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Branchlines Vol. 9, No. 1 (1998) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia 2012

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • N E W S L E T T E R • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A i l . i _ i | j M i k i L i L k i A i ^ M k A L k k i i i LAkakLik Volume 9 No. 1 March, 1998 Forestry and the Kyoto protocol F e w human impacts on the Earth are as well documented and uncontroversial as the increase atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide. Careful measurements began in 1958 in the relatively unpolluted air high on Mauna Loa in Hawaii (Keeling, 1984). After 40 years of data, only regular seasonal peaks associated with photosyn- thesis on the great land masses of the northern hemisphere punctuate an other- wise steady upward trend of about 1.5 ppm/ yr. The Swede Arrhenius first described the physics of how carbon dioxide traps heat and warms the Earth in 1896 (see Uppenbrink, 1996, for an accessible ac- count). Despite over a century of scienti- fic research on the subject, incontrovert- ible empirical confirmation of the link- age between the measured increases in carbon dioxide and changes in climate re- mains elusive. The bulk of the evidence on this important relat ionship comes from large-scale computer-based models of the atmosphere and oceans. Since the first- order effects of the known trends in carbon d ioxide concen t ra t ions on c l imate are uncertain - especially at the national and subnat ional levels most impor tant for policy analysis - the second-order effects on humans and nature are necessari ly more speculative. The third-order efforts to craft appropriate policy responses con- tain still another layer of measurement and model errors. In the midst of this controversy the world came together in Kyoto to hammer out an acceptable global approach to climate change aimed at reducing the accumula- tion of greenhouse gases in the atmos- phere. Forests and foresters have a great stake in the outcome. The interactions between climate change and forests are many and varied. For ex- ample, the annual fluctuations in Mauna Loa data confirm the profound effect that plants (and, inter alia, forests) have on the global carbon cycle. Increases in atmo- spheric concentrations of carbon dioxide - a basic plant nutrient - can enhance forest growth (as every nurseryman knows) and can improve water-use efficiency of indi- vidual trees, thereby making forests more tolerant of drought. Modeling studies sug- gest enormous and rapid latitudinal shifts in the ecotones between forest types, (e.g. Solomon, 1986). In northern forests small changes in temperature can produce large changes in carbon balance (Goulden et al., 1998). While the technologies need- ed to adapt managed forests to modeled climate change appear to be available (Na- tional Academy of Sciences, 1992), the necessary institutional structures proba- bly are not. And what of the vast expanses of unmanaged forests that characterize much of the Canadian North? At the same time that forests are part of the problem, they may be part of the solution. Between 1920 and 1990, Canada 's forests actually fixed more carbon than Canadians released through foss i l - fuel consumption, although aging of our forests Binkley, C.S., M.J. Apps , R.K. Dixon, P. Kauppi . a n d L - O N i l s s o n . 1996. Sequester ing carbon in natural forests, unpub. ms. Goulden , M.L. , S.C. W o f s y , J .W. Harden, S.E. Trumbore . P .M. Crill, S.T. Gower , T. Fries. B.C. Daube, S.-M. Fan, D.J. Sutton, A. Bazazz, and J . W . Munger . 1998. Sensitivity of boreal fores tcarbon balance to soil thaw. Science 279:214-217. Keeling, W. 1984. Atmospher ic C 0 2 concentra t ion at M a u n a Loa Observatory . Hawaii , 1958-1983. U S D O E Rep. NDP-011, Washington , DC. Kurz, W . A. and M.J. Apps . 1996. Retrospect ive assessment of carbon flows in Canadian boreal forests . In M. J. A p p s and D.T. Prices (eds). Forest ecosystesm, forest management and the global carbon cycle. N A T O ASI Series 1: Global Environmental Change 40:173-182. Moul ton, R. and K. Richards . 1990. Costs of sequester ing carbon through tree planting and forest management in the United States. U S D A Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. W O - 5 8 . So lomon, A. 1986. Trans ient response of forests to C 0 2 - i n d u c e d cl imate change: simulation mode l ing exper iments in eastern North Amer ica . Oecologia 68 :567-579. U.S. National A c a d e m y of Sciences . 1992. Pol icy impl icat ions of greenhouse warming . (National Academy of Sc iences Press: Washington , DC). Uppenbr ink , J. 1996. Arrhenius and global warming . Sc ience 272:1122. van Kooten, G . C . . C . S . Binkley, a n d G . Delcourt . 1995. E f fec t of carbon taxes and subsidies on opt imal forest rotation age the supply of carbon services. A m e r . J. Agr. Econ. 77 :365-374 . van Kooten, G . C . . L . M . Arthur , and W . R . Wi lson . 