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Indian Education Newsletter (Vol. 3, No. 8/9) Indian Education Resources Center 1973-04-30

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'Indian Education NewsletterIndian Education Resources CenterRoom 106 - Brock HallUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver 8, B.C.Phone: 228-4662FOR^YOUR^INFO,^ALVIN^MCKAY :April was a busy hectic short month for all educators.For us, it was a long busy hectic month, with only the long week-end off, for part of the staff.Our office was host to the Home-School Co-ordinatorsmeeting on April 24th. This was under the direction of the AssistantDirector, Mr. Bob Sterling.On April 25, 26, and 27th - the British Columbia NativeIndian Teachers' Association had their 7th semi-annual conference.This was held at the Jericho Hill School for the deaf and the blind.The primary aim of these semi-annual conferences is to make availableto the members information that they can use as ammunition whenthey go back to their respective schools. A secondary function isto arrive at "plans of actions" (instead of resolutions etc.) -arising from their interpretation of the information received ascompared to their experiences from the previous few months. Theseplans of actions then lend direction for the Indian Education ResourcesCenter, the British Columbia Native Indian Teachers' AssociationMembers as they are involved in future teacher workshops. A thirdfunction is to deal with business (a low priority, since theirCenter Council meets periodically to deal with on-going businessaffairs). A fourth function is for the members to get-togetherto find out about themselves. At the live-in facilities in Jericho.Hill School, the members were able to bring their families, so thispart of the conference was a great success.The theme for this conference was, "Relevant IndianEducation". The keynote speaker was Mr. Walter Currie - an Ojibway,who is now head of the Indian Studies Program at Trent University.According to Mr. Currie, basic to relevancy is that "the natureof the child must determine details of his education - a childmust determine details of his education - the flexibility andadaptability." The student must have a reason for being in school.Being Indian has no meaning by itself, and that education must helpthe Indian to define what he is. To accomplish this aim, Mr. Curriestressed--the fact that education's essential aim is to help thechild to become the best person he wants to become. Within thisbasic framework, Mr. Currie then analyzed weak, irrelevant areasin the field of education. (A tape of his speech will be availableon cassette tapes from our office). Other resources personneldealt with innovative approaches to teaching - with the emphasisbeing on Language Arts. We heard from such programmed approachesas DISTAR, and Education Dynamics. Mr. Jim Inkster, of the NorthVancouver School Board explained an innovative reading approachused in his district. Miss. Mary Ashworth gave an informativetalk on Teaching English As An Additional Language.- 2 -2The five district chairmen of B.C.N.I.T.A. gave reportsof their district workshops, and asked the membership to supportthe plans of actions they presented.Dean Birch - Simon Fraser University; Dr. R. King -University of Victoria; Dr. A. More - University of B.C. sat ona panel to discuss cross-cultural or intercultural courses beingoffered at the universities. This led to a lively discussion onwhat the university could offer in addition to what was beingoffered.Another interesting panel was that comprised of theDepartment of Indian Affairs; the Union of British Columbia IndianChiefs'; the British Columbia Association of Non-Status Indians'.Some common grounds agreed upon was there was lack of direct linesof communication;. if criticism -- their must be alternatives offered;sharing of expertise and materials; all groups to strive for co-operative effort to lesson learning difficulties or tension areas.Many other areas of the Indians' life was discussed._A. high-lite of the three days, was the banquet - adelectable hot, and cold smorgasbOrd, and a fun-dance which followed,and enjoyed by all-******* * ** * ********** * * * *** * * * * * * *********************BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEESSCHOOL DISTRICT N©, 76 (AGAssiz^HARRISON)Appticationz we invited ,/on the pozition o6 Indian Home-School Co-oAdinatorE ()on thi2 ischoot diztAict e66ective June 1, 1973.Appticantz muist have a minimum o6 a Gnade 12 education, 4hou,€d haveknowtedoe o,6 and/or exputience with Indian people, murt be abte totetate wett with school ztudent6 and pa/Lentz, and zhoutd be acquaintedwith the education system. Satam negotiabte. Apply in wAiting byFAiday, May 11,. 1973 to:T. T. NOVIS,SECRETARY - TREASURER,SCHOOL DISTRICT #76BOX 69, AGASSIZ, B. C.