UBC Community, Partners, and Alumni Publications

Branchlines Vol. 5, No. 3 (1994) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1994-12-31

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata


Branchlines_v5_no3_Dec1994.pdf [ 6.82MB ]
JSON: 1.0045239.json
JSON-LD: 1.0045239+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0045239.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0045239+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0045239+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0045239+rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 1.0045239 +original-record.json
Full Text

Full Text

FACULTY  OF FORESTRY • NEWSLETTER • THE  UNIVERSITY  Volume 5 No. 3  To serve the people of British Columbia through excellence creating, applying and disseminating knowledge about forests conservation, management, products and production processes.  Industries, Canadian Forest Products and International Forest Products Ltd.) to name a few examples.  in —  Mission Statement f r o m the U B C Faculty of Forestry Strategic Plan ??  • Prof. Fred Bunnell's service as Independent Chair of the Clayoquot Scientific Panel, • Prof. Gordon Baskerville's service to the Ministry of Forests in assembling public reaction to the proposed Forest Practice Code, • Prof. A1 C h a m b e r s ' recent appointment to Chair the new Forest Land Commission, • Prof. Hamish Kimmins' extensive speaking engagements throughout the world on B.C. forestry issues, and • Prof. Scott I l i n c h ' s work with the Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans Management Review Team to account for "missing" sockeye salmon in tlie Fraser River. Many other f a c u l t y m e m b e r s also work closely with government, industry and environmental organizations in B.C., Canada and the world more broadly. Not  COLUMBIA  December 1994  From the Dean's Desk  L i k e most university departments, the Faculty of F o r e s t r y s e r v e s s o c i e t y through our undergraduate programs, graduate teaching and research activities. Unlike a disciplinary department — whose purpose is to advance knowledge in a particularly field — a Faculty of Forestry exists precisely because society has a set of problems collectively called "forestry." This fact implies a special o b l i g a t i o n f o r c l o s e l i n k a g e s with society. Some recent examples include:  OF B R I T I S H  only does such service provide direct assistance to society, but it also enriches our educational programs with realistic, up-to-date examples, and helps guide our research activities. Direct service to our external constituencies includes our expanded work in c o n t i n u i n g s t u d i e s . We r e c e n t l y adopted the Silviculture Institute of B.C. Advanced Silviculture program as an official UBC Diploma program. The BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network — with a provincial office at UBC supporting delivery centres in five locations throughout the province — served nearly 13,000 participants last year (p. 5). Finally, many of our faculty conduct research activities in close collaboration with partners from government and/or industry — Prof. W e e t m a n ' s highly s u c c e s s f u l S C H I R P p r o g r a m on V a n c o u v e r Island (collaborators: Western Forest Products Ltd., MacMillan Blocdel Ltd., Timberwest Ltd., Canadian Forest Service and B.C. Ministry of Forests); Prof. McLean's ambrosia beetle project (collaborators: MacMillan Bloedel and Phero Tech Inc.); Prof. Nelson's spatial harvest planning research (collaborators: B.C. Ministry of Forests, West Fraser Mills, and Western Forest Products) and Prof. A v r a m i d i s ' RF/ vacuum kiln p r o j e c t ( c o l l a b o r a t o r s : MacMillan Bloedel, Council of Forest  Despite an obviously high level of external service by faculty members, I am sometimes asked "why don't we see UBC faculty members working on problems away from Point Grey?" The disparity between perception and reality may, in part, be due to the Faculty's small size. For example, as measured by the budget we receive from the University, the Faculty of Agriculture is roughly 50% larger than we are, Commerce is over twice as large and the Faculties of Education and of Applied Sciences are both about four times as large. Indeed some individual departments — English and Chemistry to give two examples — are larger than the entire Faculty of Forestry. Service to forestry — government, industry, and private nonprofit organizations — is central to our mission. This commitment to strong externalties differentiates die Faculty of Forestry from the disciplinary departments at UBC, but the university budget is allocated