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Indian Education Newsletter (Vol. 4, No. 6/7) Indian Education Resources Center Feb 28, 1974

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VOLUME 4 #6 & 7  FEB MARCH 1974  Indian Education Newsletter Indian Resources Center Room Education 106 Brock Hall University of-British Vancouver 8, Columbia B.C. Phone;  228-4662  ^  TALK ON HAISLA CULTURE DECEMBER 7,  1973By Gordon Robinson  - KITIMAT, B.C.  During all the talks up to now, I've been listening to points which the speakers have made. And where Indian culture came up so often I started to wonder - just how much Indian culture do these people really know? This afternoon I would like to tell you of facts about Indian culture. I don't want to dwell on the mythological part of Indian culture because my wife always tells me that I ten myths and tales. So I'm going to tell you about housing, marriage customs, clothing and food. Things of that kind. I'm going to confine myself to the period before the coming of the Europeans. Let me tell you something about housing. If you go to K'San you'll see that the housing, in all the old days, was a community type of housing - huge buildings composed of a frame of massive logs covered with cedar lumber. There is a framework of an old Indian community house at Village Island. There ytu'll see that the roof frame is composed of massive logs two and a half feet in diameter and fifty to sixty feet long. There are thvge of them; one to support each corner, and one to support the center. It probably doesn't mean much to a person who doesn't understand but standing in that village is where I first became aware of these timbers. Now the Indians didn't have any type of machinery. They didn't have any cranes. How did they get those timbers up there? It's about fifteen feet off the ground. How did they do it? I didn't know at the time but I made it a point to find out. And it turns out that it's such a simple matter: To me that's a lesson. A situation that we don't understand seems so mysterious but when we learn the truth the facts themselves are basically simple. How did they get those big timbers up there? I asked a man named David Shaw, and found that it was so easy that two men could get them up there. They used a simple engineering principle plus the weight of the log itself.^They used a box," he said. They first built a wooden box about six feet square, and found the center of the log by measurement. They decorated the log, then rolled it onto the box and up close to the upright posts which would later support the log beam. One man got onto one end of the log and pressed that end down in the tanner of a seesaw. The second man then built up one end of the box under the raised end of the log by nailing a small log onto tfie box. .•.„^• •  12  They continued to raise the log by seesawing it and building up the alternate sides of the box until the log reached the tops of the supporting posts. They then rolled the log onto the upright posts and it was in place. Two men could do it, and yet to us who don't understand the process seemed so mysterious. I am convinced that there's not one other Indian person in this room who has thought how the old Indian people could do so many apparently mysterious things. Indians are not stupid! The old folks were just as smart as you or I, only in their situations and with their problems. We could learn frot them. There are many things they could do that we wouldn't think of now. Another part of Indian culture that was most interesting was marriage customs. Now I have to be careful - I see my sister-in-Law monitoring 'what I am saying. Marriage was considered such an important matter in a person's life that it wasn't entrusted to the whims of the young people. Marriages were arranged; mainly by the parents or quite often by the clan itself. They chose a mate for a young ran. This young man and all his clan would go to the chosen one's house (the house that belonged to the parents of the young woman.)All tbe clan members would bring presents and all the presents would be given to members of the clan of that girl. When the others returned home, the young man stayed in that house. The custom was called 'Ga-Ga-ka". Now "Ga-Ga-ka", roughly translated, means "bride purchase" but it wasn't as' rough as it sounds. The English translation doesn't give the right connotation. The young man stayed in his father-in-law's house up to three or four months. Then there was a return ceremony called "Tay-na-kwa" where the young couple was escorted back to the young man's father's house. Presents were exchanged again. Only after that second ceremony was complete was their marriage considered final. The reason that I mention this marriage custom is that those marriages seldom failed. Very seldom did a man ever leave his wife or a wife leave her husband because the marriage involved clan prestige. If a man left his wife or his children he'd have the whole clan down his neck. Maybe in our present way of life the divorce rate is so high because there is no involvement with the marriage of young people among the clans. Maybe it's time we examined that particular custom. The fact that the parents had a say in the young people's marriage wasn't all bad. It seemed to guarantee the success of the marriage. Maybe we should tell this to some of the people down in Hollywood. Transportation was also part of the Indian culture. The coastal people were very lucky that cedar trees were so plentiful in this area; great big cedar trees. That's what made their transportation possible. They built canoes from cedar trees. ..... ...../3  The way that they biailt_them.. was quite ingenious . They had_ on ty stone axes. "Doo woes' as we call-them.''It took two ore days.-to cut down a tree. And after a tree wass _felled &_there-was--the problem of cut ting its ends off and hollowing it out. There,a,gain-the-alctiolks showed their ingenuity by using fire.'Thgy--burnt rhp Plui,s of the log off, and then used fire to shape the inai4-of the canoe. -  -  —  That the Haisla people used fire to114.-their canoes became known by other people, other tribes. "That sounds simple: Okay, we'll use fire too:" And they felled a tree and built a fire on it Then they went home. In the morning, of course, there was no tree' It had all burnt up. Our peop'e did use fire, but they controlled it. The old folks used dampened sand, to shape the outline of the canoe on the log. They controlled the fire in that way. A skillful man needed only to remove the charcoal and his canoe was ready. Clothing was another very important part of Indian culture long before Hudson's Bay and Woolworth's came into this area. The skins of animals, of course, were the easiest to, prePare for clothing. They also used the wool of the mountain goat. Shortly after a mountain goat lamb is killed the fur is easily removed. You just used your hand and pulled the wool off the young animal and kept it separately. When you got home, your wife sppn it into yarn, and you handwove it into itmes of, clothing. The Cowichans claim that they invented the heavy wool swaater but actually it was used all over the coast. All Indian groups used the wool of the mountain goat to make clothing. However the most prized clothing and blankets were made from a material called "Kwa-Nalth:" We call eke yellow cedar tree "Kwa-na-lus" and Kwa-nalth was made from its bark. In the spring of the year - in June which is the period of peak growth - the bark of trees is easily removed. At that time the women from the village would go to that little mountain near Anderson Creek; we called it "Kwa-Kwa-Na-Las-Dums", the "Yellow cedar Mountain", the place where yellow cedar bark was available. The women would go there and they would strip the bark off the trees in varying widths and as long as they co id strip it. They would tie it into bundles and then take it down to a slough located near Alcan's Smelter site. That particular slough seemed