***^****^***********************3COUNT DOWN TO END OF SCHOOL YEARALVIN A. MCKAY - DIRECTOR - I.E.R.C.May represents the first stage of end of year activitiesfor most schools.The following are some of the major end of year activitieswe think should be noted: -I. Wrap - Up of Major Units a) use of oral and taped reviewsb) summaries that are correlated to life andother school subjects.c) reporting of term or year projectsd) field trips to be correlated with units ofstudies.II. First Stages of Evaluation of Students a) All four of above wrap-up activitiesshould be used as part of final marksfor students.b) In summarizing all of the years writtentesting, the wrap-up activities shouldbe considered to supplement the lowachievement test results.c) Can schools bend rules to consider oraltesting:III. Placement for Next Academic Year a) teacher meetings - to discuss and comparenotes regarding sections I & II.b) counsellor referrals in reference tosections I & II.c) parent - counsellor conferences inreference to sections I & II.IV. Career Orientation Counselling Every child should have a reason for being in school.For Indian students, perhaps, one of the important reasons is tobe prepared to enter the work field.- 4 -4a) Defining vocation; career; job;aspirations.b) Making available a variety ofchoices in the work field.c) Providing opportunities to visitplaces of employment, or viewingfilms etc.Poor performance in schools, truancy, absenteeism, stagnationin grade levels are symptoms that the above four sections are beingneglected or overlooked. Creating a positive self-image is the bestmotivation or incentive approach. A ready form of materializing thisaim is through providing for the child small measures of successes.The following four articles should help educators to seethe significance of why such emphasis should be entered into at thistime of the year.* ****** * ** * * **********************************SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVERREFLECTIONS REGARDING SCHOOL FAILURECurrent educational literature has produced serious dis-cussions about the failure of many pupils to learn in our schools.While the ghetto schools receive the most publicity, all schoolsare faced with the problem of how and why far tob many pupils failto receive an adequate education.In the past the schools have blamed the parents, thechildren, and in some cases "a teacher". The current trend suggeststhat schools are designed for failure and that education has nottaught teachers how to teach more than a few of the pupils in theirclasses.This summer in preparation for a workshop, I read a numberof books on this topic and selected some of the statements forclass discussion. It occurs to me that these statements might wellbe included here as "food for thought".- 5 -The authors quoted include Glasser, Holt, Engelmann, Rosen-berg, Fantini, Bateman, and some magazine writers whose names Ihaven't remembered.Please keep in mind as you read these that the authors arenot blaming teachers per se, but the faculty education system ofwhich we are all victims. However, most of them do believe thatteachers must accept the responsibility for pupil failure and beopen to new and different technology which can prevent or minimizefailure.1. Our schools are designed for failure and those whosucceed are usually those who can respond in waysprescribed by the teachers. Those who fail usuallyresent school, continue to have poor self-images,and too often become serious problems for theschool and for society.2. Schools do not have programs for early idenfificationof children who will not learn by the usual methodsand, therefore, permit children to experience failuremaking it very difficult for them to be anything butfailures throughout their school lives.3. Schools perpetuate failure by not altering the cur-riculum and teaching techniques to fit a pupil'spotentialities. They reinforce failure by continuingto teach the same way that has already invoked failure.4. Our schools are geared to the language behaviourand background of middle class standards and childrenfrom other homes are not really accepted or givenappropriate learning experiences.5. In the American educational system, in order to learn,a child must read. If he does not learn to readhe does not receive an education in our schools,although there is in our society a large amount ofinstructional material which does not depend uponprint.6. Many children today may not be suffering from learn-ing disabilities but from teaching disabilities.Education has not taught teachers that teaching isa technology.7. All children who fail in school have one thing incommon. They are all products of prior teachingthat has failed.