p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of t e a c h i n g responsibilities. Our challenge is to sustain a high level of interaction with the world away from the University Campus while maintaining excellent teaching and research programs. Any thoughts you might have on how we can do a better j o b of meeting this challenge would be most welcome. You can reach me in person, by letter, fax (604) 822-8645, 9 (604) 822-2467, or by e-mail binkley@unixg.ubc.ca. Clark S. Binkley  Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH  HIGHLIGHT  Changing Social Values and Forestry  forest management method. While there is some variation between the groups surveyed, the m a j o r i t y of individuals within each g r o u p indicate that they feel that clearcutting is used too widely. U B C forestry students and environmental organization members were also o t h e r s ) . M e m b e r s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l N recent years much public debate organizations are more supportive asked to rank the relative importance and protest has been generated by of p o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t v a l u e s s u c h as of six values associated with forests. individuals, communities, and environmen"progress towards a society where Interestingly, both groups rank tal groups regarding forest practices and ideas count m o r e than m o n e y " and ecological values such as "balancing policies in British Columbia. Analyses by "seeing that people have more say in the global ecosystem" and "as a habitat social scientists suggest that increased for a variety of animal concern about environmental and plant life" more issues is rooted in a shift in Survey results showing comparative attitudes (in percent) highly than anthropothe value preferences of inditoward clearcutting as a forestry method centric values such as viduals from "materialist" to "a place for recreation "post-materialist values — First year Environmental and r e l a x a t i o n " and General organization Forestry especially amongst y o u n g e r members students public "a source of econoand more well educated cohorts. mic wealth and jobs." Recent survey-based research 60.3 Used too widely 71 95.5 T h e s e f i n d i n g s are by Dr. David Tindall of the 25.4 16 0.8 Use is just right c o n s i s t e n t with the Forest Resources Management 4 1.6 0.3 Not used widely enough value shift argument Department has examined the 3.4 12.7 No answer/other 9 referred to above. role that values play in an Forest practices are individual's decision to join an how things get decided at work and partly based on science and partly based environmental group, orexpress in their communities." In general, supon human values. While forestry proconcern for environmental issues. Six port f o r " p o s t - m a t e r i a l i s t " values is fessionals can play an important role "materialist" and six "post-materialist" associated with joining environmental in providing the public and advocacy values were considered. organizations. groups with information about forests Responses collected from the general Research results suggest that value and forestry practices, they also need public, members of formal environmental shifts from materialist to post-materialist to pay heed to the concerns and value groups, and a first year UBC Forestry dimensions are associated with value preferences of these groups. class, indicate that the general public are preferences regarding forests and forestry For further information, please relatively more supportive of materialist practices. This shift is evident in the contact Dr. David Tindall at (604) 822values such as "maintaining a high rate p e r c e p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s s u r v e y e d 2550, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail of economic growth" and "fighting rising regarding clearcut logging. The table tindall @unixg. ubc. ca. • costs." The forestry students surveyed above shows comparative data regardfall in between the other two groups on ing attitudes toward clearcutting as a these two i t e m s (as well as s e v e r a l  I  DEPARTMENT  NEWS  D e a n Binkley has set up a Task Force to review the curriculum for the professional degree (B.S.F.). The group made up of two staff from Forest Sciences, two from Forest Resources Management, and three u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , is lead by Gordon Baskerville. They have a mandate to review the present structure, and to propose revisions to the m a n a g e m e n t  Branch Lines  program to the Dean and Faculty by the summer of 1995. The process will involve a survey of a broad band of employers a i m e d at i d e n t i f y i n g the skills and characteristics sought in a graduate. The Task Force will examine a range of program formats including the present 4-year approach and a 4+1 approach leading to two academic credentials.  