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Branchlines Vol. 2, No. 2 (1991) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1991-06-30

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 2 No.2 June 1991 From the Dean's Desk Effective planning should produce competitive ad- vantage, and our own five- year plan is no different. Michacl Porter's reccnt book The Competitive Advan- tage of Nations describes how internationally success- ful organizations extend knowledge generated in their home base to achieve global dominance. Although his book focuses most directly on companies, we at universities have something to learn from his thinking. In developing our own strategy, it is appropriate to consider first our home base and then to examine how knowledge of our home base can be extended to other parts of the globe. According to Porter's thesis, ade- quately serving the home base is pre- requisite to penetrating offshore markets. How are we doing? The map to the right shows one measure of our current per- formance at home: the location of UBC Faculty of Forestry research sites used since 1988. Using the standard regional definitions, these break out as follows: Number %of Region of Sites Total Northern Interior 37 35.6 Southern Interior 28 26.9 Coast (incl. Vancouver Island) 39 37.5 Total 104 100.0 In words, our research activities are well- distributed around the Province. As a consequence, much of our recent research has centered on sites in the interior, with most of this occurring on sites in the Northern Interior. Undergraduate education shows a similar wide distribution of students from around the Province, again with a relative emphasis on the Northern Interior. In recent years only 9.7% of all high school graduates in BC lived in the Northern Interior, yet 11.6% of the UBC Forestry students from BC came from this region. Although the total numbers are small, the Northern Interior is "over- represented" by about 20% in our student population. The proposed program for forest technology graduates (see page 4) will probably expand, still further, our stu- dent population from the interior, especially the North. This significant level of involvement with the Northern Interior positions us well to deal not only with the problems of British Columbia, but also with the problems of the world. The Northern Interior com- r ^ prises an important part of ? J the circumpolar boreal forest This forest type is found through- \ out Canada, in Scandinavia, in the Soviet Union, in China and in the United States. As we master the manage- ment of this forest, we can and do export that expertise to these other locations. Our new Centre for Applied Con- servation Biology focuses on research, education and policy activities for this and other B.C. forest types with global importance. As this issue of Branch Lines goes to press, we have learned that Forestry Canada has agreed to co-sponsor with UBC the first of the Centre's policy conferences, "Measuring Biological Diversity for Forest Policy and Manage- ment." If society is to achieve its objectives related to the maintenance of biological diversity, managers must have clear, unambiguous ways to measure progress towards those objectives. No such measures are currently available. As a consequence, even the most environ- mentally conscious managers find them- selves unable to respond positively to the amorphous but real social concerns about biological diversity. Our conference will seek to identify measures of biological diversity that not only bear up under scientific scrutiny, but also can be applied to monitor and predict results on actual forest operating units. To fulfill our ambition of becoming the best forestry program in the world, we need to continue to improve service to our ® W I L L I A M S .1 • ^ A F I T L U W * * •V. home base and to extend knowledge gained here to other parts of the globe. I would be interested in your thoughts on this strategy, and what we need to do better to implement it. You can reach me in person, by letter, fax (604) 822-8645, •B" (604) 822-2467, or E-Mail (BITNET CLARK_BINKLEY@MTSG.UBC.CA). I look forward to hearing from you. Clark S. Binkley Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Supplemental Food and Red Squirrels Aerial application of seed THE red squirrel is a common inhabitant of the boreal coniferous forests of North America. This sciurid prefers mature stands of conifers, particularly white spruce and pine, that provide seed from cone crops as a principal food source. Other foods such as fungi, buds, shoots, and cambium may become important when seed is in short supply. Red squirrel damage to the cambium of young lodgepole pine trees is common in western North America. They peel away the outer bark to feed on the phloem and cambial tissues during the months of May to early July when sap-sugar con- centration is high and the bark is easy to remove. The impact of these debarking and girdling injuries on intensive silvi- cultural management of lodgepole pine has received increasing attention in the central interior of B.C. In stands which are susceptible to feeding attacks, the incidence of damage to trees ranges from 30% to 96%. Major factors which predispose young pine stands to this feeding damage include: (1) an extensive (>1,000 ha) stand or mosaic of stands with limited areas of mature forest, (2) frequency of cone