- 6 -8. We keep our own mouths so busy we fail to hear whatcomes out of theirs (children's)... When a teachertalks too much he prevents interaction and feedbackwhich does not find out what pupils know or believe.9. Schools do not usually teach pupils how to learn,how to use what they learn, or that there is a pay-off for learning.10. Teachers with content goals emphasize leading studentsthrough a particular subject matter in the quickesttime possible. They place learning how to learnsecondary to the rapid acquisition of specific content.11. Teachers often try to teach too much at one sitting.They spend too long on a task, drill too much, andremove whatever reinforcing properties (enjoyment)that the task might have had for the children.12. Too many teachers go through the motions of teachingat a particular grade level without teaching thechildren the skills pre-requisite to handling gradelevel tasks, taking the time required to do athorough job.13. Teachers tend to take the credit when pupils learn("I taught them"), and deny responsibility for thosepupils who do not learn ("They lacked aptitude""They were immature" "They ....)14. Traditionally, teaching presentation contains elementsof punishment and failure and reinforces (givesattention to) failure more frequently than success.15. Teachers often spend most of the school day workingon behaviour -- admonishing and commanding rather thanteaching.16. Fear of failure is one of the most powerful deterrentsto learning. The student who is inordinately afraidto making a mistake is inclined to withdraw fromactive learning. He would rather not learn than ex-pose himself to failure. He will go to great lengthsto build defenses and avoid becoming involved.17. For some children "emotional disturbances" is a primarycause of their learning problems. But for many otherchildren emotional problems are the result, not thecause. A child who consistently fails in his school- 7 -7^17. work is very likely to develop emotional problems evenif none were present initially. Often diagnostic pro-cedures have uncovered an organic, neurological basisof many learning and behavioural problems believed tohave been primarily emotional in the past.18. By focussing on aptitude, educators close the door oneducation -- they see the child's failure to learnnot as a function of what he has been taught, but asa function of his aptitude.19. The certainty principle: "There is a right and wronganswer to every question," (questions that educatorshave decided are important) makes memorization moreimportant than thinking. Memorizing facts leads toboredom for those who are successful and frustrationand misery for those who are not ... The "Certaintyprinciple" with its total inability to provide studentswith emotional satisfaction commensurate with theirefforts (as thinking can do) is an important cause ofeducation failure.Fact-centered, non-thinking education is a prime causeof discipline problems and failure. Pupils never geta chance to express their interests or ideas or tosolve problems.20. Many students fail because they don't know what isexpected of them. This happens because teachers do notknow how to define goals clearly and to evaluate pupilsin terms of these goals. (Everybody functions in afog of the teacher's making).21. If a teacher expects a child to fail he usually does.This can also apply to a whole class. (The self-ful-filling prophecy).22. Some children fail because too often teachers carry abuilt-in bias against the child (or children) who"does (do) not belong in their classrooms."23. Many pupils do not see schools as places that satisfyeither their present or future needs. Our failureto teach students or to help them discover the relation-ship of what they are learning to their lives is amajor cause of failure in our schools.24. Too much school material is unrealistic, unemotional,and dull -- unless school materials are changed,failures will increase because children seem unableto get started without that bridge to relevance.- 8 -25. Probably the school failure that most produces failurein students is grading... In elementary schools, gradesset the stage for early failure... Grades have becomemoral equivalents -- a good grade is correlated withgood behaviour, a bad grade with bad behaviour. Mostchildren regard C's and D's as "failing" grades. A'sand B's are the grades of the "successful" students.26. Schools fail to teach pupils to gain and maintain asuccessful identity through the needed pathways ofsocial responsibility (love) and self-worth.27. We're too casual about nurturing children who have goodfeelings. We're too negligent about nurturing childrenwho are low achievers.28. Another important contribution to educational failureis the assignment of excessive, tedious and oftenirrelevant homework.29. Unfortunately the operational definition of qualityeducation is "grade level or above performance inbasic skills and academic achievement, as measuredby standardized tests". Teachers and administratorsare imprisoned by this definition and many argue thatquality education could be purveyed by the schools iffour conditions were met:1. smaller classes^2. riddance of disruptive pupils3. materials that keep learners engaged 4. freedomfrom routine administrative details and interruptionof