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Indian Education Newsletter (Vol. 3, No. 3/4) Indian Education Resources Center 1972-11-30

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-----..::. t£RST'( o,61Qr3CcLLE;:TitsVOLU1E 3I 314NOV, &IJECI 1972r^i.. trI^- ^-f;'t.^:-'' •'•____'_••;..-/;- ._—.,..Y.,•__I^'L4^ L -^LA^L.INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTERRood 106 -- BROOK HALL, U1BuSPEECH TO UNION OF B. C. INDIAN CHIEFS- MINISTER OF EDUCATION - MRS, E. DAILLYIn your brief to the Honourable John Munro, Minister of theDepartment of National Health and Welfare, on March 2/72, you outlinedan approach which you called Community-Family Life-Education and yousaid in your brief that this approach represents "the most effectiveand feasible manner by which our communities can become an integralpart of the problem-solving process". I am glad that you made thepoint yourselves that education can only be regarded as part of anoverall plan to help Indian people. The last 100 years has shown youthat in itself and by itself, it can do little for you. I am alsoglad that you stressed that only insofaras you are allowed to be partof the solution, and the major part at that, and not forever seen asonly part of the problem, will any good come out of any plan. I amglad of these things because my thinking, that of my fellow ministers,and that of the people who work for me in Indian education, is verysimilar to yours.Let me outline what we had considered because I am sureyou will find it very much in the same spirit as your brief. TheDepartments of Health, Education and Welfare had suggested that theProvince be divided into regions, and the fifteen regions you suggestwould make good units. Within each of these regions we planned toset-up a "center". Let me add quickly before I give the impressionthat we wished to "organize" you again--along with all the bureau-cratic trimmings--that we see these centers being controlled bylocal Indian people with powers to set policies, priorities, andbudget needs.The first thing about these centers to note is that allservices which presently are supplied to you now would be integrated.On this point, you mention in you brief some terrible statistics.You say:"Forty percent of all children in the hands of theSuperintendent of Child Welfare are Indian childrendespite the fact that Indians make up two percentof the population.""Forty-four percent of the admissions to WoodlandsSchool in 1965 were Indian girls.""The incident of accidental. deaths is four timesgreater, of homicides thirty times greater, ofsuicides three times greater among Indian peoplethan among the general population."-2 -You went on to say that these statistics prove that presentservices are not fulfilling your needs. The services do not reachsufficient people in the community and there is LITTLE CO-ORDINATIONbetween them. It was to remedy this state of affairs that wesuggested that all services should be integrated and channeledthrough these centers, controlled as I pointed out earlier, by localIndian people.After stressing that I believe education to be only usefulto. Indian people if it is regarded as being just a part of the totalservice delivery, let me however, dwell a few minutes on educationitself as it appears to me and on how I see a Center helping specif-ically in this field. We know that taking children away from theirparents at an early age and educating them in residential schoolsdid not work well for all children--and that's putting it mildly:We know that integrating children in public schools despite all thegood will involved is not working well. We are well aware of thewastage of talent with the terrible drop-out-rates among Indianstudents. We know also of the erosion of pride which takes place,leaving the Indian child with so little self-respect that this initself becomes a learning disability. We know that at this moment,instead of having a pool of Indian people trained as professionalsin all fields, we have so very few.So working from these centers, we wish to encourage andsupport pre-school classes at the community level where the childrenalso receive steady and consistent health care. We wish to keepthe primary children as close to their parents during the earlyschool years as possible. From the center, we want ideas on newcurriculum approaches which can be tested and researched at thelocal levels. We want to encourage and produce material specificallydesigned for the Indian children of that region. At these centers,working with colleges and universities, we want to train para-professionals and teachers from that area to work in that area.If a child does have to move away from his village tocontinue his education, we want the center . to provide counselling,and guidance to him in a group home run by Indian parents. Throughthe center, we want to encourage and support those students whowish to continue their education and become the professionals weso badly need. At the same time, we wish the centers to work withthe parents in programs of adult education which, among other things,could interpret the school and its aims to these parents so that theparents would not, as they often do now fell left out, feel thatthey have lost their children to a society that neither understands,nor feels for them.3If at the same time from these centers, were coming sup-portive services from Health & Welfare, I can see that educationwould at long last become a tool that the Indian could use in theachievement of his aims.I should also add that all the concepts I have outlined inconjunction with the center were ideas which came