to have the right chemical content. The women would take the bark, steep it in that creek, put rocks on it to keep it immersed in water, and allowed it to ferment. After a period of a month or so, the women would return and separate the rough outer bark from the cambium layer. They would discard the rough outerbark. Then they would take the cambium layer and lay it on a flat surface. With a rock or other heavy object they would beat it until it came out a big woolly, fluffy mass. They would dry it, spin it into blankets. That was their "Kwan-Nalth". "Kwan-Nalth" was just as prized as Hudson Bay three and a half point blankets; it lasted ^/4  just as long, and was just as warm. It was-often made-into, cloaks and warm inner clothing--line-pieces-af -clothing. They made other fabrics. They made rough outer garments from-the cambium layer of , red cedar-bat-1G Itzdidn't need that-aatch...ntenaratton, and from it they ,made a rough,outer..wenrshed water- It was called ` - Wawk-See-Wa" ,which means "Something you cansee,throagh.' It had holes in it, and dida'tJook waterproof, yetit could shed water and was worn strictly as a shower-pr000f garment. Let me'go_intcythe matter of food=. The "preparation of food ; was, a , major;Occupation,duringthe gummer.months.The Haisla.who lived in this area , werealuite fortunater in,that:there.was such en abundance of food during githe-summet months.. There was:no need for_hunger,provided a. person cared to put forth some work. They developecla,teamwork,between the, men and the women. The men, of course, were the hunters, and the women were the preparers ,. The family unit w'as actually - an ecoaomie f,unit. ,Salmon,:ofrcourse,:fOrmed the-basic- food. SUPPlY, There were many Vays 0f gathering; it. 'It amuses us now-that-Jndlanes generally are : thought to- belaithreatitother,,salmon runs.. We are severely restrictedjaour effort-: to Eget,Salmon:for. food„in tbe,belief.that Indians are a, threat to the salmon run. Not true! If the Indian had been a threat to the salmon run.; theaby,the time r the Europeans-arrived, :there would have .been no salmon - qrhe,faCtithat'there:were still hum; _quantities Of:salmonnvail able proves-my point; the Indian was nO-threat to the Salmon.rnn. ,  ,  'We , are told that there were two weirs- built on; the-Kitimat River. I'm One was-built at-Sand-Hill and theother_was built furthgx, upstr e am not quite- certain ^the. exact location. - Im.thef$Priag of every; year piles would`' hand-driven" inns the- river ,bed. Then:the,egmen,-Would knit 'spruce roots= onto frameswhichhad smalLopeniags, These root, frames were allowed to drift downstream onto the ^That way, the river dam^open,ing med off excepting one. large opening, Upstream. from, wobld be . a-great big woven :basket. Thesalmon*:-initsafOrtto - swim up `stream,' Wouldlind , the hole in - this fence and, would go through. right into the basket. -  All they had,t0 do wasp to wait until there was enoagh salmon in the basket, dump it, :and return the basket to the weir. In a short time. there was enough fish for everyone in the community. Those weirs were left in the river until everyone had -their winter's salmon. supply. Then the weirs were removed and'stored for-next year's use. The Indian appeared to understand that he didn't dare remove all the salmon , froni the stream, because he thereby would, have destroyed his future food , stipply. That's why I can tell you that Indians are simply not a threat• to the salmon runs. I'm not going to go into the process of drying salmon. It was smoked. Smoked in many varieties, but basically smoked. There are many old ways that the Indian himself does not now follow, and certainly that is one, catching salmon by a weir.  ^/ 5  There was an interesting tishing -method developed by the Kemano people down on the Gardner Canal. There's a sandy beach there, quite widey--the only sandy beach on the Gardner Canal. I would-say that_les probably a hundred-yards-wide And stretches across-the_ bay, quite long. In the spring the Spring salmon.appear to feed and rest, in that area. On a moOnless night - the darker the better - teams of men would go oat in their canoes (usually three men to a canoe) to spear these salmon. It's interesting the way they speared them. Usually there would be a man on the bow with a harpoon, a second man in the middle of the canoe with a torch made out of split tedar doubed with spruce gum. This was set on fire. And finally a man on the stern paddling the canoeaand guiding it over.the sand as the' tide came in. This was usually in shallow water three or four feet deep. As the man.in the middle periodically exposed the torch, any salmon in the vicinity would become blinded by that light. The man in the stern would guide the canoe over to the salmon aft&the man in the bow would spear it. They would make a sporting event nut of it. The man on the bow would keep spearing until he missed. He could spear only as long ashe hit. When he missed he had to go to the stern and guide the canoe. -  How did they develop that markmanship? That was interesting too.  Johnny Paul mentiohed this to me. I- asked him, "Did they practise using the spear?' Ile said,'"Certainly. All winter they had practised how to  use the spear." Their houses were big - as big as this room. (size of four clasatoom put together). They would divide the young men up into two teams with ohe team on eachrend of the room. They would then implant a pliant sapling with;its top about so far (four feet) off the floor. They Would attach 'a cup-shaped target tb the top of it. :Then they would space these young men about twenty feet apart. the object was to hit that target with blunt-ended lances4 each six or eight feet long and just as heavy as a harpoon would have been. The target, being pliant, would bend and throw the spear back at you The object was to hit the target and then catch theapeavon the rebound. You do that all winter, and by springtime your aim is getting pretty good. :  ,  That's how they caught the Spring Salmon in that area. I guess it would be highly illegal in the eyes of the fishery department today. Further an down the coast there's another little Indian village called Klemtu. The way they caught their winter's food supply was quite interesting, and has long since been forgotten by most Indians. They are sea-dwelling people and one Of their most plentiful kinds of fish in that area are black Cod. But it's a very deep-dwelling fish. It's very seldom that you can catch black cod less that two hundred fathoms deep. These people developed a way of catching black cod. For the preparation of equipment they had to know the local area, the material that they needed. Some smart individual went into the forest looking for fallen and decayed spruce trees. We all knaw that the main part of the spruce tree decays quite rapidly when the tree is fallen. But the -  ..... ./6  part of the limb that was embedded in the tree itself decays at a much slower rate. It's a very hard wood; it lasts much longer'than the rest of the tree. This person took one of these knots home an split it into fine pieces about the size of a pencil. Then he would steam it for a long period of time and bend it into a shape, with the ends overlapping-and tie it in that position. It would cool and harden. For some reason that particular material retains a very strong spring quality. It will remain in that shape and has a very strong pinch to it long after it has cooled. From this material they developed their way of catching black cod that is called '1(a-Ka-uck-Da-Yoo". I can't translate that quite literally but it means 'lip pincherY. The wood didn't pierce the lips of the black cod, it merely pinched the lips. This would immobilize the cod. They made ropes out of twisted red cedar bark and set strings of lip pinchers out in the ocean using rocks for weight. In time they would pull up the fish lines and also all the black cod. But you couldn't lift them out of the water, because once