The appointment of Dr. Alan Chambers as Chair of the Forest Land Commission was a n n o u n c e d in Victoria, B.C. on November 23. This new Commission was established under the Forest Land Reserve Act passed last July. Dr. Chambers has also served as director of the B.C. Wildlife Federation for five years, and served as co-chair of the Forest Land Use Liaison Committee. •  Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH  HIGHLIGHT  SCHIRP: A Synthesis  T  HE Salal Cedar Hemlock Integrated Research Program (SCHIRP) was a cooperative research effort between UBC, Western Forest Products, MacMillan Bloedel, Timberwest, the B.C. Ministry of Forests and Canadian Forest Service. The objective of this decade-long research effort was to understand the underlying causes of poor growth of conifer regeneration on northern V a n c o u v e r Island, British Columbia, and to recommend the most effective methods of improving tree growth. The problem occurred on sites formerly occupied by old-growth cedarhemlock (CH) forests, 5-8 years after clearcutting and slashburning. The problem was characterized by severe chlorosis and a near cessation of growth of Sitka spruce, western hemlock, western red cedar and amabilis fir, coincident with the expansion of the e r i c a c e o u s shrub, salal, on the cutovers. A series of fertilization trials identified nutrient deficiencies as the cause of the growth check of conifers, and determined that additions of 200 kg N ha' 1 and 50 kg P ha -1 would improve tree growth. Additions of organic wastes such as sewage sludge and fish silage were also effective. Burning, cultivating, liming, higher planting densities or herbicide application were less effective. The nutrient deficiencies in conifers on CI I cutovers were the result of the low nutrient availability in soil and humus, and competition and interference from salal. Salal i m m o b i l i z e d s u b s t a n t i a l  DEPARTMENT  NEWS  D r . Carlos Galindo-Leal, a Research Associate in the Department, has accepted the position of Associate Director for Tropical Programs in the Centre for Conservation Biology at Stanford University. Carlos will begin his new appoinunent in January 1995. We wish him every success. Dr. Ilamish Kimmins has recently returned from a week in Germany, SwitzerBranch  Lines  amounts of N in biomass and was able to use organic forms of N through its mycorrhizal fungi, which also interfered with mycorrhizae of hemlock. High concentrations of phenolic acids were associated with salal, which may interfere with mineralization of N. The low availability of N and P in C H cutovers originated in the old-growth forests prior to clearcutting. Nutrient availability was low in all layers of the forest floor in C H forests; this was the result of three factors. First, cedar litter contains little N and more material resistant to decomposition than other s p e c i e s , and p r o d u c e s f o r e s t f l o o r s with low rates of N mineralization.  Second, the forest floors in C H forests are wetter and h a v e less soil fauna, which contribute to incomplete decomposition and mineralization of N. Third, the salal u n d e r s t o r e y in C H forests i n t e r f e r e s w i t h m i n e r a l i z a t i o n of N through the production of tannins and the activities of its mycorrhizal fungi. For further information on this project, please contact Dr. Cindy Prescott at (604) 822-4701. •  An 85-page synthesis of SCHIRP research findings "SCHIRP: A S y n t h e s i s " w a s p u b l i s h e d in O c t o b e r , 1994. C o p i e s can be obtained for $15.00 each from the Department of Forest Sciences, UBC, Vancouver, B.C. V 6 T 1Z4.  Old-growth cedar-hemlock (CH) forest (right) and second growth hemlock-amabilis forest (left); slashburned cutover in foreground.  