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Branchlines Vol. 4, No. 1 (1993) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia 2012

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • N E W S L E T T E R • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A i Volume 4 No. 1 March 1993 From the Dean's Desk Every issue of Branch Lines provides vignettes of the research in each depart- ment (and this issue commences a regular feature on graduate education, a key element of our research program)- How does research fit into the larger context of our public purpose? How important is research to our overall endeavour? Where does the Faculty of Forestry stand in relation to other faculties at UBC and other faculties of forestry in Canada? What does the future hold for tliis critical facet of die Faculty? UBC's rules for evaluating die perfor- mance of individual faculty members view research as only one aspect of scholarship. Under our definition, scholarship also includes creative professional practice that seeks to apply science to die solution of society's problems. For a professional faculty such as ours, these latter kinds of activities — development and applica- tion of new methods for forest inventory, creative application of new concepts of landscape ecology, effective improve- ment of quality control in sawmills — are particularly appropriate. Louis Pasteur may have put it best when he commented "There are no such things as applied sciences, only applications of science."' Public commentary sometimes suggests Uiat scholarship and teaching compete for faculty attention. But effective teachers need continually to renew their own understanding of problems and solutions. Scholarship is one of the best ways for us to retain the fresh knowledge of a newly-minted Ph.D. throughout our careers. In fact, maintaining effective teaching in university-based professional programs requires a high standard of scholarly activity. What about research in the Faculty of Forestry? The chart below shows diat externally-sponsored research activities (measured in nominal dol lars) have grown by a factor of ten since 1979 to a level of about $5.8 million/year this year. These 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 General Purpose Operating Grant External Research Funds Operating grants and extramural research funds ($000) 1979-1992. extramural funds now exceed — by almost one third — the budget provided to die Faculty by the University. Our research activity amounts to more than $135,000 per faculty member per year, a figure that exceeds die level for all Faculties at UBC except for Medicine and Graduate Studies, neidier of which has die commitment to pre-baccalaurate undergraduate teach- ing that we maintain. The Faculty of Forestry has been particularly successful in die national competitive grants pro- grams, participating in four of the seven Source $000 % Federal NSERC 1,532 26.4 Other 632 10.9 Provincial Ministry of Forests 1,264 21.8 Odier 789 13.6 Private 1,591 27.4 Total 5,810 Extramural funding sources 1991/92. prestigious federal Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) forestry strategic grants last year, and four of eleven successful awards this year. Bodi years' performances are by far the best for any forestry faculty in Canada. As the table shows, the sources of funding are well distributed. A collection of agencies in each of the federal and provincial governments cur- rently provides over one tliird of the total. Private o r g a n i z a t i o n s (ranging from the forest products industry in B.C., to international pharmaceut ical f i rms , to the World Wildlife Fund) provide a bit more than one quarter. Where do we go from here? The objective of scholarship at the Faculty of Forestry is to help solve society's problems. Our activi- ties in Uiis area are appropriately large. Unfortunately, die overall level of research in British Columbia's forest sector is consid- erably less than that in many of die countries widi whom we compete for international markets.2 To help rectify diis, we will main- tain a large, broadly diversified research program. Additional contributions in the future are likely to be in die form of multi- disciplinary collaborations with other research laboratories—FFRIC, Forintek, PAPRICAN, the few companies that do maintain research activities, and odier units at die University of British Columbia. The new Pacific Forest Sciences Centre now on die drawing boards (but, at diis writing, awaiting final provincial funding) will great- ly aid diis kind of collaborative research. Dean Clark S. Binkley 'Address to the Congres Viticole et Sericole, Lyons, FRANCE. 11 September 1872 (reference courtesy of Dr. Fred Bunnell). 2C.S. Binkley and S.B. Watts. 1992. The status of forestry research in British Columbia. Forestry Chronicle 86:730-735. Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Strategies to Increase Value of Structural Lumber MACHINE stress rated (MSR) lumber has been commercially available in North America since the 1960's. Machine s t ress g rad ing sy s t ems h a v e severa l advantages over visual grading systems: 1. Grading machines provide grades with known modulus of elasticity (MOE) distributions. 2. Associated quali ty control sys tems provide assurance that specified popula- tion strength properties are attained. 