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Branchlines Vol. 3, No. 1 (1992) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1992-01-31

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F A C U L T Y Volume 3 No. 1 January 1992 From the Dean's Desk • emphasize high-quality teaching; • link education more strongly to solving society's problems; • provide better access for all qualified Canadians; • broaden professional curricula so grad- uates can better adapt to the rapidly changing needs of technology, and • in the case of forestry, include the envi- ronmental and cultural values of forests as well as their industrial uses. I low is the Faculty of Forestry responding to these recommendations for change? Revisions to the B.S.F. Cur r icu lum We have recently implemented com- prehensive changes in the undergraduate professional programs in forest resources management and forest operations. The programs include more basic science, a greater emphasis on communications, and more complete training in the technical and Nat ional attention has recently turned to university education. In his report for the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Stuart Smith calls for Canada's institutions of higher learning to renew their emphasis on teaching and undergraduate education. Michael Porter's study of Canadian competitiveness argues that our economic future depends on better education more closely tied to die needs of creating international competitiveness. The National Roundtable's forestry subcommittee and the efforts of the Council of Canadian Forestry Ministers focus on die specific needs of forestry education. Five diemes collectively emerge from diese studies: environmental aspects of forest operations. Professors Bart van der Kamp and Denis Lavender are reorganizing the core of forest sciences curriculum. Under the proposed "block instruction" plan, courses such as ecology, silviculture, entomology, pathology will be combined into one, team- taught cou r se that e m p h a s i z e s the application of these disciplines to solving forestry problems. We continue to expand die ways stu- dents can enter die UBC forestry program, so now first-year science students from UBC or other universities or colleges, can enter and complete the program within three years. Three of the regional colleges now teach one or two years of the UBC undergraduate forestry curriculum. A pro- gram has been developed for forestry graduates from technical institutions to completeUBC's forestry program in diree additional (although packed) years of study. New Undergraduate Conservation Major Echoing the diemes of die Brundtland Commission, bodi die provincial and federal governments are planning major expansions of parks and natural areas, as are many other jurisdictions in die world. Responsible management of diese areas requires more and better trained professional personnel. In response to this need, we have initiated a new program in die conservation and management of parks and natural areas. Like die more traditional B.Sc. Forestry, diis program has a core of forest science a long wi th t ra in ing in management technology and die social/political context for resource management. Other Educational Initiatives Forestry education as traditionally caste does not meet all die needs of modern forest management. To respond to this continuing need for renewal of a forestry education, we at UBC - along widi financial and intellectual support from die Ministry of Forests and Forestry Canada - have initiated the Forestry Continuing Studies Network. In addition, we are planning several new professional, non-thesis master's degree programs. In summary, renewed national attention asks cr i t ica l ly how univers i ty-based education can support broad social and economic objectives. Forestry education faces the same scrudny, and we at UBC are trying to respond positively to this dioughtful public attention. We would be interested in your views on our approaches. Clark S. Binkley MacMillan and Schaffer Lectures for 1991 I n November, Dr. Kenton Miller, a Senior Associate of die World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., presented die 42nd I I.R. MacMillan Lecture in Forestry, entitled "Biodiversity and die Forestry Profession: Perspectives for die 1990's and beyond." In December , Dr. Peter Morand, President of NSFRC , Ottawa, presented die 9di Leslie L. Schaffer Lecture in Forest Sciences, entitled "Challenges in Forestry Research." Bodi of diese talks are in press. If you would like to receive copies, please write to Forestry Publications at the Faculty address on die back page of this newsletter. The Schaffer Lecture was followed by a very successful Research Day in die Faculty. A similar event is