1992. Potential to sequester carbon in Canadian forests: economic con- siderations. Can. Publ ic Policy 18:127-138. and increased losses due to fires and insect activity have reversed this earlier trend during the last two decades (extrapolations from Kurz and Apps, 1996). Plantation establishment on non-forested lands is a low-cost means of removing carbon diox- ide from the atmosphere (e.g. van Kooten et al., 1992; Moulton and Richards, 1990). In typical Canadian conditions, natural forests fix from two to four tonnes of car- bon/ha/yr (MAI basis), an amount that could be enhanced at low cost through active management (Binkley et al., 1996). A one hectare hybrid poplar plantation might sequester as much as eight tonnes of carbon/year. Carbon credits - specifi- cally authorized under the Convention - may dramatically alter the economics of forest management, increasing the returns and lengthening optimal economic rota- tions (van Kooten et al., 1995). Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol explic- itly recognizes afforestat ion, deforesta- tion and reforestation as greenhouse gas sources and sinks if "verifiable changes in stocks" confirm them. An achievable af fores ta t ion program could obviously make a measurable contribution to meet- ing Canada 's obligations under this impor- tant international agreement. Of course, as trees age the rate of net carbon fixation slows. Maintaining a forest's capacity to serve as a carbon sink requires either (i) continued expansion onto lands currently supporting lower-carbon-storage vegetation, or (ii) use of the wood from carbon plantations in ways that contribute positively to the world 's carbon balance. One approach is to substitute wood (either mill residuals or roundwood) for fossil fuels, as many chemical pulpmills have in their energy recovery systems. Another is to substitute long-lived wood building products for such fossil-energy-consump- tive materials as concrete and steel. Inter- estingly, the oldest wooden structures in the world, the Toshadaj i and Horyu-ji temples in Nara - just 100 km west of Kyoto - are perfect examples of a desirable modern policy response. Clark S. Binkley Dean Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Wood protection and the environment WORLDWIDE, the environmental im-pact of industrial operations has be- come a major focus of attention. Like other industries, the wood products industry has had to implement fundamental changes in its mode of operation in order to respond to stringent new environmental standards. This is particularly true wherever chemi- cals are used as part of the manufacturing process. The wood preserving in- dustry contributes significantly to our environmental well being, by greatly extending the service life of wood products, thereby reducing demand for replacement timber. In wood preservation, any concerns over the environmental impact aris- ing during manufacture of treated wood in Canada were effectively addressed through the "Codes of Good Practice" which were created in 1988 and updated in 1997. How- ever, of equal importance is the im- pact of treated wood on the environ- ment during its use, and this has formed an important component of the research program conducted by the NSERC/ Indus t r i a l Chai r in Wood Preservation at UBC. The fixation of preservatives in wood is an important aspect, which strongly influ- ences their acceptability by the consumer. With increasing interest in ammoniacal or amine-copper based formulat ions, it is important that their fixation chemistry is well understood. Research by the NSERC/ Industrial Chair has identified the impor- DEPARTMENT NEWS T h e Department continues to have strong support f rom our European educat ion partners in the delivery of new Wood Products Processing program. Professors Albin, Koes ter and Scholz f rom FH Rosenhiem are teaching at UBC this year. Prof. Schleusner of SISH Biel is teaching our wood finishing course. tance of ammonia- or amine-copper com- plex formation in treated wood on preser- vative permanence. Studies of the leach- ability of ammonia-copper complexes have shown them to be more resistant to leaching in acidic environments, than simple copper compounds precipitated in wood (see figure). This research is now being extended to the fixation chemistry of amine-copper systems. This knowledge will be beneficial in predicting environ- mental impact of the treated wood as well as developing preservatives with superior performance. During the past decade, consumer pres- sure has encouraged the industry to de- velop fixed waterborne preservatives that do not contain either chromium or arsenic, Dr. Jack Saddler is collaborating with Paprican to organize the Seventh Interna- tional Conference on Biotechnology in the Pulp and Paper Industry to be held at the Hyatt Regency Vancouver from June 16-19, 1998. The triennial conference series provides a forum for presentation of research into all aspects of biotechnology relevant to the pulp and paper industry. both of which are present in the treated wood used widely around homes for land- scaping, decks and fences. Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) offer ex- cellent potential as a wood preservative component. The Wood Preservation group at UBC has an ongoing program design- ed to improve the performance of QAC preservatives. One component of this re- search focuses on the role of mould fungi in degrading QACs. While these naturally occurring fungi may limit the performance of the QAC preser- vative, they can also decontaminate the QAC-treated wood waste prior to recycling. Current research is tar- geted at developing evidence for the primary degradation path, believed to involve the oxidation of the long alkyl chain in the molecule. Since QACs are widely used as lubricants, germicides, algaecides and slimi- cides, the research has implications not only for cleaning treated wood waste, but also for cleaning other QAC-contaminated materials. In 1997 the Wood Preservation Group designed a research project to examine the leaching profile of copper and arsenic from treated utility poles. This data is critically important for the development of accurate environmental impact models. For more information on these or other projects on wood preservation please contact Dr. John N.R. Ruddick at (604) 822-3736; fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail ruddick@unixg.uhc.ca. • Dr. John Ruddick was appointed Head of the Canadian delegation to the new ISO TC 165 Task Force to develop a con- sensus position on harmonized ISO Stan- dards on wood durability and hazard class designations. Dr. Ruddick also participated in the Fourth International symposium on Wood Protection and the Environment. • c o p p e r c a r b o n a t e c o p p e r s u l p h a t e a m m o n i a c a l c o p p e r (p rec ip i t a ted ) s u l p h a t e ( c o m p l e x e d ) Copper remaining in treated sawdust after leaching. Branch Lines 2 Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Wood quantity and quality? THE goal of most tree improvement programs is to increase forest produc- tivity while maintaining or enhancing wood quality. The wood trait of primary interest is usually wood density, as it affects both strength and pulp yield. In- creased utilization of younger trees from faster growing, managed stands will result in a higher proportion of lower density juvenile wood, and in- creases the need for consider- ation of wood density in selec- tion programs. For most coni- fers a negative relationship exists between growth rates and wood density, i.e., faster- growing trees on average have less dense wood than their slower-growing counterparts. This unfavorable relationship presents tree breeders with a dilemma, as it is impossible to simultaneously obtain large genetic gains in both stem vol- ume growth rates and wood density. While most foresters think of tree stems in terms of wood production, they also serve an important physiological function in trees. In addition to providing the strength and spatial structure to support foliage, stems conduct water from roots to leaves. Water ascends in columns through DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Gene Namkoong is working on a CIDA grant to the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute to develop conservation priorities for forest trees, and will be advising the International Centre for Forest Research on criteria and indicators of sustainable forestry. Dr. John McLean is spending his ad- ministrative leave at the New Zealand Forest Research Institute in Rotorua. His major research is centered on the use of tracheids, and under drought stress, these columns break. Wood fibre characteris- tics may vary in ways that affect water use as well as economic value. Thus, genetic selection for wood density may affect adaptive traits relating to moisture regime. In a project funded by Forest Renewal BC, post-doctoral scientist Tongli Wang is study- ing l odgepo le p ine families from the BC Minis t ry of Fores ts lodgepole pine breed- ing p rogram in the l abora to ry of Sal ly Aitken. Seedlings are being cha rac te r i zed for growth rate, growth timing and water-use physiology in well-watered and wa te r - l imi t ed e n v i r o n m e n t s . Wood properties including den- sity, earlywood proportion and fibre size and shape are being characterized using both digital image analysis of wood sections (see electronic image on left) and x-ray densitometry. Preliminary analyses of wood properties and growth rates have yielded some interesting obser- vations. Wood density in young lodgepole pine typically decreases from year to year across early growth rings. However, it Maliase trap catches to describe insect biodiversity in various man-made and natural ecosystems, especially native and exotic forests. Dr. Bart van der Kamp is also in Rotorua, working on root diseases of radiata pine with Ian Hood. Bart 's sabbatical plans also include field work