3. Higher quality grades can be selected from production compared to visual grading systems. MSR lumber is marketed for use in engineer ing w o o d p roduc t s , such as trusses and wood I beams, where the demand for quality and reliability is high. For these users , bending and tensile s t rengths and M O E arc the pr imary structural properties of interest. Although strength prediction is improv- ed and strength variability is reduced in MSR lumber, there is still a signifi- cant overlap between the strengths of cur- rent MSR lumber grades. Much improve- ment can be achieved if the grading accuracy can be further improved to reduce the variation in MSR strength properties. Conventional machine grading systems sort lumber by measuring MOE which is the best single nondestructively measur- able parameter for prediction of lumber DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . David Cohen was one of the two featured speakers at this year 's Canadian Lumbermen's Association Annual Meet- ing in Montreal on February 12, 1993. His Presentation was on "Future Wood Products." Dr. Laszlo Paszner presented a paper on "Wood Waste Conversion to Ethanol by the ACOS Process" at the February 26 Peace River Ethanol Council Meeting in Dawson Creek. s t rength p roper t i es . There are o the r nondestructively measurable parameters such as slope of grain, moisture content, and density which also correlate with strength yet have not been directly used in the current machine grading technology. We are currently completing a study to develop a second generation mechani- cal grading technology to max imize strength grading accuracy and grade yields. The approach combines MOE, density, moisture content, and slope of grain measurements to yield an improved strength prediction algorithm. Over 4500 pieces of 38 x 89 mm spruce and pine lumber, 5 m long, have been evaluated. MOE, slope of grain, moisture content, density, species and visual grade information have been nondestructively The Wood Science Department will initiate a Wood Industry Cooperat ive Education Program (COOP) during the 1993/94 academic year. The program is designed to provide qualified students with work experience integrated with their academic activities. The work experi- ence component will be on a year-round basis and is available to all three areas of concentration within the Wood Science and Industry Major. The full program measured. Regression models have been developed to predict tensile and bending s t r eng ths ba sed on n o n d e s t r u c t i v e l y measured parameters. The adjusted coeffi- c ien ts of de t e rmina t ion , r2, f r o m the advanced tension and bending grading model are 0.78 and 0.58, respectively. By comparison, conventional MSR grading yields an r2 of approximate ly 0.5 for s trength predic t ions . Th i s s ignif icant improvement has the potential commer- cial impact of allowing mills to correctly put more high strength pieces into die high strength classes thereby increasing die yields of high quality grades. Variation in strength properties widiin a particular grade is reduced and reliability of the end- use engineered wood products can be increased. The advanced grading algo- ridims will be combined with a new process and quality control technology to allow mills to optimize value recovery consider- ing changes in resource quality, lumber price structure, and customer demands. For more information, please contact Dr. J.D. Barrett or Dr. Frank Lam at (604) 822-5303 or fax (604) 822-8154.U requires five years to complete with the equivalent of one year being spent in work experience. Admission to the pro- gram is limited and based on: academic qualifications, letters of reference and in terv iews with facul ty advisors and industrial sponsors. Potential applicants or company sponsors wishing to cooperate should contac t Dr. Tom Manness at (604) 822-2150 for further in fo rmat ion . • Lumber in-flow Flatwise or Edgewise Modulus of Elasticity measuring device Slope of grain indicator devices Data flow Advanced grading machine Strength predictions 'I Sprayer to identify grade Graded lumber out-flow I Branch Lines 2 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Tactics for Maintaining Biodiversity in Forested Ecosystems CHANGES in socictal desires often c r ea t e c o n f u s i o n fo r r e s o u r c e managers. For example, shifting percep- tions of the wolf, between villain and hero, have kept wildlife managers off balance and uncertain of their goal posts. As society became concerned about b iodivers i ty , the goal pos t s b e c a m e motorized. The uncertainty is uncom- mon ly g rea t : the re is no a c c e p t e d operational definition of biodiversity, there is no unequivocal management approach for maintaining even portions of biodiversity, and there are no tested approaches for m o n i t o r i n g divers i ty to assess whether management goals are met. The research approach to this challenge, as developed by the Centre for A p p l i e d C o n s e r v a t i o n B i o l o g y , add re s se s each a r ea of u n c e r t a i n t y simultaneously. The basic problems in maintaining biodiversi ty include: accommoda t ing changing targets for land use planning, a c c o m m o d a t i n g p l a n n i n g un i t s of d i f f e ren t compos i t i on and size, and