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Branchlines Vol. 10, No. 3 (1999) Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia; Watts, Susan B. 1999-12-31

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F A C U L T Y O F F O R E S T R Y • NEWSLETTER • T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Volume 10 No. 3 December, 1999 From the Dean's Desk In the third feature of our new series of guest editorials by Faculty members, Dr. John Barker addresses "The Forester in a Changing World." John, our recent appointment as FRBC Chair in Silviculture, suggests that the compartmentalization in forestry education arising from the breadth of subject material involved, has clouded the image of what a forester must be. He believes the role of a forester today is as a specialist — a specialist in integration and communication. The UBC curriculum is being modified to address this need. This alone is not sufficient, however, and the forestry community as a whole must play a greater role in instilling a sense of purpose and passion in the upcoming generation of forestry professionals. John A. McLean, Acting Dean • E D I T O R I A L by Dr. John Barker Change is the rule is a phrase heard over and over again these days. Indeed, the pace of life seems to spiral ever upward with new capabilities, options, problems and op- portunities descending on us in a daily deluge. In forestry, this change offers a unique chal- lenge since foresters deal with situations covering decades rather than days. Continuity is a pipe dream. Public concerns and involve- ment in the forestry arena is increasing to a point where the technically desirable often seems to be overwhelmed by the politically acceptable. It is a matter of some concern to foresters how the profession should deal with this changing paradigm. It is apparent that a forester's education and training must change to meet the changing needs. The three C 's needing consideration are: • compartmentalization, • coordination, and • communication. As the technical knowledge base required for forest management has increased, there has been a growing reliance on specialist knowledge to deal with aspects of fisheries, stability, biotech, GIS, recreation, biodiver- sity, value added, aboriginal values and on and on. A forester no longer represents the sole source of expertise on forestry matters. Many other products are now demanded by the public owners. These other uses all have their specialized fields centered on their particular needs. The resulting compartmen- talization of knowledge makes coherent management of the whole, difficult, since things desired in one sector are often con- tradictory to those deemed desirable by an- other. The need to coordinate management for the diversity of values is apparent. While tradeoffs between sectors requires tech- nical input, substantial value judgement is needed. Decision makers, who are likely not foresters, require consolidated technical input communicated clearly and concisely. Thus, the forester is now required to com- municate with a broad spectrum of stake- holders with a variable level of understand- ing of the forest. This new paradigm and the accompanying identity crisis in the for- estry profession has been the subject of an ongoing debate for some time now. What is the role of foresters in the new paradigm? Of course, the traditional techni- cal component in forestry remains but we now know clearly that forestry education needs to go far beyond this and develop a capacity for more creative, holistic thinking in order to effectively meet the pressing demands for coordination, consultation, integration and communication. During the last decade, as a prelude to curriculum reform, the Faculty has been addressing the question of what constitutes a forester. A wide range of stakeholder in- put was sought by an academic task force. Gordon Baskerville's report (Branch Lines, December 1995) distilled this input and defined the desirable capabilities of the Compleat Forester. (Apologies here to Isaac Walton). The process has now moved on to the challenging task of devising a suitable curriculum to produce such a person via the BSF (Forest Resources Management) program. The new curriculum is now, after much debate and hard work, nearing com- pletion. It stresses the integrative aspects of education and aims to provide enhanced opportunities for students to develop their integrative skills through integrated teach- ing arrangements and capstone case studies. It has been said that: Average teaching tells how. Good teaching explains why. Superior teaching demonstrates both. But great teaching inspires. The operative word being inspires. There is a really important need for inspiration and passion in keeping forestry effective in these turbulent times. The success of the restructured program in achieving these ends is only