in B.C. and a trip to Europe to present papers at a IUFRO meet- ing in Finland and at the 7lh International Congress of Plant Pathology in Edinburgh. appears that families combining fast growth and above average juvenile wood density have a less pronounced decline in juvenile wood density than other families, result- ing in more uniform wood properties (see graph). The trees in these families have high stem volumes due primarily to rapid height growth rather than diameter growth, as height and wood density are positively correlated while diameter and wood density are negatively correlated. It may make sense to manage lodgepole pine diameter growth through stand density, while height growth rate and wood density are improved through genetic selection. Studies investi- gating the genetics of both adaptive and economic traits will help to ensure that genetic gain in growth rates and wood quality does not come at the expense of adaptation and forest health. For further information, please contact Dr. Sally Aitken at (604) 822-6020; fax (604) 822-5744 or e-mail aitken@unixg.ubc.ca. • In September, Dr. Kathy Martin gave a plenary lecture at the 1997 Wildlife Society meeting in Aspen, Colorado entitled "The role of animal behaviour studies in wildlife management and science". The paper will be published in an upcoming Wildlife Soci- ety Bulletin. Dr. Martin is also co-chairing and organizing the annual meeting of the Society for Canadian Ornithologists in August 1998 to be held at UBC. The theme of this meeting is "Avian dispersal and migration across altered landscapes". • Tracheid size and shape may affect both wood quality and water use. Families combining fast growth and high density show more uniform juvenile wood density. Branch Lines 3 Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Where do the headwaters come from? IT seems simple enough. Rainfall gener-ates stormflow events in forested head- water basins and these waters are routed downstream. Although we have models that can predict storm runoff from these basins, we lack the fundamental knowl- edge of the hydrologic path- ways by which water falling onto headwater catchments enters the small stream sys- tems. Why is this impor- tant? For several reasons - first, these pathways deter- mine timing of peak flows; secondly, hydrologic re- sponse in steep headwater basins triggers landslides and debris flows; and final- ly, "hydrologically active" zones in headwaters may be sensitive to certain land use practices. For the past 25 years, forest hydrolo- gists have been guided by the concept of a "variable source area" for stream- flow generation. This ap- proach assumes that riparian zones ex- pand during storms thereby generating saturated overland flow. The significance of this overland flow as well as mechan- isms of subsurface flow are currently being debated. Dr. Roy Sidle, Forest Renewal BC Chair in Forest Hydrology, has been collaborat- ing in an ongoing series of investigations at Hitachi Ohta Experimental Watershed in Japan, to unravel some of these complex mechanisms of stormflow generation. The watershed is located about 200 km north of Tokyo and supports a 75-year old stand of Sugi and Hinoki. The steep sideslopes and resulting narrow riparian zones are very typical of forested headwater basins. Dr. Sidle conducting tracer tests at the Hitachi Ohta Experimental Watershed in Japan. Detailed stormflow data are being collect- ed in a series of nested headwater basins ranging in size from 0.25 to 15 hectares. To elucidate the hydrologic contribution of soil macropores during periods of in- creasing wetness, several tracer tests have been conducted in slope segments of the catchment. Finally, staining tests in slope segments have revealed specific mecha- nisms of macropore 'connectivity'. What is beginning to emerge from this collaborative research is a new concept of stormflow generation based on hydrologic linkages among distributed geomorphic units. During dry conditions, most storm- flow is generated from riparian areas as saturated overland flow or channel inter- ception. As soils begin to wet, subsurface flow from the soil matrix contributes to the peak and recession limbs of storm hydrographs. Dur- ing we t t e r cond i t ions , s u b s u r f a c e macropores contribute to stormflow and small hi I lslopc hol- lows become recharged to the point where they begin to yield sur face runoff. Finally, during the wettest conditions, macro- pore systems appear to 'self-organize' and drain large portions of the lower hi l l s lope. Hol lows , al- though often remote from stream channels, deliver significant runoff during storm peaks. Present plans are to conduct a series of studies in coastal British Columbia that build on the Hitachi Ohta investigations. Focus will be on understanding macro- pore dynamics, the role of subsurface flow systems in landslide initiation, and model- ing headwater stormflow generation. Dr. Sidle has applied for a basic NSERC re- search grant to support this research. For further information, please contact Dr. Roy C. Sidle at (604) 822-3169, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail sidle@unixg.ubc.ca.