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Branchlines Vol. 8, No. 1 (1997) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1997-03-31

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FACULTY OFFORESTRY  • NEWSLETTER •  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H  Volume 8 No. 1  March, 1997  From the Dean's Desk Forestry in a Post-Modern World Part III J u d g i n g by the many thoughtful questions I received, my essay in the last issue cf Branch Lines apparently left readers baffled in a few places. I will attribute any confusion to the draconian word limits imposed by Uie editor, and not to any lack of clarity in writing on my part or reading on yours. The following comments are intended to respond more fully to the questions you have raised. Recall that p o s t - m o d e r n i s t s question the existence of an objective reality called "nature" and instead interpret phenomena through "social constructions" - definitions of nature that are acknowledged to depend on our culture, society and power circumstances. Nature cannot be defined entirely with reference to culture alone, however, because some scientific facts stand undisputed - a construction of nature requiring water to flow uphill unaided can simply be rejected. Science constrains acceptable constructions of nature, but generally not so tightly as to imply any one, single interpretation. While such a social constructionist view goes a long way towards explaining some of the deep currents of distress in forestry today, it leaves many questions unresolved. First, not all social constructions of nature have equally cheerful outcomes for humans. For example, in the 10th century, S c a n d i n a v i a n s settled in s o u t h w e s t e r n Greenland on grasslands emerging between  1  the receding icesheet and the ocean. 1 They brought with them Christianity and a pastoral culture dependent on sheep and cows. As the climate cooled in the 1300's, pastoral farming failed. Recent archaeological evidence suggests these farmers ate their d o g s and cows, and finally perished rather than adopting the sealhunting culture of the indigenous Thule people. Just as a social construction of nature which excluded seals as food led to the collapse of this Norse civilization, a social construction of nature which precludes logging old-growth timber would lead to the collapse of human settlements in most of non-metropolitan B.C. Second, the Canadian embrace of the multicultural mosaic combined with recent immigration patterns suggests greater dispersion in our constructions of nature rather than a convergence towards any one particular point of view. Through literally thousands of interviews, the social psychologist Kellert has identified a typology of nine different attitudes toward nature. 2 W h i l e the s t r u c t u r e of the t y p o l o g y appears to be robust to cultural differences, the frequency distributions of individuals in the various categories differs dramatically among countries. For example, Kellert finds "...[the] Japanese public [is] far more inclined than the American to e m p h a s i z e control over nature". 3 The North American concept of wilderness is wholly absent in Germany where humans play a leading role in the landscape. As our population makeup shifts in response to immigration, it would be startling if the predominance of various social constructions of nature did not also change.  This account is taken from H. Pringle, 1997. Death in Norse Greenland. Science 275:924-926. See, esp. S.R. Kellert. 1993. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior toward wildlife among the industrial superpowers: United States, Japan, and Germany. J. Social Issues 42. 3 P. 110 in S.R. Kellert. 1995. Concepts of Nature East and West. ch. 7 in M. Soule and G. Lease, eds. Reinventing nature: responses to post-modern dceonstruction. (Island Press: Washington, DC). * P. 2, The Pinchot Letter, Winter, 1997, p 2. (Pinchot Institute for Conservation, Washington, DC). ' E . g . C.S.Binkley. 1997. Ecosystem management and plantation forestry: lessons for British Columbia. The Forestry Chronicle(forthcoming). 2  COLUMBIA  Third, as the new Chief of the US Forest Service Mike Dombeck observed about ecosystem management, "most resource issues today are less dependent on technical matters than they are on social and economic factors". 