relating responses of biodiversity to a chang ing d i s t r i bu t ion of s tand and landscape attributes. Nature is unhelpful in this enterprise for two reasons. First, there are few discre te natural uni ts that bound b iodivers i ty ; manageab le planning units will always be too small to DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Namkoong joined the UBC Faculty of Forestry as the new head of Forest Sciences on January 1, 1993. Dr. G o r d o n W e e t m a n vis i ted the University of Toronto in December, 1992, to a s se s s the g r a d u a t e p r o g r a m in forestry. He also visited the Forestry School at Laval University to assess the suppor t v iab le p o p u l a t i o n s of s o m e species. Second, the biodiversity capable of inhabiting a particular treatment unit will not all be there at any one time. Some species require early serai stages; some require later stages. Thus, a diversity of forest ages and structures are needed. Within a planning unit forest management creates habitat that is suitable and used, unsuitable, or suitable but too distant from existing populations. Forest Biology Group and Llie Forestry School of the Swed i sh A g r i c u l t u r a l University at Umea to review the Forest Environmental Research Study. Dr. Gene Namkoong was a Ph.D. thesis o p p o n e n t at the s a m e ins t i tu t ion in Umea just before his arrival in Vancouver. Since then, he attended the first meeting Our r e sea rch a t t empt s to accoin modate both the changing requests of forest management and the changing patterns in nature. One project (funded by the B.C. Forest Service, Environment C a n a d a , F o r e s t r y C a n a d a , and the Vancouver Foundation) combines GIS, multivariate statistics, simulation model- ing, and expert systems into a single dec is ion-suppor t tool. This approach c o m p a r e s the s u p p l y of h a b i t a t s (e.g., riparian areas, recent clearcuts) and habitat attributes to demand. Supply is d i c t a t e d by f o r e s t m a n a g e m e n t plans that produce a mosaic of habitats and stand attributes through space and time. Demand is derived by classifying the 3 4 0 t e r r e s t r i a l , f o r e s t - d w e l l i n g vertebrates into groups based on their requirements for particular habitats or hab i t a t a t t r ibu tes , their h o m e - r a n g e size, and their abil i t ies to reach and colonize separated habitats. The decision- support tool is then used to formulate and e v a l u a t e m a n a g e m e n t p resc r ip - tions in terms of economic values, and winners and losers among biodiversity components. This approach has been applied to two watersheds and die findings are being used to guide related research projects towards critical information needs. Further information is available from Dr. Fred Bunnell or Dave Daust at (604) 822-5724..• of the s t e e r i n g c o m m i t t e e e fo r the new International Centre for Forestry Research (CIFOR) advising on goals and programs.O Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Potassium and Sustainable Timber Production IN some forest si tes soil ava i lab le nutrient levels are low relative to the amount of nutr ients r emoved dur ing harvesting. In such sites, sustainabiiity of commercial timber production will depend on rapid rates of input by such p r o c e s s e s as r a i n f a l l and m i n e r a l weathering. Although potassium, unlike nitrogen, is seldom deficient in British Columbia's forests, there are some soils where cropping might cause deficiency. In several interior soils, the exchange- able, " read i ly a v a i l a b l e , " po ta s s ium r e s e r v e s a re not m u c h l a rge r than the potassium levels which might be present in the harvestable timber. See table below and figure opposite. Soil Texture Exch. K (kg/ha) Mix gravelly sandy loam 555 Bonner stony sandy loam 112 Kaslo gravelly loamy sand 269 Lanezi stony/gravelly silt loam 115 R;unsey gravelly loamy sand 4 Exchangeable potassium in the root zone of some extensive forest soils of interior B. C. DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Jonathan Fannin and Professor Glen Young presented papers at the Eighth In terna t iona l Moun ta in Logg ing and Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium held recently in Bellevue Washington. Dr. Andy Howard and Professor Glen Young are looking for industrial co- operators for research on a l ternat ive timber harvesting systems applicable in partial cutting of second-growth coastal forests. Please contact them if you are an interested potential cooperator. Whole-tree harvesting removes more nutrients than conventional bolewood- and-bark logging, which would be pre- ferred on sites where nutrient replacement is slow or fertilization is uneconomic. Ministry of Environment data suggest that inputs of atmospheric potass ium are usually insufficient to balance the losses of potassium incurred by harvest- ing. The sustainabiiity question cannot be answered without investigating the rate of mineral weathering. The rate at which available potassium can be replaced by weathering is limited Dr. Peter Pearse was the co -cha i r of a r ecen t na t iona l c o n f e r e n c e on "Creating Wealth with First Nations - Resource Development Agreements that W o r k . " The confe rence was held in Vancouver earlier diis year. Dr. Jona