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Indian Education Newsletter (Vol. 3, No. 8/9) 2011

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'Indian Education NewsletterIndian Education Resources CenterRoom 106 - Brock HallUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouver 8, B.C. Phone: 228-4662 FOR^YOUR^INFO,^ALVIN^MCKAY : April was a busy hectic short month for all educators. For us, it was a long busy hectic month, with only the long week- end off, for part of the staff. Our office was host to the Home-School Co-ordinators meeting on April 24th. This was under the direction of the Assistant Director, Mr. Bob Sterling. On April 25, 26, and 27th - the British Columbia Native Indian Teachers' Association had their 7th semi-annual conference. This was held at the Jericho Hill School for the deaf and the blind. The primary aim of these semi-annual conferences is to make available to the members information that they can use as ammunition when they go back to their respective schools. A secondary function is to arrive at "plans of actions" (instead of resolutions etc.) - arising from their interpretation of the information received as compared to their experiences from the previous few months. These plans of actions then lend direction for the Indian Education Resources Center, the British Columbia Native Indian Teachers' Association Members as they are involved in future teacher workshops. A third function is to deal with business (a low priority, since their Center Council meets periodically to deal with on-going business affairs). A fourth function is for the members to get-together to find out about themselves. At the live-in facilities in Jericho . Hill School, the members were able to bring their families, so this part of the conference was a great success. The theme for this conference was, "Relevant Indian Education". The keynote speaker was Mr. Walter Currie - an Ojibway, who is now head of the Indian Studies Program at Trent University. According to Mr. Currie, basic to relevancy is that "the nature of the child must determine details of his education - a child must determine details of his education - the flexibility and adaptability." The student must have a reason for being in school. Being Indian has no meaning by itself, and that education must help the Indian to define what he is. To accomplish this aim, Mr. Currie stressed--the fact that education's essential aim is to help the child to become the best person he wants to become. Within this basic framework, Mr. Currie then analyzed weak, irrelevant areas in the field of education. (A tape of his speech will be available on cassette tapes from our office). Other resources personnel dealt with innovative approaches to teaching - with the emphasis being on Language Arts. We heard from such programmed approaches as DISTAR, and Education Dynamics. Mr. Jim Inkster, of the North Vancouver School Board explained an innovative reading approach used in his district. Miss. Mary Ashworth gave an informative talk on Teaching English As An Additional Language. - 2 - 2The five district chairmen of B.C.N.I.T.A. gave reports of their district workshops, and asked the membership to support the plans of actions they presented. Dean Birch - Simon Fraser University; Dr. R. King - University of Victoria; Dr. A. More - University of B.C. sat on a panel to discuss cross-cultural or intercultural courses being offered at the universities. This led to a lively discussion on what the university could offer in addition to what was being offered. Another interesting panel was that comprised of the Department of Indian Affairs; the Union of British Columbia Indian Chiefs'; the British Columbia Association of Non-Status Indians'. Some common grounds agreed upon was there was lack of direct lines of communication;. if criticism -- their must be alternatives offered; sharing of expertise and materials; all groups to strive for co- operative effort to lesson learning difficulties or tension areas. Many other areas of the Indians' life was discussed. _A. high-lite of the three days, was the banquet - a delectable hot, and cold smorgasbOrd, and a fun-dance which followed, and enjoyed by all- ******* * ** * ********** * * * *** * * * * * * ******************** * BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES SCHOOL DISTRICT N©, 76 (AGAssiz^HARRISON) Appticationz we invited ,/on the pozition o6 Indian Home- School Co-oAdinatorE () on thi2 ischoot diztAict e66ective June 1, 1973. Appticantz muist have a minimum o6 a Gnade 12 education, 4 hou,€d have knowtedoe o ,6 and/or exputience with Indian people, murt be abte to tetate wett with school ztudent6 and pa/Lentz, and zhoutd be acquainted with the education system. Satam negotiabte. Apply in wAiting by FAiday, May 11,. 