4 If forest management now has as much to do with values as with science, what then is the appropriate role of the professional forester? Forestry e d u c a t i o n d e a l s m o r e with "technical matters" than it does with social ones. In B.C., the Foresters Act and the ABCPF define the profession's mandate as focusing primarily on technical issues. And B.C.'s form of land ownership and management places an apparently impermeable barrier of regulation between professional practice and professional interpretation of landowner intent. Here the strong liberal traditions underlying western democracies may rescue us. These traditions, for example, reject a mandatory state religion and support tolerance f o r m a n y a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t s of view. Multiculturalism - a distinguishing feature of Canada - makes such tolerance imperative. Forestry logically follows this tradition by seeking varieties of land management that are consistent with each of these social constructions of nature. Just as we have areas strictly protected from industrial activities to respond to the naturalistic and ecologistic constructions of nature (to use Kellert's typology), we should also have intensively managed areas focusing on t i m b e r p r o d u c t i o n and o t h e r tangible products to respond to the utilitarian and dominionistic constructions. Intermediate forms of management would capture still more of our constructions of nature. Interestingly, such planned variety in land m a n a g e m e n t is consistent with current p r o p o s a l s 5 f o r strong land-use zoning which have, to date, been based on economic and ecological arguments alone. You can reach me in person, by fax (604) 822-8645, 8 (604) 822-2467, e-mail binkley@unixg.ubc.ca.  letter, or by  Clark S. Binkley  Forest Resources Management Department  RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT  RAINS and RADARSAT  R  Adar Imaging Natural S y s t e m s ( R A I N S ) is a continuing study of C-band (5.3 cm wavelength) Synthetic A p e r t u r e R a d a r ( S A R ) d a t a of n o r t h Vancouver Island's coniferous rainforest. T h e m a j o r o b j e c t i v e of R A I N S is to demonstrate the effective integration of R A D A R S A T satellite data in the forest i n v e n t o r y p r o c e s s of m o n i t o r i n g a n d m a p update. C o o p e r a t o r s in the study include Western Forest Products Limited, RADARSAT International, and the Canadian Space Agency. In the September 1994 issue of B r a n c h Lines (Volume 5, No. 2), we reported some results from airborne SAR data which helped us develop the methodology to examine R A D A R S A T data.  On N o v e m b e r 4, 1995, C a n a d a ' s R A D A R S A T satellite with its weather/ cloud/darkness penetrating C-band SAR sensor was launched. In December 1995, the RAINS project was funded by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) in their Application Development and Research Opportunity (ADRO) competition. The RAINS award included 12 R A D A R S A T images to be acquired late in 1996 and 1997. R A D A R S A T , orbiting at about 800 km above Earth, is a directional viewing satellite and can be programmed to look at selected targets, at specific depression angles and resolutions. The RAINS project is receiving data at two resolutions: "Fine 2 " with its 9 meter  Fine 2 mode RADARSAT Image acquired 12/03/96 at 19:21 lirs. The arrow at the lower right points to log booms in the water. Location: Port Alice, B.C.  DEPARTMENT NEWS D r Jonathan Fannin has been awarded the R.M. Quigley Award for the best paper published in the Canadian Geotechnical Journal in 1996. He has also been invited to instruct in the inaugural module of the Institute of Forest Engineering of British Columbia (IFEBC) in May 1997. His lectures will address the engineering and geological properties of soil and rock. Branch Lines  Dr. Peter Pearse retired at the end of D e c e m b e r after 34 years wiUi U B C . Dr. George Hoberg (Political Science at UBC) has agreed to teach forest policy under a t w o - y e a r j o i n t a p p o i n t m e n t agreement with the Forest Resources Management Department. In January, Dr. David Haley helped organize and was the keynote speaker at a c o n f e r e n c e on c o m m u n i t y forestry held at Rossland, B.C. Participants resolved to request that the Union of BC  resolution and "Standard 4 " at the 25 meter resolution. The Fine 2 data cover an area 50 km by 50 km, and target the Port M c N e i l l , Port Hardy, Port Alice r e g i o n , w h e r e a s the Standard 4 data cover an area 100 by 100 km, and target the Port M c N e i l l , Port Hardy Brooks Peninsula region. On December 3, 1996, at 19:21 hours during a heavy rainstorm with winds gusling 50 to 100 km/hr over exposed areas, the first R A D A R S A T Fine 2 image was acquired. On December 11, at 20:44 hours, the first Standard 4 m o d e image was acquired. Both data sets were processed and delivered by the CSA within a week of imaging. We are now in the process of d o c u m e n t i n g a n d q u a n t i f y i n g the following observations: • riparian leave strips are detectable; • tree crowns give canopies image texture; • large defoliated tree crowns give strong radar returns; • partially defoliated tree crowns give a somewhat less bright return; • recent clearcuts are detectable and can be mapped; • new forest road construction in forest stands is detectable and can be mapped; • forest roads through new clearcuts are more difficult to map; • young plantations