than Fann in has r ecen t ly received his Professional Engineering status. His research on soil stabiliza- tion and erosion control will be featured in the Geosynthetics '93 conference to be held in Vancouver at the end of by the soil 's specific surface. Gravelly, s andy soi ls , such as those shown in the table dese rve especia l ly close attention in terms of the rate at which mineral weathering can replace losses. We have sampled some of the most extensive, coarse- textured forest soils with low exchangeable potassium levels from the Kamloops, Nelson, Cariboo and Prince George Forest Regions, for labora- tory study of weatherability. Lysimeters set up at several sites will eventually provide estimates of rates of input, loss and weathering release of exchangeab le potassium under field conditions. Quick, inexpensive labora- tory t es t s fo r i d e n t i f y i n g soi ls wi th a s low rate of weather ing release will be ca l i b r a t ed with da ta f rom the w e a t h e r i n g s tud ies . Prescript ion of extraordinary manage- ment pract ices to conserve potassium can then be conf ined to sites where diagnosis by a quick test indicates that the problem is severe enough to justify special treatment. For further information on this research project, contact Dr. Tim Ballard at (604) 822-2300. • March. Dr. Fannin is on the organizing c o m m i t t e e of th i s c o n f e r e n c e , is a technical session leader, and is respon- sible for a tour of local field installations and the UBC laboratories. Dr. Casey van Kooten has recently completed a book entitled "Sustainable D e v e l o p m e n t and Land Resou rce E c o n o m i c Po l ic ies for the C o m m o n G o o d " which will be avai lable from UBC Press later this m o n t h . • Black sprue* 65 yr* D o u g l a s s 36yrs Jack pina, 3 0 y r * Rod s(Tuc»bdsam AJ aged 50 100 150 200 250 O g a n i c Matter | 1 Po tassumin I | Pctasajumin ha ' ' whole tree kgftia ' ' bolewood & bark kgfha Potassium levels for some specific forest stands. (Data taken from the literature). Branch Lines 4 Forestry Education Activities Forestry Graduate Studies at UBC From John McLean Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research Enrolments The Forestry graduate program continues to attract high quality candidates. A furdier 15 students were accepted on January 1st bringing our total number of graduate students to 172. Ihe assignment by departments is as follows: Department M.Sc. M.F. Degree M.A.Sc. Ph.D. Totals Forest Resources Management 28 9 0 25 72 Forest Sciences 36 4 0 33 73 Wood Science 15 0 3 19 37 Totals 79 13 3 77 172 Funding Research Graduate student funding — 1992/93 Total funds: $1,376,872 Many of our graduate students are supported by major awards such as scholarships from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Science Council of B.C. GREAT awards, CIDA awards, Commonweal th Scholarships and University Graduate Fellowships. The second largest category of support is by professors who fund graduate research assistants directly from their grants. The Faculty of Forestry also has a special group of graduate scholarships which are indicated as UBC awards in the f igure above. Graduate teaching assistantships are also available to some forestry graduate students to assist widi undergraduate courses. The total funding provided to graduate students in 1992/93 was $1,376,872. For further information on graduate studies in Forestry at UBC, contact Dr. John McLean, Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research at (604) 822-3360.Q BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network Upcoming Activities . . . • Building Bridges for First Nations Forestry in B .C. This seminar will inform forest managers and professional and technical forest management practioners of the develop- ing role of B.C.'s First Nations in forest resources management. The first seminar session was held in Richmond in mid-February. Additional sessions are scheduled as follows: Smidiers April 20, 1993 Kamloops June 1, 1993 Prince George October 27, 1993 * Ripar ian Habitat M a n a g e m e n t and Research This seminar and workshop will be of interest to biologists, forest resource managers , technic ians , natural is ts , ranchers, trappers, natives and students. Technical papers will be presented on r ipar ian habi ta t o rganisms and vegetation communities, the impacts of management activities and alternative resource management strategies. Workshop discussions will identify research gaps, evaluate current planning and operational procedures and assess die effectiveness of existing and new guidelines for managing riparian habitats. Seminar — May 4, 1993 Workshop — May 5, 1993 Stockmens' Hotel, Kamloops, B.C. For further information, please contact Cindy Pearce at (604) 822-9278U ; \ UBC joins SE Asian University Consortium UBC has become die first institution from outside Soudieast Asia to join the Consortium of die five top universities in agriculture and natural resources in the region. I h e Consortium membership includes Universitas Gadjah Mada and Institute Pertanian Bogor in Indonesia, Kasetsart University in Thailand, Universiti Pertanian in Malaysia and the University of the Philippines at Los Banos. Membership in die Consortium will facilitate an exchange of students and faculty members between