1973 to: T. T. NOVIS, SECRETARY - TREASURER, SCHOOL DISTRICT #76 BOX 69, AGASSIZ, B. C. ***^****^*********************** 3COUNT DOWN TO END OF SCHOOL YEAR ALVIN A. MCKAY - DIRECTOR - I.E.R.C. May represents the first stage of end of year activities for most schools. The following are some of the major end of year activities we think should be noted: - I. Wrap - Up of Major Units a) use of oral and taped reviews b) summaries that are correlated to life and other school subjects. c) reporting of term or year projects d) field trips to be correlated with units of studies. II. First Stages of Evaluation of Students a) All four of above wrap-up activities should be used as part of final marks for students. b) In summarizing all of the years written testing, the wrap-up activities should be considered to supplement the low achievement test results. c) Can schools bend rules to consider oral testing: III. Placement for Next Academic Year a) teacher meetings - to discuss and compare notes regarding sections I & II. b) counsellor referrals in reference to sections I & II. c) parent - counsellor conferences in reference to sections I & II. IV. Career Orientation Counselling Every child should have a reason for being in school. For Indian students, perhaps, one of the important reasons is to be prepared to enter the work field. - 4 - 4a) Defining vocation; career; job; aspirations. b) Making available a variety of choices in the work field. c) Providing opportunities to visit places of employment, or viewing films etc. Poor performance in schools, truancy, absenteeism, stagnation in grade levels are symptoms that the above four sections are being neglected or overlooked. Creating a positive self-image is the best motivation or incentive approach. A ready form of materializing this aim is through providing for the child small measures of successes. The following four articles should help educators to see the significance of why such emphasis should be entered into at this time of the year. * ** ** ** * ** * * ********************************** SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVER REFLECTIONS REGARDING SCHOOL FAILURE Current educational literature has produced serious dis- cussions about the failure of many pupils to learn in our schools. While the ghetto schools receive the most publicity, all schools are faced with the problem of how and why far tob many pupils fail to receive an adequate education. In the past the schools have blamed the parents, the children, and in some cases "a teacher". The current trend suggests that schools are designed for failure and that education has not taught teachers how to teach more than a few of the pupils in their classes. This summer in preparation for a workshop, I read a number of books on this topic and selected some of the statements for class discussion. It occurs to me that these statements might well be included here as "food for thought". - 5 - The authors quoted include Glasser, Holt, Engelmann, Rosen- berg, Fantini, Bateman, and some magazine writers whose names I haven't remembered. Please keep in mind as you read these that the authors are not blaming teachers per se, but the faculty education system of which we are all victims. However, most of them do believe that teachers must accept the responsibility for pupil failure and be open to new and different technology which can prevent or minimize failure. 1. Our schools are designed for failure and those who succeed are usually those who can respond in ways prescribed by the teachers. Those who fail usually resent school, continue to have poor self-images, and too often become serious problems for the school and for society. 2. Schools do not have programs for early idenfification of children who will not learn by the usual methods and, therefore, permit children to experience failure making it very difficult for them to be anything but failures throughout their school lives. 3. Schools perpetuate failure by not altering the cur- riculum and teaching techniques to fit a pupil's potentialities. They reinforce failure by continuing to teach the same way that has already invoked failure. 4. Our schools are geared to the language behaviour and background of middle class standards and children from other homes are not really accepted or given appropriate learning experiences. 5. In the American educational system, in order to learn, a child must read. If he does not learn to read he does not receive an education in our schools, although there is in our society a large amount of instructional material which does not depend upon print. 6. Many children today may not be suffering from learn- ing disabilities but from teaching disabilities. Education has not taught teachers that teaching is a technology. 7. All children who fail in school have one thing in common. They are all products of prior teaching that has failed. - 6 - 8. We keep our own mouths so busy we fail to hear what comes out of theirs (children's)... When a teacher talks too much he prevents interaction and feedback which does not find out what pupils know or believe. 9. Schools do not usually teach pupils how to learn, how to use what they learn, or that there is a pay- off for learning. 