are separable from new clearcuts. The fine detail of the above results cannot be reproduced in B r a n c h Lines (because of lack of contrast). However, the accomp a n y i n g i m a g e g i v e s a s e n s e of the imagery capability of R A D AS AT. Colour enhanced images may be viewed upon request. For further information, please contact Dr. Peter Murtha at (604) 822-6452; fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail murtha @ unixg. ubc.ca. O  Municipalities form a Community Forestry Committee to continue to educate member municipalities and regional districts on c o m m u n i t y i n v o l v e m e n t in forest management and to lobby the provincial government in this regard. Dr. Paul Wood delivered the keynote address at an international conference in October held in Chunchon, Korea, entitled "Northeast Asian Forestry in the 21st Century: Sustainable Development and Conservation." • 2  RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT  Wood Science Department  Improved wood frame systems to resist earthquake and wind loads  K  tunity to build walls with full sized built with regular and nonstandard dimenEY elements in North American 2 x 4 sheets, instead of cutting the panels to sion OSB panels (supplied by Ainsworth construction systems include shear standard 1.2 x 2.4 m sheets. Our research L u m b e r Co. Ltd.) has compared under walls and diaphragms which efficiently f o c u s e s on using the oversized O S B monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. p r o v i d e the b u i l d i n g w i t h r e s i s t a n c e panels in wall systems to minimize the The results indicate that substantial inagainst vertical gravity and live loads, discontinuities in the sheathing cover to creases in both stiffness and lateral load transverse wind loads, and in-plane lateral c a r r y i n g capacity can be forces imposed by wind and earthachieved in shear walls built quakes. The issue of earthquake rewith oversized panels. In sistance is of particular importance s o m e c a s e s , t h e s e walls for future expansion into: (with less material and fewer • commercial markets where the nails) carried m o r e than floor span and load levels tend twice the lateral load, comto be more demanding, pared to the conventional • offshore markets such as Japan, walls. A slight increase in and ductility was also observed • U.S. California and Florida \ for these walls, although the markets. c o n v e n t i o n a l walls dissiAlthough conventional wood frame pated more energy under systems have d e m o n s t r a t e d succyclic loading because of cess in resisting lateral loads, we larger deformations. sometimes fail to question whether Schematic view of the shear wall test setup assembly. Phase 2 of our work will further improvements can be made? include: The answer is of course — yes. improve the performance of walls. A • shake table tests of these wall systems Conventional wood frame systems, comtwo-year research program funded by with simulated earthquake excitations, posed of lumber framing members, sheathed the Structural Board Association and with 1.2 x 2.4 m plywood or oriented strand • development of analytical and design the National Research Council Industry board ( O S B ) p a n e l s using nails, have procedures, and Assistant Program was initiated in the numerous seams which form the weak • applications and technology transfer. fall of 1995 to investigate this idea. links when loaded with in-plane shear Further information is available from In Phase 1, a full scale static wall test forces. Canadian OSB mills, however, have Dr. Frank Lam (604) 822-6526 (e-mail facility was built. The structural perfor- franklatn@unixg.ubc.ca) the capability to produce panels of up to or Dr. Helmut Prion mance of 2.4 x 7.2 m shear wall systems (604) 822-3864 (e-mail prion@civil.ubc.ca)Q 3.3 x 7.3 m in size, which presents an oppor-  DEPARTMENT NEWS T h e Chair of Forest Products Biotechnology is currently hosting two visiting scientists. Prof. Abdel Boussaid, visiting from M o r o c c o , is w o r k i n g on bioconversion of wood residues. Prof. Marie Jose Vieira Fonseca, visiting from the Universidade de S3o Paulo in Brazil, is working on enzymatic modification of pulp fibers. Dr. David Barrett was appointed as an invited Professor at the EPFL, Swiss Federal Branch Lines  Institute of Technology in Lausanne where he is lecturing in timber engineering in the Post Graduate Program offered by Prof. Julius Natterer, one of Europe's leading specialists in design and construction of wood structures. Drs. Paul Morris and David Plackett from Forintek and Ron Dinus, formerly of the Institute of Paper Science and Technology, have been appointed as Adjunct Professors to the Dept. of Wood Science. In December, Dr. John Ruddick attended the International Conference on  Forest Products where he gave a keynote address on "Treated timber: The sustained use of forest products". The paper discussed the impact