one part of the answer. Success will depend on the efforts not only of the Faculty and students but also the forestry community at large who must act as role models and mentors to inspire the new generation of foresters. Without this effort, forestry runs a real risk of becoming a minor player in determining the future of our forests. You can reach Dr. John Barker at (604) 822-1284, fax (604) 822-9102 or e-mail jebarker@ interchg. ubc. ca. Forest Sciences Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Nitrogen fixing pine? MICROORGANISMS exert profound effects on plant growth and competi- tive ability. Because competition for limited resources is a central process determining plant species abundance and distribution, plant growth altering microorganisms can play a significant role in creating or maintaining plant community struc- ture. For the past several years, our lab has been studying the diversity, and influence on plant growth, of gymno- sperm root-colonizing bacteria, a poorly understood, but potentially important group of plant-associated microorganisms. This research has lead us to focus on a special subset of soil bacteria: the non-palhogenic root-associated bacter ia that are capable of entering plant tissues and colonizing plants systemically with- out causing disease i.e., bacterial endo- phytes. Some endophytic bacteria associated with agricultural and horticul- tural plant species may reach internal plant population sizes in excess of 107 colony forming units (cfu) g 1 plant matter. Of great importance in this regard are the observa- tions that certain strains of bacterial endo- phytes enhance host plant growth, likely by acting as biocontrol agents, either through direct antagonism of microbial pathogens or by inducing systemic resistance to disease- causing organisms. Others may reduce attack by plant parasitic nematodes and in- sects. In Brazil, the nitrogen-fixing bacterial endophytes of sugarcane (Sacchamm offici- narum L.), Acetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp., colonize internal root, stem and leaf tissues, and are thought to provide up to 80% of the host plant's nitrogen requirement, which is a truly 0 Bacil lus Pw-2R • Pseudomonas Sm3-RN § 5 f l Root Exterior + Soil Root Interior Colonizat ion Microsi te Stem Interior External and internal colonization of spruce seedling tissues by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria five months after inoculation. amazing relationship considering that no special structures such as nodules or nodule-like organs develop on infectcd plants. Other endophytic bacteria associat- ed with agricultural species promote plant growth through mechanisms yet to be determined. However, little is known about bacterial endophytes of tree species. Occasional reports of endophytic bacteria in asympto- matic angiosperm and gymnosperm species have been made, but their influence on plant growth has rarely been evaluated. Results from our lab indicate that the lodgepole pine and hybrid spruce bacterial endophytes Bacillus strain Pw2-R and Pseudomonas strain Sm3-RN colonize internal root and stem tissues with up to 105 cfu g"' plant tissue, and confirm the seedling growth promotion capabilit ies of such bacteria. Furthermore, Bacillus strain Pw2, which was originally isolated from inside pine root tissues, possesses nitrogenase activity and can colonize pine seed- lings systemically. These observa- tions lead to the intriguing possi- bility that lodgepole pine harbours an endophytic nitrogen-fixing bac- terial population similar to that of sugarcane, which would explain its ability to grow, and even thrive, under nitrogen deficient conditions in the absence of significant lhizo- spheric nitrogen fixation. Further- more, bacterial endophytes may also be important in forest ecosystems by effectively increasing phenotypic plasticity of their long-lived tree hosts under variable or deleterious environmental condit ions (e.g., during periods of drought, nutrient deprivation, or pathogen attack). We are currently evaluat- ing several of these possibilities, with the ultimate goal of producing an inexpensive, effective microbial inoculum containing bacteria that are capable of colonizing seedlings internally and providing benefits to the host plant such as fixed nitrogen or protection from pathogens. For further information, contact Dr. Chris Chanway at (604) 822-3716, fax (604) 822- 9102 or e-mail cchanway@interchg. ubc.caJ-1 DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Kermit Ritland has started a two-year term as a grant selection committee mem- ber for NSERC's new genomics projects program. In November, Dr. Sally Aitken gave a seminar on "Adaptive fitness peaks and gene resource management in conifer popula- tions" at the Swedish University of Agricul- tural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. She also