10. Teachers with content goals emphasize leading students through a particular subject matter in the quickest time possible. They place learning how to learn secondary to the rapid acquisition of specific content. 11. Teachers often try to teach too much at one sitting. They spend too long on a task, drill too much, and remove whatever reinforcing properties (enjoyment) that the task might have had for the children. 12. Too many teachers go through the motions of teaching at a particular grade level without teaching the children the skills pre-requisite to handling grade level tasks, taking the time required to do a thorough job. 13. Teachers tend to take the credit when pupils learn ("I taught them"), and deny responsibility for those pupils who do not learn ("They lacked aptitude" "They were immature" "They ....) 14. Traditionally, teaching presentation contains elements of punishment and failure and reinforces (gives attention to) failure more frequently than success. 15. Teachers often spend most of the school day working on behaviour -- admonishing and commanding rather than teaching. 16. Fear of failure is one of the most powerful deterrents to learning. The student who is inordinately afraid to making a mistake is inclined to withdraw from active learning. He would rather not learn than ex- pose himself to failure. He will go to great lengths to build defenses and avoid becoming involved. 17. For some children "emotional disturbances" is a primary cause of their learning problems. But for many other children emotional problems are the result, not the cause. A child who consistently fails in his school - 7 - 7^17. work is very likely to develop emotional problems even if none were present initially. Often diagnostic pro- cedures have uncovered an organic, neurological basis of many learning and behavioural problems believed to have been primarily emotional in the past. 18. By focussing on aptitude, educators close the door on education -- they see the child's failure to learn not as a function of what he has been taught, but as a function of his aptitude. 19. The certainty principle: "There is a right and wrong answer to every question," (questions that educators have decided are important) makes memorization more important than thinking. Memorizing facts leads to boredom for those who are successful and frustration and misery for those who are not ... The "Certainty principle" with its total inability to provide students with emotional satisfaction commensurate with their efforts (as thinking can do) is an important cause of education failure. Fact-centered, non-thinking education is a prime cause of discipline problems and failure. Pupils never get a chance to express their interests or ideas or to solve problems. 20. Many students fail because they don't know what is expected of them. This happens because teachers do not know how to define goals clearly and to evaluate pupils in terms of these goals. (Everybody functions in a fog of the teacher's making). 21. If a teacher expects a child to fail he usually does. This can also apply to a whole class. (The self-ful- filling prophecy). 22. Some children fail because too often teachers carry a built-in bias against the child (or children) who "does (do) not belong in their classrooms." 23. Many pupils do not see schools as places that satisfy either their present or future needs. Our failure to teach students or to help them discover the relation- ship of what they are learning to their lives is a major cause of failure in our schools. 24. Too much school material is unrealistic, unemotional, and dull -- unless school materials are changed, failures will increase because children seem unable to get started without that bridge to relevance. - 8 - 25. Probably the school failure that most produces failure in students is grading... In elementary schools, grades set the stage for early failure... Grades have become moral equivalents -- a good grade is correlated with good behaviour, a bad grade with bad behaviour. Most children regard C's and D's as "failing" grades. A's and B's are the grades of the "successful" students. 26. Schools fail to teach pupils to gain and maintain a successful identity through the needed pathways of social responsibility (love) and self-worth. 27. We're too casual about nurturing children who have good feelings. We're too negligent about nurturing children who are low achievers. 28. Another important contribution to educational failure is the assignment of excessive, tedious and often irrelevant homework. 