of the changing demand and supply of forest products and the potential impact of the use of w o o d p r e s e r v a t i v e s . A t t e n d e e s were drawn primarily from Pacific Rim countries. While a strong focus of the conference was the use of the timber resource in traditional ways, the contribution of the non-wood industries to the utilization of the forest resource was also presented.Q 3  RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT  Forest Sciences Department  populations in Canadian National Parks. The Kermode bear may likewise show genetic d i f f e r e n c e s f r o m western B.C. black bears, and as well, reduced variabe facilated by a new "genetic marker H E role that genetics can play in tion due to their isolation on islands. lab", run by Dr. Carol Ritland. forestry is illustrated by one of our Variation across regions also will reveal P r e v i o u s studies by Strobeck and r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s , which i n v o l v e s the patterns of gene flow, and when superimcolleagues at the University of Alberta Kermode bear. This bear is a rare, white posed on patterns of harvest practices, have demonstrated dramatic differences color morph of the black bear, and it occurs we should be able to determine the effect in the distribution and amount of microin a restricted area of northwest B.C. that of harvest practices upon bear populations satellite variation between black bear includes Princess Royal and Gribbel and their migration patterns. Islands. It has been protected from A particularly exciting component of sport-hunting since 1925 and groups this p r o j e c t will i n v o l v e inferring have been calling for preserves to propedigrees in mixed populations with tect the Kermode bear from logging. m i c r o s a t e l l i t e s , then d e d u c i n g the H o w e v e r , the e f f e c t s of f o r e s t r y genetic basis of coat color by fitting operations on the viability and movemodels of coat color inheritance to ment of bear populations are largely the pedigree. Classically, inheritance is unknown. Logging may or may not inferred using controlled crosses, but foster the "genetic invasion" by black this is impossible with wild organisms bears. We need information on the such as the Kermode bear. Once the genetic uniqueness of this bear, the inheritance is determined in this new genetic basis of its coat color, and way, the implications of increased the rates of gene flow among bear gene flow upon the f r e q u e n c i e s of p o p u l a t i o n s in relation to h a r v e s t Kermodism can be predicted and used practices. For example, after mixing, to aid management decisions. Kermodism will decrease in frequency Dr. Dawn Marshall is involved with only if white was recessive to black. molecular aspects of this work, and To obtain the DNA information that fieldwork is being conducted in concan address these questions, we use the junction with Drs. Rob Wielgus and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to Fred Bunnell of the Centre for Applied selectively amplify minute quantities C o n s e r v a t i o n B i o l o g y , as well as of DNA (in black bears, provided by Dr. John Barker from Western Forest a few coat hairs) up to a billion times. Products, Mr. Tony Hamilton from the A highly informative type of D N A Ministry of Environment, Lands and fingerprint, a "micro-satellite" locus, Parks and Mr. Grant Scott from the with is then visualized in amplified sam- Kermode bears are often seen intermingling Kitasoo Band. ples. In the Forest Sciences Depart- black bears, and these two may actually be siblings. For further information, please contact Dr. Kermit Ritland at (604) ment, the use of such techniques will  Genetics out of the woods  T  822-8101, fax (604)822-9102 kertnit.ritland@ubc.ca. •  DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Kathy Martin and several co-authors received the 1996 Wildlife Publications award from the Wildlife Society for a publication in Science (269:1112-1115). Kathy was also appointed as the Canadian representative to IUCN/ICBP Specialist G r o u p for G a l l i f o r m e s Committee that will be involved in preparing species survival plans. Dr. Robert Wielgus has accepted an a p p o i n t m e n t as Assistant P r o f e s s o r of  Branch Lines  Wildlife Habitat Ecology at Washington State University in Pullman. He will be leaving the Forest Sciences Department on August 1, 1997, but will be continuing his research on threatened and endangered species (grizzly bears, mountain cariboo) in southern B.C. On February 19-20, eighty academics, professional biologists, foresters, and environmentalists attended a biodiversity workshop at UBC. The focus of the  or  e-mail  w o r k s h o p ( h o s t e d by U B C ' s F o r e s t Sciences and Zoology departments and sponsored by FRBC) was to develop a strategy for measuring biological diversity in B.C. Based on the proceedings of the workshop, a document