planned at UBC for September 24, 1992. Further informa- tion on diis will appear in the next edition of Branch Lines.G ATTENTION . . . UBC Forestry Graduates T h e next edition of Branch Lines will include the 1992 Forestry Alumni Newslet- ter as an insert. If you are a UBC Forestry graduate, and have any news items diat would like to have reported to your fellow graduates, please send your submissions by April 1,1992 to die Forestry Division Presi- dent, Mr. Bob Breadon, at 5791 Dunbar Street, Vancouver, B.C. V6N 1W8. • Harvesting and Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Value-based Analysis of Timber Harvesting Systems TRADITIONAL forest engineering methods incorporate production and cost measures in defining the performance characteristics of harvesting equipment and harvesting systems. These approaches work admirabl y but ignore one critical component of the harvesting profit equation - value. Recovery of raw material from the forest has always been of paramount importance to logging engineers, although little e m p h a s i s h a s b e e n p l a c e d on maximizing the value of recovered timber. This may be due, in part, to the past abundance of valuable timber available in British Columbia and other parts of Canada. However, the forest industry in British Columbia is currently under pressure to reduce waste and improve the value of harvested timber. Do value losses occur during timber harvest operations? While there is little research on this topic, studies in New Zealand suggest that the process of harvesting reduces the average potential value of a harvested tree by as much as 35 percent. A study of cable harvesting operations in New Zealand found that felling, bucking, and primary transport operations had the greatest impact on tree value (see graph above). Other studies dealing with in-woods bucking have indicated substantial improvement in value recovery during bucking through the use of computer-aided decision systems. Another problem associated with im- proved value recovery is the general lack of DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Robert Kennedy has taken early retirement from the university. He had served as Dean of UBC Forestry for seven years, during which time rapid expansion occurred in the Faculty. Bob has gained international recognit ion in the wood anatomy field and is a Fellow of the International Academy of Wood Science. He plans to remain active in the B .C. Forest Resources Commission. Substantial research funds have been received by Dr. John Nelson to study the liranch Lines 2 quality control during the harvesting process. Only a few forest products companies in British Columbia have established quality control programs for their harvesting opera- tions. In most cases, these programs focus on maintaining preferred log characteristics to meet mill raw material requirements. The predominant concern is whether produced logs have the correct length and diameter Value loss associated with han'esting operations on sites New Zealand. characteristics as specified by company-based log spec sheets. Little emphasis is placed on maximizing the value of the harvested tree and, as a result, potential value is lost through felling and yarding damage, improper prod- uct selection, erroneous measurement during bucking, and poor unloading practices. Newly funded research sponsored by the Science Council of British Columbia is now impact of timber harvesting guidelines on sustainable harvest levels. This research will develop computer models capable of assessing complex spatial and temporal relationships a s s o c i a t e d wi th i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e management. In December Drs. Jack Saddler and Ken Wong from the NSERC Industry Chair of Forest Products Biotechnology attended a symposium in Holland which focused on the mechanism and use of enzymes in agriculture and forestry. During the meeting, at which o v e r 2 0 0 p e o p l e f r o m 18 c o u n t r i e s enabling researchers with the Department of Harvesting and Wood Science at the University of British Columbia to evaluate different harvesting systems relative to their effect on the value of harvested timber. This research will focus on three objectives dealing with value and value i m p r o v e m e n t d u r i n g t i m b e r ha rve s t i ng o p e r a t i o n s . Fi rs t ly , s t u d i e s wi l l be c o n d u c t e d to determine how commonly used harvesting systems affect the value of harvested timber. Secondly, phase analysis of those systems which reduce timber value most signifi- cantly will provide more detail regarding value loss and the source of that loss. Finally, quality control methods will be developed for m o n i t o r i n g p h a s e and sys tem performance