29. Unfortunately the operational definition of quality education is "grade level or above performance in basic skills and academic achievement, as measured by standardized tests". Teachers and administrators are imprisoned by this definition and many argue that quality education could be purveyed by the schools if four conditions were met: 1. smaller classes^2. riddance of disruptive pupils 3. materials that keep learners engaged 4. freedom from routine administrative details and interruption of classes. These demands of teachers are quite realistic, given the in- stitutional setting in which they are asked to implement "quality" education, even, though thus far, where these conditions have been implemented, the results still are not encouraging. Hiring more specilists, building better buildings, decreasing class size while desirable, will not solve our problems, for there are problems inherent in the educational system itself that not only cause school problems, but that accentuate the problems a child may bring to school. From the: "The Pacesetter" Vol. III, #1, 9/10/69 ******* * ****** * * * ***** * ***** * ****** *** *** 9SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVER INFERIORITY FEELINGS AND THEIR EFFECTS MAURICE L. BULLARD There are three main types of inferiority feelings and two of these can be beneficial. 1. (Good)^Biological inferiority has caused man to form groups for protection, develop his intellect to use tools, and to generally become the master of nature. 2. (Good) A cosmic inferiority in which man realized his minuteness in the universe and his inevitable limit of earthly existence culminating in death. This inferiority has compelled him to achieve in philosophy, art, and religion. 3.^(Destructive; it sets him up against others)^Social inferiority comes from the child's interpretation of his experiences of smallness in contrast to the size, power, and abilities of adults and older siblings. This social inferiority may be a minimal amount with no harmful after effects, or it may be so severe as to require medical care. The relationship within the family largely determines the extent and severity of these inferiority feelings. Mistaken methods of child reading, even when stemming from the best of intentions are just as harmful as outright neglect, rejection, or sadistic treatment. • The importance of an understanding by parents and teachers of the dynamics of inferiority feelings can hardly be overemphasized. SOME TYPICAL OBSTACLES TO SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO INFERIORITY FEELINGS. 1. Spoiling and pampering (one of the worst obstacles) 2. Lovelessness, neglect, and rejection. 3. Anxiety, excessive supervision. 4. Excessive talking, extracting promises, nagging, fault-finding, disparagement. 5. Physical punishment and retaliation. **** * **** *************** *** - 10- SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVER COMPETITION VERSUS CO-OPERATION FROM: PSYCHOLOGY IN THE CLASSROOM RUDOLF DREIKURS, M.D. A competitive atmosphere in a class prevents integration of each child into the group. In such a setting no one child can be sure of his place, a pre-requisite for harmonious function within a group. The development of a competitive atmosphere does much to break down good spirit. It makes one feel superior and the other inferior. Then no co-operation or team work is possible. The differences in behaviour of students working under co-operative conditions in contrast to a competitive atmosphere have been widely studied. When members of a class see themselves competing for their own individual superiority, co-operative effort, friendliness, and pride in the group diminish and disappear. Co-operation is a rather difficult complex of skills that cannot be easily obtained or used if competitive strife exists. Elimination of the latter in the classroom can be accomplished through group projects, which are an irportant means of integration. They stimulate co-operative efforts. The child does not serve selfish ends, but goals of the whole group if he participates in a group project. We can gain status and enjoy the significance of his contribution even if it is less impressive than that of his fellow students. Each can make his own significant contribution without any comparative evaluation with that of others. Many objections are voiced to our suggestion that parents and teachers avoid competitive strife amongst the children. We are told that we should train our children in competitive efforts since they will have to live in a highly competitive society. This assumption is fallacious. The less competitive a person is, the better he can stand up under extreme competition. If he is merely content to do his job, then he is not disturbed by what his com- petitor may do or achieve. A competitive person can stand com- petition only if he succeeds. **** *****^****** **** **** * *********** * ** ** **** ***************** ** ************* ***^************** * SCHOOL DISTRICT #44 - NORTH VANCOUVER WORKING TOWARD INCREASED SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The amount of social interest a child acquires, determines the success, and happiness of his later life. Qualities for social interest (responsibility) include: 1. Has a good opinion of himself (high self-esteem) 2. Has confidence in himself. 3. Feels he belongs (in particular situations, in the world). 4. Is independent. 5. Respects rights of others. 6. Feels concern for others, mankind, human welfare. 7. Encourages others. 8. Is willing to share. 9. Wins and holds friends. 