outlining this strategy will be submitted to FRBC. The Canadian Council of Forest Ministers has invited Dr. Hamish Kimmins to be a speaker at a Canadian forestry conference in Hamburg, Germany and to meet with European parliamentarians. • 4  Faculty News New Appointments On April 1, Mr. Steve Mitchell will join the Forest Sciences Department as an Instructor in Silviculture. On completion of his Doctorate, this rank will be changed to Assistant Professor. Steve graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1987 with a B S F degree in Forest Resources Management. After working for West Fraser Mills in stand tending, logging supervision, and timber administration, he returned to UBC in 1992 for graduate studies. Steve has been involved in teaching silviculture at UBC for the past two years and will continue to teach regeneration silviculture to the undergraduates. His current area of research is windthrow risk assessment and management, and he has a broad interest in the design and implementation of silvicultural systems.  (  Association of BC Professional Foresters  \  Clark Binkley  awarded  Honourary Membership  Steve Mitchell can be reached at (604) 822-6027, fax (604)822-9102 or e-mail smitchel@unLxg.ubc.ca.  Laura Nagel will join the Forest Sciences Department in April as an Instructor in Conservation. Laura graduated in 1994 from the University of British Columbia with a Master's degree in evolutionary biology. Following several years of experience in a wide variety of forestry, fisheries and wildlife projects, she became a lab instructor at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. In this position, her responsibilities included a third year ecology course "" e m p h a s i z i n g field data collection and analysis. Laura's main activity in the Natural Resources Conservation undergraduate program will be the development, organization and instruction of a new interdisciplinary field course for fourth year students. This course will address ecological and social issues in conservation using a field environment. As of April 1, 1997, Laura Nagel can be reached at (604) 822-4987  or fax (604)  I n recognition of his outstanding contributions to the field of forestry, the Association of BC Professional F o r e s t e r s h a s g r a n t e d the title of honourary member to Clark Binkley, Dean of the Faculty of Forestry at U B C . Clark is only the fourteenth person to be awarded an honourary membership to the association.  822-9102.  Tara Scott has been appointed to the position of Development Officer for the Faculty of Forestry. She will be working with the D e a n , F a c u l t y members, Alumni and the F a c u l t y ' s Advisory Committee to plan and implement our development program. Tara graduated from the University of New Brunswick with a Bachelor of Business Administration degree, and has been working in the development field in Vancouver for several years. Her recent experiences have been as the Campaign Coordinator for the Stanley Theatre, and Fundraising Coordinator for the Vancouver Public Library Capital Campaign. She is looking forward to working with the Faculty and promoting our work and needs to the community. Your ideas, knowledge, proposals and questions will help to strengthen our Faculty's development program, and Tara encourages you to share your thoughts with her. Tara Scott can be reached at (604) 822-8716, fax (604) 822-8645 or e-mail  tarscott@unixg.ubc.ca.  Sandy Thomson has been hired to the new position of Student Affairs and Public Relations Officer in the Wood Science Department. She graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1995 with a B.Sc. in Forest Science. As a student in the Faculty, she was secretary and president of the Forestry Undergraduate Society, and a teaching assistant in forest pathology. Sandy will be busy attending career fairs and visiting students at high schools, colleges and universities throughout western Canada in an attempt to recruit new students for the Wood Products Processing program. She hopes to recruit 60 new students for the 1997 winter session. Sandy Thomson can be reached at (604) 822-1834,fax (604)822-9104  Branch Lines  or e-mail  A news release from the association described C l a r k ' s extensive list of achievements and awards in the field of forestry and forestry education as more than sufficient to justify his receipt of the award. "Since his appointment as D e a n in September 1990, Dr. Binkley has amassed an impressive list of accomplishments, these include the establishment of the conservation biology p r o g r a m , g a i n i n g approval for the new forest sciences building now under construction, and his deft management of the biggest growth in enrolment the faculty has ever seen." T h e a w a r d w a s p r e s e n t e d to D r . B i n k l e y at the r e c e n t a n n u a l general meeting of the association, in Kelowna,B.C. V  sandyth@unixg.ubc.ca.  5  FOREST NEWS from the University Research Forests  Copies available...  