\3 DEPARTMENT NEWS Following Dr. Gordon Baskerville's re- tirement at the end of December, 1997. Dr. Valerie LeMay has been appointed Acting Department Head for a one year period. Dr. Jonathan Fannin gave an invited seminar to the Seattle Geotechnical Society on January 22, entitled "Landslide initia- tion and runout on clearcut slopes." Dr. Younes Alila is organizing two one- day workshops in conjunction with the B.C. Branch of the Canadian Water Resources Associat ion enti t led: "An Improved Regional Frequency Approach for Estimating Design Floods in B.C." held on February 26, and "Managing Forest Lands and Water Resources in B.C. - Challenges for the Next Century" to be held on April 16 at the Plaza 500 Hotel, Vancouver. For more information, please contact Dr. Alila at (604) 822-6058. Dr. Alila has recently launched a web site on the newly established Forest Engi- neering Hydrology Lab at UBC. The web site address is: http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ hydrology/mainpage.htm. Dr. David Haley was appointed by the Minister of Forests, the Hon. David Zirnhelt, to serve on the Community Forest Advisory Committee. The initial task of this commit- tee is to provide recommendations on the guiding principles for the development of community forest t e n u r e s . • Branch Lines 4 Faculty News Fred Bunnell and Gordon Weetman earn ABCPF Awards T h e A s s o c i a t i o n of British Columbia Pro- f e s s i o n a l Fo res t e r s ( A B C P F ) and the Association of Profes- sional Biologists have c o n f e r r e d the Bill Young Award for Ex- cellence in Integrated Resource Manage- ment upon Dr. Fred Bunnell "having served on over 70 provincial, national and international commi t t ees deal ing with resource management, 11 of which he is currently active on, and having published over 200 scientific articles, Fred Bunnell 's contribution to the promotion of integrat- ed resource management is profound. His tireless efforts to promote integrated re- source management, at home and abroad, make him a most worthy recipient." The A B C P F has conferred the Dis- tinguished Forester Award for 1997 on Dr. Gordon Weet- man in acknowl - edgement of his im- mense contributions to the profession and to forestry educa- tion over the past 43 years of his career "through his research, teaching and participation on numerous committees, Gordon Weetman has profoundly influ- enced and improved forest manage- ment, particularly silviculture, in British Columbia and throughout Canada." Gordon Weetman and Fred Bunnell received their awards on March 5, 1998 at the 50,h Anniversary of the Associa- tion of Professional Foresters Annual General Meeting in Victoria, B.C. • We called to say Thank YOUl A group of Forestry students - all winners of scholarships funded by alumni and friends of UBC - joined Dean Clark Binkley to volunteer during the evenings of January 20,h and 21s' for a donor appreciation phonathon. Our students called hundreds of our alumni donors to express their appreciation for the tremendous support they receive from alumni each year. If you are interested in finding out more about how you can support the Faculty of Forestry, please call Tara MacKenzie, Faculty Development Officer at (604) 822-8716. • C \ New faculty positions T h e DEPARTMENT OF W O O D SCIENCE h a s a n opening in Advanced Wood Adhesives and Composites. This tenure-track fac- ulty appointment will require teaching at the undergraduate and graduate level and an associated program of research. The closing date for this competition is May 15, 1998. For further details visit the Department's web site at www.wood.ubc.ca. T h e DEPARTMENT OF FOREST SCIENCES has a senior position open for an FRBC Chair in Silviculture. The position will require research leadership, supervision of graduate students, and some teaching. Candidates should have extensive experi- ence in silviculture, a broad understand- ing of forest management issues, and a well established research program. Applications are also invited for an FRBC Chair in Applied Conservation Biology. Poss ible areas of exper t ise sought inc lude terrestr ia l ver tebra te population ecology and community ecol- ogy in terrestrial and/or riparian systems. Responsibilities will include teaching, supervision of graduate students and research. The closing date for the Silviculture posi- tion is April 3, 1998 and for the Applied Conservation Biology position is May 15, 1998. For further details visit the Faculty's web site at www.forestry.ubc.ca. T h e DEPARTMENT OF FOREST RESOURCES MANAGEMENT has junior and senior open- ings in forest management. The senior position is for an FRBC Chair in Forest Management. Candidates should have an internationally recognized reputation as one of the world's leading scholars in a field closely