you do that, these things will slip off. So they would just bring them to the surface of the water, gaff them, and the black cod would be brought aboard. That way they had an easy method of getting cod, but it must have involved a lot of research, a lot of thought, a lot of planning on their part. How did they know what material to use? How did they know that the black cod could be immobilized like that? They must have been smart people! I...won't dwell any more on fishing because there were many other food supplies the Indians used. They used roots. It amuses me to hear people from the eastern seaboard say they eat fiddleheads. The Indians didn't eat fiddleheads; they didn't want them. There were lots of them all over the place. They discarded them, but used the root of the fiddlefern. We called it “Taybam", and I would recommend them to those adventurous types who like to try new kinds of-foods. -  You can find "Taybam" in the fall almost anywhere in the forest. It's a nutritious type of fern easily identified. You can find 'taybam" on old fallen logs, on the tops of stumps, at the base of cliffs. It's easily removed from the ground; you can kick it out, whereas all other types of fern which are not edible are very difficult to dig out. When you see this fern, and it will be the size of your fist, it looks like a bunch of bananas. It will be upside down, with the fiddlehead up on top. You can twist it out of the ground and break one of the fingerlings. This fingerling would be bent and round. Taybam is the only type of fern with a round fingerling. All the others are flattened or have corners. Break one of those fingerlings. It will be brittle if its the right kind. If it's not the right kind it will be limp. Once you have broken it, the inside will be a pale green colour, All other inedible ^/ 7  kinds are white. It's only the--green, brittle,"round.-kina-thet*s fedihie: You gather these,, diva holP_Am_the ground, cover them.with-aboutr' inches of eartbuild afire-over it and leave it there-704ernighti. In the morning you-can_peel the rootlets and they taste like sweetyotatoes. Nourishing and available a^ nywhere in the forest - if yohou:Lot t ever become lost while hiking-7this is good information. -  -  -  -  -  -  It's interesting to note that mountain goats survive on taybam during the winter months. If you want a little hint, you will find mountain goat concentrated at the base of cliffs during winter. This is also their undoing sometimes. The root grows at the foot of these big cliffs and the mountain goat conoontrate there because of the supply of fiddlefern roots in those areas. It is also the area where snow comes avalanching down the mountainside and the mountain goat instead of finding life sometimes finds death there. Back in history families would go and gather taybam by the - I was going to say sackful, but they didn't have sacks - basketful. They would probably fill half a dozen or ten baskets if they wanted. They would carry these into the corner of one of their houses and bury them there. When they wanted to use it for food they would take half a dozen or so and bury them in the hot ashes of the hearth in the evening. By morning it would be cooked and ready for breakfast. You can't do thatfif you've got electric heating in your house today, but it was done in the olden times when houses had earth floors. Down on the tide flats there were several kinds of good edible roots - at least they used to be good edible roots before Eurocan polluted the whole of the flats. The main type was buttercup roots which we called "Glix-Sam" - a fine-tasting root about the size of your pencil and about as long. In late fall, after the plant has withered or in early spring before it has started to grow, groups of women would go to the flats and dig these Glix-Sam. They would form them into four, five or six bundles and would take them home,steam them, chop them up or mash them (whichever way they wanted) and mix them with berries. Again it tastes something like sweet potatoes. They were just as nourishing for starch was a food that enabled them to survive. This root could also be dried and preserved for winter use. It.formed one of the basis of their diet. There were many other kinds of edible roots which the Indians used at that time. There's_one that is quite good eating and is still found today - the lupin. You can find it in some gardens if you are the adventurous type. It's a very tasty root. When your wife isn't looking dig up the lupins in your garden. Wash them thoroughly and then eat them just the way they are. They taste something like celery and are just as nourishing. There is a certain type of clover root which is very fine, pure white and crisp. I would say that I don't think any of the young folk who were on the panel last night have tasted them but Tommy and I have. • • If 0 • • 0 /8  part of the limb that was embedded in the tree itselfdecays at a much slower rate. It's a very hard wood; it lasts much lonupr than-the rest of the tree .. This person took one of these knots home am' split it into fine pieces about the size of a pencil. Then he would steam it for a long period of time and bend it into a shape with the ends overlapping-and tie it in that position. It would cool and harden. For some reason that particular material retains a very Strong spring quality. It will remain-in that shape and has a very strong pinch to it long after it has cooled. From this material they developed their way of catching black cod that is called n iCa-Ka-uck-Da-Yoo". I can't tranalate that quite literally but it means 'lip pincher?. The wood didn't pierce the lips of the black cod, it merely pinched the lips. This would immobilize the cod. They made ropes out of twisted red cedar bark and set strings of lip pinchers out in the ocean using rocka for weight. In time they would pull up the fish lines and also all the black cod. But you couldn't lift them out of the water, because once you do that, these things will slip off. So they would just bring them to the surface of the water, gaff them, and the black cod would be brought aboard. That way they had an easy method of getting cod, but it must have involved a lot of research, a lot of thought, a lot of planning on their part. How did they know what material to use? How did they know that the black cod could be immobilized like that? They must have been smart people! I..won't dwell any more on fishing because there were many other food supplies the Indians used. They used roots. It amuses me to hear people from the eastern seaboard say they eat fiddleheads. The Indians didn't eat fiddleheads; they didn't want them. There were lots of them all over the place. They discarded them, but used the root of the fiddlefern. :We called it 'Taybam", and I would recommend them to those adventurous types who like to try new kinds of foods. You can find "Taybam in the fall almost anywhere in the forest. Its a nutritious type of fern easily identified. You can find 'taybam u on old fallen logs, on the tops of stumps, at the base of cliffs. It's easily removed from the ground; you can kick it out, whereas all other types of fern which are not edible are very difficult to dig out. When you see this fern, and it will be the size of your fist, it looks like a bunch of bananas. It will be upside down, with the fiddlehead up on top. You can twist it out of the ground and break one of the fingerlings. This fingerling would be bent and round. Taybam is the only type of fern with a round fingerling. All the others are flattened or have corners. Break one of those fingerlings. It will be brittle if it's the right kind. If it's not the right kind it will be limp. Once you have broken it, the inside will be a pale green colour, All other inedible • • • , • • •/7  kings are white. It's only the-grpPn, britae,'Tound kind that's ,edible: You gather these, dig_a_hn1p im_the ground, cover them with_ablaultire inches of earttiOtund a fire-over it and leave it