from native peoplethemselves. We put them all together in one package because we thinkthat these services delivered in harmony with each other, are necessaryif, the future is to be as bright as it could be.The Indian people are practical people. I think you wouldwant to know now how these ideas could be made into reality. Alreadyyou have paved the way yourself. After your brief to Mr. Munro youreceived twenty workers, most of them already in the field gettingthe communities ready for the kind of services we have outlined.We could agree with you right now about the fifteen regions.We could examine each region and find a place to locate the centerin co-operation. with you. During this year, we could set-up theadministrative machinery whereby the services which are presentlybeing delivered could be delivered through the center. The mostefficient and feasible method of setting up the local controllinggroup could be worked. cut with you now. As early as January, wecould begin training paratrofessionals to work in pre-schools bySeptember, 1973. We could begin to recruit staff gradually to meetthose needs which could not be met even by integrating present ser-vices.I don't doubt for one minute that we would run into allkinds of difficulties and that in some areas we would succeed well,and in others it would take up time to do well. I do believe, how-ever, that the time to start is now, the speed to go is as fastas we can while still doing a good job, and that the needs of theIndian people are so obvious and necessary that all the peoples ofour province would be united in seeing that at last the thingsthat should . be done for. Indian people would be done. I can'thelp adding as a final word, that these things will be the thingsthat Indian people have been telling us about so patiently andfor so long.****************QUESTIONSWhen do we start this idea of  Centers? Now--we can agree uponregions; we can pick likely spots within each re gion to set-up* * ** ****';.** *********5.:.),- *****a'* * ***^* * ***********the center; we can work on the form of local control; we can negotiatewith the Federal government to join us in providing their servicesthrough these centers; we can see that present services can be pro-vided through these centers. By September, 1973, we could be readyto start in some centers.Will we need any buildings? Hopefully not. All will depend uponthe facilities which exist now. Prefer to see any buildings at thelotal community level for the kids directly. A huge building pro-gram would sink this idea. The buildings are not as important asthe staff.What kinds of  materials would be published? That produced locallyand by exchange between the centers, and that from other regionswhich would be of use.Who would decide who would be in charge at the local  level? We can-not answer that -- we would look to you for guidance -- local people.What kinds of people would eventually be working out the centers?Health Nurse, Dental Nurse, Nome-School Co-ordinators; educators,adult education people, social workers, welfare workers. Ideally,within five years most of these would be native Indian pe•)ple.How long to get this program fully oneratinr , all over the Province?-^-Five years at the end of which we move forward again.Is there any accounting to he made by  the provincial. government on how the  Ind Lon education coney is boil sent? Yes, the previousprovinci;31 gove .mment did. not and the i DP government will give anaccounting to the Indian people.How  will the Hon. Frank Calder's investigations fit  into the pro-posal of 1, ulti-Service Fescurce Centers? If it isn't alreadyproposed by Nr. Calder the plan is that it^be part and partialto what he will do or be over and above what he will do.How will the existin ,4 Indian Education F,escurees Center fit: intothe plac, of . ,11J1tEr'^(Tc -^ Tt is nianned, nfterdiscussion with the E. C. NaLivc.^Tclers' ;_-ssocia':ion thatthe. present Resource Center viii becone part of the scheme.PERSPECTIVEBRUCE^MICKLEBURGH'Indians' -- the guilt-laden generality we wrap around a hostof peoples to hide them from our sight so that we will not have tocome to terms, look back into their eyes.We talk -- oh my God how we talk in our endless conventionsand sterilized research papers -- about something known by the signifi-cantly ugly term of individualized instruction.And we take a little Nootka child, a son of the great whalersof the Pacific, and we tear him away from his mother and his fatherand his brothers and sisters and all the people in the close Nootkacommunity. We rip him out of the love-and-identity circle. We removehim to a strange place, where what we call a school is operating instrange ways. There we ban his language from being a language oflearning (we think).By banning his language, we ban him. So let's have anotherprofessional development harangue about the uniqueness of each child.Halos please.We profess education, and we cannot see and identify thesepeople sitting right under our noses.We go to teach Africans how to teach but do we know what aMohawk is?We are such great big fat thundering teachers of the wholeworld that we do not know how to listen to (this is more thanauditory) and cherish the Ojibwa as brother.We don't have the slightest idea who he is (so we don'tknow who we are, either).Try to find an Ojibwa school. All you can find is schoolswhites run for 'Indians'.Althouh there have b een honourable exceptions, althoughthere Lave boon Cleveted -,c7upa^ who have brehen thepattern., the • .211erj ploLure of edueation^expejsrtcc,d by thepeoples for generntions Lao het:n en unholy Tiess in which