Burgess-Lane Lecture T h e Burgess-Lane Memorial Lectureship in Forestry was established in 1974 to honour Thomas E. Burgess and David E. Lane, Vice-Presidents of long-standing with British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. A fund was established by Mrs. Dorothy Burgess and Mrs. Evelyn Lane and British Columbia Forest Products Ltd. for the presentation and publication of special lectures in forestry by outstanding authorities in forestry or the forest industry.  Research legacies at the forests A vast array of researchers come through our gates each year, most with highly focused interests and expertise. They leave us various kinds of legacies. The most important ones are new information and valuable sites for teaching and further research. These build our repository of information and resources that can be passed on to future generations. Some of the physical items we inherit are useful, and can be re-used by others. For example, at the Malcolm Knapp Forest a deer pen that was originally constructed for a browse preference study, has been used since to test animal repellents, grow seedlings in a deer free environment, and test herbicides. Similarly, a quarter hectare small mammal enclosure that was built at the Alex Fraser Forest provides a perfect cattle exclosure to protect a variety of other types of research from grazing and trampling damage. Some items are not so useful, however, and require cleaning up or may even pose a hazard. For example, a board walk that was constructed around a small lake study site is currently rotting and unsafe. Steel nails used to secure research tree tags become grown over if not removed and pose a significant future hazard during tree harvesting and processing. Project materials such as plastic, metal, wood and chemicals that are left in the forest are not aesthetically or environmentally desirable and require cleanup after project completion. Wildlife are commonly attracted to foreign materials, such as plastic, and in many cases will chew on and ingest them. Above ground structures and pits or holes in the ground can create barriers and unsafe conditions for stock and wildlife travel. Some legacies are large, and require considerable effort to dismantle. Some years ago, Malcolm Knapp inherited over 20 tons of neither useful nor attractive rusty metal left behind after a research project. Some legacies are movable (like bottles, traps, and s c r e e n s ) , w h i l e o t h e r s are fixed or difficult to move (like plantings, deep pits, weirs, and physically modified trees). Some of the "fixed" legacies have proven to be extremely valuable. For exBranch Lines  6  \  T h i s y e a r ' s l e c t u r e w a s given on March 5 by Dr. James Bolton, Director of the BioComposites Centre in Wales. T h e lecture was held in conjunction with a Faculty Research evening and attracted over 100 interested individuals. F r e e c o p i e s of D r . B o l t o n ' s talk "Plant Fibres in Composite Materials: A review of technical challenges and opportunities" are available from:  ample, a group of trees that were pruned in the 1950's yielded new information when they were sampled again in the 1980's. Research plantations, such as the Douglas-fir spacing trials, established in the mid-1950's at Malcolm Knapp, have been visited by virtually every graduating U B C forestry student over the past forty years and are a constant source of new research initiatives. T h e p o s i t i v e l e g a c i e s l e f t by researchers outshine the negative. Both Research Forests now have a formal Researcher Use Policy in place which includes the requirement that researchers commit to cleaning up their research sites after their field work is complete. It is often difficult to foresee, however, which project sites and materials may become useful in the future. The information base and educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s , g e n e r a t e d by the researchers on the Forests, are continually growing and evolving and provide us all with unique learning facilities that are second to none. For further Peter Sanders,  information, Research  please  (604) 463-8148, fax (604) 463-2712 sanders@unixg.ubc.caXJ  contact  Forests Director  at  ore-mail  V  The Department of W o o d Science University of British Columbia 2 7 0 - 2 3 5 7 Main Mall, Vancouver, B.C. V 6 T 1Z4  NEWSLETTER  J  PRODUCTION  B r a n c h Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Questions concerning the newsletter or requests for mailing list updates, deletions or additions should be directed to Dr. Susan Watts, Newsletter Editor at:  Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 270-2357 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4 @ * (604) 8 2 2 - 6 3 1 6 Recycw Pap«Fax: (604) 822-8645 E-mail: suwatts@unixg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1997  


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