crops leading to squirrel population increases in juvenile pine, and (3) DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . G. Weetman has recently returned from sabbatical leave at the Forestry School in Umea, Sweden. Since his return he has been giving a series of talks on comparisons between forest management practices in Sweden and British Columbia. Dr. Weetman is currenUy working with the B.C. Ministry of incidence of shrub species providing cover and perhaps food for squirrels. Population reduction has often been suggested as a means of reducing squirrel damage. However, this approach has not been effective because of the difficulty in achieving complete removal of all animals. In addition, the resiliency of squirrels to depopulation would rapidly fill available habitat. An alternative approach to this problem poses the question: since this damage occurs during a relatively short period in the spring when food is presumably in short supply, would provision of supple- mental food reduce tree damage? An operational trial to manually distribute Forests and Forestry Canada on establish- ing a network of experimental forests for the province. Dr. T. Sullivan is spending a month in China consulting with Chinese foresters on small mammal damage to coniferous seedlings. Dr. J. McLean will begin a sabbatical leave on July 1, during which he will summarize and coordinate data collected sunflower seeds over a 25-ha block was established in 1989, in a stand with a particularly significant history of damage, near Lumby, B.C. Provision of this food significantly reduced damage in the treated block (11.2% of trees damaged) compared with the control (57.5% of trees damaged). The influence of this supplemental food on squirrel populations was measured in 1990 in replicate control and treatment blocks. Squirrel populations were higher on food than control blocks during the May to July feeding period but returned to control levels by August. Despite the higher numbers of squirrels, damage levels were again significantly reduced. Aerial application of seed (uniform distribution) was also tested operationally in 1990 and reduced damage to crop trees in treatment blocks to 9.8% of the trees damaged compared with 56.0% in control blocks. The relatively low cost of the aerial application of sunflower seed (<$100/ha) is clearly a worthwhile expenditure to protect the investment in intensively managed stands (planted, thinned, and fertilized). An operational supplemental food program for lodgepole. pine will be implemented in the Vernon Forest District in 1991. For further information on this research project contact Dr. Tom Sullivan at (604) 822-3543.Q on his ambrosia beetle team study project. Dr. T. Northcote has recently returned from a European research trip which took him to England, Sweden and Spain. While in London he presented an invited paper on "Use of otolith isotopic com- position in migratory studies of the New Zealand common smelt" to the Society of Experimental Biology mecting.Q Branch Lines 2 Harvesting and Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Wood Preservation and the Environment Amount of PCP in 95 m red pine poles MAXIMIZE wood utilization and minimize the environmental impact of the forest product industry on the environment. These twin challenges increasingly impact on all sectors of wood processing. Nowhere has this been more clearly evidenced than in the wood preservation industry, which is being challenged to replace traditional oil-based preservatives with environmentally, more acceptable formulations. UBC's NSERC/Industrial Chair in Wood Preservation was formed in 1987 with the objectives of developing the human resource and providing inter- national leadership in wood preservation. Currently, three of the projects initiated by ihe Chair relate to improving the environmental acceptability of wood pre- servation through enhanced technology. The fixation of preservatives in wood is an essential requirement of an accept- able system. One of the first studies initiated by the Chair focused on the optimization of the fixation of chromated- copper-arsenate (CCA) in wood. It was concluded, that fixation times of several days under normal conditions (20°C) and several weeks during winter temperatures, were needed. This lead to recommenda- tions to the industry to consider installing accelerated fixation systems to ensure completion of the fixation reaction, before the wood leaves the treating plant. Such systems must also control the drying of the treated wood, since too rapid drying can impair the fixation of the preservative resulting in enhanced leaching and loss of performance. Minimum combinations of heat and moisture for accelerating the fixation of the CCA were identified. The development of alternative pre- servatives clearly will be an important response to current environmental pressures. Ongoing research is targeted at understanding the fundamental chemical mechanisms of the preservative-wood interaction, during treatment and during exposure in soil contact situations. One group of chemicals being studied are alkylammonium compounds which have found widespread use as fungicides and slimicides. Research has shown that these compounds have excellent wood preserv- ing characteristics when combined with other active chemicals such as coppcr. Perhaps the highest profile research program is that