it wouldLava been possible at t:LTIes to sniff the odour of etaturs,i. gcneci0e.6Yes, I do know that there are now people working for theDepartment of Northern Affairs and for Departments of Education whoare striving might and main according to their lights to try tochange the picture. These lines, and many of the articles in thisissue, are offered as a tiny but sincere contribution to the successof those efforts.There are two reasons why every teachers in Canada has astake in that fervently-to-be-wished-for success.If the teachers of the children of the littlenations can discover shining talents to bringgifts to these children they will help us alllearn where to find talents to bring to thefeet of all children. By this I mean that ifthis advanced and strategic detachment of theteaching profession can learn how to help theDogrib or the Salish child to claim and shapeas his own the disciplines of inquiry intoall aspects of reality, without violating thatchild's culture and identity, then theseteachers will have helped us all to solve thesame problem for all the students we encounterin every school in Canada.We have to get over the imperial conception of ourselves asvalue-planters and people-moulders. That may be even harder for usto do than it is for the Onondaga child to put up with us. Inquiryis our business. They will form their own values, never fear --among the Cayugas as among the whites.2) This advanced detachment of teachers, workingwith and (pray) learning from the young ofthe little nations, may help us to clean theremaining junk about 'Indians' out of coursesof study. As a part of being Canadian, allour young people need the opportunity forreal learning, for uncensored inquiry intothe truth about the original Canadians,whether in hit:tory, geography, literature,or whatever. Think, for example, of how thestudy of ljterate can be enriched by Tearn-ing the literature of these 'eoples -- or ofhow Cana,:hi can be stremlgtened by. seriousattention. to their history.• • • n .......7There are assumptions to challenge: such as the assumptionthat getting young Tuscaroras into the same classes as white childrennecessarily constitutes 'intergration'.There are fundamental questions to raise: can 'integration'be justified?There is much new work to do: some universities have alreadyset up departments for the study of these peoples and are taking thefirst faltering steps towards providing appropriate preparation forthose who will teach among them.There is a new goal to consider: that the schooling of thechildren of the Chipewyans or the Micmacs will be taken over largelyby these people themselves.And there is this to ask ourselves for openers: are wecapable of letting them teach us about themselves -- and about us?*********** *The above article is taken from: Volume 3 #9 - Monday Morning -May 1969 issue. (Canada's Magazine for Professional Teachers)* *.*^* ****^*** * * * `nom*^****"!'*** * ^.1-***********A***:**********1************:'::*********'*- ^.*,***;:*******************************************POST HIGH SCHOOL INDIAN EDUCATIONALVIN A. MCKAYEducation as it relates to our Indian people is directlycontrolled by the following areas:- Dept. of Indian Affairsa) Ottawa - National education policy.b) Regional - interpretation of above policies.c) District Snot. of I.D.S.A. re-intorprcfationof a) & b) policies (usually to fit budget).II^-^reDt. of  Education --^C.a) Minister of Education - varbal ccrimittment.b) (Spcial Services - Sup -intondentc) (Director of lndlim Education & Staff^to :in pi rnent8II^-^Dept. of Education -- B. C. (cont.)...d) School Districts (since the High School& Post High School programs began).III^Indian People a) parentsb) Education Committeesc) Band Councilsd) High School Graduatese) Churchesf) Community Organizations************************************************************************Education is a total way of life. This then means, educationis made-up of continuing changes in our lines. Supposedly from thisthinking, changes made in the above 3 areas, should improve the educa-tion of our Indian people.************************************************************************For years, Indian people have been demanding changes to bemade. Very little input by Indians has been accepted crimplemented. Plans, programs etc. by non-Indians - butthe Indians suffer the poor results and are blamed for thepoor results. Indian people are made to fit into the system.II -^Up until a few weeks ago, this area had a hands-off policytowards Indian Education. As long as Federal funds wereavailable, Indian students were condoned or put up with,hence the sick state of the present "integrated" set-up.Now, with a verbal committment by the Minister of Educationthe future seems brighter.III -^If education is a total way of life, then, all that Roeson  outside the classroom (before school life & duringschool life) di/ectiv controls  the success or  the failure in the classroom.- Those parents who wish for success in theclassroom, must begin, and go beyond wishing, before thechild enters school. Daily genuine love and affection,and a growing interest in the childs likes and dislikes,an encouragemeet for the child to speak out, an encourage-ment in the social training (meals, sliaring, meetingother children of the same age, respect for others,taking part in the home routine etc.) and cementingsome real health habits in the child (sleep, clean-liness, wholesome meals, pride in one self etc.)are a few things to start with.