there-ouernight. In the morning you-can_peel 'the rootlets and they taste like sweet potatoes. Nourishing and available anywhere in the forest - if you-ahauL eever become lost while hiking this is good information. -  ,  -  It's interesting to note that mountain goats survive on taybam during the winter months. If you want a little hint, you will find mountain goat concentrated at the base of cliffs during winter. This is also their undoing sometimes. The root grows at the foot of these big cliffs and the mountain goat conc*ntrate there because of the supply of fiddlefern roots in those areas. It is also the area where snow comes avalanching down the mountainside and the mountain goat instead of finding life sometimes finds death there. Back in history families would go and gather taybam by the -'I was going to say sackful, but they didn't have sacks - basketful. They would probably fill half a dozen or ten baskets if they wanted. They would carry these into the corner of one of their houses and bury them there. When they wanted to use it for food they would take half a dozen or so and bury them in the hot ashes of the hearth in the evening. By morning it would be cooked and ready for breakfast. You can't do that if you've got electric heating in your house today, but it was done in the olden times when houses had earth floors. .  Down on the tide flats there were several' kinds of good edible roots - at least they used to be good edible roots before Eurocan polluted the whole of the flats. The main type was buttercup roots which we called "Glix-Sam' - a fine-tasting root about the size of your pencil and about as long. In late fall, after the plant has withered or in early spring before it has started to grow, groups of women would go to the flats and dig these Glix-Sam. They would form them into four, five or six bundles and would take them home,stea them, chop them up or mash them (whichever way they wanted) and mix them with berries. Again it tastes something like sweet potatoes. They were just as nourishing for starch was a food that enabled them to survive. This root could also be dried and preserved for winter use. Itiormed one of the basis of their diet. There were many other kinds of edible roots which the Indians used at that time. There's one that is quite good eating and is still found today - the lupin. You can find it in some gardens if you are the adventurous type. It's a very tasty root. When your wife isn't looking dig up the lupins in your garden. Wash them thoroughly and then eat them lust the way they are. They taste something like celery and are just as nourishing. There is a certain type of clover root, which is very fine, pure white and crisp. I would say that I don't think any of the young folk who were on the panel last night have tasted them but Tommy and I have.  8 -  When they talk. about Indian culture those:young people have forgotten a lot. Maybe that's why_I'mhere: to provide you with information about forgotten parts of Indian culture. There's a wealth of berries in this area - fruits of all kinds. One Of the most interesting is the crabapple which is interesting to me because it is the only fruit which the Indian cultivated. In Kildala Arm there are orchards of wild crabapples which were planted by family groups. Even today there are some people in the Indian village-who consider those areas .as their growth of wild crabapples. In the old days it was valued so much that it was bequeathed to a relative on the death of the individual who owned them. .mhybe you people wouldn't appreciate the taste of wild crabapples: As 1 always say, there are three varieties. There's the sour; extra sour; and super•duper sour. They're so sour that they can easily be preserved in their Own juice. In the old days they would boiI them, than take the crabapples out of the cooking vessel to allow them to cool and save the water in which they had been cooked. After the water cooled - they put the crabapplet back into it and put a weight'on them to keep them immersed. The crabapples would stay like that for years without any other preservative. In winter they would be prepared; mixed with other berrieS or with hemlock bark and you could eat it as a desert. That's how they got some of their vitamins I suppose.  That was one way of preserving crabapples. They also mixed them with oolichan oil to preserve them. Another fruit which they preserved and used in quantity was the huckleberry. That's one of the fruits our people don't use anymore, or at least we preserve it in a different way. Today we freeze it or preserve it in jars. At that time:however, groupg , e1 women or family groups would go about twenty miles down the Douglas Channel in August. They would camp there. The men would go hunting mountain gbat on the'mountains or they would go fishing for salmon. Meanwhile-the women would pick large quantities of berries. 1 On the mountain-sides there are slide , areas. There is a. lot of snow-with many slides -and: these: ^the mountainsides almost-bare. There's no heavy timber there. Instead there were huckleberry bushes which could withstand the winter snow-slides. Women would go to these siide-areas and-pick berries by the basketful.- Then they would strip the -bark'off the hemlock trees.' The bark: wouldcome off in sections almost like plyboard, and they would turn up the ends to form a large container. They would-build racks; pit these boards on it put the berries in the container and crush them. Then they would build a slaw fire underneath and.alldw the warmth of the fire to evaporate most of the juices. The remains would be a thick jam almost like your jam today. That would be called "Laxsta". It was put into containers' and would preserve itself in its own juices. If they wanted to preserve it for longer periods they just kept the fire going until all the juice was gone. They would then take the remains, or mash, and form them into cakes -  -  ^/9  _ about a foot square - and,an-inch thick. They would allow it to-dry -in,the sun. And that would be their dried fruit. In the winter all they needed to do was to take a small piece; soak it in waterned mix it with crab apples and there was your fruit for the minter months. So they had salmon, other fish and berries. They also had meat supplies. There was deer which was easily preserved by smoking. To-me-the most interesting meat that they preserved-was-mountain:goat. This formed such an important part of their diet that., each_family arced its Own - Mountain , or "Wow-ess". This was their-own_hunting area.;-Even today traplines are called "Wow-ess" or "Mountain'. When hunting seaSon-came (a period in early September which is the last good weather of the season) family groups of a man and two sons,-or a man and his son-in -law, _would go to their own mountain. They would make a sort of asporting event out of hunting. All , they would-bring was their weapons - no extra clothes, no coo k ing utensils, no food just their weapons. They had to makeakill on'the first day.. It's mighty cold up on the mountain tops andluben.theY killed a goat they -carefully skinned it out They were , eareful not to get any blood onthe skin. That was their blanket for the evening,- ^self up,irea-mountain goat's hide-.and:yOu'll be just as warm as a goat.. And smell like it too! - They carefully removed the tripe - the stomach of the , goat. They turned it inside out and washed it thoroughly. Then they turned it back into the original position. The abdominal cavity of the mountain goat is lined with a layer of fat about half an inch thick.' This covers the whole of the abdominal cavity. I would suppose the goat makes a reserve food supply out of it. They cut this fat Into little squares and put them into the stomach They chopped up the liver, heart, sot, meat, and put all that into the stomach too. Then they added some ter. Next they would look for a flat rock on the bare mountainside. They would heat up the flat, rock. They would also put three or four small stones into the fire and allow them to get hot. When the flat rock was absolutely clean. Then they would take those loose stones and put them into the stomach and tie it up tight. They would then take the whole thing; put it on the hot rock and start rolling it. (If you left it, there on one side it would be burned through) They kept rolling it during the whole of the cooking process, In time„ when the rocks were cooled, the container or stomach would harden, and it would stay rigid. They cut the top off; drank the juice and ate the meat. It was a very delicious concoction. It was nourishing and if the stomach was that big, they'd have a three or four day food supply. A Scotsman heard about it and he added oatmeal and gave it a bad name. Now all their food supply was preserved - smoked or whatever. They still needed some fresh meat. How they got that fresh meat is, to me, really quite revealing. I'm talking about the time long before there were any guns in this country.  