classes.These demands of teachers are quite realistic, given the in-stitutional setting in which they are asked to implement "quality"education, even, though thus far, where these conditions have beenimplemented, the results still are not encouraging.Hiring more specilists, building better buildings, decreasingclass size while desirable, will not solve our problems, for thereare problems inherent in the educational system itself that not onlycause school problems, but that accentuate the problems a child maybring to school.From the: "The Pacesetter"Vol. III, #1, 9/10/69******* * ****** * * * ***** * ***** * ****** *** ***9SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVERINFERIORITY FEELINGS AND THEIR EFFECTSMAURICE L. BULLARDThere are three main types of inferiority feelings and twoof these can be beneficial.1. (Good)^Biological inferiority has caused man toform groups for protection, develop his intellect touse tools, and to generally become the master ofnature.2. (Good) A cosmic inferiority in which man realizedhis minuteness in the universe and his inevitablelimit of earthly existence culminating in death.This inferiority has compelled him to achieve inphilosophy, art, and religion.3.^(Destructive; it sets him up against others) ^Socialinferiority comes from the child's interpretation ofhis experiences of smallness in contrast to the size,power, and abilities of adults and older siblings.This social inferiority may be a minimal amount with noharmful after effects, or it may be so severe as to require medicalcare. The relationship within the family largely determines theextent and severity of these inferiority feelings. Mistaken methodsof child reading, even when stemming from the best of intentions arejust as harmful as outright neglect, rejection, or sadistic treatment. The importance of an understanding by parents and teachersof the dynamics of inferiority feelings can hardly be overemphasized.SOME TYPICAL OBSTACLES TO SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO INFERIORITY FEELINGS.1. Spoiling and pampering (one of the worst obstacles)2. Lovelessness, neglect, and rejection.3. Anxiety, excessive supervision.4. Excessive talking, extracting promises, nagging,fault-finding, disparagement.5. Physical punishment and retaliation.**** ***** ******************- 10-SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVERCOMPETITION VERSUS CO-OPERATIONFROM: PSYCHOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOMRUDOLF DREIKURS, M.D.A competitive atmosphere in a class prevents integration ofeach child into the group. In such a setting no one child can besure of his place, a pre-requisite for harmonious function withina group. The development of a competitive atmosphere does much tobreak down good spirit. It makes one feel superior and the otherinferior. Then no co-operation or team work is possible.The differences in behaviour of students working underco-operative conditions in contrast to a competitive atmospherehave been widely studied. When members of a class see themselvescompeting for their own individual superiority, co-operative effort,friendliness, and pride in the group diminish and disappear.Co-operation is a rather difficult complex of skills thatcannot be easily obtained or used if competitive strife exists.Elimination of the latter in the classroom can be accomplishedthrough group projects, which are an irportant means of integration.They stimulate co-operative efforts. The child does not serveselfish ends, but goals of the whole group if he participates ina group project. We can gain status and enjoy the significance ofhis contribution even if it is less impressive than that of hisfellow students. Each can make his own significant contributionwithout any comparative evaluation with that of others.Many objections are voiced to our suggestion that parentsand teachers avoid competitive strife amongst the children. Weare told that we should train our children in competitive effortssince they will have to live in a highly competitive society. Thisassumption is fallacious. The less competitive a person is, thebetter he can stand up under extreme competition. If he is merelycontent to do his job, then he is not disturbed by what his com-petitor may do or achieve. A competitive person can stand com-petition only if he succeeds.**** *****^****** **** **** * ************ ** ****** ***************** ** ************* ***^***************SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVERWORKING TOWARD INCREASED SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITYThe amount of social interest a child acquires, determinesthe success, and happiness of his later life.Qualities for social interest (responsibility) include:1. Has a good opinion of himself (high self-esteem)2. Has confidence in himself.3. Feels he belongs (in particular situations,in the world).4. Is independent.5. Respects rights of others.6. Feels concern for others, mankind,human welfare.7. Encourages others.8. Is willing to share.9. Wins and holds friends.10. Is optimistic, forward-looking.11. Is co-operative.12. Puts forth genuine effort.13. Achieves success in normal tasks of life.14. Remains encouraged on occasional failures.15. Can solve problems.16. Accepts responsibility willingly.17. Contributes to the whole.18. Is situation--centered (needs of situation)19. Thinks in terms of "we" rather than "I".