- Those parents who are interested in theschool success of their children, RUST meet all ofthe teachers that these children work with. A realeffort on the parents part to work along with teachers(right from nursery teachers up to the principal)will go a long ways in guiding and encouraging thesechildren towards success.- Churches can supplement the efforts ofparents and teachers. Sunday school and vocationvacation school programs are really extensions ofthe learning program. The six groups under III(Indian People) should actively, and co-operativelywork towards seeing, that such programs are in thevillages for "their" children.If this area III (Indian People)--really lived Fducation,the children coming out of these families and reserves will be sostrong in mind and character, that they will be good citizens and acredit to the Indians. It isthis area III that can force Al:eas ^&II to carry out the changes in school progrars which will assure yourchildren of a more meaningful education.The purpose of this paper, is to bring out weakness areasin this post high school education 2S 1 experienced as a student,and as I have had contact with nnny peat high school Indian studen•universities, junior colleges, vocational schools, Indian affairsguidance, and vocational counsellor:s. and high school personnelsince then.Post high school education is anyone going beyond gre10 into vocational, art schools or similar training set-ups.those going beyond grade 12 (technical, junior colJeges, lnlivc^ties)are also in this greuping. hat:ure Indian students (late 20's^up)who have a genuine interest to up-grade ther acadorric stand ' ^jnspecial set-ups (in conjunction vf. ,.h ::A-,:fle=.), for r Pasic^_icing& Skill Development Prcgreo , here:;y they ctn up-grade to '^_e Sto 10 and into grade 12, A is aricful of Indj:,n Fcserve Con: ^riesalso provide Adult fd-ocation^r,:.cho-A -Programs ticin,^withthe MSD Prorom. It wou]L sound L. : ^ti- at every OFDC:^Itymade available to IndJans for pest hieh school cdueati^In the- 10 -1971-71 school year - a conservative guess at members in the posthigh education for Indians could be 1200 Indian students. LESSthan 40 Indian students were enrolled at U.B.C., S.F.U., Universityof Victoria, out of this number.The aim of any post high school education program is tofurther prepare students to enter into specific specialized areas inthe wcrk field, and to encourage students to go beyond a skilled area.of interest, into the professional. fields.The transition of the Indian today needs a. strong group ofspecialized. professionally trained Indian people. from the vocationaland technical fields, we have a small number of established semi-skilled people in the work field. he have too few in the semi-professional area, aaidwehayeyirtuliyno^ co7ingoutof theuniversities in to sur.h^ technicians, doctors, dentL'dieticians, psychiatrists, psychologists, reistered nurses and publichealth. nurses, marital counsellors , farAly counsellors, social workers,trained child care work.c.^vocationnl or guidance or school counsellors ;lawyers , business adTinistrators, political scientists, researchscientists, efficiency e7merts, bookeepers, genera], and certifiedaccountancy, teachers, and an unending list of other Holes.1Th.7!nvdr^p,7ogra.i. is Jachcee.^hnno.,^of Trdi .,n.people - for their betterment ane catching^to^rest of todaY'asociety - the planning and the carrying oat of tire plans of controlled.by non-Indian' who lack a total undelest:endie of the way of lifeof the Indian and their specific needs as to hands or districts. nichof the time isspent Cl. trial & error ettompts, and by the time thepyograrl is underway -^good percentage of thd funds it?: -c'.feoned up in aeriinistration costs. Very . little of thn funding ever getsinto the grass roots level. of operetion-If we the India ns in. B. C.^yore able to place cur curpeople in these top proiessionea levels, e You'd cut cut this was'- agoof funds in planning ard nemlnisteriug the ,n , —.A case in point - is^nell developed Co nmnit^-1-7r:-..LC)Life Education Program^11.1 ...1...,. is noe ;T3tteinptino La lemr..cSuch a vitally neee(:7 r e, offcreei ir, i ery ree,eee,to expect 100Z of L^.C.T.C.^i:..have been able to lAck^ •..^r;^Inden.e, toall phases of thin ... otl.^undd on 7. -:. t,111,-^isinto operation, tncy have had. to .- ly on^i.an ..)-i.d)i.L ot Choprovince expertise.My main point, is that, in the post secondary education forour people, we are just leaving up to chance the results of such aprogram, where we should be directing, encouraging and actively sup-porting the directions of such a program we should be ending up with.With this focal point in mind, the D.I.A., the ProvincialDepartment of Education the U.B.C.I.C. and all their respective levelsof operation should, in co-operation with the BCNITA, the bands anddistricts, the parents etc., should be co-operatively working towardsa more productive post high education for the Indians.As I see it, the major weakness areas in the Post HighSchool Education for Indians are:A/ Majority of these students at this level are mis-trained, miseducated and misdirected. There ispresently a high drop-out rate at the vocational,technical and junior college levels. It couldbe as high as half of those entering a programdrop-out before the completion of that program.B/ At its best, the total program is increasing inenrollment numbers only - very few are goingbeyond the second year of Junior College.C/ Many Indian. students enter any program lust toremain in school. They lack proper counselling,and their abilities are not challenged. Theinitial interest was there, but being put on thewrong program, and due to a lack of a one to onecounselling program, these students, as