0..o*O.1110  -10—  During the summer montha'witen'the'streaus were low, one or tWo of the older men would go to the'dried Or'almost dried stream beds. These men would carry a pole on their shoulders and Would tap the trees along the stream. You would think they were ?' . out of this worlan if you saw them tapping the trees. When they found a hollow tree they would cut a hole in it about a foot in diameter. After they had cut d hole in that hollow tree, they would go looking for another'- until they had three or , four hollow trees cut. Then they would go home. Later on in the season, when the salmon had come up the stream, the bear would come along catching the salmon. The bear would become accustomed to seeing these holes in the hollow trees. When the bear became sleepy in the fall he would climb into one and go to sleep inside. When the Indian needed fresh meat in Janddry and February -"all he had to do was to go look inside the hollow trees which he had previously prepared. It was all there ready for him He had fresh meat witivno need to preserving it. Some person sold the Indian a freezer and spoiled•that happy situation. During all the speeches here, when I was listening to people talking about Indian culture - it dawned on me that this is the type of materials that you, the teachers, should have in your possession. Information on the basic, everyday Indian culture which the Indian himself has now forgotten.  ****************** .*^* * * **  I DIAN EDUCATPL AS I SEE IT BY GORDOi! RE I D .  SPEECH TO KITIMAT DISTRICT TEACHERS AND EDUCATION 479 CLASS How do I see Indian education at the Secondary School? I cannot speak too knowledgeably about the situation at- all schools but I feel many of the problems are basic and therefore the solutions are the same in nature. .  -  In speaking of problems and solutions I am Speaking of only those students who have problems, and the possible or probable solutions to these problems. Not all of these educational problems are peculiar to , native children, as they are as diverse as any ethnic grOUp. These expressions and opinions are not the feelinse and thoughts of native people; they are mine alone and if they can be agreed to by most, I am glad.. ^/11  I base my opinions on what I consider to be-afa.irly_diverse-personal background. I greW up on a reservation and'llo.ff. I have-gone-to Indian Residential Schools an4,public schcals,11-have-felt PreiudIce and' accept ance, I have worked fora living-as a -Logger, fisherman, construction worker, as _a lab technician, ,and for the ,last thirteen years- ana, teachar educator and administrator. ,I think I -can- speak of and sympathiae_Oith the native student with a fair,degree_of understanding. -  :  -  -  -  As I look at the education of native students at High School I cannot help but feel we are selling, them short,of the basic requirements in their education. These requirements I put into three categories; involvement, responsibility, and an understanding teacher. By involvement I mean the involvement of the people , white and native, and of their heritage. This is why we are here today, this is:why Indian education Seminars have been: held in the past and will continue to be held in the future, this is why many of you have driven hundreds of miles to be here at this gathering. But what are you going to do about it after you leave here? Over the past seven or eight years I have been to many seminars of this nature and yet todate I have seen so little done anywhere in^Many overtures have been made, mini-courses developed, art programmes started, Indian history and culture taught in a week or by a visit to K'San, bur nothing ongoing. Its like scratching where the mosquito is biting but leaving him there. We are not getting to the root of the problem. ,  ,  ,  When speaking to those involved, it's a vicious cycle of buck passing. The teacher says it's the principal, the principal says it's the superintendent, the superintendent says it's the government, the government says it's the teachers. Where does it start, and who is going to start it? I would guess you will have to. And how do you start it? Through a lot of hard work and open-minded administration. Develop Indian orientation programmes that can run paralled to and enrich those that you are teaching now. If you are unfamiliar with the topic don't try teaching it yourself; the kids will know and it becomes a mockery. Hire someone to come in and teach it. There is money available. Local history, early Indian history, local geography, Indian geography, location of villages and why, customs, traditions, are (not just the drawing of it but understanding of it) myths and legends. Teach these along with their counterparts in other ethnic groups, so as to teach mutual understanding and appreciation of the heritage of others. Teach an acceptance of each other. There are some classes in my school that if you walk in and said "Indian', every one's heart would start pounding and boon "How come?' It hasn't been accepted. Indianism today is the 'in thing' among the establishment but it certainly hasn't established itself in society as yet.  12English shoUld, be taught as'a second language or second dialect very early in a native child's education and continued until he shows good proficiency at it 'Many of the failures at school can be attributed to the child's lack of understanding of the spoken and written English language. He does not understand and is afraid to express himself in front of a strange group. These children feel inadequate even in the company of others from the same reserve. This feeling stays with many of them through High.School, University, and even'after they become teachers. Provision should be made to de-emphasize French as an academic requirement and ,have it replaced with a local native dialect. Most of the native people, are bilingual. A qualified native person should be hired as a teacher aide to assist in the teaching of native children who are having learning problems. These people should be paid by the school board at the basic salary scale for those on a letter of permission. You must establish pride, professionalism and tenure with the job. Don't forget you are purchasing a service that no provision has ever been made to train. This person does not need to hold university credits, or high school graduation, and believe me, they will do just as good a job as you are doing. I feel that wherever there are fifteen native students who are having learning difficulties, one of these people should be hired. This person, of these people, whom you hire will not only be of benefit to the scholastic needs of the child, but will form a very necessary commnication link with people on the reserve. We often hear about how hard it is to establish communication with the people on reserves, but what communication approach has been used. A visit once a year or so. Remember that these the people, through training, by law, and by economics, have been forced in past to withdraw- fron you and establishment. You in your enlightened condescending approach are not going to get them to flock around you just because you stepped on their reserve and smiled at them.  u  .  -  So what do you do? You keep going back to show that you are truly concerned and that you need their help and advice on the responsibility and the discipline of their children, their ideas on the types of programs we should be teaching. There are some very intelligent Indians, even if they are not educated. Responsibility: Are we teaching native children responsibility? How much is our fault? With today's approach to Indianisa, I feel that in a lot of ways we are doing the native students a disfavour. We cater to their needs,but demand little in return. We are afraid to. An Indian student received money for all his educational needs, clothes, books, fees, materials, etc., and a monthly stipend. What is his responsibility or his parents responsibility? Their child can, if he doesn't like the school, or if his parents don't like the school, go to any other school in B.C. and if he doesn't like that school, he can move again! Now I grant you that some of these children need assistance and certainly must be helped but by gosh there are a lot that don't and these are the ones taking advantage of it. What are we doing to these children? Literally we are training /13  -13them to be welfare recipients. I cannot helpbut feel that this 1.s -educe"' tionally unsound logic. What can we do instead? Fuppgia good part 0 this money into group homes, meaningful prOgrams ankhire And let's have the Federal and Provincial Powers,:woXiLtogeXilcAr -The Movement of these children from one school to another Is-haying -a detrimental effect on their achievement. In some instances 1t i ,_settin .^m back one semester and in some at least one or two subjects- - Lt_also-projects itself noticeably in the, drop out rationale., In our school-the,transfe* in ratio is three to one, native to white, and the withdrawals or dropouts are three to, one, native to white. -  ---  -  -  I feel it is time that Indian parents were brought into the sthools and guidelines were established for the responsibility and discipline of their children. Who is to say that if my child_is a holy terror you can't spank him when he needs it and when I say you can. That's'a daily event. A lot of parents feel this way; a lot of the native parents that"I have spoken to and white Parents too. -  I wish to state here again that many of the things I am Saying are not Peculiar to Indians alone, and I do not mean all Indians. ,  AM now teachers - the most important resources we have, and the mgt unpredictable. Their effectiveness is governed,by two thingS; their understanding of their students, and the prograns they will teach. Will the programs be academic stuffing and regurgitation,,or will they be realistic and practical, which will serve the needs of the child best. Will they be allowed to explore new avenues, or will they follow the curriculum guide? Which is the safer? Which,will reach thekids, or which will turn them off? In terns of the needs Otnative children, with their materialistic and practical background, with their closeness to nature and their understanding of it, where will their success lie? Will the teachers understand the needs and aspirations of the child and the parent? Does they teacher know what it is to be on the low end of the socio-economic scale? Can they relate? It is not easy ^ and Education 479 is not required to teach. Indians. .  ,  ******* ********* *^  ********** *  . YOU^THAT . RESOURCES Cc_ ILI',  Pa^'ERS  .......114  1.4  -  FROM A DROP - OUT 41 1301.7 DROP - OUTS MD EDUCATIN -  Before I begin, I'd like to state my motivation. I'veslwnps wanted to h&lp Indian students in some way, *Specially in encouraging them toward a good education .- As you read•pouwill seelwhy.First, I'd like to aafy, that I fully agree with Gerry Williams (in . ^imperative, his letter in yoUr Decedber issue - Volume 4, 44) that everyone get-aigrette twelve education. litry, very, often,- since I, quit school, I've wished to be holding my Graduation Grade 12 Diploma _in my hand. I quit school in Grade 11, with promising grades in most subjects. -  -  I have knOwnead seen-many cases-where'a young lady in her late teens or early twenties, who has- quit in Junior High, isicotspelled to return to school when the opportunity meets her. I.find this very encouraging When they go throngh vith it. '^•^-^• , -  -  .  -  -  -  On our reserve we are fortunate to have a friend and Day Care Supervisor who cares about Indian Education for all ages, which is very encouraging to us who care about-and-want to do-something abouteducation. -  I feel that most Of us, who have been drop outs-and4eel:ready to continue our education now, are not awareof'our potential but we know, it's there and just needs a spark of encouragementand:confidence:toget,  ,  -  i motion.  Also, I've found that at the age which I quit school, there was a need in me to learn more Of life itself, which, isn't taught in school. It's a time when you don't want to sit still in a,classroom and, instead want' to be outside concentrating your thoughts on your' own physical, emotional and social needs. At this time, our minds are most agile in the learning of life itself, although our society does not provide our schools with these resources in mind. Instead, we are expetted*to=he learning the fundamentals of Math, English, Science and other compulsory Subjects. -  Consequently, this conflict between the needs of the teenagers and the needs of the society's schools results in Drop-outs. Now that I understand more of myself and life, I'm ready to meet the opportunity to continue my education as a sincere and helpful adult. Here's hoping that-my letter might be of help to someone on their way to a worthy education.  * **  *** ***  *^*  *************  ^/15  - 15 -  LIFE SKILLS :ITO 'JIVE: BY TENY BERSCHE I 1`11111(1"4"L ` Life Skills is a .program designed to,meetthenf each student in his interactions with other people. In the following article Terry Berseheid giVes examples ..of how a life Skills program hos helped various people, He then explains some of the theory behind the approach taken in teaching the course, and illustrated the prectical,steps ikstedent takes in evaluating and changing an interaction skill.•  A  LIFE SKILLS ALTERNATIVE  TO Many exhiCators, the alternative to traditiona,l,methods of educating is to .be found in innovative techniques.; In innovative education, rule number one-i$ to design and present programs that meet the needs of the target population - that is, the students:who will be taking , the course. Life Skills is an innovative course. A 16-year old student had a past record as a school drop-out despite a higher-than-average intelligence, and had been in , continual trouble with the police. Hi . entered a course designed to help; him wet his needs. As part of a group of learners, he found a place for himself among his fellow learners, and became friends with a 58-year old man, with whom he would have previously had nothing to do.  A young. mother of four children had her ehildren-removed from her twice in recent years. Her husband had disappeareclwhen she was first confined to a mental health institution., She lapsed , int(complete helplesSness, then entered a group course, found herself and learned skills that-dre'helping here cope with her problem. :  After several years of work in a variety of fields, one man hoped for a new career working with and for people by entering a program employing innovative techniques. After taking that course, heq took a position that allowed him to commit himself in helping others. These people enrolled in Life Skills courses; and through their group experience, they - found a way to reach their goals..,.  