ha), and adjaccnt units have been harvested within 10-15 years of one another. This cutting cycle is known as the "green-up" period. One advantage of the large-opening clear- cut system is that it requires a minimal amount of road development and maintenance, and relatively few moves of harvesting and silvicultural equipment. The trend, however, is towards smaller and more dispersed openings because of concerns about environmental stability and visual impact. Wildlife habitat is particularly important since an appropriate spatial distribution of age classes is needed for forage, hiding, and winter range. Where possible, silvicultural systems other than clearcutting are being considered, but it appears that these systems can only be feasibly introduced on a small percentage of the forest land base. How harvest schedules and the development of road networks will be affected by smaller openings and longer green-up periods is not well understood. UBC's Forest Harvesting Research Group is investigating the impacts that smaller clcarcuLs and longer green-up periods will have on annual allowable cuts and road construction and maintenance schedules. With the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and computer based scheduling models it is possible to simulate long-term cutting patterns that satisfy maximum opening size and c 9 20 t> "8 CClO j f S L 20 40 60 Maximum opening size (ha.) • 10-year green-up O20-year green-up •30-year green-up Reduction in AAC due to spatial constraints (progressive clearcutting is the datum). minimum green-up period constraints. The research has focussed on important indicators like sustainable cutting levels, the rate at which the road network must be constructed, and the amount of road maintenance throughout the cutting cycle. As an example, the accompanying figure shows reductions to the annual allowable cut for a large coastal drainage as clearcutting constraints become more stringent. As the maximum opening size decreases, a higher percentage of the road network must be constructed in the early decades, and the amount of road maintenance tends to be higher throughout the planning horizon. Clearly, our desire to maintain diverse forest ecosystems through modifica- tions to clcarcutting policies has important economic and social ramifications in the form of timber supply, stumpage revenues and employment. As more resource interests arc incorporated into the planning process, computer based models arc becoming increasingly useful tools to help quantify the trade- offs involved during complex resource allocation negotiations. Related research projects arc examining the impacts on harvest levels for various wildlife habitat requirements, old growth reserves and alternative silvicultural systems. Further information on these projects can be obtained from Dr. John Nelson at (604) 228-5303.G DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . R. W. Kennedy will be a Visiting Professor at the School of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Melbourne in Australia for the months of February through April 1991. While in Australia, he will take part in a week-long wood science course for executives and forest industry consultants. He will also review the activity of the Australian Resource Assessment Commission which has a mandate to "...review forestry in all its aspects as a resource", and compare their conclusions with those of the B. C. Forest Resources Commission. The Hon. Claude Richmond, Minister of Forests, and his Deputy, Mr. Phil Halkctt, visited the Department for a briefing on the Forest Operations and Wood Science research programs. Presentations made by Faculty members demonstrated their broad range of interests and emphasized opportunities for developing inter- disciplinary teams at UBC to address forest management, forest harvesting and resource utilization research needs being identified by the B. C. Forest Resources Commission and Green Plan proposals . • Branch Lines 2 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT UBC/GVRD Sewage Sludge Research Project Sludge application at the UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. SEWAGE sludge is the nutrient-rich byproduct of the sewage wastewater treatment process. The daily production of primary treated sludge from Greater Vancouver's treatment plants is currently close to 60 dry tonnes per day. When the city goes to secondary treatment in two years, the daily production of sludge will double. Present methods of handling the sludge involve either onsitc storage, for which space is no longer available, or ocean dumping, which is no longer considered environmentally or socially acceptable. One solution to the disposal problem may be to apply the treated sewage sludge to forest land as a form of slow-release organic fertilizer. To this end, the Dept. of Forest Sciences in cooperation with the Greater Vancouver Regional District has recently undertaken a joint research project to study the environmental, ecological, public health and silvicultural implications of the application of treated municipal sewage sludge to forest lands. This three-year project involves an expanding research scope and scale of sludge applications in each year. The field research is being conducted within the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, north of Maple Ridge, B.C. The goal of the first phase of the project is to investigate the impact of sludge applications on soil, surface water and ground water properties. Monitoring will concentrate on decomposition and release of nutrients from the