addressing the remedia- tion of preservative treated waste. The NSERC/Industrial Chair has been con- tracted to develop bioremediation tech- nology for detoxifying pentachlorophenol and dioxin contaminated wood waste using fungi and bacteria. Such technology will have a wide application not only here in Canada, but also in the U.S.A. Further information on these projects can be obtained from Dr. John N.R. Ruddick at (604) 822-3736.Q DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . David Cohen just completed a two- week scries of interviews with Japanese construction companies, trading houses and wholesalers. A "Report on Market Potential in Japan for Fingerjoined and MSR Lumber" was prepared as part of a larger study on "Matching Innovative Panel Processing Technologies with Japanese Market Requirements." Dr. Stavros Avramidis' drying research programs will expand with the installation of a new research kiln at the Wood Products Laboratory. Prevention of brown stain development in Hem-Fir through drying schedule manipulation will be one of the first research projects using the new facility. Dr. Jonathan Fannin is studying debris movement on a large debris fan in the Tsitika Valley in cooperation with the Ministry of Forests, Research Branch, and with assistance of MacMillan Bloedel. The study will evaluate sediment trans- port routes and characterize the mass movement from source to valley floor as part of the Ministry of Forests Tsitika River Sediment Monitoring Program.O Branch Lines 2 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Tofino Creek Watershed, Clayoquot Sound Biodiversity Study THE term "biological diversity" has come to represent a wide range of public interests. Over the past few years our concerns for habitat protection have expanded from maintaining the indigenous mix of plants and animals in an area to preservation of ecosystems and organisms on purely ethical and aesthetic grounds. In British Columbia there have been growing concerns for the maintenance of a small number of "old-growth depen- dent" species and for the need to provide protected habitats. The focus has been on large, relatively undisturbed areas which often also have high wilderness, visual and recreational values. But how do we conserve biodiversity in areas where timber harvesting will continue to be a major land use? And how do we identify a range of trade-offs, options and potential compromises that allow for socially acceptable levels of habitat con- servation and flexibility for engineering, harvesting and silviculture? The Tofino Creek watershed com- prises roughly 5000 hectares in the Clayoquot Sound area of the west coast of Vancouver Island (see map inset). The lower portions of the valley have already been heavily modified by conventional clear-cut logging and the future of the DEPARTMENT NEWS A new B.Sc. program in Wildland Con- servation and Recreation has received support in principal from the members of the forestry faculty and from members of an academic planning committee repre- senting a broad-spectrum of disciplines at UBC. A final program proposal will be put to the Faculty and to Senate for approval this fall. In April, Dr. D. Golding served on a panel presenting a "Watershed Manage- upper portion of the watershed has yet to be determined. A Tofino Creek Steering Committee was recently formed involving various provincial ministries, community representa- tives and the leaseholder, MacMillan Bloedel. The emerging science of landscape ecology provides a frame- work for quantifying and analyzing old-growth attributes. The minimum spatial and ecological requirements of the sensitive species can then be worked into lists of old-growth attributes. These attributes can then be categorized and quantified in order to characterize landscape units. Sites with high old-growth values for the conservation of local biological diversity can then be identified as high priorities for protection. Some of the attributes of old-growth forest landscape structure that aid in the identification of critical areas arc edges, gaps, fresh-water ecosystems, snags, course woody debris and vertical canopy structure. A data base of old-growth attributes of the Tofino Creek watershed is being developed using the Geographic Informa- tion System (GIS) packages PCI and ARCINFO. Each attribute will be CLAYOQUOT SOUND c ^ C f t TOFINO*^ Location of study area mapped separately. Various combinations of these maps can then be used to idenufy critical areas and develop the most appropriate harvesting and silvicultural prescription for an area. Through this kind of interactive process, we may find new ways to strike balances in planning for areas of timber harvesting, multiple use and old-growth preservation. Further information on this project can be obtained from Dr. G. Brent Ingram at (604) 822-527!.