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Branchlines Vol. 10, No. 3 (1999) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1999-12-31

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F A C U L T Y OF F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  Volume 10 No. 3  December, 1999  From the Dean's Desk In the third feature Dr. John Barker appointment forestry  of our new series  addresses  " T h e Forester  as FRBC Chair in Silviculture,  education  arising from  the image of what a forester specialist  — a specialist  being modified  editorials  in a Changing suggests  by Faculty  World." John, our  the breadth of subject material  this need.  members,  involved,  and communication.  has  clouded  The UBC curriculum  This alone is not sufficient,  generation  of forestry  in  today is as a  however,  is  and the  as a whole must play a greater role in instilling a sense of  in the upcoming  recent  that the compartmentalization  must be. He believes the role of a forester  in integration  to address  forestry community and passion  of guest  purpose  professionals. John A. McLean, Acting Dean  •  EDITORIAL  by Dr. John Barker  Change is the rule is a phrase heard over and over again these days. Indeed, the pace of life seems to spiral ever upward with new capabilities, options, problems and opportunities descending on us in a daily deluge. In forestry, this change offers a unique challenge since foresters deal with situations covering decades rather than days. Continuity is a pipe dream. Public concerns and involvement in the forestry arena is increasing to a point where the technically desirable often seems to be overwhelmed by the politically acceptable. It is a matter of some concern to foresters how the profession should deal with this changing paradigm. It is apparent that a forester's education and training must change to meet the changing needs. The three C ' s needing consideration are: • compartmentalization, • coordination, and • communication. As the technical knowledge base required for forest management has increased, there has been a growing reliance on specialist knowledge to deal with aspects of fisheries, stability, biotech, GIS, recreation, biodiversity, value added, aboriginal values and on and on. A forester no longer represents the sole source of expertise on forestry matters.  Many other products are now demanded by the public owners. These other uses all have their specialized fields centered on their particular needs. The resulting compartmentalization of knowledge makes coherent management of the whole, difficult, since things desired in one sector are often contradictory to those deemed desirable by another. The need to coordinate management for the diversity of values is apparent. While tradeoffs between sectors requires technical input, substantial value judgement is needed. Decision makers, who are likely not foresters, require consolidated technical input communicated clearly and concisely. Thus, the forester is now required to communicate with a broad spectrum of stakeholders with a variable level of understanding of the forest. This new paradigm and the accompanying identity crisis in the forestry profession has been the subject of an ongoing debate for some time now. What is the role of foresters in the new paradigm? Of course, the traditional technical component in forestry remains but we now know clearly that forestry education needs to go far beyond this and develop a capacity for more creative, holistic thinking in order to effectively meet the pressing demands for coordination, consultation, integration and communication.  During the last decade, as a prelude to curriculum reform, the Faculty has been addressing the question of what constitutes a forester. A wide range of stakeholder input was sought by an academic task force. Gordon Baskerville's report (Branch Lines, December 1995) distilled this input and defined the desirable capabilities of the Compleat Forester. (Apologies here to Isaac Walton). The process has now moved on to the challenging task of devising a suitable curriculum to produce such a person via the BSF (Forest Resources Management) program. The new curriculum is now, after much debate and hard work, nearing completion. It stresses the integrative aspects of education and aims to provide enhanced opportunities for students to develop their integrative skills through integrated teaching arrangements and capstone case studies. It has been said that: Average teaching tells how. Good teaching explains why. Superior teaching demonstrates both. But great teaching inspires. The operative word being inspires. There is a really important need for inspiration and passion in keeping forestry effective in these turbulent times. The success of the restructured program in achieving these ends is only one part of the answer. Success will depend on the efforts not only of the Faculty and students but also the forestry community at large who must act as role models and mentors to inspire the new generation of foresters. Without this effort, forestry runs a real risk of becoming a minor player in determining the future of our forests. You can reach Dr. John Barker at (604) 822-1284, fax (604) 822-9102 or e-mail jebarker@ interchg. ubc. ca.  