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Branchlines Vol. 5, No. 3 (1994) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1994-12-31

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • N E W S L E T T E R • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 5 No. 3 December 1994 From the Dean's Desk To serve the people of British Columbia through excellence in creating, applying and disseminating knowledge about forests — conservation, management, products and production processes. Mission Statement f rom the U B C Faculty of Forestry Strategic Plan ? ? L i k e most university departments, the Facul ty of Fores t ry serves socie ty through our undergraduate programs, graduate teaching and research activi- ties. Unlike a disciplinary department — whose purpose is to advance knowledge in a particularly field — a Faculty of Forestry exists precisely because society has a set of problems collectively called "forestry." This fact implies a special ob l iga t ion for c lose l inkages with society. Some recent examples include: • Prof. Fred Bunnell's service as Indepen- dent Chair of the Clayoquot Scientific Panel, • Prof. Gordon Baskerville's service to the Ministry of Forests in assembling public reaction to the proposed Forest Practice Code, • Prof. A1 Chambers ' recent appoint- ment to Chair the new Forest Land Commission, • Prof. Hamish Kimmins' extensive speak- ing engagements throughout the world on B.C. forestry issues, and • Prof. Scott I l inch ' s work with the Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans Management Review Team to account for "missing" sockeye salmon in tlie Fraser River. Many other facul ty members also work closely with government, industry and environmental organizations in B.C., Canada and the world more broadly. Not only does such service provide direct assistance to society, but it also enriches our educational programs with realis- tic, up-to-date examples, and helps guide our research activities. Direct service to our external consti- tuencies includes our expanded work in cont inuing s tudies . We recent ly adopted the Silviculture Institute of B.C. Advanced Silviculture program as an official UBC Diploma program. The BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network — with a provincial office at UBC supporting delivery centres in five locations throughout the province — served nearly 13,000 participants last year (p. 5). Finally, many of our faculty conduct research activities in close collabora- tion with partners f rom government and/or industry — Prof. Wee tman ' s highly success fu l SCHIRP program on Vancouver Island (collaborators: Western Forest Products Ltd., MacMillan Blocdel Ltd., Timberwest Ltd., Canadian Forest Service and B.C. Ministry of Forests); Prof. McLean's ambrosia beetle project (collaborators: MacMillan Bloedel and Phero Tech Inc.); Prof. Nelson's spat ia l harves t p lann ing research (collaborators: B.C. Ministry of Forests, West Fraser Mills, and Western Forest Products) and Prof. Avramidis ' RF/ vacuum kiln project (col laborators : MacMillan Bloedel, Council of Forest Industries, Canadian Forest Products and International Forest Products Ltd.) to name a few examples. Despite an obviously high level of external service by faculty members, I am sometimes asked "why don't we see UBC faculty members working on problems away from Point Grey?" The disparity between perception and reality may, in part, be due to the Faculty's small size. For example, as measured by the budget we receive from the Univer- sity, the Faculty of Agriculture is rough- ly 50% larger than we are, Commerce is over twice as large and the Faculties of Education and of Applied Sciences are both about four times as large. Indeed some individual departments — English and Chemistry to give two examples — are larger than the entire Faculty of Forestry. Service to forestry — government, industry, and private nonprofit organi- zations — is central to our mission. This commitment to strong externalties differ- entiates die Faculty of Forestry from the disciplinary departments at UBC, but the university budget is allocated p r imar i ly on the basis of teaching responsibilities. Our challenge is to sus- tain a high level of interaction with the world away from the University Campus while maintaining excellent teaching and research programs. Any thoughts you might have on how we can do a better j ob of meeting this challenge would be most welcome. You can reach me in person, by letter, fax (604) 822-8645, 9 (604) 822-2467, or by e-mail binkley@unixg.ubc.ca. Clark S. Binkley Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Changing Social Values and Forestry IN recent years much public debate and protest has been generated by individuals, communities, and environmen- tal groups regarding forest practices and policies in British Columbia. Analyses by social scientists suggest that increased concern about environmental issues is rooted in a shift in the value preferences of indi- viduals from "materialist" to "pos t -mate r ia l i s t va lues — especially amongst younger and more well educated cohorts. Recent survey-based research by Dr. David Tindall of the Forest Resources Management Department has examined the role that values play in an individual's decision to join an environmental group, orexpress concern for environmental