relative to produced timber value. These quality control techniques will allow operations managers to track value between phases of the harvest and transport operations, determine where value " loss exceeds expected levels, and make required changes to improve value recovery. Field studies of harvesting systems are expected to begin in late February with the cooperation of several forest products companies with operations on the coast. Further information about this study is available from Dr. Joe McNeel at (604) 822 -3728 . • participated, they gave presentations on the potential for enzymes to supplement chemicals in the bleaching of kraft paper. Two visiting scientists from Japan are working in the Department for one year. Dr. Minoru Masuda is studying the fracture mechanics of notched beams under repeated loading as might occur in earthquakes. Dr. Koichi Yamamoto 's efforts are directed at the fixation chem- istry of chromated-copper-arsenate wood preservat ives . • Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Effects of Forest Harvesting on Streamflow Regimes ONE concern of forest managers is the impact of harvesting on fish habitat. An increase in peak flow may increase channel erosion, alter the pool- riffle sequence and bury spawning gravels with sediment. Many studies have shown that forest harvesting increases peak flows, the amount depending on the fraction of a watershed harvested and the type of logging. Jamieson and Elbow Creeks were established in 1969 as treatment and control basins, respectively, of a paired-watershed study in the Greater Vancouver watersheds. One objective was to quantify the effects of forestharvest on streamflow regime. From 1978 to 1984,19.8 percent of the Jamieson watershed was clearcut. For 223 winter storms from 1972 to 1988, the ratio of peak flow on Jamieson to that of Elbow Creek dropped from 7.2 for the pre-logging period (1972-78), to6.7 for the logging period (1978-84), to 6.6 for the post-logging period (1984-88). That is, during and after the logging of Jamieson Creek, peak winter flows decreased relative to those of Elbow Creek. Two other studies with die same result were both on the west coast, one in Oregon and one on the UBC research forest at Haney. Two reasons for the drop in winter peak flow during and after logging may be advanced. The first is that in an undisturbed watershed, rain or snowmelt moves through the soil profile by two routes, the small interstices in the soil matrix and macro DEPARTMENT NEWS M r . Brian D. Gilfillan (B.S.F. 1978, UBC and LL.B. 1981, UBC), will be teaching Forest Policy (FRST 415) while Dr. Peter Pearse is on sabbatical leave. Mr. Gilfillan is presently in practice with Davis & Company, Barristers and Solicitors. His areas of interest include government relations, forest policy, forest law and corporate and commercial matters affecting the forest sector. A registered professional forester, Mr. Gilfillan has more than 10 years experience in the forest industry. 1'he Executive Board of Directors of the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. have appointed Dr. Peter Dooling as an Advisory Member of the Council. Dean Clark Binkley has appointed Dr. Don Munro as Director of International Programs, and Dr. A1 Chambers as a Faculty representative on the Provincial Advisory Board for the Forestry Continuing Studies Network. Dr. Brent Ingram has recently visited China as a guest of the Man and Biosphere Committee (UNESCO) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Funding was through the B.C. Scholars Abroad Program. He visited a number of institutes in Beijing and theFanjishanandDingushan Biosphere Reserves in the southern zone of subtropical rain f o r e s t s . • channels or "pipes". Movement through pipes is much faster than through the soil matrix. Water r e aches the s t r eam q u i c k e r through pipes than dirough the soil matrix. Logging disrupts the pipes at the soil surface, forcing water to take the slower soil- matrix route. This increases the t ime for storm water to reach the stream channel, thus reducing the peak flow. A snowmelt study on Jamie- son Creek suggests the second possible reason .Snow melts faster in forests than in clearcuts when the storm begins as snow and then turns to rain as air tempera- ture rises. This type of storm is common in the transient snow zone in coastal B.C. When the storm begins, snow accumulates in the canopy of the forest and on the ground in the clearcut. When the snow turns to rain, snow in the canopy melts, drips to the ground, percolates through die shallow snowpack under the trees, and reaches the stream Uirough the soil matrix or pipes. Snow in the clearcut is usually deeper Ulan Snow in the canopy of the for est and on the ground under trees, and may have suffi- in the opening. cient water-holding capacity to hold incoming rain, delaying its arrival at For further information on this research the stream. Thus, inputs to the stream from project contact Dr. Doug Golding at (604) the forest and die clearcut are desynchro- 822 -4264 . • nized, reducing peak flow. liranch Lines 3 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Millions of Dollars Lost to Ambrosia Beetles 4 0 u~) UJ t , 3 0 o 2 20 o u i CL 10 1 9 9 0 A T T K . 