sludge. Ecological and silvicultural effects arc also being monitored (increased growth of crop trees and minor vegetation, changes in tree physiology and growth form). The second phase of the project involves sludge applications to a small experimental watershed. This phase will expand the research from a soils-water-physical chemistry assessment to a more intensive study of production ecology and human health aspects. Smaller ancillary projects within the second phase include a study to assess the efficiency with which a variety of organic waste mixes (sewage sludges, fish mortalities from fish farms, and cellulose rich sludges from pulp mills) act as forest fertilizers. The team approach taken on this project is led by Drs. Hamish Kimmins and Morag McDonald and involves numerous faculty, researchers and graduate students within U.B.C. and the University of Victoria. The end products of this intensive program will be operational sludge application guidelines, a series of field demonstration sites, development of a computerized decision support tool and an improved understanding of the behavior of sewage sludge in forest ecosystems. Dr. Kimmins can be reached at (604) 228- 3549.Q DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . John McLean has recently received $856,000 for a 2 year study on the transportation of ambrosia beetles in the industrial milieu of British Columbia. The project is being funded by MacMillan Bloedel, the Science Council of B.C. Research Technology Fund and by an NSERC Cooperative Research Develop- ment Grant. Eight full-time employees, working in MacMillan Bloedel's three regions and the Fraser River, are looking at the level of ambrosia beetle infested booms. Other members of the team are measuring the impact of ambrosia beetle attacks on the economic returns in sawmills. Dr. Gordon Weetman's SCHIRP project (Salal/Cedar/Hemlock Integrated Research Program) has received a further two years of funding from the NSERC Research Partnership Program. The industry co- operators on the project are Western Forest Products, MacMillan Bloedel and Fletcher Challenge Canada. This will bring the 1991 funding to over $300 ,000 . • Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Economics of Sequestering Carbon to Reduce Atmospheric C02 GLOBAL climatc warming is the result of human activities that have increased the atmospheric content of carbon dioxide (CO2) and trace gases (methane, CFCs, nitrogen oxides). These gases permit sunlight to reach the earth's surface but trap radiant heat, thereby emulating a greenhouse effect. Since global warming is expected to have adverse effects, scientists are examining appropriate policy responses. A project nearing completion in the Forest Rcsouces Management Depart- ment is looking at the economics of delaying the buildup of CO z in the atmosphere by sequestering carbon (C) in trees. The world's forests constitute a large carbon sink and, by growing more trees at a faster rate, forests can offset buildup of C 0 2 resulting from burning of fossil fuels by sequestration of C. It is the increase in forest biomass that will DEPARTMENT NEWS I n October, Profs. D. Haley and L. Reed were invited participants in a joint CIF/CPPA workshop on mechanisms for funding silviculture, in Toronto; Prof. P. Dooling was invited to speak at the Annual Meeting of the Travel and Tourism Research Association, in Victoria; Prof. P. Pearse presented a paper on economic incentives as instruments of forest policy to a symposium of the Law Reform Commission of Canada, in Calgary. alleviate C 0 2 buildup in the atmosphere, while future wood availability will reduce reliance on fossil fuels. Disposal of the increased timber can be accomplished by burning it, thereby replacing fossil fuels. Burning the wood will cause C 0 2 to enter the atmosphere but new growth will remove it. Overall, this process does not lead to increased atmospheric C 0 2 . For Canada, there are several strategies that can be used to sequester C. Firstly, it is possible to reforest backlog NSR lands. In November, the Department, in cooperation with Forestry Canada, organized a workshop in Vancouver on computer-based models for the allocation of resources to silviculture. In December, Prof. B. Ingram visited Indonesia in connection with a book that he is coordinating on the ecology and principles of sustainable development for the Moluccas and Lesser Sunda Islands.O Secondly, marginal lands that had been converted to agricultural production over the past several decades can be planted to high-yielding forests. Finally, land that is currently unimproved but threatened by agricultural expansion can be used to grow trees. An economic analysis of these options indicates that the least costly method for reducing C 0 2 buildup is to plant trees on marginal farmland that was previously converted to agricultural production. The next best strategy is to plant trees on unimproved farmland that is not currently growing trees. The most costly alternative is to reforest NSR backlog lands. Upon comparing these options with other policies, it is clear that sequestering C in forests is a costly method of reducing C 0 2 . For example, scrapping all automobiles of pre-1983 model years will result in an overall benefit to society because fuel savings will exceed the value of the vehicles that are disposed of. Nonetheless, some forest planting options are preferred over vehicle emission policies (see graph). It is cheaper to plant trees on farmland than convert automobiles to natural gas, which would reduce C emissions by 25%. Further information about this project can be obtained from Dr. G.C. ("Casey") Van Kooten at (604) 228-4518 or "USERKOOT@UBCMTSG" on Bitnet.Q Upcoming Growth and Yield Technical Session A joint technical session of the CIF Forest Measurements, Silviculture and Tree Improvement, and Forest Management Working Groups is being organized by Val LeMay (UBC), Crandall Benson (Lakehead Univ.), and Dave Brand (PNFI). The session will address the gaps between the users and the developers of growth and yield models and will be held one afternoon during the CIF 1991 Annual Meeting in Toronto, Sept. 29 to Oct. 4 ,1991. If you are interested in obtaining an agenda for the meeting contact Val LeMay at (604) 228-4770. l Costs ($ bil.) 20 Reforest backlog NSR lands^. 