issues. Six "materialist" and six "post-materialist" values were considered. Responses collected from the general public, members of formal environmental groups, and a first year UBC Forestry class, indicate that the general public are relatively more supportive of materialist values such as "maintaining a high rate of economic growth" and "fighting rising costs." The forestry students surveyed fall in between the other two groups on these two i tems (as wel l as severa l DEPARTMENT NEWS D e a n Binkley has set up a Task Force to review the curriculum for the professional degree (B.S.F.). The group made up of two staff from Forest Sciences, two from Forest Resources Management, and three u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , is lead by Gordon Baskerville. They have a mandate to review the present structure, and to propose revisions to the management o thers) . Member s of env i ronmenta l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a re m o r e s u p p o r t i v e of p o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t va lues such as "p rog re s s towards a socie ty whe re ideas count more than money" and "seeing that people have more say in how things get decided at work and in their communities." In general, sup- port for "post -mater ia l i s t" values is associated with joining environmental organizations. Research results suggest that value shifts from materialist to post-materialist dimensions are associated with value preferences regarding forests and forestry practices. This shift is evident in the percept ions of indiv iduals surveyed regarding clearcut logging. The table above shows comparative data regard- ing attitudes toward clearcutting as a program to the Dean and Faculty by the summer of 1995. The process will involve a survey of a broad band of employers a imed at iden t i fy ing the skil ls and characteristics sought in a graduate. The Task Force will examine a range of program formats including the present 4-year approach and a 4+1 approach leading to two academic credentials. forest management method. While there is some variation between the groups surveyed, the major i ty of individuals within each group indicate that they feel that clearcutting is used too widely. UBC forestry students and environ- mental organization members were also asked to rank the relative importance of six values associated with forests. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , bo th g r o u p s rank ecological values such as "balancing the global ecosystem" and "as a habitat for a variety of animal and plant life" more highly than anthropo- centric values such as "a place for recreation and relaxat ion" and "a source of econo- mic wealth and jobs." T h e s e f i n d i n g s are cons i s ten t with the value shift argument referred to above. Forest practices are partly based on science and partly based on human values. While forestry pro- fessionals can play an important role in providing the public and advocacy groups with information about forests and forestry practices, they also need to pay heed to the concerns and value preferences of these groups. For further information, please contact Dr. David Tindall at (604) 822- 2550, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail tindall @unixg. ubc. ca. • The appointment of Dr. Alan Chambers as Chair of the Forest Land Commission was announced in Victoria , B.C. on November 23. This new Commission was established under the Forest Land Reserve Act passed last July. Dr. Chambers has also served as director of the B.C. Wildlife Federation for five years, and served as co-chair of the Forest Land Use Liaison Committee. • Survey results showing comparative attitudes (in percent) toward clearcutting as a forestry method Environmental First year General organization Forestry public members students Used too widely 71 95.5 60.3 Use is just right 16 0.8 25.4 Not used widely enough 4 0.3 1.6 No answer/other 9 3.4 12.7 Branch Lines Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT An 85-page synthesis of SCHIRP research findings "SCHIRP: A S y n t h e s i s " was p u b l i s h e d in October , 1994. Copies can be obtained for $15.00 each from the Department of Forest Sciences, UBC, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4. amounts of N in biomass and was able to use organic forms of N through its mycorrhizal fungi , which also inter- fered with mycorrhizae of hemlock. High concentrations of phenolic acids were associated with salal, which may interfere with mineralization of N. The low availability of N and P in CH cutovers originated in the old-growth forests prior to clearcutting. Nutrient availability was low in all layers of the forest floor in CH forests; this was the result of three factors. First, cedar litter contains little N and more material resistant to decomposition than other spec ies , and p roduces fores t f loors with low rates of N mineral izat ion. SCHIRP: A Synthesis THE Salal Cedar Hemlock Integrated Research Program (SCHIRP) was a cooperative research effort between UBC, Western Fores t Products , MacMi l l an Bloedel, Timberwest, the B.C. Ministry of Forests and Canadian Forest Service. The objective of this decade-long research effort was to understand the underlying causes of poor growth of conifer regene- ration on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and