1991 A T T K . }52. r r i i I I i OCT DEC FEB A P R NOV JAN MAR 1 9 9 0 i i i i r JUN AUG M A Y JUL SEP 1991 Average nwnthly ambrosia beetle infestation levels of log booms produced in British Columbia (number of booms sun-eyed shown in parentheses). AM B R O S I A beet les have been a scourge of logging in British Colum- bia ever since the first logger felled a tree that provided enhanced habitat for the beetles. In the old growth forest, ambrosia beetles are among the first colonizers of winter blow down and snow break during their major attack flight in the spring when daily temperatures first exceed 16°C. The chainsaw has greatly increased the habitat availability for these tiny beetles. Their dark-staining galleries, known as pinholes in the sawmilling industry, greatly affect the value of lumber or plywood veneer cut from the otherwise clear high value layers of a log. In 1990, a two year task force was set up to determine the losses due to ambrosia beetle activity for various grades of saw- logs in coastal mills and to survey the amount of beetles transported in logs around the coast of British Columbia. The Task Force is a cooperative effort between the Fores t S c i e n c e s E n t o m o l o g y g roup , MacMillan Bloedel Ltd. and Phero Tech Inc. The project is funded by MacMillan Bloedel Ltd., the Science Council of Brit- ish Columbia and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. Boom survey teams have been operating for the last year at Campbell River, Port Alberni, Nanaimo and on the Fraser River to measure the degree of infestation of logs in booms produced by each logging division. These booms were later resampled at storage areas such as the Fraser River or at the sawmills. The survey of more than 2200 booms at logging divisions showed that the majority of the attacked logs originate in the forest settings. There is a small increase in attacks on logs during towing and storage in the spring. In the above graph note the marked increase in the amount of new 1991 attack seen after the beetle flight in April. The challenge to loggers is to minimize the time that logs are left on the ground and to speed them on their way to the sawmills before the next spring attack flight. A s awmi l l eva lua t ion t eam h a s completed assessments of the effects of ambrosia beetle degrade on value recoveries from several grades of logs in coastal saw- mills. Losses are as high as $70/m3 on premium sawlog grades. Degrade was measured as the difference in value of lumber with pinholes and without pin- holes. In addition, an effort was made to determine the effect pinholes have on log sawing patterns. Further information on this project can be obtained from Dr. John McLean (Forest Sciences, UBC) at (604) 822-3360 or Mr. Brent Sauder (MacMillan Bloedel Ltd.) at (604) 4 3 9 - 8 6 6 7 . • DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Tom Northcote retired on December 31, 1991, after more than thirty years w i th the Faculty. Tom taught in thearea of forest - fish interactions. He supported his teaching with a research program concentrating on fish populations and the factors affecting their levels in the lakes and streams of coastal B.C. Tom also conducted research and consulted in Europe, Peru and New Zealand. I lis pleasant personality, excellent science and vigorous activity will be greatly missed. Dr. Gordon Weetman was recently honoured by the Canadian Institute of Forestry which awarded him their Gold Medal for Forestry Research for 1991. Dr. Hamish Kimmins spent several weeks this past fall in S.E. Asia. The main p u r p o s e of h i s t r ip w a s to look at deforestat ion and erosion problems in China. Hamish also gave several lectures on ecology and workshops on modelling at l e a d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s and resea rch es tab l i shments . • liranch Lines 4 Forestry Education Activities Forestry Continuing Studies Network An Update .... T l I E NEW FORESTRY CONTINUING STUDIES NETWORK (see Branch Lines 2#3 for the background to this program) has had a busy first few mondis. In October, 1991, Alec Drysdale was hired as die coordinator of the provincial office. Alec has an M.Sc. in Agriculture Extension and experience in international agroforestry projects. Ilis extension expertise balances die forestry experience of die existing Network Staff. Alec can be reached at (604) 822-9282. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS Canada-Colombia Human Resources Development Project F o u r t e e n p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a ined Colombians arrived in Vancouver on September 28, 1991, as part of a CI DA- funded Human Resource Development Project. The Colombians, who were at UBC to study fisheries and forest management under the guidance of Dr. Alan Chambers (Forest Resources Management), had already spent tiiree months at the University of Calgary studying planning, management and GIS systems. Dr. Chambers provided the group wi th a packedagenda of lectures, library work, field trips and networking with other professionals. The field excur- sions included visits to both of the Uni- versity Research Forests, the GVRD watersheds, Tom Wright's woodlot, the Mission TFL, the Duncan Community Forest and a tour through parts of MacMillan Bloedel 's TFL #44. The group spent one week at the Bamfield Marine Station on Vancouver Island where attention was focused on fisheries and aquaculture. Training Program for Chinese Foresters On January 2, 1992, two Chinese forestry students arrived in the Faculty of Forestry as UBC's first trainees under a CIDA-funded Integrated Intensive Forest Management Project aimed at providing theoretical and practical training to Chinese foresters. The project is administered by Thomson-Reid Collins, who are acting as the Canadian executing agency. Under the terms of UBC's contract, die Faculty of Forestry will be providing a total of 53 person- months of instruction to a total of eight students in the areas of GIS, plant physiology, tree improvement and silviculture. Extensive field experience will be provided at the UBC Malcolm Knapp Research Forest. V J Laura Poulk has joined the Network as coordinator of die nordiern interior program, which includes the Prince George Forest Region and die interior portions of die Prince Rupert region. Laura was recently die Recreation Resource Officer in die Burns Lake Forest District. This experience and her previous forays into private business as a trainer add an additional perspecdve to die Network. Laura is busy setting up her office at UNBC, creating the advisory committee, and getting to know what activides should be organized in the northern area. Laura can be reached at (604) 565-5980. The soudiern interior program continues tobe managed by April Anderson at Selkirk College. April is currendy establishing the advisory committee for die southern interior program and organizing activities. She can be reached at (604) 365-7292. The Network is also working with die University College of die Cariboo to obtain funding for a regional centre in Kamloops. The provincial o f f ice is assisting Malaspina College and B.C.I.T. to provide activities diroughoutthe coast. An advisory committee is being established for die coastal program and Cindy Pearce, Network Director, is completing an assessment of forestry education needs diroughout the area. Hie advisory committee will use this information to recommend the location of delivery centres on die coast. Over 150 organizations involved in forestry education were invited to a workshop organized by the Network in early November. The workshop participants recommended changes to die structure of the Continuing Studies Program, and identified eight strategic objectives. This information will be used to develop a discussion paper on forestry education which will be available for review early in 1992. One of the Network's most important activities is to maintain a listing of planned forestry education activities, and to publish a calendar of activities twice a year. The first calendar will be available in February. Copies of the calendar will be mailed to die offices of die natural resource ministries, forest companies and major consulting firms. If you diink your organization might be missed, or if you would like to receive a personal copy of the calendar, send your request to: B.C. Forestry Continuing Studies Network, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 270-2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 (or call Shirley Sato at (604) 822-5874, Fax: (604) 822- 3106).Q New Forestry Education Course W i d i encouragement from die Dean of Forestry, die Dean of Education and the Council of Forest Industries, UBC ' s Department of Madiematics and Science Education is developing its first Forest Education course (Education 490). The course, which will be offered on a trial basis diis July, will be available for students completing degree programs as well as for practicing teachers pursuing diploma programs. Field activities will form a major component of the course. Support for the course and its development is being provided by Forestry Canada. For more information contact Reg Wild in the Malh. /Sci . Education Department at UBC ® (604) 822-5315.