**************Intermediate School District 109Everett, Washington.Articles of Supplementary Reading for Parents.Alfred Adler Institute of Chicago, 1970.*******************************- 12-THOUGHTSAMELIA ROBERTSWhat do you think^ when you zee an old dog...AiLen't hiz eyes sad.What do you think o4Do you think they undeAstand us?I wondet what they think o4 Humans.What do you think o.6 a Cow?They give us a tot...They give us milk iot nomishment...They give us meat {yon muActe...What do you think o4 a Skunk?Don't you think he .us aw6we tontey...Ptobabty haz no ptiends.What do you think o4 an old, old man...Don't you think he iz wise?Do you think the ofd wise men sit Mack, and Laugh, at the young makingthe 't mistakes.What do you think o6 ycwt Mothet?Isn't she a Guardian. Angee.What do you think o your Father?Isn't he Super man.What do you think o6 Panentz?Don't you think they're a tittee bit proud, and a. tittte bit 'sad asthey watch the it chiedten glow-up, and Leave home.What do you think o4 yours SL ter?Isn't she oecious.What do you think o4 yout lkothet?Isn't he ztAong.What do you think o4 Leaves, TAees, and Howens?Don't you think it'4 ti 6e 1 way o4 zaying, 1 Love You.What do you think o6 the Mountains?Ate they the/Le ion production....Au they there to took at ot...Do you think they ate there Got you to aimb?What do you think o/C the EaAth?The Eatth we use to plant outs (ouitis, and vegetabtes...The wand we use to pant ow bwiedinos...What do you think o4 dint?Don't you think we showed get down on out knees, and kiss Lt.What do you think o6 a Btind PeAson?Do you think their tonettaDo you think that they can appAeciate ti tie mote than the nest.- 13 -What do you think o6 a New Bonn Baby?Axen't they eager...What are your thoughtz...when you zee a New Bonn Baby...Don't you think o6 Tommonnow?What do you think 06 TOMMOAADW?Lon't it a Pnomize.What do you think of Today?Don't you think it'4 a gig.What do you think of death?Do you think it'A the end on do you think .it's a nest 4nom the woned...What do you think oi the Veva?He's, not even neat,.What do you think (16 Angex...Izn't it uncontnottabee.What do you think o6 Laughter...Izn't it xeptezhing?What do you think o6 Ugtinezz...Don't you think thexe'z no ouch thing?What do you think o6 LiO?Don't you think .c t' wonthwhift.What do you think o6 Love?Un't it beautiflut...What do you think o6 God?Izn't he genetouz.What do you think^me?I think yam. nice.ANNOUNCEMENTSART CONTEST RESULTS FOR INDIAN STUDENTS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE BY THE ENDOF MAY, 1973. (STANDINGS, AND AWARDS).****************************^ *I*COPIES OF PROFESSOR WAhTER CURRIE'S SPEECH TO THE BRITISH COLUMBIANATIVE INDIAN TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION EASTER CONFERENCE --- ARE AVAIL-ABLE FROM OUR OFFICE. JUST SEND US A BLANK 90 MINUTE CASSETTE TAPE.(C-90).************************** - 14 -TRIBE: Stoat° (Coazt Sa1L4h)* * ** ****^AGE:^19 yn/s.* *^*^* ** * ***** ** * ***********************- 14 -SUMMARY - HOME-SCHOOL CO-ORDINATORS GROUP MEETINGROBERT STERLING -7 ASSISTANT DIRECTOROne day before the scheduled semi-annual B.C.N.I.T.A. Conferencethe Home-School Co-ordinators of British. Columbia met as a group for thefirst time. Most members were in attendance that April 24th to discusstopics of concern that relate specifically to function of Home-SchoolCo-ordinators. Parent involvement, counselling, liaison, and grass rootsproblems such as truancy, dropping out of school, under achievement,under participation, lack of communication, teachers labelling students,teacher turnover, islolation problems, parental problems were topicsdiscussed at this meeting.Systematically we approached these problems in relation to theeffect these problems have on a students preparation for adult life andin relation to the specific ways in which the services of the Home-SchoolCo-ordinator could improve situations and conditions for the student.We discussed: (a) the priorities of the Home-School Co-ordinator(b)the summer Home-School Co-ordinator Course andhow it could be of maximum benefit to H.S.C.'s(c)the possible impact of new Department of IndianAffairs policies which. place Home-School Co-ordinator programme under Contributions to Bandsprogramme.(d)Exchange of ideas(e)the all-important working relationship with theUnion of B.C. Indian Chiefs and B.C. Associationof Non-Status Indians.Three main points were unanimously agreed upon:(1)The Indian education Resources Center be giventhe authority to co-ordinate the Home-SchoolProgramme from an informational aspect.