to recommend the most effective methods of improving tree growth. The problem occurred on sites formerly occupied by old-growth cedar- hemlock (CH) forests, 5-8 years af ter clearcutting and slashburning. The prob- lem was characterized by severe chloro- sis and a near cessation of growth of Sitka spruce, western hemlock, western red cedar and amabil is fir, coincident with the expansion of the er icaceous shrub, salal, on the cutovers. A series of fertilization trials identified nutrient deficiencies as the cause of the growth check of conifers, and determined that additions of 200 kg N ha'1 and 50 kg P ha-1 would improve tree growth. Addi- tions of organic wastes such as sewage sludge and fish silage were also effective. Burning, cultivating, liming, higher plant- ing densities or herbicide application were less effective. The nutrient deficiencies in conifers on CI I cutovers were the result of the low nutrient availability in soil and humus, and competition and interference from salal . Salal i m m o b i l i z e d subs tan t i a l Second, the forest floors in CH forests are wetter and have less soil fauna, which contribute to incomplete decom- position and mineralization of N. Third, the salal unders torey in CH forests i n t e r f e re s wi th mine ra l i za t ion of N through the production of tannins and the activities of its mycorrhizal fungi. For further information on this project, please contact Dr. Cindy Prescott at (604) 822-4701. • Old-growth cedar-hemlock (CH) forest (right) and second growth hemlock-amabilis (HA) forest (left); slashburned cutover in foreground. DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Carlos Galindo-Leal , a Research Associate in the Department, has accept- ed the position of Associate Director for Tropical Programs in the Centre for Conser- vation Biology at Stanford University. Carlos will begin his new appoinunent in January 1995. We wish him every success. Dr. Ilamish Kimmins has recently re- turned from a week in Germany, Switzer- land and Austria where he gave talks on the ecology of Canadian forests at the Univers i ty of Hamburg , the Wor ld Forestry Institute, and several Canadian Embassies. Ilamish also talked to wood/ pulp buyers in Germany, Switzerland and Austria, and made a presentation to the Association of German Science in Bonn. A number of presentations were made by Department members at the Annual Meeting of the Soil Science Society of America, held in Seattle, Washington, last month. Papers were presented by four graduate students and Dr. Cindy Prescott p resented two talks, co-authored by Dr. Gordon Weetman, entitled "Causes and amelioration of nutrient deficiencies in cutovers of cedar-hemlock forests," and "Long term effects of repeated N fertilization and straw application to a jack pine forest."U Branch Lines Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Fractal Dimensionality of Wood THE need to characterize the physical properties of wood and wood pro- ducts by mathematical methods has he- c o m e inc r ea s ing ly impor t an t as the need for accurate control of quality and process pa ramete r s has increased. In particular, internal and external surface characterization of porous materials such as wood and composite wood products is particularly important when chemical reac t ions such as chemisorp t ion and physisorption of gases, take place or in the case of wood adhesion with other natural lignocellulosic or man made poly- meric materials. Researchers are accustomed to regard- ing chemically active wood surfaces as two-dimensional macromelecular entities, i.e., as locally flat arrays of molecules where surface inhomogeneities and dis- locations have the status of deviations from an ideally planar surface. In many instances, surfaces can be so irregular that geometrical concepts as elementary as the surface area cease to be meaning- ful. Irregular surfaces cannot be charac- terized by single parameter descriptors as Euclidean geometries do. Thus, over the past twenty years a new science called fractal geometry has evolved to address p r o b l e m s invo lv ing very c o m p l e x geometries. F r ac t a l s are c o m p l e x g e o m e t r i c a l objects that posses nontrivial structure on arbitrary scales. In fact, a fractal is a shape made of parts similar to the whole in some way. This property of fractalshapes is called self-similarity. Fracta l geomet ry has been used to describe and explain coastline lengths, ga l axy c lus te r s , t u rbu lence , t rees , Brownian motion, river d ischarges , f racture surfaces, and price changes in economics. Recently, we used the method of fractal dimensionality to characterize the in te rna l wood s u r f a c e based on water sorption data. Three methods were implemented based on the polymolecular sorption and capillary c o n d e n s a t i o n of water. The calculated f r a c t a l d imens ion ranged between 2.5 and 2.8 thus implying that the internal sur- face is far from two dimensional as being c lo se r to a three dimensional one. Currently, studies are being carried out to determine poro- metric fractal dimen- sionality such as in the case of micro- porosity, permeability and non-Darcian fluid flow in solid wood, and the micro- porosity and macroporosi ty of wood c o m p o s i t e s l ike p a r t i c l e b o a r d s and parallam. Future