land and Austria where he gave talks on the ecology of Canadian forests at the U n i v e r s i t y of H a m b u r g , the W o r l d Forestry Institute, and several Canadian Embassies. Ilamish also talked to wood/ pulp buyers in Germany, Switzerland and Austria, and made a presentation to the Association of German Science in Bonn. A number of presentations were made by Department members at the Annual Meeting of the Soil Science Society of  (HA)  America, held in Seattle, Washington, last month. Papers were presented by four graduate students and Dr. Cindy Prescott p r e s e n t e d two talks, c o - a u t h o r e d by Dr. Gordon Weetman, entitled "Causes and amelioration of nutrient deficiencies in cutovers of cedar-hemlock forests," and "Long term effects of repeated N fertilization and straw application to a jack pine forest."U  Wood Science Department RESEARCH  HIGHLIGHT  Fractal Dimensionality of Wood  T  HE need to characterize the physical properties of wood and wood products by mathematical methods has hec o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t as the need for accurate control of quality and p r o c e s s p a r a m e t e r s has i n c r e a s e d . In particular, internal and external surface characterization of porous materials such as wood and composite wood products is particularly important when chemical r e a c t i o n s such as c h e m i s o r p t i o n and physisorption of gases, take place or in the case of wood adhesion with other natural lignocellulosic or man made polymeric materials. Researchers are accustomed to regarding chemically active wood surfaces as two-dimensional macromelecular entities, i.e., as locally flat arrays of molecules where surface inhomogeneities and dislocations have the status of deviations from an ideally planar surface. In many instances, surfaces can be so irregular that geometrical concepts as elementary as the surface area cease to be meaningful. Irregular surfaces cannot be characterized by single parameter descriptors as Euclidean geometries do. Thus, over the past twenty years a new science called fractal geometry has evolved to address problems involving very complex geometries. F r a c t a l s are c o m p l e x g e o m e t r i c a l objects that posses nontrivial structure  DEPARTMENT  Lines  on arbitrary scales. In fact, a fractal is a shape made of parts similar to the whole in some way. This property of fractalshapes is called self-similarity. F r a c t a l g e o m e t r y has been used to describe and explain coastline lengths, galaxy clusters, turbulence, trees, B r o w n i a n motion, river d i s c h a r g e s , fracture surfaces, and price c h a n g e s in economics. Recently, we used the method of fractal dimensionality to characterize the i n t e r n a l w o o d s u r f a c e b a s e d on water sorption data. Three methods were i m p l e m e n t e d based on the polymolecular sorption and capillary condensation of water. The calculated fractal dimension ranged between 2.5 and 2.8 thus implying that the internal surface is far from two dimensional as being c l o s e r to a three dimensional one. Currently, studies are being carried out to d e t e r m i n e porometric fractal dimen- A three-dimensional wood model (Menger sionality such as in infinite surface area and zero volume. the case of micro-  sponge)  with an  NEWS  D r . Paul Steiner was Program Chairman for the Second Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium held in Vaiicou ver, November 6-9, 1994. The Symposium attracted 110 specialists, including 4 5 international experts, in the fields of bio-based composites and wood modification. Dr. Dave Plackett and Dr. Gary Troughton of Forintek Canada Corporation w e r e S y m p o s i u m C o o r d i n a t o r s . Branch  porosity, permeability and non-Darcian fluid flow in solid wood, and the microporosity and macroporosity of wood c o m p o s i t e s like p a r t i c l e b o a r d s and parallam. Future studies will also involve the characterization of lumber surface roughness as affected by process parameters in the sawmill and planer mill. In all cases, fractal geometry will be used as a descriptive tool for characterization and a predictive tool for modelling. Further information is available from Dr. Stavros Avramidis at (604) 822-6153 or fax (604) 822-9104. •  Dr. Patricia Plackett and her colleagues f r o m the B.C. Forestry C o n t i n u i n g Studies Network (BCFCSN) managed the organization of this highly successful symposium. Proceedings containing over 40 symposium papers are available from the BCFCSN at (604) 822-5874 or fax (604) 822-3106. Price: $75.00 + postage & handling. Wood Science faculty members Drs. Colette Breuil, Jack Saddler, Stavros  Avramidis, Paul Steiner, Frank Lam and D a v i d B a r r e t t r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d six N S E R C S t r a t e g i c or C o l l a b o r a t i v e Grants. The NSERC awards will provide $ 1 , 2 5 0 , 8 8 4 over three years, to fund science and engineering research projects related to immunoassays for resin a c i d s , r a d i o - f r e q u e n c y d r y i n g , wood composites modeling, advanced grading of e n g i n e e r e d w o o d p r o d u c t s and cellulose modification by e n z y m e s . •  Forestry Education Activities Update...  BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network  D  URING the past year the Network was asked to undertake one of die biggest initiatives ever attempted since its incepuon: organizing the delivery of the M i n i s t r y ' s Forest Practices Code (FPC) training. A team consisting of representatives from 4 Provincial Government Ministries, was assembled to develop a 5 module training package for die Forest Practices Code Act. The Network was contracted to coordinate course delivery. Almost 500 training sessions (2.5 times more then we did in total during last year) of FPC training were organized between September and November. Each of our five Delivery Centre Program Managers, Tom Rankin (Kamloops), April Anderson (Castlegar), Laura Poulk (Prince George), Carmen Wheatley (Smithers) and Tom Molfenter (Nanaimo), w o r k e d very c l o s e l y with the local Ministry C o o r d i n a t o r s to e n s u r e the success of this training initiative. The Provincial O f f i c e at U B C facilitated die coordination of die efforts between the Network and the Implementation Team. The Provincial Office continues to assist many organizations with the development of training packages. Currently Dwight Yochim is working on a joint venture with B C I T and the Ministry of Forests, Timber Harvesting Branch. Markus Merkens is working with the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks on its Watershed Restoration Project which is a major part of Forest Renewal B.C. Patricia Plackett is working widi die task force designing and delivering forest practices code training for industry widi a focus on forestry workers. For further information on the BC Forestry Continuing Studies Network, please contact Dr. Patricia Plackett at (604) 822-9278, fax (604) 822-3106 or e-mail plackett @unixg. ubc. ca. •  Branch Lines  SIBC Gains Diploma Status T h e Silviculture Institute of British Columbia (SIBC) provides continuing education programs in silviculture to professional foresters, forest technologists and technicians, and otiier forest workers through in-residence programs as well as correspondence courses. Our most exciting news at die moment is the recent approval by the University of British Columbia Senate of our proposal to have die "Professional Module Program" recognized as a UBC Diploma Program. This program has been o f f e r e d s i n c e 1985 to Registered P r o f e s s i o n a l F o r e s t e r s specializing in silvicultural work, as a mid-career upgrade. To date, we have 123 graduates who have completed  this program (who are not eligible for the diploma, unfortunately). Currently enrolled students and new applicants who complete all six, two-week modules s u c c e s s f u l l y (usually taken over a three year period) will receive a UBC " D i p l o m a in F o r e s t r y ( A d v a n c e d Silviculture)." The significance of the diploma status is twofold: die academic achievements of the students will be highlighted, and die contributions of die UBC Faculty members who participate in this program will be more formally recognized by die university. For further information on SIBC programs, please contact Candace Laird, RPF, Executive Director at (604) 2247800 or e-mail claird@unixg.ubc.ca).  Namkoong Family Fellowship in Forest Sciences Established  D r . Gene Namkoong, Head of die Department of Forest Sciences, has donated money awarded to him by die Marcus Wallenberg Prize Foundation to a graduate fellowship in die area of conservation biology. At a cheque passing ceremony in October, Dr. Namkoong (centre) presented a cheque for $110,000 to UBC President David Strangway (left). Funding for die fellowship also included a $95,000 contribution from the B.C. Ministry of Forests and a $50,000 contribution from the Canadian Forest Service. Forests Minster Andrew Petter (second from right) presented the cheque to UBC on behalf of the Province. Also at the ceremony were Carol Namkoong and Clark Binkley.  New Centre for Advanced Wood Products Processing  FOREST NEWS from the Alex Fraser Research Forest  S  Salvage Operations at the Forest  O M E T I M E S trees die. This is a fundamental concept, but critically important to the management of a forest. Salvage of dead and dying trees, and management of the events which kill trees, is a crucial component of forest management in British Columbia. Over 30% of the timberharvested from the Alex Fraser Research Forest comes from salvage activities (see chart). In order of importance, this s a l v a g e e f f o r t has been directed towards Douglas-fir bark beetle, mountain pine beetle, and windthrow. Salvage activities tend to be concentrated in winter months (before insects emerge) on very small areas; in the past 8 years only one opening larger than one hectare has been created. Such intensive salvage activities require a lot of access, which is the chief problem associated with the program. Skid trails are a concern to ranchers because the trails may take cattle where they don't belong. Open roads cause stress to wildlife through increased traffic, increased hunter access, and more poaching.  