'Life Skills is a program detigned to meet the • student's need$ (as opposed to meeting the needs of the -administration , as quite often happens). It's objectives are for the learner to examine and apply a problem-solving system to his daily attempts at interaction.  ^116  Irteraction •hon twu. people areLother, they use a. variety of skidis to ergaance their coMmnuicatiou ^teople are Tocro skillful is cam:haleating^they use tthosd skills mor a effectively,. ProblemosolVing, Unfortunately, .groblei.s ore usually considered to So :s 7;tativo aspects of one's'rlift-••• that is we feel that a problem is not a et state of being. in Life, Skills, howover, we consider a Problo cholleng, an opportunity' to use our skills of interaction, Lit o Skills, then, exineS the. silIis of life., of interaction. Thesu. ski Ma aro. examined in torus of the. learner's present compotencyein using tho skill, the learner practices and. evaluates his perfornanco of the no ilert applies it to an. out-of-group situation as soon as possfhle. Whoa.. lie has uscd„the skill outside the group be reports hack to the group on his success and therein roceived encouragement .to continue his efforts at interacting effectively, The•history Of the Life Skills course's development can help us Understand Why this method can bc. effective. It started when ..the Province of Saskatchewan and the Federal Covernrient's Secretary of State, arood to not up au incorporated non-governmental developmenteloproject, Saskatchewan ':e.attart whose objective u is to research and develop programs of oducation thar would be specially tailored to the needs of 'disadvantaged. persons', particularly adults. Saskatchewan Ncwstart hod • a five-year ellarte7; an.(1 among. the programs that worm dovolenod by this organiation *ids Life Skilis Whcn NeWstant'S charter expired, the Denarment of illanpoweroana assured. the roles otathe projoot, :looming the Training Research and' Devolopmont Station in Prince "ella. Saskatchewan. The Dovelopers of : Life. Skills first examined the already-existing pregt.rans in 'adult ..interpersonal development, then isolated the skills used in interaction, and determined the factors invo,lvadin the use of "these skills, Finally, they chose tbe. oust efficient and least ti-consuming means of developing these skills^tho grouTo •^ , ^. • The 'group' consists of between 10 and 15 people,. preferably miature of mon and women of varying sgos ^if more that one race is repisentod in the community, a "racial ;:it : , :o••,^ he grourp's function is to assist the member in his evaluation of his shill performance, help him determine hew to u-un the skill approoriately and rcsoonsibl^based upon. each momber's personal. experience in using the skiil, effectively or otherwi s e, provide fciaa , nl.: on his skill practice, aurlioffer the;enconragat-and support •our must have if he is c' suocessfully adopt the skill as part of tho hi' vc.?ertoired With the guidance of a competent, qualified conch- a prod,: leader skilled. in group : methods and llyrmluics - the use of the group gni Thisruten the :time tho learner requires to complete his program of t-fiewr medi€InationI,,Tp until no t' -Lye talkoj. arout skills, but t have not defined what eml.^In order to know Just what I it" talkiaF abon,select a couveh 4 a -at ti ^today :Ind approach someone whom you either do not know, IV" her•oy "tnow ar all, Enter into convorsakien with this prson., but  ^ ^  tnronghout your coaversetion loin •to enhance you feel that tho other person. (or she) doing that tells.  try-.re be aware of ^the .t >i your .inteTeetion: For. •, is •comnonicting. .with'.... y d,e7^at^ you he or she) is interste in .:hat you hre .  These skills are the basis for effective. communiention and interaction, There are five components to a complete life skills program,* These segments examine the areas of the "self', 'family', 'Job', 'cammunity', end "leisure'. .  ' Ti n skills of connunicotton end interaction are very impoxt2nt in person's developing his 'self ^his who ar I? and who am I in relation. to this person, and that iperson'r • Once a learner has begun his introspection of his 'self", he can then begin to examine his use of these skills in the Areas of "family', job', 'community' and 'leisure'.  -  In each session of life skills, a four-phase alide is followed, stirr:ulus, evocation, application and evalitation. -  PT I LU7 'The coach chosenAA exercise, exoerience hr some ethos device  that will identify the Skill, and the student"demonstrates his c(itiTetancy in using the skill: Very often the stil:DuluSais so designed -that the lenruL'r uses the skill without being av:are that this skill is to e ex.Imined,  Evck:iyrjc^Now, if identification of the skill had not happened. in the St bums phase ,"the Skill is identified. ankithe student •examinds his ability in using the skill effectively ^approntiately,- •Re roccivof.t: feedbeck from other group MeMbers on his •compctence in using the .  f  .  PPLI CAT I Oi:^The student rdcallsetimes-Onst when he used the skill effectively or ineffe ^tively,and if he is not satisfied with his compete. ancv in using the skill„ehe'then practices using^the help of the groupe Then he considers occasions^whick hceuidaisch'th• skill: to enliahCe nis interaction^gLx6oli. .  -  .  The Student... evalhats• his skiii'PerfOrmanc. tt ‘4ice7. 1) .at the. elle hf• the session hceanalyes'his present coop tone'.' ih the skill as nompared with his revitlus competency and 2) after using 'the•skiIl 'a ai' I f^Situation he reports back to his gTOUT; on abs '.d..cre..e of • A uccess snd/or failure, andeif he feels the ne e ds^orletice: the ;skill in tho• safe setting of the garc:-.,1 „', h. fur- using it outside the •2..toup C sLcon.: time.  -  .  -  ,  ,  on.g the organizatians wnieh^sonsore(J Life- Skills courses are the la l_cral and^ ahri service•ageileies,; the Y-TCA. .utl"ccgtoonity groes:e SchodIS ^C01 1 0S: the 'me.^.t ions and. laro. 'a':porlticms. la^ in PALny of ,  -  -  the. Voria lienath urttatuloon. at t"ft:', Unit•  or-^':--7ki1.13s is ati- Jilablz throurii,h informaL\T^t Static:no,: Poe7t Officu Training ane.^ lb rt,S=J 5T2 -  .Rritiin Coltxt,bia, infor  -  , t)1A about  tna• provineu^obtoained troy:. tlr, Victori, 3,C, or Mr, T. Ocsch.ii7,1, ^-I. H. if  *-* ****** ** **  tri..1) to Vancouver, sponsored by Car .: First Citizen^c_:.:.clen..cas On jantloirY 7, 1.974 for Yvonne Paluett-t,„ Lana 1,,tiL Lau,. T3ernica *It, Lne. Gera"ti . !..4t,^1.n.d ret,cr I.J. if T1  Calliou r. school^ .  an.0 also th-^' ' cot. •t  I, Local #102.  of the nany placosr.^over the^ ..JorL -.4'. •^ ty of^ C• . Vancouvur '. .-.7- ty• Colic --t, T .ht. •Huon i•- ;alurters^E Life^th..^-a.,^ina,icn, '•-•^3,C^•  is. to cooc„^to ityl i^:iU. o^ ' J 'co thu^r(isourc a ovailm:sola ^=aria city to^.•^C tns, -  ^  nb^• Ao Jant .1.1Ty 11. ot the % ,.,....s:onner insi.b Center ^t ,rst:t7.7.1 "hetlt fill' the ;la. ^•7:c ^Chitof 1).o^risetbial thit, -^• •^.s.•• ,.  .  -.  ,  ,-  t,. th,^.tfr,^ Iccessible to ow,: Indian nvaileablo.^ wations^ . 1 myself 'wn:s a v..,ost fawardin. t b . "^for lay companions a .  .  •:•••1'^7bo.• f1.toi.,17, the. for n ay otaar pcople outsijc of (....act ..tynoi.,^I in ^It. :^:Trts ant..1 craf ta^f:^Ur.^“.1.`: SS Indian tribes in H., to^tiaerc^rriza^iTIS and associaii ...tns - • . ssr.^21.t1 otoplc.^U^i^. rr. ;^y^oo fIo^tot way S7). r or r ^t Vancouver  ^..1.-aLon .1c,„ a. Grade. 10 a talftellt^ ,.  ,  .,  .  .  ,  Vhcationul Gnidanc Tonr snonssrp b, cil,etwy71,1^  "'*-^ t T":'4^( btfaens tune'^f...or .  stuseats  oenhatienal ^to^thc ..;'.:Jrat Citizen's Fun4 ^ I tho ft.H1 trip to Van onvor for oaf ta.Olan^ob bab.alf^ ..ti on of Clon Status I0 t::no:w Local 102.,, C.net7nyn.(1 . .  ,  ;  -  tss. **A1-':5:7.-s-*****1:****;s****iss '!'s  aro .^-f oovornt Kinde.rthrten Cdsooln on  -  the I 31111(.3  that are' nurefty  is a7ltainistere:1 by" tlae. Sf= .atbleh. iior bci.toThe ..7.oar1 :•^f Lae four Chiefs af tno ^?eniaania^f h UT raj.rssetot-• at]:OOb 0L.Tsaftitp:^wc: have Chiof Ho-s•at trit Tom^frott is,*7out - Cbi,af Lon Claxton w ith t^r'oran. UtbiervePU frotal P autluactlin we il.ave r^sltative nax lienry , from 72 7-.7.haf„^Cfh.T.Lef Gus S^2 an.