RESEARCH  HIGHLIGHT  Forest Sciences Department  Results from our lab indicate that the lodgepole pine and hybrid spruce bacterial endophytes Bacillus strain Pw2-R and Pseudomonas strain S m 3 - R N colonize internal root and stem tissues with up to 105 endophytes of sugarcane (Sacchamm officiICROORGANISMS exert profound cfu g"' plant tissue, and confirm the seedling narum L.), Acetobacter diazotrophicus effects on plant growth and competigrowth promotion capabilities of such and Herbaspirillum spp., colonize internal tive ability. Because competition for limited bacteria. Furthermore, Bacillus strain Pw2, root, stem and leaf tissues, and are thought resources is a central process determining which was originally isolated from inside to provide up to 80% of the host plant's plant species abundance and distribution, pine root tissues, possesses nitrogenase nitrogen requirement, which is a truly plant growth altering microorganisms can activity and can colonize pine seedplay a significant role in creating or lings systemically. These observa0 Bacillus Pw-2R maintaining plant community struc• Pseudomonas Sm3-RN tions lead to the intriguing possiture. For the past several years, our lab bility that lodgepole pine harbours has been studying the diversity, and §5 an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacinfluence on plant growth, of gymnoterial population similar to that of sperm root-colonizing bacteria, a sugarcane, which would explain its poorly understood, but potentially ability to grow, and even thrive, important group of plant-associated under nitrogen deficient conditions microorganisms. This research has in the absence of significant lhizoRoot Exterior + Soil Root Interior S t e m Interior lead us to focus on a special subset of spheric nitrogen fixation. FurtherColonization Microsite soil bacteria: the non-palhogenic more, bacterial endophytes may also root-associated bacteria that are be important in forest ecosystems by External and internal colonization of spruce seedling capable of entering plant tissues and effectively increasing phenotypic tissues by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria five colonizing plants systemically withplasticity of their long-lived tree months after inoculation. out causing disease i.e., bacterial endohosts under variable or deleterious phytes. Some endophytic bacteria environmental conditions (e.g., during amazing relationship considering that no associated with agricultural and horticulperiods of drought, nutrient deprivation, or special structures such as nodules or tural plant species may reach internal plant pathogen attack). We are currently evaluatnodule-like organs develop on infectcd population sizes in excess of 107 colony ing several of these possibilities, with the plants. Other endophytic bacteria associatforming units (cfu) g 1 plant matter. Of great ultimate goal of producing an inexpensive, ed with agricultural species promote plant importance in this regard are the observaeffective microbial inoculum containing growth through mechanisms yet to be tions that certain strains of bacterial endobacteria that are capable of colonizing determined. phytes enhance host plant growth, likely by seedlings internally and providing benefits However, little is known about bacterial acting as biocontrol agents, either through to the host plant such as fixed nitrogen or endophytes of tree species. Occasional direct antagonism of microbial pathogens or protection from pathogens. reports of endophytic bacteria in asymptoby inducing systemic resistance to diseasematic angiosperm and gymnosperm species For further information, contact Dr. Chris causing organisms. Others may reduce have been made, but their influence on Chanway at (604) 822-3716, fax (604) 822attack by plant parasitic nematodes and inplant growth has rarely been evaluated. 9102 or e-mail cchanway@interchg. ubc.caJ-1 sects. In Brazil, the nitrogen-fixing bacterial  Nitrogen fixing pine?  