(2)The summer Home-School Co-ordinator Course bemade open to more people and that it containenriched resource and orientation topics usefulto Home-School Co-ordinators.(3) That B.C.N.I.T.A. on behalf of Home-School Co-ordinators recommend to Indian Affairs andother funding sources that the suggested case-load for a single Home-School Co-ordinator beset at 250 students.These points will be brought to the Center Council for action attheir next meeting on May 25.The Home-School Co-ordinators group discussion on April 24th andon the afternoon of April 27th gave the group an excellent opportunity tomeet each other, exchange ideas and bring up points of concern that hithome to the minds of every Home-School Co-ordinator.Reports, circulars, and other informative data will go out toHome-School Co-ordinators on a regular basis.0.6^15 -*****************- 15 -ANNOUNCEMENTSMAILING LIST --- ANYONE CHANGING ADDRESSES AT THE END OF SCHOOL TERM,SHOULD ADVISE OUR OFFICE BEFORE LEAVING AT THE END OF JUNE.*******************************^******** ***THE INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER OFFICE IS OPEN REGULAR WORKINGHOURS DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS.***************************************^.*!* *** *HOME-SCHOOL CO-ORDINATORS' SUMMER COURSE AT U.B.C. - DETAILS TO BEANNOUNCED AND MAILED OUT BY THE. ENV OF MAY. ANYONE INTERESTED INTAKING THIS COURSE, PLEASE WRITE TO MR. ROBERT W. STERLING IMMEDIATELY,ADDRESS ON NEWSLETTER.*************^******************i****BOOK LOANS FROM INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER:- 3 BOOKS FOR ONE WEEK PER PERSON.- 5 PER DAY, PER BOOK FOR OVERDUE BOOKS.- ANY LOANS BEYOND THREE (3) BOOK LIMITWILL REOUIRE A DEPOSIT OF ONE-HALFTHE VALUE OF ALL THE BOOKS, DEPOSITSWILL BE RETURNED IN FULL PROVIDINGTHAT, ALL BOOKS ARE IN THE CONDITIONTHEY LEFT THE LIBRARY OF I.E.R.C.- LOST BOOKS WILL BE THE RESPONSIBILITYOF THE BORROWER -- TO COVER THE COSTOF THE LOST BOOK.######-#41. -#####*###################### ## #*##*###############*#*########### #    - 16 -- 16 -TERRACE SEMINAR FOR STUDENT TEACHERS'DR. ART MORE"Was I ever hassled by that class of grade 8 boys"; "Whata great bunch of people over at this Indian Village"; "What do Ido when a grade 3 girl is caught stealing lunches because she hasn'thad a square meal in two days?"; "How do I convince that teacherthat we should have more local Indian people at school for our uniton British Columbia Indians?".These question and others like them were heard at a week-end seminar in Terrace for sixteen student teachers' in the IndianEducation Course at U.B.C. The seminar was part of a project, arrangedby Dr. Art More who teachers the Indian Education course, to move thelearning experiences outside of the university walls into communitieswhere the class members might end-up teaching. During the wintersession class members had been urged to spend as much time as possiblein Indian communities outside of the Vancouver area.The seminar was arranged to bring together student teachers'from the North Coast area, and from as far away as Ucluelet to in-teract with each other, Indian educators and teachers about theirstudent teaching experiences.Resource people at the seminar included: George Wilson -Director of Indian Education for British Columbia, and Chairman ofCenter Council for the British Columbia Native Indian Teachers'Association (BCNITA); Bertram McKay - Principal at Aiyansh, andPresident of BCNITA; Audrey McKay - mother or two, and president ofthe Aiyansh school committee; Dr. Buff Oldridge from U.B.C.; KathyHyde - Indian Studies class teacher at Masset, and a former studentin the course; and Lee Bullen, Supervisor of Instruction in theQueen Charlottes.The main purpose of the retreat was to give the studentteachers a chance to re-organize, and develop their objectives,attitudes, and teaching styles, particularly in relation to theirIndian students. The student teachers has numerous experienceswith Indian people during the Indian Education course, but theseexperiences are of a relatively transitory nature. The finalpracticum is the first time that many of them have an in-depth,local experience with Indian people, lasting more than a few days.As a result they were re-thinking their ideas, changing, anddeveloping their attitudes, and generally having to assimilatemany new and different experiences.