gave two interviews with the press regarding forest genetics and genetically modified trees. One was with CBC Radio Almanac, the second on CBC Broadcast One Televi- sion evening news 'Cover Story.' Branch Lines In October, the Department held a retire- ment party for Prof. Gordon Weetman who retired from UBC after 22 years of service. Gordon continues to be active in teaching through the Silviculture & Forest Engineer- ing Institute of B.C. Dr. Karen Hodges will be teaching our third year course in Forest Wildlife Biology and Management beginning lanuary 2000. Dr. Hodges is a population ecologist who has recently completed a postdoctoral appoint- ment at the University of Memphis. Dr. Kathy Martin gave an invited talk at the 2nd International Wildlife Society meet- ing in Godollo, Hungary in June 1999. Her talk was titled "Alpine biodiversity and con- servation - ensuring connectivity with high latitudes and low elevation forests." Dr. Hamish Kimmins has been awarded an international grant by the International Development Research Centre to conduct research for "Ecosystem approaches to human health." The International Centre for Research in Agroforestry and (he Faculty of Medicine at Chiang Mai Univer- sity in Thailand will also be involved in this project. Dr. Cindy Prescott has accepted the role of co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Forest Research for the next five yea r s . • Forest Resources Management Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Basic geosynthetics: A guide to best practices GEOSYNTHETICS are increasingly used to stabilise soils in forest engineer- ing applications. A proper evaluation of the proposed use, materials specification, and installation procedures is important to good construction practices. Geosynthelic stabi- lisation of soils involves four basic func- tions of reinforcement, separation, filtration and drainage. The extent to which some or all of these functions are mobilised is governed by the site condition and con- struction application. This new guide, based on an integration of recent field studies and applied research, addresses these issues for use of geotextiles and geogrids in forest engineering applications. The guide includes an introduction to geosynthetics properties, basic functions, site delivery and a checklist for field in- spection. Thereafter ten construction case reports are provided on forest engineering applications of roads (nonwoven geotextile, woven geotextile and biaxial geogrid), erosion control (cutslope stabilisation and log-culvert decks), subsurface drains (sub- drains), riprap revetments (bank and chan- nel stabilisation) and slopes and walls (fill slope stabilisation and lock-block bridge abutments). The construction case reports include a project overview of the general conditions, soils, application and construction proce- dure. Each case report has two photographs that illustrate the application (Figure 1). They also have a geosynthetics summary that addresses the type and material proper- ties of the geosynthetic and, where appro- DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Gary Bull met with the World Bank in Washington, DC, Nov. 8-9 regarding wood products certification. The meeting had glo- bal representation from forest industry, buyer groups, certification bodies, certifiers, NGOs and government representatives. The Faculty of Forestry intends to follow-up this meeting with another conference in August 2000. Dr. Dan Moore presented a paper "Effective saturated hydraulic conductivity in a macroporous forest soil" (co-author: priate, the use of a standard specification for material selection. Each summary has two schematic drawings that illustrate the installation details (Figure 2). The specifi- cation requirements are provided, as a series of tables, in an appendix to the guide. The guide is written with two objectives. First, to assist users exercise their profes- sional judgement and experience in devel- Fig. 2. Overlap join between rolls. D. Hutchinson) at a symposium on Prefer- ential Flow Dynamics at the Annual Meet- ing of the Soil Science Society of America (Oct. 30 to Nov. 4, 1999, Salt Lake City). Dr. Roy Sidle co-organized the sympo- sium and presented a poster paper "Evi- dence of self-organization of preferential flow paths in forest soils" (co-authors: S. Noguchi and Y. Tsuboyama). Dr. Younes Alila led a panel discussion on the "State of science in watershed scale hydrologic modeling applied to forest re- oping si te-specific recommenda- tions. Therefore the construction case reports are provided to illustrate some important considerations in the selection, specification and instal- lation of geosynthetics. Secondly, to promote the use of "best practices" in construction. To this purpose, examples are drawn from the ten reports. Guidance is developed with reference both to standard