studies will also involve the characterization of lumber surface roughness as affected by process para- meters in the sawmill and planer mill. In all cases, fractal geometry will be used as a descriptive tool for characterization and a predictive tool for modelling. Further information is available from Dr. Stavros Avramidis at (604) 822-6153 or fax (604) 822-9104. • A three-dimensional wood model (Menger sponge) with an infinite surface area and zero volume. DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Paul Steiner was Program Chairman for the Second Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium held in Vaiicou ver, November 6-9, 1994. The Symposium attracted 110 specialists, including 45 international experts , in the f ields of bio-based composites and wood modi- fication. Dr. Dave Plackett and Dr. Gary Troughton of Forintek Canada Corpora- tion were S y m p o s i u m Coord ina to r s . Dr. Patricia Plackett and her colleagues f rom the B.C. Forestry Cont inu ing Studies Network (BCFCSN) managed the organization of this highly success- ful symposium. Proceedings containing over 40 symposium papers are available from the BCFCSN at (604) 822-5874 or fax (604) 822-3106. Price: $75.00 + postage & handling. Wood Science faculty members Drs. Colette Breuil, Jack Saddler, Stavros Avramidis, Paul Steiner, Frank Lam and David Bar re t t recent ly rece ived six N S E R C S t r a t e g i c or C o l l a b o r a t i v e Grants. The NSERC awards will provide $1,250,884 over three years, to fund science and engineering research pro- jects related to immunoassays for resin ac ids , r ad io - f r equency dry ing , wood composites modeling, advanced grading of e n g i n e e r e d wood p r o d u c t s and cellulose modification by e n z y m e s . • Branch Lines Forestry Education Activities Update... BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network DURING the past year the Network was asked to undertake one of die biggest initiatives ever attempted since its incepuon: organizing the delivery of the Minis t ry ' s Forest Pract ices Code (FPC) training. A team consisting of re- presentatives from 4 Provincial Govern- ment Ministries, was assembled to develop a 5 module training package for die Forest Practices Code Act. The Network was contracted to coordinate course delivery. Almost 500 training sessions (2.5 times more then we did in total during last year) of FPC training were organized between September and November. Each of our five Delivery Centre Program Managers , Tom Rankin (Kamloops) , April Anderson (Castlegar), Laura Poulk (Pr ince George ) , C a r m e n Whea t l ey (Smithers) and Tom Molfenter (Nanaimo), worked very c lose ly with the local Ministry Coord ina to rs to ensure the success of this training initiative. The Provincial O f f i c e at U B C faci l i ta ted die coordination of die efforts between the Network and the Implementat ion Team. The Provincial Office continues to assist many organizations with the develop- ment of training packages. Currently Dwight Yochim is working on a joint venture with BCIT and the Ministry of Forests, Timber Harvesting Branch. Markus Merkens is working with the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks on its Watershed Restorat ion Project which is a major part of Forest Renewal B.C. Patricia Plackett is working widi die task force designing and delivering forest practices code training for industry widi a focus on forestry workers. For further information on the BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network, please contact Dr. Patricia Plackett at (604) 822-9278, fax (604) 822-3106 or e-mail plackett @unixg. ubc. ca. • SIBC Gains Diploma Status T h e Silviculture Institute of British Columbia (SIBC) provides continuing education programs in silviculture to professional foresters, forest techno- logists and technicians, and otiier forest workers through in-residence programs as well as correspondence courses. Our most exciting news at die moment is the recent approval by the Univer- sity of British Columbia Senate of our proposal to have die "Professional Module Program" recognized as a UBC Diploma Program. This program has been o f f e r ed s ince 1985 to Registered Profess iona l Fores te rs specializing in silvicultural work, as a mid-career upgrade. To date, we have 123 graduates who have completed this program (who are not eligible for the diploma, unfortunately). Currently enrolled students and new applicants who complete all six, two-week modules success fu l ly (usual ly taken over a three year period) will receive a UBC "Dip loma in Fores t ry (Advanced Silviculture)." The significance of the diploma status is twofold: die academic achievements of the students will be highlighted, and die contributions of die UBC Faculty members who parti- cipate in this program will be more formally recognized by die university. For further information on SIBC programs, please contact Candace Laird, RPF, Executive Director at (604) 224- 7800 or e-mail claird@unixg.ubc.ca). Namkoong Family Fellowship in Forest Sciences Established D r . Gene Namkoong, Head of die Department of Forest Sciences, has donated money awarded to him by die Marcus Wallenberg Prize Foundation to a graduate fellowship in die area of conservation biology. At a cheque passing ceremony in October, Dr. Namkoong (centre) presented a cheque for $110,000 to UBC President David Strangway (left). Funding for die fellowship also included a $95,000 contribution from the B.C. Ministry of Forests and a $50,000 contribution from the Canadian Forest Service. Forests Minster Andrew Petter (second from right) presented the cheque to UBC on behalf of the Province. Also at the ceremony were Carol Namkoong and Clark Binkley. Branch Lines FOREST NEWS from the Alex Fraser Research Forest Salvage Operations at the Forest SOMETIMES trees die. This is a funda-mental concept, but critically impor- tant to the management of a forest. Salvage of dead and dying trees, and manage- ment of the events which kill trees, is a crucial component of forest management in British Columbia. Over 30% of the timberharvested from the Alex Fraser Re- search Forest comes from salvage activi- ties (see chart) . In order of importance, this sa lvage e f fo r t has been d i r ec t ed towards Douglas-fir bark beetle, mountain p ine bee t l e , and windthrow. Salvage activities tend to be concen- trated in winter months (before insects emerge) on very small areas; in the past 8 years only one opening larger than one hectare has been created. Such intensive salvage activities require a lot of access, which is the chief problem associated with the program. Skid trails are a concern to ranchers because the trails may take cattle where they don' t belong. Open roads cause stress to wild- life through increased traffic, increased hunter access, and more poaching. Helicopters are now being used for logging scattered infestations on diffi- cult terrain in the Cariboo. The popula- rity of this method will continue as long as the value of the logs exceeds the high cost of the loggings. Heli- copter logging costs approxi- m a t e l y f o u r times as much as skidder log- ging, butallows t r e a t m e n t of i n f e s t a t i o n s which cou ld not be salvag- ed with ground based equ ip - ment. The Re- search Forest recently harvested 180 m3 of infested Douglas-fir trees using a Bell 205 helicopter, and made a small profit. T imber ha rves t ing is an integral component of the operat ions of the UBC Research Forests. Management Plans for the Alex Fraser Research Forest require aggressive management of insect in fes t a t ions , and sa lvage operations will continue to supply a significant part of the harvest volume for the foreseeable future. For more information, please contact Ken Day, RPF at (604) 392-2207. • Positions Available NSERC/Industry Research Chairs T h e Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) has agreed in principle to the establishment of two tenure-track NSERC/Industry Research Chairs in the Department of Forest Sciences; one in the area of population genetics and one in quantitative genetics. The Chairs will be established in collaboration with the University, NSERC, several Forest Industry and Conservation organizations and the B.C. Ministry of Forests. The Chairs will have assured funding for five years starting September 1995 and each is supported by a guaranteed annual research budget of about $90,000 for that period. The research program will be aimed at understanding the evolutionary dynamics of forest organisms and at designing programs for conservation and use of genetic resources. Teaching responsibilities will be limited for the first five years. For further information, please contact Dr. B.J. van der Kamp at (604) 822-2728 or fax (604) 822-9102. Branch Lines New Centre for Advanced Wood Products Processing A proposal from the Department of Wood Science to locate a national Centre for Advanced Wood Products Processing at U B C was se lec ted f r om six submis- sions to the Board of the National Educa- tion Ini t iat ive of the Canadian Wood Processing Industry. U B C ' s proposal has strong industry support from across Canada. The Centre will o f f e r a new coop undergraduate degree program, cont inuing education and applied research in advanced wood products processing. The Centre 's pro- grams will be guided by an industry board with national representation. The UBC education programs will be laddered to new college and high school p rograms in wood p roduc t s process- ing. Quesnel Secondary Schools and the University College of the Cariboo are already collaborating with UBC to develop a fu l ly l adde red p r o g r a m in W o o d Processing Technology. Other laddered p r o g r a m s wil l be d e v e l o p e d ac ross Canada following this model. In 1995, die Centre will offer new con- tinuing education and extension programs in areas identified by the Centre's Board. The Industry Advisory Board is current- ly developing a funding plan involving a partnership with industry, government and oUicr agencies. For further information, please contact Dr. Thomas Maness at (604) 822-2150. • NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. ln-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Ques t ions conce rn ing the newsle t ter or reques t s fo r mai l ing list updates , de le t ions or addi t ions should be d i rec ted to Dr. Susan Wat t s , News le t t e r Edi tor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 a (604) 822-6316 Fax : (604)822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca Recycled Paper ©Faculty of Forestry, 1994 6 


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