a resultthey fade out of the picture.D/ Many students will complete the programs BUThave no interest in the skilled areas of thework field they are trained for, nor in the semi-professional levels they have reached. Thesepeople will enter into other areas of work,other than their training. They are unable tobe of some service to their respective bands,or to the U.B.C.I.C., or to pursue thesestudies to higher levels.sivEsTTus TO STPEU,THEN HPK A?EASA/ Mistraining, C.iseducation, MisdirectionAll people in the post high school area are young adults -with ideas, beliefs, ways of life etc. that are already well set foI- 12 -the rest of their future lives. Very little can be done to adjustor change these well set patterns of thought. Therefore, to continueto expect them to just naturally fit into the traditional programs,would be to encourage the non-productive P.M. program as it now exists.There are countless numbers of students in the vocationalor technical courses, who have not completed the apprenticeship sectionof their courses. There are countless numbers of diesel and automotivemechanics, electricians, welders, carpenters, food service workers,tellers, and other clerical workers etc., without jobs or who havegiven up.A first attempt at improving the situation would be for"the powers that be" (D.I.A., Dept. of Education, Vocational &Technical Institutes, and Manpower) to abandon the idea that Indianstudents can be fitted into traditional programs. The reaction tothis way of thinking thus far, is that if the programs do not appealto Indian students, they can either take it or leave it. A realeffort should be made by the top level brass to work in closerconsultation with the^with District or Band Councils,or with the BCNITA to properly evaluate Indian students as totheir future plans; their capabilities; their interests in the workfield; their interests in the semi-professional or skilled areas;or in their desire to serve their people on reserves or at districtor provincial levels. These should be made the key factors in see-ing that Indian students are progrcr'med into courses that will putthem into productive work areas, and not just to complete courses!As stated earlier, the 3 M's under this weakness categoryare almost non--controllable at the post high level. The preparatoryyears (as early as grade 6, right through to high school) are thecontrollable years. The guidance/vocational/school counselling pro-gram in these years lack an informative instructive content ofcareer planning and providing basic incentives to encourage adirected approach to post high education. By grade 10, most non-Indian students have been exposed to a vast expanse of choices inthe work world, including the profes s ions through such media (fromthe time they can speak!) as TV; living- in urban centers; weekendfamily eNeursions; annual vacation trips; youth organization orservice club or government sponsored exchange trips to diferontparts of our province of other provinces etc. At grade 10 level.most Indian students arc Thst beg _n ^this kind of exposure.The D.T.A. guidance/vocational counselling services should be cormprised of 757 of this ILIPP of OnrjC1C(1 career oriented programming.The Indian people should demand at their reserve elementaryor in provincial schools, that their children receive this continu-ing career typo orientation program. Such an emphasis, would beginto produce, trained, educated, directed post high school students.- 13 -B/^Increase in enrollment of the post high education areashould no longer be the overall objective. This is happening al-ready, and indications are that it should be increasing on its ownmomentum.We should be concerned about the end results - i.e. howmany people are leaving the vocational schools and are establishingthemselves in the work field and are still in a position to gobeyond this initial training? How many of our people are leavingthe technical institutes and are becoming technicians in thehospitals, or the many fields of industries? How many of our peopleare going beyond the first or second year of Junior Colleges, andgoing beyond the semi-professional levels into professional levels?The suggestions mentioned in category A should be pursuedat all costs. Those bands or districts, those parents, who canstrive extra hard to provide this enrichment for their children willmeet success. I roan by this that anything that parents or bandsetc. can do in providing this background fcr their children areoffering direction, end encouragerent. Perha:p!s, Indian parents call .demand that they also he included in this career erientation up-grading program^in adult education classes.Band. Councils,^their finances cap go beyondverbal encouragements.^mail bursares cr awars^hrldcouncil or other villag,c could enscurLgs some grade7 student to try extra hard. it: this respect, the district councils,or other larger Indian. erganizd.t. ions (kl.B.C.T.C. and ether federationor tribal groups etc.) can b2 in a posi'sion to offer bursaries inspecific post high school educetden related to thoir respective needsor aspirations.The ma or emphasis to i pr ,:ga the total cv mail situationshould. be as outlined in e;:.LLegor -2shore other suggestions aremerely supplementals.The type of guidance or veer=^or relocation (retraining)counselling offered at this leyal shcnic ecific and not generalpersonnel in ti:.-,,s poaittch^o7pert ^and^theircounselling silo '.!