specifica- tion documents and relevant founda- tion engineering manuals. The guide is developed from ori- ginal notes prepared for a continuing studies short course on geosynthetics for soil stabilisation. The ten construction case reports were written with funding from Forest Renewal BC. They were selected fol- lowing a survey of industry and government, and include examples from the Cariboo, Kamloops, Nelson, Prince George and Vancouver Forest Region. The guide is in- tended for professional foresters, engineers and geoscientists, contractors, and technicians involved in the planning, inspection, monitoring and supervi- sion of forest road construction and soil stabilisation. To obtain a copy of the geosynthet ics guide, contact BiTech Publ i shers , 173-11860 Hammersmith Way, Richmond, B.C., Canada at (604) 277-4250 or e-mail Bitech@istar.ca. For further information, contact Dr. Jonathan Fannin at (604) 822- 3133, fax (604) 822-9106 or e-mail jonathan.fannin@iibc.ca. • source management" in Kamloops, Oct. 18. Dr. John Innes recently edited a book with Jacek Oleksyn of Kornik, Poland, on "Forest dynamics in heavily polluted regions" (vol- ume 1 in the new IUFRO Research Series). Dr. Casey van Kooten made two presenta- tions on climate change and afforestation at the Canadian Resource and Environmental Economics 9lh Annual Workshop, Edmonton, Oct. 2-3, and at the Residual Wood Confer- ence sponsored by the Logging and Saw- milling Journal, Richmond, Nov. 8 - 9 . • Branch Lines Wood Science Department RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT Forest and wood residues: Problem or opportunity? TO quote a recent Business Week article (October 11, 1999), "If you are looking for signs of inflation in the US Economy look no further than the nearest gas pump. Since hitting a 12-year low of $11 (US) a barrel last December, oil prices have more than doubled to just above $25 (US)". While the US economy is running in high gear ("in sales of giant sport-utility vehicles, no less") there remains a hot debate about whether recent "climatic abnormalities" are due to our continued exponential release of green- house gases from fossil fuels. The recent dramatic increase in global C 0 2 emissions and corresponding global temperatures (Figure I) has raised concerns by various groups that, "even if climate change is due to the increasing release of greenhouse gases, there is little we can do to wean ourselves off the dependence on fossil fuels, when continued growth of the world economy is expected". Fig. 1. Temperature and global CO, 1600-2000. emissions Over the same timeframe our Canadian- based forest products companies have generally shown poor profitability. This has been partially due to the competition in our traditional structural wood and pulp and paper markets, the high cost (stump- age) of the feedstock fibre, and high labour costs. Thus to cite a much abused cliche, "we need to do more with less!". In British Columbia it has been esti- mated that roughly 1 million tonnes of white wood and 2.25 million tonnes of bark are annually available as "waste" or "residual" material. Although it is likely that continued efforts would be made to develop higher value applications from this "waste" it is also anticipated that, for at least the foreseeable future, substantial amounts of residual material will still be available to produce "sustainable fuels and chemicals". Recently, US President Clinton spoke at a Bioenergy Climate Change Event and encouraged US industry to: "... make the raw material of tomorrow's economy from living, renewable re- sources, instead of fossil fuels, which pollute the atmosphere and warm the planet, the future of our children and grandchildren, the likelihood there will be more prosperity...and peace...will be far greater." Currently more than 10% of the gaso- line sold in the US contains some etha- nol while the US currently produces enough ethanol (5.7 billion litres/year) to run all of the cars in British Columbia and half of those in Alberta. However, virtually all of this ethanol is derived from cereal crops, raising the old "food-or-fuels" dilemma. Over the last decade, predictions in the early 90 ' s that research into biotechnology and process engineering would dramatical- ly reduce the cost of producing ethanol from biomass (Figure 2) have proven to be remarkably prescient. Currently a few energy companies, such as PetroCanada, are fund- ing demonstration plants to assess the over- all technical maturity and economics of an integrated biomass-to-ethanol process. Gate price ($US/gallon gasoline equivalent) ^ Ethanol Gasoline 0 1980 1990 2000 2010 Fig. 2. Past and projected costs (1988 basis) for etlmnol and gasoline. One focus of the Forest Products Biotech- nology group at UBC is finding ways of increasing the efficiency of converting wood residues to fuels (ethanol) and chemicals. British Columbia, with its vast resources of underutilised residues, is favorably position- ed to take advantage of further technology breakthroughs and government policy that might encourage a move towards renewable forms of energy and chemicals. For further information, contact Dr. J.N. Saddler at (604) 822-9741, fax (604) 822- 9104 or e-mail saddler@interchg.ubc.ca.