10. Is optimistic, forward-looking. 11. Is co-operative. 12. Puts forth genuine effort. 13. Achieves success in normal tasks of life. 14. Remains encouraged on occasional failures. 15. Can solve problems. 16. Accepts responsibility willingly. 17. Contributes to the whole. 18. Is situation--centered (needs of situation) 19. Thinks in terms of "we" rather than "I". ************** Intermediate School District 109 Everett, Washington. Articles of Supplementary Reading for Parents. Alfred Adler Institute of Chicago, 1970. ******************************* - 12- THOUGHTS AMELIA ROBERTS What do you think^when you zee an old dog... AiLen't hiz eyes sad. What do you think o4 Do you think they undeAstand us? I wondet what they think o4 Humans. What do you think o.6 a Cow? They give us a tot... They give us milk iot nomishment... They give us meat {y on muActe... What do you think o4 a Skunk? Don't you think he .us aw6we tontey... Ptobabty haz no ptiends. What do you think o4 an old, old man... Don't you think he iz wise? Do you think the ofd wise men sit Mack, and Laugh, at the young making the 't mistakes. What do you think o6 ycwt Mothet? Isn't she a Guardian. Angee. What do you think o your Father? Isn't he Super man. What do you think o6 Panentz? Don't you think they're a tittee bit proud, and a. tittte bit 'sad as they watch the it chiedten glow-up, and Leave home. What do you think o4 yours SL ter? Isn't she oecious. What do you think o4 yout lkothet? Isn't he ztAong. What do you think o4 Leaves, TAees, and Howens? Don't you think it'4 ti 6e 1 way o4 zaying, 1 Love You. What do you think o6 the Mountains? Ate they the/Le ion production.... Au they there to took at ot... Do you think they ate there Got you to aimb? What do you think o/C the EaAth? The Eatth we use to plant outs (ouitis, and vegetabtes... The wand we use to pant ow bwiedinos... What do you think o4 dint? Don't you think we showed get down on out knees, and kiss Lt. What do you think o6 a Btind PeAson? Do you think their tonetta Do you think that they can appAeciate ti tie mote than the nest. - 13 - What do you think o6 a New Bonn Baby? Axen't they eager... What are your thoughtz...when you zee a New Bonn Baby... Don't you think o6 Tommonnow? What do you think 06 TOMMOAADW? Lon't it a Pnomize. What do you think of Today? Don't you think it'4 a gig. What do you think of death? Do you think it'A the end on do you think .it's a nest 4nom the woned... What do you think oi the Veva? He's, not even neat,. What do you think (16 Angex... Izn't it uncontnottabee. What do you think o6 Laughter... Izn't it xeptezhing? What do you think o6 Ugtinezz... Don't you think thexe'z no ouch thing? What do you think o6 LiO? Don't you think .c t' wonthwhift. What do you think o6 Love? Un't it beautiflut... What do you think o6 God? Izn't he genetouz. What do you think^me? I think yam. nice. ANNOUNCEMENTS ART CONTEST RESULTS FOR INDIAN STUDENTS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE BY THE ENDOF MAY, 1973. (STANDINGS, AND AWARDS). * ***************************^ *I* COPIES OF PROFESSOR WAhTER CURRIE'S SPEECH TO THE BRITISH COLUMBIA NATIVE INDIAN TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION EASTER CONFERENCE --- ARE AVAIL-ABLE FROM OUR OFFICE. JUST SEND US A BLANK 90 MINUTE CASSETTE TAPE. (C-90). ******************** * ***** - 14 - TRIBE: Stoat° (Coazt Sa1L4h) * * ** * * * *^AGE:^19 yn/s.* *^*^* * * * ***** ** * ************* ********** - 14 - SUMMARY - HOME-SCHOOL CO-ORDINATORS GROUP MEETING ROBERT STERLING -7 ASSISTANT DIRECTOR One day before the scheduled semi-annual B.C.N.I.T.A. Conference the Home-School Co-ordinators of British. Columbia met as a group for the first time. Most members were in attendance that April 24th to discuss topics of concern that relate specifically to function of Home-School Co-ordinators. Parent involvement, counselling, liaison, and grass roots problems such as truancy, dropping out of school, under achievement, under participation, lack of communication, teachers labelling students, teacher turnover, islolation problems, parental problems were topics discussed at this meeting. Systematically we approached these problems in relation to the effect these problems have on a students preparation for adult life and in relation to the specific ways in which the services of the Home-School Co-ordinator could improve situations and conditions for the student. We discussed: (a) the priorities of the Home-School Co-ordinator (b) the summer Home-School Co-ordinator Course and how it could be of maximum benefit to H.S.C.'s (c) the possible impact of new Department of Indian Affairs policies which. place Home-School Co- ordinator programme under Contributions to Bands programme. (d) Exchange of ideas (e) the all-important working relationship with the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs and B.C. Association of Non-Status Indians. Three main points were unanimously agreed upon: (1) The Indian education Resources Center be given the authority to co-ordinate the