_d. he on s one tc^easis - and^L cone throughon office or by telephone.Should U.B.C-I,C. and District Ccuheil be involved. inscreening applicaauc on^op c^cants for these vitallyimportant counselling pcsit -;es:— 14—There is a need to assure vocational and technical studentsof jobs after courses. Should U.B.C.I.C. and District Councils beinvolved in some sort of employment referral type agency?C/^Poor programing of students, wherein abilities and interestsare not met, are the most common cause of dropping out of the programs.As stated earlier poor quality of counselling, and a lack of counselling,is the cause of this dropping out. As pointed out in section B - choiceof counsellors, or making sure that there are counsellors availableshould improve this weakness area. Similarily, the preparatory years(high school) and counselling in section A, are also important, and areareas where we the Indian people could demand that the proper preparationin terms of career orientation be begun.D/^Some re-training or re-evaluation of students who just completecourses, should be begun. As I understand it, there students are leftto finish their non-productive programs, and their is no follow up totheir initial attempts.When there is such a. great demand on OUT reserves, at ourDistrict Councils and atL the. U.E.C.I.C. levels for trained Indian people,can District Councils feed into U.D.C.I.C. office suggestions of varioustypes of positions or jobs that they need, and perhaps the U.B. C.I. C.can tabulate or ce-ordirate these into specified courses that they canapproach the various training institutions i,yi..th? P.cie again, theemployent referyi^pe agen^ih :section^caIi be of some use.In conclusion, over-riding all of these weaknesses areas, isthe total lack of direct communication. c,mongst all those involved inthe education of the Indian- Policies are bring interpreted at thevarious levels of the EnI.A., and th^armerit of Education, andagain re--interpreted at the ri)j.01: 1^d-i.-rict levels to fit thebudget. In this while. process, the^of 1rd:inn studnts takessecond or third placo or inorc ,i altother. Perhaps in this respect,if these two departments cnn be encouraged to deal with the regional.(provincial) cam= prhbleu:s of Cue B. C. Indian, isolated from. theD.I.A. national educational policy, or the Pepartment of Educationdistrict of education olicie's - i.e. throuh. the U.B.C.I.C. orDistrict Councils, in conlunction with the BCNITA -then some headwaycan be made with reference to ajleviatihg sce of the critical pro-blem areas of toe post higl' school eei.,o^ec icr Indians. Ottawalevel personnelperhetua"..in ' o -idea that they, and onlythey can decide on nriticol isuos tor^at ions or enrichmentsin the edu _.__o* 0 Lho Indian.^inerc is^Ortswa level ezhertiseas such Cur the Provincial^or^.lc Lich - edncation.ilmatters for B. C,^with TE this concentrationof common interests, cducato^mattorh for the non-Indihns of^B. C. e,re keeping up ",-ith con changes to ilp-rsele their^tem.For Indian Eduction in 1S. C. - chcn;:os arc controlled by the avail-ability of funds and if the current fiscal year lies no funds,pertinent cbanRes in eduhation are left until. the Collwing year.Is it not possible for the^hiernrchv to•set-up a B. C. R-,-ional— 15 —team of consultants, to co-ordinate educational matters for B. C.Indians? Such a body could be comprised of educational representativesfrom Ottawa, Regional Offices, Representatives from the U.B.C.I.C.,and BCNITA. This group can then be in a position to work more co-operatively with the Department of Education in B. C. Educational pro-blems for Indians have many progressive districts, and for these people,a more closer co-operative direct liaison with the Provincial Departmentof Education is all that is needed for more success. As it now stands,a breakdown in communication at Regional D.I.A., and the B. C. Indians,and BCNITA leaves everything at a stand still. The Ottawa level ofdealing with these stalemated issues, is to see how we fit into theirnational education policy, and by telephone or telex, the future ofB. C. Indian Education is decided upon. Such an issue as the socialcounselling position is a. classic example. The planning for suchcourses, and the operation of such courses has been put on a nationallevel. B. C. Indians must fit into the content. Why wasn't the Home-School Co-ordinators' program in B. C. Used as a basis for such courses?Here, B. C. Indian people have been in the educational field forthree years, and have been involved in summer session orientationcourses, but no recognition has been given to the value judgement inthe field. experience and training that these Home-School Co-ordinators'have been receiving. They now have to go outside of B. C. to train,receive a diploma, and then be recognized. The first BCNITA heardof it, was the announcement that the course was available outside ofB. C. ^Another classic example, is the school of the future idea thatthe Naas River people are demanding. Some breakdown in communicationwith D.I.A., Ottawa and Regional Office has taken place - so that when.the local school board and the Nass Delegation reached a disagreement,it was left at that! -- the Indian people are at a loss, as to who toapproach, or put faith in to get this project into operation -- theD.I.A., Ottawa or Regional Office or the Department of Education inB. C.? A--B. C. team of consultants, as proposed in this paper,would be a group to resolve such a stalemated situation! The matterof the cultural Education Centers is another issue. Indian peoplein Canada have to make overtures to the top level brass in Ottawato receive such grants. and in their first phase of the program fourprovinces received massive grants. It appears that to be favouredby such grants - those with the most