M  fl  DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Kermit Ritland has started a two-year term as a grant selection committee member for NSERC's new genomics projects program. In November, Dr. Sally Aitken gave a seminar on "Adaptive fitness peaks and gene resource management in conifer populations" at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. She also gave two interviews with the press regarding forest genetics and genetically modified trees. One was with CBC Radio Almanac, the second on CBC Broadcast One Television evening news 'Cover Story.' Branch Lines  In October, the Department held a retirement party for Prof. Gordon Weetman who retired from UBC after 22 years of service. Gordon continues to be active in teaching through the Silviculture & Forest Engineering Institute of B.C. Dr. Karen Hodges will be teaching our third year course in Forest Wildlife Biology and Management beginning lanuary 2000. Dr. Hodges is a population ecologist who has recently completed a postdoctoral appointment at the University of Memphis. Dr. Kathy Martin gave an invited talk at the 2nd International Wildlife Society meeting in Godollo, Hungary in June 1999. Her  talk was titled "Alpine biodiversity and conservation - ensuring connectivity with high latitudes and low elevation forests." Dr. Hamish Kimmins has been awarded an international grant by the International Development Research Centre to conduct research for "Ecosystem approaches to human health." The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry and (he Faculty of Medicine at Chiang Mai University in Thailand will also be involved in this project. Dr. Cindy Prescott has accepted the role of co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Forest Research for the next five y e a r s . •  RESEARCH  Forest Resources Management Department  HIGHLIGHT  Basic geosynthetics: A guide to best practices  G  E O S Y N T H E T I C S are increasingly used to stabilise soils in forest engineering applications. A proper evaluation of the proposed use, materials specification, and installation procedures is important to good construction practices. Geosynthelic stabilisation of soils involves four basic functions of reinforcement, separation, filtration and drainage. The extent to which some or all of these functions are mobilised is governed by the site condition and construction application. This new guide, based on an integration of recent field studies and applied research, addresses these issues for use of geotextiles and geogrids in forest engineering applications. The guide includes an introduction to geosynthetics properties, basic functions, site delivery and a checklist for field inspection. Thereafter ten construction case reports are provided on forest engineering applications of roads (nonwoven geotextile, woven geotextile and biaxial geogrid), erosion control (cutslope stabilisation and log-culvert decks), subsurface drains (subdrains), riprap revetments (bank and channel stabilisation) and slopes and walls (fill slope stabilisation and lock-block bridge abutments). The construction case reports include a project overview of the general conditions, soils, application and construction procedure. Each case report has two photographs that illustrate the application (Figure 1). They also have a geosynthetics summary that addresses the type and material properties of the geosynthetic and, where appro-  DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Gary Bull met with the World Bank in Washington, DC, Nov. 8-9 regarding wood products certification. The meeting had global representation from forest industry, buyer groups, certification bodies, certifiers, NGOs and government representatives. The Faculty of Forestry intends to follow-up this meeting with another conference in August 2000. Dr. Dan M o o r e p r e s e n t e d a p a p e r "Effective saturated hydraulic conductivity in a macroporous forest soil" (co-author: Branch Lines  priate, the use of a standard specification for material selection. Each summary has two schematic drawings that illustrate the installation details (Figure 2). The specification requirements are provided, as a series of tables, in an appendix to the guide. The guide is written with two objectives. First, to assist users exercise their professional judgement and experience in devel-  Fig. 2. Overlap join between rolls.  D. Hutchinson) at a symposium on Preferential Flow Dynamics at the Annual Meeting of the Soil Science Society of America (Oct. 30 to Nov. 4, 1999, Salt Lake City). Dr. Roy Sidle co-organized the symposium and presented a poster paper "Evidence of self-organization of preferential flow paths in forest soils" (co-authors: S. Noguchi and Y. Tsuboyama). Dr. Younes Alila led a panel discussion on the "State of science in watershed scale hydrologic modeling applied to forest re-  oping site-specific recommendations. Therefore the construction case reports are provided to illustrate some important considerations in the selection, specification and installation of geosynthetics. Secondly, to promote the use of "best practices" in construction. To this purpose, examples are drawn from the ten reports. Guidance is developed with reference both to standard specification documents and relevant foundation engineering manuals. The guide is