Home-School Programme from an informational aspect. (2)The summer Home-School Co-ordinator Course be made open to more people and that it contain enriched resource and orientation topics useful to Home-School Co-ordinators. (3) That B.C.N.I.T.A. on behalf of Home-School Co- ordinators recommend to Indian Affairs and other funding sources that the suggested case- load for a single Home-School Co-ordinator be set at 250 students. These points will be brought to the Center Council for action at their next meeting on May 25. The Home-School Co-ordinators group discussion on April 24th and on the afternoon of April 27th gave the group an excellent opportunity to meet each other, exchange ideas and bring up points of concern that hit home to the minds of every Home-School Co-ordinator. Reports, circulars, and other informative data will go out to Home-School Co-ordinators on a regular basis. 0.6^15 -***************** - 15 - ANNOUNCEMENTS MAILING LIST --- ANYONE CHANGING ADDRESSES AT THE END OF SCHOOL TERM, SHOULD ADVISE OUR OFFICE BEFORE LEAVING AT THE END OF JUNE. * ************************ * *****^****** * * * * * THE INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER OFFICE IS OPEN REGULAR WORKING HOURS DURING THE SUMMER MONTHS. ************************************* **^. *!* ***  * HOME-SCHOOL CO-ORDINATORS' SUMMER COURSE AT U.B.C. - DETAILS TO BE ANNOUNCED AND MAILED OUT BY THE. ENV OF MAY. ANYONE INTERESTED IN TAKING THIS COURSE, PLEASE WRITE TO MR. ROBERT W. STERLING IMMEDIATELY, ADDRESS ON NEWSLETTER. *************^************* * ** **i**** BOOK LOANS FROM INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER: - 3 BOOKS FOR ONE WEEK PER PERSON. - 5 PER DAY, PER BOOK FOR OVERDUE BOOKS. - ANY LOANS BEYOND THREE (3) BOOK LIMIT WILL REOUIRE A DEPOSIT OF ONE-HALF THE VALUE OF ALL THE BOOKS, DEPOSITS WILL BE RETURNED IN FULL PROVIDING THAT, ALL BOOKS ARE IN THE CONDITION THEY LEFT THE LIBRARY OF I.E.R.C. - LOST BOOKS WILL BE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE BORROWER -- TO COVER THE COST OF THE LOST BOOK. ###### -#41. - #####* ###################### ## #*##*###############*#*########### # • •• - 16 - - 16 - TERRACE SEMINAR FOR STUDENT TEACHERS' DR. ART MORE "Was I ever hassled by that class of grade 8 boys"; "What a great bunch of people over at this Indian Village"; "What do I do when a grade 3 girl is caught stealing lunches because she hasn't had a square meal in two days?"; "How do I convince that teacher that we should have more local Indian people at school for our unit on British Columbia Indians?". These question and others like them were heard at a week- end seminar in Terrace for sixteen student teachers' in the Indian Education Course at U.B.C. The seminar was part of a project, arranged by Dr. Art More who teachers the Indian Education course, to move the learning experiences outside of the university walls into communities where the class members might end-up teaching. During the winter session class members had been urged to spend as much time as possible in Indian communities outside of the Vancouver area. The seminar was arranged to bring together student teachers' from the North Coast area, and from as far away as Ucluelet to in- teract with each other, Indian educators and teachers about their student teaching experiences. Resource people at the seminar included: George Wilson - Director of Indian Education for British Columbia, and Chairman of Center Council for the British Columbia Native Indian Teachers' Association (BCNITA); Bertram McKay - Principal at Aiyansh, and President of BCNITA; Audrey McKay - mother or two, and president of the Aiyansh school committee; Dr. Buff Oldridge from U.B.C.; Kathy Hyde - Indian Studies class teacher at Masset, and a former student in the course; and Lee Bullen, Supervisor of Instruction in the Queen Charlottes. The main purpose of the retreat was to give the student teachers a chance to re-organize, and develop their objectives, attitudes, and teaching styles, particularly in relation to their Indian students. The student teachers has numerous experiences with Indian people during the Indian Education course, but these experiences are of a relatively transitory nature. The final practicum is the first time that many of them have an in-depth, local experience with Indian people, lasting more than a few days. As a result they were re-thinking their ideas, changing, and developing their attitudes, and generally having to assimilate many new and different experiences. - 17 - - 17 - A highlight of the seminar was the presentation of Bert and Audrey McKay, about the views of Indian people towards education and teachers. Another highlight was discussion spear- headed by Buff Oldridge about the basic needs for love and self-esteem that all children need. Other topics of discussion ranged from comments by George Wilson about regarding Indian people as fellow human beings, to a description of the Indian Studies course at Masset by Kathy Hyde, to descriptions of developmental and research