- 17 -- 17 -A highlight of the seminar was the presentation of Bertand Audrey McKay, about the views of Indian people towardseducation and teachers. Another highlight was discussion spear-headed by Buff Oldridge about the basic needs for love andself-esteem that all children need. Other topics of discussionranged from comments by George Wilson about regarding Indian peopleas fellow human beings, to a description of the Indian Studiescourse at Masset by Kathy Hyde, to descriptions of developmental andresearch projects at Terrace and on the Queen Charlottes. Consider-able time was also spent on specific problems and situations thatstudent teachers had found themselves in. Saturday afternoon endedwith a slide presentation on Kitselas Canyon by Dave Walker.Student teachers were Linda Broadhead, Bradley Hunt, andLinda Poole from Masset; Mike Nahachewski from Queen Charlotte City;Wayne Sawyer from Prince Rupert; Rob Wilson, Barb. Pinkerton, Dennisand Ethel Laidlaw, Karay Wing, and Pat Marrion from Terrace; KathyKeller from Kitimat; Theresa Slik, Jacques Slik and Virginia Smithfrom Ha2elton; and Wendy Leong from Ucluelet.Other resource people were Don Cunningham, and Dave Walkerfrom Skeena Junior High, Bob Bussanich from Caledonia, and MurielRoberts from the Indian Education Resources Center.The seminar was funded by the provincial Department ofEducation.* ******************** **************************^***^****** *^**** ****INDIAN EDUCATION COURSE AT KITIMAAT/TERRACEAn Indian Education course will be offered for the firsttime in the Kitimaat/Terrace area, during the Winter Session 1973/74. The course will be given through the U.B.C. Center for ContinuingEducation, and will be taught by Dr. Art More, and a variety of Indianand non-Indian people from the Skeena area.The course, officially designated as Education 479 - CrossCultural Education (Native Indians), may be taken for three unitsuniversity credit or may be audited. It is aimed primarily atteachers but others interested in Indian Education are also verywelcome.The course has been offered in previous years at U.B.C.,at Summer Session in Williams Lake and in Chilliwack.- 18-The course is designed:to aid-teachers in developing the ability to adapteducation to the needs of Indian students. A basicassumption in the course is that, while there aremany similarities, and differences between allchildren, present educational programs often do nottake into account differences, mostly cultural andeconomic which many Indian children share.The course will be presented by many individualsincluding Indian teachers and students; representa-tives of Indian organizations; representatives ofother educational organizations; and people know-ledgeable of the culture and way of life of theIndian people of the area.The content is divided into two parts. Part Iemphasis background knowledge and includes his-torical and contemporary background; attitudestoward education by Indian parents, teachers,students and organizations; and policies of theprovincial Department of Education, Departmentof Indian Affairs and B. C. Teachers. Part IIemphasizes adapting teaching, using communityresources, and dealing with potential problemareas.The class will meet approximately eight times, usually onSaturdays at various locations including Terrace, Kitimaat, andsome of the surrounding villages. The final schedule will beavailable by July.For further information contact Dr. Art More, Facultyof Education, U.B.C., 2419 - Education Bldg., Vancouver 8, B. C.(Phone: 228-5240) or the Indian Education Resources Center.*************************A CONTEMPORARY TOTEMFROM AN IDEA BY RICK DAWN & RANDY WHITEThe contemporary totem is intended to help students under-stand the purposes of totem poles without attempting to make poorcopies of the originals.- 19 -■-E--- "----0" A 0.400- 19 -The totem has been used to display photos and drawings ofIndian communities near the calssroom when it is situated. It hasalso been used with various symbols and designs on it to illustratethe various meanings of totem poles.We leave it to the reader's imagination and his knowledgeof his own locale, to use the contemporary totem in the best mannerfor his classroom.It is basically a box, 48 inches long and 16 inches widestanding on end. (See illustration below):/6Diagram 1^ Diagram 2Frame Finished TotemMATERIALS 2 X 2 Fir or Pine (actual dimensions 11/2" X 11/2")4 pieces, 48" long.4 pieces, 13" long.- 20 -C L0066F c1,41...._,C411.12ST73 7-',- ARY-CI^P S^C -24--20-...MATERIALS 3/8" Fir plywood, sanded on one side,2 pieces, 16" by 48".2 pieces, 16 3/4" by 48".1 piece, 16 3/4" by 16 3/4".Flathead screws, 16- 21/4" long (or 231; common nails)Finishing nails, 11/2"long, 36 nails.Walnut or oak stain, 1 small tin.INSTRUCTIONSConstruct two frames with 2 X 2, as shown in diagram 1. Holdtogether with 21/4" screws or nails.Nail a piece of 16" X 48" plywood to each frame using finish-ing nails.N'ail 16 3/4 " X 48" plywood pieces to hold frames together,and complete the box shape. Stand box on end and nail 16 3/4" X 16 3/4"plywood over top. Sand lightly.Stain box according to directions on container.Now you are ready to mount photos, designs, drawings or useyour contemporary totem as you wish.^** ***^**^** *** **** *** ****************************************gala": ecturation Vetsourced Cott,ezoot 106 - Eked 'Na l, za.c.fliancoame 8, a --


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