developed from original notes prepared for a continuing studies short course on geosynthetics for soil stabilisation. The ten construction case reports were written with funding from Forest Renewal BC. They were selected following a survey of industry and government, and include examples from the Cariboo, Kamloops, Nelson, Prince George and Vancouver Forest Region. The guide is intended for professional foresters, engineers and geoscientists, contractors, and technicians involved in the planning, inspection, monitoring and supervision of forest road construction and soil stabilisation. To obtain a copy of the geosynthetics guide, contact BiTech Publishers, 173-11860 Hammersmith Way, Richmond, B.C., Canada at (604) 277-4250 or e-mail Bitech@istar.ca. For further information, contact Dr. Jonathan Fannin at (604) 8223133, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail jonathan.fannin@iibc.ca. •  source management" in Kamloops, Oct. 18. Dr. John Innes recently edited a book with Jacek Oleksyn of Kornik, Poland, on "Forest dynamics in heavily polluted regions" (volume 1 in the new IUFRO Research Series). Dr. Casey van Kooten made two presentations on climate change and afforestation at the Canadian Resource and Environmental Economics 9lh Annual Workshop, Edmonton, Oct. 2-3, and at the Residual Wood Conference sponsored by the Logging and Sawmilling Journal, Richmond, Nov. 8 - 9 . •  RESEARCH  HIGHLIGHT  Wood Science Department  Forest and wood residues: Problem or opportunity?  T  O quote a recent Business Week article (October 11, 1999), "If you are looking for signs of inflation in the US Economy look no further than the nearest gas pump. Since hitting a 12-year low of $11 (US) a barrel last December, oil prices have more than doubled to just above $25 (US)". While the US economy is running in high gear ("in sales of giant sport-utility vehicles, no less") there remains a hot debate about whether recent "climatic abnormalities" are due to our continued exponential release of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels. The recent dramatic increase in global C 0 2 emissions and corresponding global temperatures (Figure I) has raised concerns by various groups that, "even if climate change is due to the increasing release of greenhouse gases, there is little we can do to wean ourselves off the dependence on fossil fuels, when continued growth of the world economy is expected".  Over the same timeframe our Canadianbased forest products companies have generally shown poor profitability. This has been partially due to the competition in our traditional structural wood and pulp and paper markets, the high cost (stumpage) of the feedstock fibre, and high labour costs. Thus to cite a much abused cliche, "we need to do more with less!". In British Columbia it has been estimated that roughly 1 million tonnes of white wood and 2.25 million tonnes of bark are annually available as "waste" or "residual" material. Although it is likely that continued efforts would be made to develop higher value applications from this "waste" it is also anticipated that, for at least the foreseeable future, substantial amounts of residual material will still be available to produce "sustainable fuels and chemicals". Recently, US President Clinton spoke at a Bioenergy Climate Change Event and encouraged US industry to: "... make the raw material of tomorrow's economy from living, renewable resources, instead of fossil fuels, which pollute the atmosphere and warm the planet, the future of our children and grandchildren, the likelihood there will be more prosperity...and peace...will be far greater."  Fig. 1. Temperature and global CO, emissions 1600-2000.  DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Gregory Smith has joined the Department of Wood Science as assistant professor. Greg's area of expertise is wood adhesive and composites, and he comes to the Department from Forintek Canada Corp. after a lime at MacMillan Bloedel Research. Dr. Robert Kozak has been appointed to the position of assistant professor in wood products marketing and business management. He will take up this position in JanBranch Lines  Currently more than 10% of the gasoline sold in the US contains some ethanol while the US currently produces enough ethanol (5.7 billion litres/year)  uary 2000. In November, Robert was invited to give a presentation entitled "Nonresidential construction: Opportunities for wood materials"at the Exploring New Paths Conference in Edmonton, Alberta. The conference was sponsored by Forintek Canada Corp. Dr. Jack Saddler has returned from travels to Europe where he gave a keynote talk at the 3rd European Motor Biofuels Forum held in Brussels and attended a  to run all of the cars in British Columbia and half of those in Alberta. However, virtually all of this ethanol is derived from cereal crops, raising