[J DEPARTMENT NEWS D r . Gregory Smith has joined the Depart- ment of Wood Science as assistant professor. Greg's area of expertise is wood adhesive and composites, and he comes to the Depart- ment from Forintek Canada Corp. after a lime at MacMillan Bloedel Research. Dr. Robert Kozak has been appointed to the position of assistant professor in wood products marketing and business manage- ment. He will take up this position in Jan- uary 2000. In November, Robert was in- vited to give a presentation entitled "Non- residential construction: Opportunities for wood materials"at the Exploring New Paths Conference in Edmonton, Alberta. The conference was sponsored by Forintek Canada Corp. Dr. Jack Saddler has returned from travels to Europe where he gave a keynote talk at the 3rd European Motor Biofuels Forum held in Brussels and attended a Nordic Bioenergy planning meeting in Copenhagen. Jack was also part of an inter- national team teaching an advanced course on forest biotechnology and enzymology in Sweden organized by KTH (Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm). Dr. Stavros Avramidis gave a presenta- tion to a wood drying workshop sponsored by the EU COST Action El 5 in Edinburgh, Scot land . • Branch Lines Faculty News Premier Miller visits Forest Sciences Centre On November 16. 1999, Premier Dan Miller visited the Forest Sciences Centre. He toured the Advanced Wood Processing laboratory located in the Centre for Advanced Wood Pro- cessing where he met with several groups of undergraduate students from the Wood Pro- ducts Processing program who demonstrated uses of the high-tech equipment installed in the laboratory. He also toured the high head Timber Mechanics and Structures laboratory where a presentation was made about some current research projects. Following the tours, Premier Miller met with University President Martha Piper, the Acting Dean and a group of wood science faculty members to discuss various research and education initiatives. Upcoming... Advanced Training in Forest Gene Resource Management The International Forestry Institute of the UBC Faculty of Forestry, in cooperation with the B.C. Ministry of Forests, is offering a five-week Advanced Training in Forest Gene Resource Management. This course will provide an excellent opportunity to familiarize participants with current methods in gene conservation, forest tree breeding, and biotech- nological tools in gene resource management. Forest practitioners, conservationists, tree breeders, and managers will benefit from this training. Course start: May 15,2000 Course end: June 16, 2000 Deadline for early registration: January 1,2000 Deadline for registration: February 29. 2000 Course fees including boarding, lodging and a field tour will total CDN$6,000. There is an early registration discount of $300 before January 1,2000. For further information contact: Dr. Gene Namkoong, Director T e l : <604> 8 2 2 ~ 8 7 3 7 International Forestry Institute F a x : (604)822-1203 Faculty of Forestry E-mail: gene@interchg.ubc.ca University of British Columbia 3641-2424 Main Mall Qr visit the IFI web site: Vancouver, BC, CANADA V6T 1Z4 http://genetics.forestry.ubc.ca/ifi Forestry student wins award John Davies(BSF'99) was honoured at the 5th Annua l A lumni Recognition and Sports Hall of Fame Dinner on October 14, 1999. John was named as the "OutstandingStudent of the Year," an award given annually to students who show leadership and academic success, and who are active in the university community. John graduated from Forestry this past June. The award was given in recognition of John's involvement as President of the Forestry Undergraduate Society from 1997- 98; his active membership of the Students for Forestry Awareness, the Ultimate League, and the UBC Varsity Rowing Team (he was team captain in 1998). John helped with such campus activities as the Dean's Welcome Back BBQ, Careers Night, and Forestry Weekly. He was also the Forestry representative on the 1999 Grad Commit- tee. John is now working as a silvicultural consultant in Vancouver. New appointment Dr. Gregory D.Smith has joined the Wood Science Department as an assistant professor. He is a graduate of UBC with a B.A.Sc. and M A.Sc. in metals andmaterialsengineer- ingand a D.Sc.T. in polymer science from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Greg spent two years with MacMillan Bloedel Research in Vancouverworkingon adhesion issues, and one year with Forintek Canada Corp. working on blending dynamics