pressure and to level contactsare receiving consideration. Why is this fund being administered inOttawa, rather than provincially, under such a co-ordinating groupas proposed!The whole point of summing up this paper in this manner,is that, oven if all of the seggestions to strengthen the weak areaswore carried out - we the In.diz:n people of B. C. are being deniedthe right, to decide , make plas, and carry out these pi=ma foreducation. Ideally, there should be only one co-ordinated group to- 16 -enter into agreements or working liaisons with the Provincial Depart-ment of Education. Today, Ottawa has a master contract - this iscorrelated with their National Indian Education Policy become somixed-up, that, people in regional who have no understanding ofeducation make the final decisions.If all of us agree, that the future of any group of people,depends on the quality of education their children recieve, then theB. C. Indian people have no real future to look forward to, due tothe non-productive type of post high school education their childrenare forced into.Therefore, to be in a position to control and direct theoutcome of those Indians in post high school education, let us toaway with all of the multi-complex levels of communication thatcurrently exists and lets demand that a B. C. Team of EducationalConsultants be set-up! In this manner, direct, co-operative work-ing liaison is assured with the B. C. Department of Education.*****************^x* :****d " .***************,.*******************CENTER^COUNCIL^MEETINGU,B,C,^NovErBER 25, 1972All but two of the newly elected Center Council embers(total 16) were in attendance. This body of educators main termsof office are to re-evaluate, re-elaborate and to set prioritiesfrom the general membership's plans of actions. In the followingareas, new ideas, further direction was agreed upon.1/ Publishing of enriched Curriculum. WritersProjects to be pursued immediately.2/ A member be given authority to put intoaction, plans to edit R.A.V.E.N. tapes,so that they can be adapted to class-room use.3/ That prior to General BCNITA Conferencein Easter - that members in their res-pective six districts, hold a DistrictWorkshop.• • • • • • • •- 17 -4/ Incentive Bursaries for Post--High SchoolIndian Students were reviewed and categorized.Director and his assistant are to completeprocessing immediately!5/ Reports on - I.E.R.C. Budget & Projected Year IV.- BCNITA Budget & Projected Year IV.- Budgets were discussed.****************** ***********************************^*^*** ***"ISSUES^IN^INDIAN^EDUCATION"^GEORGE^N.^WILSON(PRESENTATION MADE AT UNION B.C. INDIAN CHIEFS' CONFERENCE Nov./72)...Thank you Mr. Chairman, Chiefs, Chief's Executive, Panel,Ladies & Gentlemen. It is indeed a pleasure to appear before you toput forth some questions and ideas on Indian Education, I would liketo thank the Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs for this opportunity.I certainly do not want to stand before you on the subjectof education projecting a "Messiah Image." I say this because thereare as many answers as to what education is and what it is supposedto do as there are people. To put it simply, I would like to putforth to you as Indian people, with the twenty minutes that I have,what my colleagues in the B. C. Native Indian Teachers' Associationand myself have in the way of questions and ideas on the subject ofIndian Education. I will call these point issues in Indian Education.These are many, many issues that each of us must consider at onetime or other on Education -- but the points I wish to discuss arethe ones which appear more often than others and on this basis Ithink they need a good deal of consideration by those of us who areeducation officials and those of us who send our youngsters to theseinstitutions of learning.II^Universal Issues in EducationFirst of all let us not pretend that the Indian people arethe only ones who have the most difficult position in terms ofchoices, decisions and plans in Education. Nothing can be furtherfrom the truth. Total education is elusive -- even the Whiteman- 18-has problems knowing how and what to teach his child. I would likebriefly to show you what,our universal problems is in a very generalmanner and through it, we can see how our children are caught inthis one problem.Firstly, the question of relevance and irrelevance of theprovincial and federal school curriculum. Fundamentally, there is nodifference between the provincial and federal school system in con-sidering relevance and irrelevance. I suggest to you that the curri-culum which contains the material to be taught to our children is insome respects irrelevant, that is to say that:"they fail to teach the child how he can relatethe learning to his life outside of school."In other words the school is a poor reflection of the real world out-side. It has become an artificial mini-world that poorly reflectsthe outside world. Taking it to the extremes the teacher is a poorreal life situation stuck in the confines of the classroom trying torelate to children while he himself is an adult. To be more specific,let us examine the present learning process being used in the schools.A specific type of practice currently used by our schoolsis the memory technique of grasping facts. If there is a sacredpractice which ensures success in the education system in B. C.,this is it! "Education emphasizes the lesser function of the humanbrain, memory, while relatively neglecting its major function, think-ing. The only thinking going on which may have importance is thattype which is required to solve problems which have definite