• liranch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the UBC Alex Fraser Research Forest NEW FACULTY ANNUAL R E P O R T TO BE PRODUCED Uniform Shelterwood Systems on Trial HOW do you regenerate a frost-tender species like Douglas-fir in a frost prone environment? Provide some shelter! The current practice in the SBSdw subzone, where planting with Douglas-fir has been unreliable, is to clearcut Douglas- fir - lodgepole pine stands and plant lodgepole pine. In an attempt to find a way of maintaining Douglas-fir on these sites, a cooperative study between the Ministry of Forests, Weldwood of Canada Ltd. and the Alex Fraser Research Forest has been established. The study is designed to determine if Douglas-fir will regenerate within a uniform shelterwood system. There is evidence in this subzone that Douglas-fir will regenerate successfully after partial cutting where an adequate canopy is left. This observation led the cooperators to design a trial of a uniform shelterwood system which would provide a var ie ty of c a n o p y dens i t i e s whi le recognizing the windthrow hazards in the area. Three research sites were established in the SBSdw subzone with permanent cruise and regeneration plots in each of the 25 ha blocks. The study involves five treatments: • 30% removal feller buncher. • 30% removal hand falling. • unlogged control. • 50% removal hand falling. • 50% removal feller buncher. Initial harvests were completed between July and October 1991. Cruise and regen- eration plots were remeasured after log- ging. Further measurements over a twenty- year period will examine windthrow, disease losses and regeneration. Associated studies to monitor rodent popu lations, seedfall and the fate of Douglas- fir seeds are being conducted in each of the sites by Dr. Tom Sullivan. Extension activities have already begun and any visitors are invited to tour the area. For further information on this project, or for any other questions concerning the Forest, contact Ken Day (Resident Forester), UBC Alex Fraser Research Forest, 72 S. 7th Avenue, Willams Lake, B.C. V2G 1L3 « (604) 392-2207.• N E W COORDINATOR OF STUDENT SERVICES IS APPOINTED Commencing with the one-year period ending March 31, 1992, the Faculty of Forestry will be producing a new style of annual report for distribution to all newsletter recipients and any other interested individuals. This new form of reporting will replace the Biannual Resea rch R e v i e w ( las t p roduced for 88/89). The annual report will include background information on all faculty members and their research interests, highlights on new faculty members, a listing of faculty publications, summary statistics on graduates from the different foresty degree programs as well as thesis titles from graduating students and other summary information. The annual report will be mailed to all individuals on this newsletter mailing list some time in April or May each year. The next issues of Branch Lines for 1992 will appear in July and October.Q D o n n a Goss has j o ined the Faculty as Coor- dinatorofStudent Services. Donna graduated with a BSF degree from UBC in 1990 and has previously worked as coordinator of public and school programs for the British Columbia Forestry Association in the Green Timbers Forest Reserve. She also has experience working in the forest industry and in the provincial parks system. As the Coordinator of Student Services , D o n n a ' s responsibi l i t ies include admissions, job placement for undergraduate and graduate students, advising (prospective, transfer and first year students), recruitment and public relations. She will be attending career fairs and making presenta t ions at technical schools and colleges through- out the province. For the next few months, job placement, advising and recruitment will have high priority. Donna can be reached by phone at (604) 822-3547, by fax at (604) 822- 8645, or by writing to her at the Faculty address on this page.Q NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. Typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. This newsletter is typeset in-house on an IBM PC AT compatible computer using Microsoft Word version 5.0 and Aldus PageMaker. A final camera-ready impres- sion is produced using a QMS PS 815 printer. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 X n « (604) 822-6316 Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: Sue_Watts@mtsg.ubc.ca Recycled Paper ©Facul ty of Forestry, 1992 liranch Lines 6 


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