Helicopters are now being used for logging scattered infestations on difficult terrain in the Cariboo. The popularity of this method will continue as long as the value of the logs exceeds the high cost of the loggings. Helicopter logging costs approximately four times as much as skidder logging, butallows t r e a t m e n t of infestations which could not be salvaged with ground based equipment. The Research Forest recently harvested 180 m 3 of infested Douglas-fir trees using a Bell 205 helicopter, and made a small profit. T i m b e r h a r v e s t i n g is an i n t e g r a l c o m p o n e n t of the operations of the UBC Research Forests. M a n a g e m e n t Plans for the Alex Fraser Research Forest require aggressive management of i n s e c t i n f e s t a t i o n s , and s a l v a g e operations will continue to supply a significant part of the harvest volume for the foreseeable future. For more information, please contact Ken Day, RPF at (604) 392-2207. •  Positions Available NSERC/Industry Research Chairs T h e Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) has agreed in principle to the establishment of two tenure-track NSERC/Industry Research Chairs in the Department of Forest Sciences; one in the area of population genetics and one in quantitative genetics. The Chairs will be established in collaboration with the University, NSERC, several Forest Industry and Conservation organizations and the B.C. Ministry of Forests. The Chairs will have assured funding for five years starting September 1995 and each is supported by a guaranteed annual research budget of about $90,000 for that period. The research program will be aimed at understanding the evolutionary dynamics of forest organisms and at designing programs for conservation and use of genetic resources. Teaching responsibilities will be limited for the first five years. For further information, please contact Dr. B.J. van der Kamp at (604) 822-2728 or fax (604) 822-9102. Branch Lines  A proposal from the Department of Wood Science to locate a national Centre for Advanced Wood Products Processing at U B C w a s s e l e c t e d f r o m six s u b m i s sions to the Board of the National Education Initiative of the Canadian Wood Processing Industry. U B C ' s proposal has strong industry support from across Canada. The Centre will o f f e r a n e w c o o p u n d e r g r a d u a t e degree p r o g r a m , continuing education and applied research in advanced wood products processing. The Centre's prog r a m s will be guided by an industry board with national representation. The UBC education programs will be laddered to new college and high school p r o g r a m s in w o o d p r o d u c t s p r o c e s s ing. Quesnel Secondary Schools and the University College of the Cariboo are already collaborating with UBC to develop a f u l l y l a d d e r e d p r o g r a m in W o o d Processing Technology. Other laddered p r o g r a m s will be d e v e l o p e d a c r o s s Canada following this model. In 1995, die Centre will offer new continuing education and extension programs in areas identified by the Centre's Board. The Industry Advisory Board is currently developing a funding plan involving a partnership with industry, government and oUicr agencies. For further information, please contact Dr. Thomas Maness at (604) 822-2150. •  NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. ln-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the n e w s l e t t e r or r e q u e s t s f o r m a i l i n g list u p d a t e s , d e l e t i o n s or a d d i t i o n s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d to Dr. S u s a n W a t t s , N e w s l e t t e r E d i t o r at:  Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 2 7 0 - 2 3 5 7 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 a (604) 8 2 2 - 6 3 1 6 Recycled Fax:(604)822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca  Paper  ©Faculty of Forestry, 1994  6  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Country Views Downloads
China 23 15
Canada 6 1
United States 6 0
Indonesia 1 1
Ukraine 1 0
Japan 1 0
City Views Downloads
Beijing 18 0
Shenzhen 5 15
Ashburn 4 0
Unknown 3 15
Ottawa 2 0
Vancouver 2 0
Victoria 1 1
Kansas City 1 0
Boardman 1 0
Tokyo 1 0

{[{ mDataHeader[type] }]} {[{ month[type] }]} {[{ tData[type] }]}
Download Stats



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items