the old "food-or-fuels" dilemma. Over the last decade, predictions in the early 9 0 ' s that research into biotechnology and process engineering would dramatically reduce the cost of producing ethanol from biomass (Figure 2) have proven to be remarkably prescient. Currently a few energy companies, such as PetroCanada, are funding demonstration plants to assess the overall technical maturity and economics of an integrated biomass-to-ethanol process. Gate price ($US/gallon gasoline equivalent)  ^ Ethanol  Gasoline 0 1980  1990  2000  2010  Fig. 2. Past and projected costs (1988 basis) for etlmnol and gasoline. One focus of the Forest Products Biotechnology group at UBC is finding ways of increasing the efficiency of converting wood residues to fuels (ethanol) and chemicals. British Columbia, with its vast resources of underutilised residues, is favorably positioned to take advantage of further technology breakthroughs and government policy that might encourage a move towards renewable forms of energy and chemicals. For further information, contact Dr. J.N. Saddler at (604) 822-9741, fax (604) 8229104 or e-mail saddler@interchg.ubc.ca.[J  Nordic Bioenergy planning meeting in Copenhagen. Jack was also part of an international team teaching an advanced course on forest biotechnology and enzymology in Sweden organized by KTH (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm). Dr. Stavros Avramidis gave a presentation to a wood drying workshop sponsored by the EU C O S T Action El 5 in Edinburgh, Scotland.•  Faculty News Premier Miller visits Forest Sciences Centre  On November 16. 1999, Premier Dan Miller visited the Forest Sciences Centre. He toured the Advanced Wood Processing laboratory located in the Centre for Advanced Wood Processing where he met with several groups of undergraduate students from the Wood Products Processing program who demonstrated uses of the high-tech equipment installed in the laboratory. He also toured the high head Timber Mechanics and Structures laboratory where a presentation was made about some current research projects. Following the tours, Premier Miller met with University President Martha Piper, the Acting Dean and a group of wood science faculty members to discuss various research and education initiatives.  Advanced Training in Forest Gene Resource Management  The International Forestry Institute of the UBC Faculty of Forestry, in cooperation with the B.C. Ministry of Forests, is offering a five-week Advanced Training in Forest Gene Resource Management. This course will provide an excellent opportunity to familiarize participants with current methods in gene conservation, forest tree breeding, and biotechnological tools in gene resource management. Forest practitioners, conservationists, tree breeders, and managers will benefit from this training. Course start: May 15,2000 Course end: June 16, 2000 Deadline for early registration: January 1,2000 Deadline for registration: February 29. 2000 Course fees including boarding, lodging and a field tour will total CDN$6,000. There is an early registration discount of $300 before January 1,2000. contact:  Dr. Gene Namkoong, Director International Forestry Institute Faculty of Forestry University of British Columbia 3641-2424 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, CANADA V6T 1Z4 Branch Lines  John Davies(BSF'99) was honoured at the 5 th A n n u a l A l u m n i Recognition and Sports Hall of Fame Dinner on October 14, 1999. John was named as the "OutstandingStudent of the Year," an award given annually to students who show leadership and academic success, and who are active in the university community. John graduated from Forestry this past June. The award was given in recognition of John's involvement as President of the Forestry Undergraduate Society from 199798; his active membership of the Students for Forestry Awareness, the Ultimate League, and the UBC Varsity Rowing Team (he was team captain in 1998). John helped with such campus activities as the Dean's Welcome Back BBQ, Careers Night, and Forestry Weekly. He was also the Forestry representative on the 1999 Grad Committee. John is now working as a silvicultural consultant in Vancouver.  New appointment  Upcoming...  For further information  Forestry student wins award  Tel:  < 604 > 8 2 2 ~ 8 7 3 7 (604)822-1203 E-mail: gene@interchg.ubc.ca  Fax:  Qr  visit the IFI web site: http://genetics.forestry.ubc.ca/ifi  Dr. Gregory D.Smith has joined the Wood Science Department as an assistant professor. He is a graduate of UBC with a B.A.Sc. and M A.Sc. in metals andmaterialsengineeringand a D.Sc.T. in polymer science from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Greg spent two years with MacMillan Bloedel Research in Vancouverworkingon adhesion issues, and one year with Forintek Canada Corp. working on blending dynamics for OSB. Greg will be teaching the polymer science of adhesives and coatings, the fundamentals of composite wood properties, and the processing of reconstituted wood composites. His research interests are focused on understanding the processing-structureproperty relationships of wood composites. Greg can be reached at (604) 822-0081. fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail gdsmith@ interchg.ubc. ca.  