^ Lye^ e ry^s .  .  .  :  .  of ^tne^tha 0o: t-u.i. .ers ar^all ;nriv:s,^ Nrs. 117,7-..cy^who:^[th thf btaff of hitti Zet. ,  The onreliment for Kindergarten is 29 pupils which is. in operation. from to ITio30 a.rd and Nursery with 2 2 pupils fro 12 TM to 3 p.m. We arc.: now oin.:7 Linito our third.. ter7.,n. in our^si huildinn For the surroundtni :she building we are providing a cultural bacgroun....1 for e chilAres, he have had a mlniafure lon hcus built and orb^tds W e hope to have a totem pole carved where the younestcrs can WatC pro:1—ss of this particular proiect. it will then be:m.nantea on OUr aventurd playround.  It.rirpsj the school tern u take the children on several field trips.  These trips include the. Provinclal tluseum in Victoria, local Bakeri,s, thz Saanich Fireball And an exhance,visit-withnon7Indian ^-1=J:11 from Cordon Head. We spend alot of the'.summeri.eploring,'our heutifui , stcrs beaches on both Tsartlip and Tsawout. These. trips provide the youn j with a terxtfic.:learhir.,txptiznce, • . . . . .^.^. The fo1]owin is a list of what a child ans from Pre-school. • -  , ^.  1)  1",cy ho: ,in to learn who thy ar end what they can c.o. - f721f- 4 dentity, sit worth, individuality.  2)  They assunc^renter responsflility in^for themselves arol their belen:7,ini ,s.  ,  L  ,  3) They learn to handle their bodies nd f_-.1.1otions with skill. 4)  They learn to csmmunicate :earc  5) They have the opportunity to develop In awareness of the world in wtlich they They have the opportunity, to experience the joy and beauty of literature art and nusic, 7) They find satisfaction in both individual sad group :endeavours.  Since we have been in operation we have hod several good reports of our former pupils who are. now in pradc school. We have had several visitors to the school who have written back to the Ooard expressin their heeness as to whet we are doig for our children.  "..feould like to unite any of you to drop in to-exchange ideas or just visit. In Brotherhood, K. Claxton, Supervisor  ******** •^******** .^ *  •*  * •  *• * * *** .  - 21  i HE  Ai n  .•••- -  •  ***5 Excr.:11ent, ',.j(3uld make a ECod addition to a Zan.d or School Library, 5*** Very Good *** Okay *7'. So-So Poor  PAT(10 SCALE  Dr. David 'kJ At -  * 5^The First North Americans. By Margaret (. Zicman. 96 r.cLelland & Stewart, $4.95, This bocik, intended for students in theA.ate Primary grades,attempts to outline the prehistory of the North American Indians and their ways of life at the time whites ca e. UnfOrtunately, it is filled with errors and lints:rpretations, Accordinc' to thr author the first Indians lived in caves latcr, a mysterious groin of 'Shellfinh. Eaters ^the Coast of b.0^It is probable that those ideas came from the author's misint,:.rprtion3 of archaeological evideica, She doesn't do any batter in de:r_ribiu„ tradition Indien life-styl,sC ^uses misleadin ideas of 'advcd end undev,,A02,..6. to escribovarious L:xonps. Lll in all a would be more mislead than .nli lit„med by this book. -  -  :  Ajouhanna. Ey Claude Anbrj.„ 112 pe,eS. Paperbacks. SO.95:.• • ^ • ^ • ^ , ^ • • • ^ , ^ • ^ . ^• ^ • • ^ • ••^-^ Amuhanna, a story for children in the late Primary trades-,„:„ -tails of an Iroquoisboy's emergence into nanhood -Kezoes on his first hunt acquires the tear a his spirit-h.f.Apri', faits ItOpVc,, • iron an. attacking war-party, is chosen by his Chieftain fatba r to he the new Chiefi'.'and ilfiarries.•^•^•^•••:•• ' ••••••••:••••i.: .  -  --  -  ,  .  Unfortunately, the story seems to have beenhased.more,on the author's notions about Indian life than Oh. his knowledFeJoftheyirowOls.:..•-Irs-H„ presents an all 466faMiliar picture of traditional Endtan^War• and hunting were the-rlost.. important:Occ(AOnS,..a bofs training faeusseThon these jobs as a prepartion for^aChief,....ija...Chief..ruled•• and led it it war, Women were second •lass citizens. Iroquois 1 very different from this stereotype^ did Dot. revolw'b em.'ound huntin::: but around the Crown of corn and festivals merkinc. -  -  ,,  ::  points in the^rowfn „:-.. cycle. Second, the SacheIns and Chiefs. (oe:. ^eare more than just one per villa:!e) were.. concerned tLith^ ^oubtii O. .• deceo mode. demeratibally,th an and decisions weTe because the organization of social life was bose. 1. on tho fe:(woo^(a child was a. member of its Mother's Clan, nOt its l(otbool) ^. o very imoortaut. 7b...y chose a new Chief ^vioto :sac^b boy could not succecil^('nief and bib^••:-. •^no^to ,  -  -  .  choose) .and^ earn Loses ^EaS 1Lotio. se.y. In the  setter end love wia of little irlpotno. eh. Oil in all .^would scriously ooOileae a yeoit'=" prcisent a^of Iroquois life Arzda sterootyo. .......^of ?die, eoncral.Is ii .  1  ^It  -  2  -  ***** Sea and Godar, How the Northwest Coast Indians Lived, By Lois YJOConkey. 32 pa ; es. J.J, Douglas Ltd. $4.95. Grades 4-6 and up, This book presents a brief outline of traditional'Northwest Coast Indion) lifo, illustrated by Douglas To_iCs black-and-white drawinos. The book is good in that it contains no falec information and little that is misleadin., It may be criticized for over-emphasizing the relationship of technology to environment and for not going into sufficient detail in oxolaininn . some aspects of lifo - particularly social life and ceremony. But in general th,o merits of the hook and. its usefulness to primary school readers fat outweigh its faults, i**** Geniesh: An Indian Girlhood, By Jane Willis. 199 *)ages. New Press. $8,50. Geniosh is Jane Willis's Indian name, This is her account of growing up on a James 3ay Indian reserve and of her years in residential school, separatedfrom her family. The story is told with the sense of humour and stten:th that, jud;Ang by the e7oporionces she recalls in the book, were nocFssory in order to survive tt,c, years in Residence school. 1:****  The Darts of Auonsta. Edited by Jean F. Speare. 80 pones. J.J. Douglas  A collection of short narratives about life around Soda Creek, in the Cariboo country of B,C., by May August Tappaoe, an 87 year old ShusTap woman, Black & white photographs, (Janet _both Boston) **** Artifacts of the Worthwest Coast Indians, By Hilary Stewart. 173 oaL. es. Hilary 'douse. C,12.95 This book is ood for both the oeneral reader of Northwest Coast Indian history and the student of archaeology. Stone Bone, and antler artifacts from LIzes to Zoomorphic Bowls are illustrated. The author discusses making and using some of the artifacts and their place in Northwest Coast Indian culture. (Janet Path Boston) FOTE^Boy of Tache;, by Ann Blooles, should have been given 5 stars (tar rata is when it was reviewed in December. -  The Journal of American indion Education, one of the leading journals in the field, has offered us a discount subscription rate. If /0-19 peol)losulJsoribe through the Indi;:in Thjucation Resources Center, the rate drops free $3-50 to $298. If 27; or more subseribo, the ra::c is $2.80. If you are interested in subscibin^pleas send us your name and address,  ********** *** ********** *** ***^ *: •  ^  - 23-  WE ENCOUEAGE YOU TO CONTRIBUTE TO OUR NEWSLETTER. IF YOU WRITE AN ARTICLE OR LETTER TEAT "JOUID Bi USEFUL TO OTHER PEOPLE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, NE WILL BE CLAL TO PRINT IT. ^**^ ** ********************* *^*  ****** *** * *********  ***  NOTICE,^IT WOULD BE VERY ETCH AT:TRECIATED IF PEOPLE MOVING - WOULD INFORM US OF THEIR NEW CHANGE OF ADDRESS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE IF NOT RECEIVED UPON ONE RETURN OF THE INDIAN EDUCATION NEWSLETTER -- YOUR NAME WILL BE DELETED. ^*  ^* ******************** *****^*e.***  '.&************************************************************************  RETURN ADDRESS: INDIAN EDUCATION EISO0RCIS CENTER ROOM 106 - BROCK HALL U.B.C.^VLUCOUVER 8 ^B.C.  )  r  h791 L NS :!;*:• , 1  1^9 0 0 s^7  VZAt6  try^i^  00  

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