for OSB. Greg will be teaching the polymer science of adhesives and coatings, the funda- mentals of composite wood properties, and the processing of reconstituted wood com- posites. His research interests are focused on understanding the processing-structure- property relationships of wood composites. Greg can be reached at (604) 822-0081. fax (604) 822-9104 or e-mail gdsmith@ interchg.ubc. ca. Branch Lines FOREST NEWS from the Alex Fraser Research Forest Gavin Lake silvicultural systems demonstration • Ken Day Director, University Research Forests Planning, design, and feedback are three key ingredients of good forest manage- ment. Planning and design describe the target stand for a manager. Silvicultural systems represent a toolbox that allows managers to achieve the desired target. Monitoring and review provide feedback for managers to know when they are approaching the target. ( E1 / I Group ShalBrwood \ / VUtUi^J I :;; ::, SHp ( / ci n V Group Selection \ N ^ n V ^ ] s ClearcufA. / .———— C2 S. Single Tree Selection N Wildite Tree Layout of silviculural systems area. In British Columbia, forest managers are gradually moving away from a traditional reliance on clearcutting. Our collective experience, however, is limited to a few other systems. At the Alex Fraser Research Forest, we have planned a silvicultural systems demonstration area around Gavin Lake. With support from Forest Renewal BC, we have mapped out a demonstration area that will provide feedback on the success or failure of different approaches to harvesting a particular stand type. This 100-hectare extension project is currently taking shape. Silvicultural systems are methods of treating forest stands to develop desired structures, and achieve regeneration. The demonstration area is a north-facing slope in the Interior Cedar Hemlock biogeo- climatic zone, and is aimed at showing a variety of ways of harvesting and regen- erating stands. The systems to be used include a full spectrum from clearcutting to uniform selection management, with nine different systems and variants represented (see map inset). Our first cutting in the demon- stration area will begin in January 2000. Harvesting will be under a group shelterwood system, in- corporating small cleared gaps and adjacent thinnings in a 125 year-old Douglas-fir and spruce stand. The gaps will be cut in parts of the stand damaged by heavy snow last winter. The gaps will be planted, and the thinnings will regenerate naturally. The purpose of the demonstration area is to provide teaching and research oppor- tunities for those who are interested in using silvicultural systems to solve regen- eration problems or manage stands for uses other than timber harvesting alone. For more information or to discuss teaching or research interests in this project, please contact Ken Day at (250) 392-2207, fax (250) 398-5708 or e-mail kenday@interchg.ubc.ca. O r n Upcoming... Schaffer Lecture and Faculty Research Evening The next Schaffer Lecture will be given on Wednesday, February 2, 2000 by Dr. Gerald E. Rehfeldt USDA Forest Service Moscow, Idaho Dr. Rehfeldt's topic will be "Genes, Climate and Wood." The lecture, begin- ning at 5:30 PM in Room 1005 of the new Forest Sciences Centre, will be followed by an evening of poster presentations highlighting current research activities in the Faculty of Forestry. Light refresh- ments will be served. Invitations to this joint event will be mailed out at the beginning of January 2000. If you require further information, or would like to check to see that you are on our mailing list, please call (604) 822-2507. V J NEWSLETTER PRODUCTION Branch Lines is published by the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia three times each year. ISSN 1 181-9936. http://www.forestry.ubc.ca/ Editor: Susan B. Watts, Ph.D., R.P.F. In-house typesetting and layout: Patsy Quay and Susan B. Watts. Ques t ions c o n c e r n i n g the news le t t e r or reques ts for ma i l ing list upda tes , de le t ions or addi t ions shou ld be d i rec ted (o Dr. Susan Wat t s , N e w s l e t t e r Edi tor at: Faculty of Forestry, Dean's Office University of British Columbia Forest Sciences Centre 2005-2424 Main Mall Vancouver, B.C. V6T IZ4 (§?> a (604) 822-63 1 6 Recycled Paper Fax:(604)822-8645 E-mai I: suwatts @ interchg.ubc.ca ©Faculty of Forestry, 1999 Upcoming... Class of '70 reunion The UBC 1970 Forestry Graduating Class is having its 30-year reunion in Kelowna from August 4 to August 6, 2000 at the Grand Okanagan Hotel. The reunion is for classmates and their families. Planned events include a wine and cheese icebreaker on Friday evening, a fun golf tournament on Saturday and a banquet on Saturday evening. For more information, contact G. Wayne Coombs (BSF '70) at (250) 748-5030 or e-mail gwcoombs @ islandnet. com. Branch Lines 


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