FOREST NEWS from the Alex Fraser Research Forest  r  • Ken Day Director, University Research Forests  (  E1  /I  Group ShalBrwood  \ / VUtUi^J I :;; ::, SHp ( / ci V Group Selection \ N^nV^ ]s ClearcufA. / — . ———  n  C2  S.  Single Tree Selection  N  Wildite Tree  Layout of silviculural systems area. In British Columbia, forest managers are gradually moving away from a traditional reliance on clearcutting. Our collective experience, however, is limited to a few other systems. At the Alex Fraser Research Forest, we have planned a silvicultural systems demonstration area around Gavin Lake. With support from Forest Renewal BC, we have mapped out a demonstration area that will provide feedback on the success or failure of different approaches to harvesting a particular stand type. This  100-hectare extension project is currently taking shape. Silvicultural systems are methods of treating forest stands to develop desired structures, and achieve regeneration. The demonstration area is a north-facing slope in the Interior Cedar Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone, and is aimed at showing a variety of ways of harvesting and regenerating stands. The systems to be used include a full spectrum from clearcutting to uniform selection management, with nine different systems and variants represented (see map inset). Our first cutting in the demonstration area will begin in January 2000. Harvesting will be under a group shelterwood system, incorporating small cleared gaps and adjacent thinnings in a 125 year-old Douglas-fir and spruce stand. The gaps will be cut in parts of the stand damaged by heavy snow last winter. The gaps will be planted, and the thinnings will regenerate naturally. The purpose of the demonstration area is to provide teaching and research opportunities for those who are interested in using silvicultural systems to solve regeneration problems or manage stands for uses other than timber harvesting alone. For more information or to discuss teaching or research interests in this project, please contact Ken Day at (250) 392-2207, fax (250) 398-5708 or e-mail kenday@interchg.ubc.ca. O  Class of '70 reunion The U B C 1970 Forestry Graduating Class is having its 30-year reunion in Kelowna from August 4 to August 6, 2000 at the Grand Okanagan Hotel. The reunion is for classmates and their families. Planned events include a wine and cheese icebreaker on Friday evening, a fun golf tournament on Saturday and a banquet on Saturday evening.  Branch  Lines  The next Schaffer Lecture will be given  on Wednesday, February 2, 2000  by Dr. Gerald E. Rehfeldt USDA Forest Service Moscow, Idaho Dr. Rehfeldt's topic will be "Genes, Climate and Wood." The lecture, beginning at 5:30 PM in Room 1005 of the new Forest Sciences Centre, will be followed by an evening of poster presentations highlighting current research activities in the Faculty of Forestry. Light refreshments will be served. Invitations to this joint event will be mailed out at the beginning of January 2000. If you require further information, or would like to check to see that you are on our mailing list, please call (604) 822-2507.  V  NEWSLETTER  J  PRODUCTION  Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1 181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the n e w s l e t t e r or r e q u e s t s for m a i l i n g list u p d a t e s , d e l e t i o n s or a d d i t i o n s s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d (o Dr. S u s a n W a t t s , N e w s l e t t e r E d i t o r at:  Upcoming...  For more information, contact G. Wayne Coombs (BSF '70) at (250) 748-5030 e-mail gwcoombs @ islandnet. com.  Upcoming... Schaffer Lecture and Faculty Research Evening  Gavin Lake silvicultural systems demonstration  Planning, design, and feedback are three key ingredients of good forest management. Planning and design describe the target stand for a manager. Silvicultural systems represent a toolbox that allows managers to achieve the desired target. Monitoring and review provide feedback for managers to know when they are approaching the target.  n  or  Faculty of Forestry, Dean's Office University of British Columbia Forest Sciences Centre 2005-2424 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T IZ4 (§?> a (604) 822-63 1 6 Recycled Paper Fax:(604)822-8645 E-mai I: suwatts @ interchg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1999  

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