• ment and Policy Review" of the Greater Vancouver Water District to elected representatives of municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Regional District. Dr. Golding was also the program chairman of the 1991 Western Snow Conference, held on the Alaska ferry from Bellingham, Washington to Juneau, Alaska. Dr. D. Haley's two-year appointment as Department Head will terminate on June 30, 1991. Dr. Haley will return to his former position in the Department as professor of forest cconom icsJJ Proposed Three-year Program for Forest Technology Graduates The Faculty of Forestry has recently approved a proposal for a Forest Resources Management B.S.F. program in which individuals with forest technology diplomas from B.C. technical colleges can graduate in a minimum of three years. At the present time, scheduling of courses for these students who have various credits and exemptions, has made a three-year program very difficult. The program proposal will go to the Senate for final approval this Fall. Contact the Faculty of Forestry for further information. Branch Lines 2 Continuing Education Activities • T H E FOREST RESOURCES COMMIS- SION REPORT - WHAT DOES IT REALLY MEAN? The Association of B.C. Professional Foresters (Vancouver Continuing Educa- tion subcommittee), the B.C. Forestry Association and the UBC Faculty of Forestry are sponsoring a series of four panel discussions on the newly released Forest Resources Commission Report. The topics will be as follows: June 06 - The Vision and Land Use J jne 12 - The Public and Forest Practices June 19 - Forest Management and Tenures June 27 - Finances and Economics At each session, a speaker (FRC Commissioner) will make a 30 minute presentation on what this aspect of the report means. The panel will then respond with their understanding. Ample time will be allowed for the Commissioner and panel members to entertain questions from the floor. Each session will be held at Robson Square Media Centre from 7-10 p.m. Admission is free. For further informa- tion call (604) 664-5016. • ETHICAL CHALLENGES FOR FORESTERS This symposium will be directed towards professional foresters, resource managers, students and others interested in the use and management of forests. The general aims of the symposium are to improve participants' understanding of the ethical implications of forest management deci- sions, and to provide a suitable conceptual framework for dealing with ethical issues in forest resources management. Three general themes will be discussed: • Professional ethics - the role and responsibility of the professional forester. • Environmental ethics - a reasoned examination of changing environmental values in our society. • Morality, markets and politics - the role of morality in addressing ethical problems and the importance of working institutions that encourage moral behaviour. This symposium, which will be held at UBC on September 27 and 28, 1991, is sponsored by the UBC Faculty of Forestry, the UBC Centre for Applied Ethics and Students for Forestry Awareness. For further information write to: "Ethics Symposium" at the Faculty of Forestry address on the back page of this newsletter. • OUR FORESTS: A CITIZEN'S COURSE IN CURRENT ISSUES This course for the general public, which was first offered last fall through UBC's Centre for Continuing Education, will run again this year with a revised format. Each session of the course will include a one-hour presentation by a Forestry Faculty member followed by brief responses from invited speakers from industry, government and the environ- mental sectors. Ample time will be allowed for questions and the course will include a field trip to UBC's Malcolm Knapp Research Forest Watch for further details in the September issue of this newsletter or call (604) 822-4541 for the Director of Science Communications at UBC's Centre for Continuing Education. Two other courses being offered this fall from UBC's Centre for Continuing Education will have forestry components taught by John Karakatsoulis, a Ph.D. student in the Forest Sciences Depart- ment. The Compleat Naturalist, a team- taught course, will have one session devoted to forestry and Science Saturdays, a new program for youths, will include some forestry treks in the Pacific Spirit Park. For further information on these two programs, call the UBC Centre for Continuing Education at (604) 222-2181. • FORESTRY HANDBOOK UPDATING INITIAL work is underway to produce a fifth edition of the Forestry Hand- book for British Columbia. The first Forestry Handbook was compiled in the early fifties and published in 1953. It was prepared and produced by students at the Faculty of Forestry with technical advice from staff members. As a comprehensive handbook on forestry it was the first of its kind in North America. Extensive revision and expansion of the text by various student/staff committees resulted in a second edition of the Handbook in 1959 and a third edition in 1971. The currently available fourth edition, which was published in 1983, follows a different format with most of the chapters written by forestry professors and forestry professionals. This format will be maintained for the fifth edition with considerable updating and additional new chapters as required. Anyone who is familiar with the contents of the current Forestry Handbook is encouraged to provide input to the fifth edition. Which sections do you believe need updating the most? Should any of the content be discarded altogether? What new chapters could be added? Even if you have never referred to more than one section of the Handbook in the past, you may have some useful comments which would benefit the updating process. When you are next opening your Handbook please give some serious thought to what you would like to see in the new fifth edition. Any comments concerning the up- dating of the Forestry Handbook for British Columbia should be directed to Dr. Susan B. Watts, Handbook