15 Converl cars to^.— natural gas r~ 10 5 0 +5 Plantation / Plantation on previous / on current marginal / marginal land land COST / t • Scrap pre-1983 cars BENEFIT 0 .005 .01 .015 .02 .025 .03 .035 .04 ^ Cumulative Reduction in C Entering Atmosphere (Gl) Marginal costs of reducing carbon in the atmosphere. Branch Lines 4 Continuing Education Activities THIS past year has been a busy one for Forestry faculty and staff, many of whom were involved in a variety of educational activities beyond the regular Forestry curriculum. Of particular interest was the Faculty's involvement, for the first time, in a team taught non-credit course presented to the general public. The course, which ran for eight Wednesday evenings in the fall, was offered through UBC's Centre for Continuing Education and was entitled "Our Forests: A Citizen's Course in Current Issues". Each session included a one-hour presentation by a Faculty member followed by brief responses from invited speakers from industry, government and the environmental sectors. The remaining time was kept for questions. Fifteen of the 150 individuals registered in the course attended an optional Saturday field trip to the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest at Maple Ridge. The feedback on the course was very favourable and each presentation appeared to stimulate the audience into a wide range of questions and dialogue. Many of the questions raised were on issues beyond the focus of this introductory course. For example, the issues of wood quality from second growth forests and the multinational ownership of B.C. forest companies came up on several occasions. Both of these issues could be addressed at future sessions. An immediate spin-off from this course is Dr. Hamish Kimmins' new course in forest ecology described below. It is hoped that this "current issues" course will be repeated in the fall of 1991, after which a poll of the audience will be used to direct the development of more specialized courcs in the following year. Watch the Continuing Education scction of this newsletter for further announcements. In the winter term of 1991 the UBC Centre for Continuing Education is offering three new non-credit courses in forestry, each taught by a member of the Forestry Faculty and open for registration to the general public: Forest Ecology: Only Diamonds are Forever is offered by Dr. Hamish Kimmins of the Forest Sciences Dept., on ten Tuesdays from January 29 to April 2 (7:30-9:00 pm). This course will deal with environmental issues in forestry and will provide a better understanding of how ecosystems respond to natural and human caused disturbance. There will be a one day field trip to the UBC Research Forest at Maple Ridge. Registration is SI00. Several course registrants attended a one Research Forest. (Photo by Rick O'Neill). Small Mammals in Forest Ecology is offered by Dr. Tom Sullivan of the Forest Sciences Dept. on four Mondays from February 4 to 25 (7:30-9:00 pm). The course will be an introduction to the natural history of small mammals in B.C., particularly those with conservation and management concerns related to forestry. Registration is $40. GIS and Remote Sensing is offered by Mr. Jerry Maedel of the Forest Resources Management Dept., as a one-day workshop on Saturday, February 23 (10:00 am to 4:00 pm). Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are the latest new tools for computer- based research, exploration, management and education concerning the Earth and its resources. The course will be a hands-on workshop intended for individuals interested in the applications and potentials of GIS. Registration is $100. A fourth course, in general biology, will include one forestry session: The Compleat Naturalist a team-taught course, will have one session devoted to forestry. The course is offered on six Saturdays from February 16 to March 23 (10:00 am to 4:00 pm). The one-day forestry component will be taught by John Karakatsoulis, a Ph.D. student in the Forest Sciences Dept., and will focus on forest ecology. Registration is $185. For information on registration in any of day field trip to the UBC Malcolm Knapp these courses call the UBC Centre foi Continuing Education at (604) 2 2 2 - 2 1 8 ! . • New Forestry Credit Courses from UBC Access Two new forestry credit courscs have been prepared as correspondence courses for distance education students. Forestry 131: Introductory Biometrics for Forestry is a revision of the course "Directed Study in Forest Biometrics" by Drs. A. Kozak and J. Demaerschalk, which was previously offered through UBC Access as Forestry 449. The new bio- metrics course, which was prepared by Dr. S. Watts, now matches the Faculty of Forestry's course of the same name and number. Forestry 131 will be offered three times a year, commencing in May, 1991. Forestry 238: Forest Mensuration has been prepared as a correspondence course by Drs. V. LeMay and P. Marshall. The course will be offered annually, commencing in January, 1991. For further information on UBC Access courses, call (604) 228-6565. Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from UBC Malcolm Knapp and Alex Fraser Research Forests Malcolm Knapp Research Forest N o v e m b e r 1990 was an exceptionally wet month for many areas of B.C. The Malcolm Knapp Research Forest was no exception. The Forest's weather details have been a matter of record since the gathering of climatic data became the Forest's 21st research project over 30 years ago. Although the rainfall records for November indicated a 20 year "high" (over 240 mm fell in one twenty-six hour period alone), the creeks and rivers issuing from the forest were well below their highest recorded levels, which occurred in November, 1989. It was probably the exceptionally low snow pack this past November that limited the effects of the precipitation and saved the forest roads and drainage structures from the considerable damage normally caused by flooding. UBC's Research Forests are used by many outside agencies as well as university researchers. The Malcolm Knapp Forest has joint venture projects with government and industry in recreation, education and demonstration. One particularly interesting demonstration project is known as the "management challenge". This demonstra- tion involves over 50 hectares of comparative management strategies established by major forest companies, the B.C. Ministry of Forests and a group of UBC Forestry Faculty members. Each participant has prescribed and treated a small plantation area managed under their particular corporate, agency or individual management strategy. As time passes it will be interesting to see how each prescription develops. If you are out at the Forest Peter can show you some of the results to date. On a historical note, a new classroom to replace the old Recreation Hall at Loon Lake Camp has been put out to tender. At this time 39 years ago the Recreation Hall had just been completed and was ready for its first use. Any questions concerning the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, or any suggestions for Forest topics for this newsletter should be directed to Peter Sanders (Resident Silviculturalist), UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, R.R. #2, Maple Ridge, B.C., V2X 7E7. « (604) 463-8148. Alex Fraser Research Forest T h e University's second research forest received only brief mention in the last issue of Branch Lines. The Alex Fraser Research Forest, in Williams Lake, was created in 1987 as a result of discussion between the B.C. Ministry of Forests, the B.C. Forestry Association, the Cariboo Regional District, the Cariboo Lumber Manufacturers' Association, the city of Williams Lake and local forest companies. The Forest remains as Crown land, under tenure from the government to U.B.C. The tenure document is in the form of a Special Use Permit which gives the responsibility of management, and a licence to harvest timber, to the University. This Special Use Permit and Licence to Cut make the tenure similar, in many respects, to a Tree Farm Licence. The Forest is required to operate under an approved Management and Working Plan, a draft version of which is currently being circulated for review. A five year development plan is also in preparation. Since UBC assumed management of the 9,000 hectare forest, 44 research projects have been established, 200 students have visited the area and 4,600 cubic meters have been harvested. Any questions concerning the Alex Fraser Research Forest should be directed to Ken Day (Resident Forester), UBC Alex Fraser Research Forest, 1040 S. Lakeside Drive, Williams Lake, B.C. V2G 3A6. ** (604) 392-2207.Q Newsletter Distribution T h e circulation list for this newsletter is made up from a combination of the Alumni Association's list of all UBC Forestry graduates, and from an in-house mailing list of individuals from the forest industry, research organizations, forestry schools and the community. It was intended that the in-house mailing list for the newsletter would include only those individuals not covered by the Alumni Association's listing. Sometimes it is not easy to make this cross-check and certain individuals may be receiving this newsletter in duplicate. Please let us know if this is happening. Also, if this newsletter has reached you by some circuitous route and you would like to receive future editions directly, please let us know. After the last mailing it was apparent that many forestry graduates had not updated their addresses with the Alumni Associa- tion. If you know of anyone who may be in this situation, please pass on the word. Requests for mailing list updates, additions or deletions should be directed to, Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor, at the address below. NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year, ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. Typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. This newsletter is typeset in-house on an IBM PC AT compatible computer using Microsoft Word version 5.O. A final camera-ready impression is produced using an NEC Silentwriter LC-800 Printer. Printed on recycled paper. Any questions concerning the newsletter should be directed to the editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1W5 W (604) 228-6316 Recycled Paper Branch Lines 6 © Faculty of Forestry, 1991 6 


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