related to forest manage- ment, a record of involvement in public debate concerning forest management and teaching experience. Responsibilities will include research, supervision of graduate students, and teaching. The junior position is a tenure-track faculty appointment in Forest Manage- ment responsible for teaching and re- search at the forest and landscape level. The closing date for these two competitions is June 15, 1998. For further details visit the Faculty's web site at www.forestry.ubc.ca. V J Branch Lines 5 FOREST NEWS from the University Research Forests Harvesting priorities at the Alex Fraser Research Forest Timber harvesting is an important activity at the Research Forests pro- viding opportunities for teaching and research and helping to pay the bills. In general, harvesting ^ efforts at the Alex Fraser Re- i q search Forest are dictated by natural forces. In order to protect the forest resources and manage the timber most effectively, we harvest by the following priorities: 1. infested by insects 2. dead or dying 3. at risk of infestation by insects 4. affected by disease 5. declining vigour 6. healthy and vigourous Bark beetles continue to be the most significant pest problem confronting the Forest. The age and species structure of the Research Forest is conducive to bark beetle populations that cycle between en- demic and epidemic levels through time. Currently, mountain pine beetle is in- creasing to epidemic conditions. So far this year, staff have found approximately five trees attacked for each tree that was killed last year. S t ra teg ies for m a n a g e m e n t of the beetle focus on maintaining a low popula- tion through prevention and suppression techniques. Prevention is practiced by harvesting stands of highest hazard first according to species composition and age, and by ratio- nalizing and prioritizing access develop- ment to high hazard areas. Suppress ion is encouraged during periods of high beetle pressure by harvest- ing infested areas while the beetles are still under the bark (in conjunction with pheromone baiting). Hazard for mountain pine beetle attack depends upon the amount of lodgepole pine in a stand, and its age. The figure above shows lodgepole pine stands at Gavin Lake that are at risk of attack. Intensive management of bark beetles requires vigilant detection and aggressive harvesting to control the spread during GIS map of the Gavin Lake Block (6,315 ha) showing high hazard stands (lodgepole pine more than 80 years old) periods of high beetle pressure. Although prevention is the best management option, it takes a long time. Since 1989, approxi- mately 30% of the timber harvested from the Research Forest has come directly from bark beetle control activities on a single-tree salvage basis. Harvesting bark beetle infested trees takes two forms: • single-tree salvage of small groups of infested trees; and • development of small cut blocks under Si lvicul ture Prescr ipt ions , which are baited with pheromones. Annual operations to manage for bark beetles include prompt detection, thor- ough ground reconnaissance, prompt salvage and thorough cleanup. Addition- ally, access development and mainten- ance are carefully monitored, baits are used as necessary and harvest ing is planned according to risk of loss. Because the allowable harvest on the Research Forest is relatively small, we are trying hard not to let an epidemic of mountain pine beetles develop. If con- trol fails, then the impact on the non- timber resources will be significant, and the dislocation of harvesting programs will have severe financial ramifications. We will continue to be vigilant. For further information, please contact Ken Day, Alex Fraser Research Forest Manager at (250) 392-2207, fax (250) 398- 5708 or e-mail kenday@unixg.ubc.ca. • We are moving... The new Forest Sciences Centre is very close to completion. We will be moving into our new home during the months of May and June, 1998. Our phone numbers will not be af- fected by the move, although you may have difficulty reaching individuals for a few days either side of our moving date. Our new address will be 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 (we are diagonally across the street from our old building). The official opening celebration for the Forest Sciences Centre is schedul- ed for September - details will be mailed out when a date has been confirmed. Our web site www.forestry.ubc.ca will carry regularly updated information on our move and relocation details. NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Ques t ions conce rn ing the newsle t te r or requests for mai l ing list updates , dele t ions or addi t ions should be directed to Dr. Susan Wat t s , Newsle t t e r Edi tor at: Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 S (604) 822-6316 Recycled Paper Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca © F a c u l t y of F o r e s t r y , 1998 Branch Lines 6


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