projects at Terrace and on the Queen Charlottes. Consider- able time was also spent on specific problems and situations that student teachers had found themselves in. Saturday afternoon ended with a slide presentation on Kitselas Canyon by Dave Walker. Student teachers were Linda Broadhead, Bradley Hunt, and Linda Poole from Masset; Mike Nahachewski from Queen Charlotte City; Wayne Sawyer from Prince Rupert; Rob Wilson, Barb. Pinkerton, Dennis and Ethel Laidlaw, Karay Wing, and Pat Marrion from Terrace; Kathy Keller from Kitimat; Theresa Slik, Jacques Slik and Virginia Smith from Ha2elton; and Wendy Leong from Ucluelet. Other resource people were Don Cunningham, and Dave Walker from Skeena Junior High, Bob Bussanich from Caledonia, and Muriel Roberts from the Indian Education Resources Center. The seminar was funded by the provincial Department of Education. * ******************** **************************^***^*** *** *^**** **** INDIAN EDUCATION COURSE AT KITIMAAT/TERRACE An Indian Education course will be offered for the first time in the Kitimaat/Terrace area, during the Winter Session 1973/ 74. The course will be given through the U.B.C. Center for Continuing Education, and will be taught by Dr. Art More, and a variety of Indian and non-Indian people from the Skeena area. The course, officially designated as Education 479 - Cross Cultural Education (Native Indians), may be taken for three units university credit or may be audited. It is aimed primarily at teachers but others interested in Indian Education are also very welcome. The course has been offered in previous years at U.B.C., at Summer Session in Williams Lake and in Chilliwack. - 18- The course is designed: to aid-teachers in developing the ability to adapt education to the needs of Indian students. A basic assumption in the course is that, while there are many similarities, and differences between all children, present educational programs often do not take into account differences, mostly cultural and economic which many Indian children share. The course will be presented by many individuals including Indian teachers and students; representa- tives of Indian organizations; representatives of other educational organizations; and people know- ledgeable of the culture and way of life of the Indian people of the area. The content is divided into two parts. Part I emphasis background knowledge and includes his- torical and contemporary background; attitudes toward education by Indian parents, teachers, students and organizations; and policies of the provincial Department of Education, Department of Indian Affairs and B. C. Teachers. Part II emphasizes adapting teaching, using community resources, and dealing with potential problem areas. The class will meet approximately eight times, usually on Saturdays at various locations including Terrace, Kitimaat, and some of the surrounding villages. The final schedule will be available by July. For further information contact Dr. Art More, Faculty of Education, U.B.C., 2419 - Education Bldg., Vancouver 8, B. C. (Phone: 228-5240) or the Indian Education Resources Center. *** ********************** A CONTEMPORARY TOTEM FROM AN IDEA BY RICK DAWN & RANDY WHITE The contemporary totem is intended to help students under- stand the purposes of totem poles without attempting to make poor copies of the originals. - 19 - ■ -E--- "----0" A  0.4 00 - 19 - The totem has been used to display photos and drawings of Indian communities near the calssroom when it is situated. It has also been used with various symbols and designs on it to illustrate the various meanings of totem poles. We leave it to the reader's imagination and his knowledge of his own locale, to use the contemporary totem in the best manner for his classroom. It is basically a box, 48 inches long and 16 inches wide standing on end. (See illustration below): /6 Diagram 1^ Diagram 2 Frame Finished Totem MATERIALS 2 X 2 Fir or Pine (actual dimensions 11/2" X 11/2") 4 pieces, 48" long. 4 pieces, 13" long. - 20 - C L0066 F c1,41...._,C411.12ST 73 7-',- ARY -CI^P S^C - 24- -20- ...MATERIALS 3/8" Fir plywood, sanded on one side, 2 pieces, 16" by 48". 2 pieces, 16 3/4" by 48". 1 piece, 16 3/4" by 16 3/4". Flathead screws, 16- 21/4" long (or 231; common nails) Finishing nails, 11/2"long, 36 nails. Walnut or oak stain, 1 small tin. INSTRUCTIONS Construct two frames with 2 X 2, as shown in diagram 1. Hold together with 21/4" screws or nails. Nail a piece of 16" X 48" plywood to each frame using finish- ing nails. N'ail 16 3/4 " X 48" plywood pieces to hold frames together, and complete the box shape. Stand box on end and nail 16 3/4" X 16 3/4" plywood over top. Sand lightly. Stain box according to directions on container. Now you are ready to mount photos, designs, drawings or use your contemporary totem as you wish. ^** ***^** ^ ** *** **** *** **************************************** gala": ecturation Vetsourced Cott ,ezoot 106 - Eked 'Na l, za.c. fliancoame 8, a --


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