universities. UBC can provide specific expertise for the region while our forestry graduate students can benefit from the unique courses and knowledge available at die Soudieast Asian universities. For further information on this new program contact Dr. Don Munro, Director of International Forestry Programs 9 (604) 463-8148. Teaching Assist. (12.3%) Assist. (40.4%) Awards (37.6%) N.S.E.R.C. G.R.E.A .T . C. I .O.A. C o m m o n w e a l t h U.G.F. UBC Awards (9.7%) F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y S c h o l a r s h i p s Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Research Forests in the Community IN recent months, representatives from both the Malcolm Knapp and Alex Fraser Research Fores ts have been involved in d i scuss ions with local communities about Community Forests. The Research Forests, although both operational, working forests with har- vesting and reforestation programs that operate on a similar basis to any odier working forest in British Columbia, have unique places in their respec t ive communities. A balance is attempted between die requirements of maintain- ing the forests in a financially viable state, pro tec t ing the forest es ta te (including the research installations), accommodat ing the vis i tors to the Forests, and a variety of other pressures. This balance would not be possible widi- out die support of the local communities. In keeping with the spirit of the above, staff at Malcolm Knapp are cur- rently organizing a Community Forests Workshop. The term "community forest" means different diings to different people. There is currently no form of community forest tenure for Crown land in B.C., and diere are varying ideas as to what form such tenure should take. There are only vague notions about die objectives of community forests. In this atmosphere of uncertainty, although there is con- siderable interest by munic ipa l i t ies throughout the province in acquiring community forests, there is inactivity, and a lack of direction and leadership. The Community Forests Workshop will be held in Maple Ridge on March 24-26, 1993. The objective of die work- shop is to bring together elected municipal officials, local planners and economic development staff, and odier groups to explore the community forest concept , and share information on options and possibilities. We anticipate three broad benefits from diis workshop. The government will receive a summary of opinions and ideas which will be useful in die initia- tion of discussions on community forest tenure. Municipal officials and staff will be able to share experiences and establish a network of involved indivi- duals. Lastly, die workshop will provide the opportunity for the formation of a unified information group capable of advising government on community forest issues. Maple Ridge is ideally suited to hosting this workshop. It has expressed an interest in acquiring a community forest on Crown land and has already initiated the process. The population of Maple Ridge is increasing rapidly. Pressure is being placed on die land base for areas devoted to social uses radier than industrial timber production. Challenges currendy being faced local- ly will provide a "test bed" for odier areas of die province yet to face diis type of pressure. The workshop is a coopera t ive venture between the Municipality of Maple Ridge, Maple Ridge Business Development Office, die University of British Columbia Research Forests, die UBC Centre for Continuing Education, Forestry Canada, B.C. Ministry of Forests and the Commission on Resources and Environment. If you are interested in attending the workshop, call UBC Continuing Educa- tion at (604) 222-2181.U Wade Davis to Lecture at UBC D r Wade Davis will be giving a public lecture on "Biodiversity and Ethnobotany" at 7:30 pm on Friday, April 23, 1993. The lecture will be in Lecture Hall #6 of the Instructional Resources Centre on the UBC campus. Dr. Davis holds degrees in anthrop- ology, biology and edinobotany. He is perhaps most wel l -known for his international best seller (and motion picture) "The Serpent and die Rainbow." A native of British Columbia, Dr. Davis has worked as a park ranger, forestry engineer, logger, big game hunting guide and has conducted ethnographic fieldwork among several indigenous societies of northern Canada. He has published extensively and is known for his highly endiusiastic lecturing. This lecture, which is hosted by the Centre for Applied Conservation Biology, is part of a special lecture series made possible by a five-year grant to the Faculty of Forestry by die MacMillan Family Fund. The lecture is free and open to die general public. For further information, please contact Dr. Susan Watts at (604) 822-6316. NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by die Faculty of Forestry at die University of British Columbia diree times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 rT l ) S (604) 822-6316 Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca ©Facul ty of Forestry, 1993 6 X Correction: In die last issue of Branch Lines under die heading "Forestry Education in Finland," the University of Joensuu was omitted from die list of Finnish universities offering a forestry degree. The audiors apologise for diis error. V J Branch Lines 6


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