Editor, at the Faculty address on page 6 of this newsletter. Phone (604) 822- 6316, fax (604) 822-8645 or E-mail: BITNET SUE_WATTS@MTSG.UBC.C A. Branch Lines 2 FOREST NEWS from the UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest THE UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest has seen some major changes in its 42-year history. This brief historical snippet from the Research Forest files will introduce the first recorded use of the forest and some of the activities that have helped to shape the forest to its present form. Going back to the turn-of-the-century "timber boom" reveals some of the greatest changes that have occurred to the area. Much of the land now known as the Research Forest was staked in the early 1900's as Timber Berth W. This berth originally contained 15 square miles of mature timber and was about equal in area to the present Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. The Dominion of Canada granted timber rights on Berth W to Mr. McCormick of McCormick Deering, the farm machinery company in Chicago. Contract logging of the area was done between 1919 and 1932 by Abernethy and Lougheed, one of the biggest railway logging operations in British Columbia. Some old photographs show the logging camp at Mike Lake and the giant western redcedars prior to the railway harvesting. A set of old Canadian Air Force photographs (dug out by Harry Smith many years ago) reveals a clear view of the harvesting area when the logging operation was active. Although it was known that McCormick had built a cabin at Marion Lake (he renamed the lake, previously known as Jacob's Lake, after his wife), it wasn't until some old photographs surfaced very recently that the exact location of this cabin could be determined. Rick SL Jean, the senior technician at the Research Forest, was able to study the photographs and to pinpoint the cabin's former location. This was verified by the finding of an old chimney stack amid some 60 year-old rcdcedar. The cabin was dismanUed and shipped to the Chicago World's Fair some time around 1920. Interestingly, the old cabin site is only a very short distance from the new cabin constructed at Marion Lake last year. Marion Lake has witnessed many interesting stories. A future edition of this newsletter will provide some historical information on the railway lines that once ran on either side of the lake, the various camps, some holding 500 persons, and some of the considerable body of research work that has been carried out in the vicinity. If any readers have old photographs that may relate to the history of the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest area, please let us know. Forest staff hope to publish a book on the history of the Research Forest in the not-too-distant future. Any information, suggestions or questions should be directed to Peter Sanders (Resident Silviculturist), UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, R.R. #2, Maple Ridge, B.C. V2X 7E7 « (604) 463-8148. N E W CEDAR MANAGEMENT PROGRAM T h e Imajo Cedar Management Program has been established at UBC's Malcolm Knapp Research Forest following a gift of $133,485 from Mr. Yoshihisa Imajo, the new majority stock holder in Pan Abode Homes. The gift will be matched by the B.C. Government as part of the UBC Campaign. The objective of the program is to research and demonstrate sustainable management practices for western redcedar using the university's Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. The real, after inflation, return on the endowment will be used to support the costs of stand management practices, including planting, weeding, thinning and pruning; research on cedar management, including the support of undergraduate, graduate and postdoctoral students; and to provide an interpretive program to school children and the general public.Q NEWSLETTER DISTRIBUTION AND MAILING LIST UPDATES This edition of Branch Lines marks the third issue and the achievement of a first- year production goal. The circulation list for Branch Lines has grown considerably since the news- letter's first distribution in September, 1990, and now approaches a total of 3500 individuals, groups and organizations. The list is made up from the UBC Alumni Association's register of all forestry graduates plus the faculty's own in-house mailing list. The 1991 edition of Forestry Alumni News is included as a supplement to this issue of Branch Lines. Most earlier mail- ings of the Forestry Alumni Division's newsletter had, for budgetary reasons, been restricted to the Lower Mainland. This new method of circulation should ensure communication with all forestry graduates who have kept their addresses up-to-date with the Alumni Association, no matter how far away they might be. Requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor, at the address below.• NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. Typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. This newsletter is typeset in-house on an IBM PC AT compatible computer using Microsoft Word version 5.O. A final camera-ready impression is produced using an Apple LaserWriter II Printer. Any questions concerning the newsletter should be directed to the editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. ^ V6T 1Z4 <^9 ® (604) 822-6316 © Faculty of Forestry, 1991 


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