answers.If you consider the subjects as mathematics, science and grammar,the thought process involved in these subjects is down-graded becauseto excel in each of these subjects you must have a good memory andconfine yourself to that type of thinking which will ensure you thecorrect answers. Educators decide the right answers to problems thenpose the problems to students and thus it is certainly oriented. Inother words we teach our children in schools only to get the rightanswers.In this real world we know better. We know that manyquestions have many possible answers. How should we teach our child-ren so that what we tench than is relevant? That question of courserequires many different answers because we all have a stake in oureducational system. But, for the irmediate problem relating torelevance involving the thinking process, let me shy this: Let's,let go of the certainty principle, which says, that all questionsasked in our schools has definite right/wrong answers, begin toteach our children to think, approach the problems to find thereasonable alternatives than im.pleaent the best possible answer tothese questions. This would be in opposition to blindly echoingright and wrong answers.- 19-Many more examples of irrelevance can be found in exist-ence in our schools but what are we doing about it? When it comesto curriculum revision, lets examine the relevance of the curriculumas a whole from time to time and in revising curriculum, lets keepaway from fence repairing, and the use of the band-aid approach.Let us, teach our children to really think!I wish to revert to curriculum towards the end of mypresentation.III^More Specific Issues in Indian EducationLet us sanction the present educational system for aminute as we all must and investigate some of the more current,specific issues in Indian Education.An accounting needs to be made -- an accounting is re-quired of how the "Indian Money" is spent for our Indian children'seducation. If one great administrative issue is to be resolved, itis that of accounting, how the provincial government spends the moniesturned over to them, by the federal government for Indian Education.It is bad enough that we as Indians do not participate in masteragreements with these senior governments but it's worse if we cannotat least have an accounting of the monies spent.We must study these spendings so that we can participatein the educational process in a democratic fashion. We must studythese spendings so that we can clearly see where we need beef upspending in education. We must study these spendings, because itis this accounting and by the end of the day you should pass aresolution demanding an accounting. I say this not only to ourIndian in B. C., I say this also to all Indians in all provincesof Canada.Let me now put forward to you an even more specific issue,an issue more pertinent and in a very direct way, affects each ofyour children. There have been minor tremours in Indian Educationin British Columbia that each of your prcbably felt in some fashion.In other quarters like the Indian Education Resources Center,Camosun College and others, the tremours were greater in magnitude.In the quarters of the Indian Education Administrative Structure,I could imagine greate quakes. Sometime, over a year ago thedecision making process in Indian Education made a shift.It shifted from the hand of the Regional Superintendentof Education to that of the Regional Director of Indian Affairs.This shift, I cannot for the life of me fathom -- for my money I-20-cannot condone the practive of having the Regional Director decideon educational matters. I cannnot see for the life me how someonewithout an educational background, insensitive to education, to saythe least, take over the decision making power at the Regional Office.I am referring to the Regional Director of Indian Affairs.I cannot leave the subject without mentioning to you someincidents which has prompted me to bring this up as an issue. Imentioned the Indian Education Resources Center to you a minute ago.To meet the demands, on the Resources Center for this year and tocatch up on our commitments for the forthcoming year, our budgetrequest to do our job for the year was in the neighbourhood of$85,000. The budget wa.s presented to Mr. Ray Hall for processingand in response, the Regional Director, Mr. Larry Wight paid us avisit. In the course of 1/2 hour he managed to cut the budget to$54,000. and informed us further that his office will not in theforthcoming; year carry us in his budget. To top that, he thoughtthe British Columbia Native Indian Teachers' Association was aunion. We sent to his office prior to our sleeting a detailedfunding request as always together with information as to who weare and what we have accomplished in the past. I contend ,that hedid not do his homework, I can only conclude that he was there withthe expressed purpose of cutting us out of his budget, which he willprobably succeed in doing. Camosun College Indian Program has alsobeen cut to the bones in almos'l the same fashion_ . You probablyremember the incident last year where the fares of an X number ofIndian students was going to be paid to go home for Christmas. Mr.Ray Hall okayed the funding of it -- I think at that rime yourprotests were misdirected, I think it would have been more properto direct it to the R.D., who, was probably responsible for itsalmost not getting off the ground.I know what justification. is going to be given to you forthese moves. The excuse will be that the budget on Indian Educationwas cut drastically this year and that the frills of education willhave to be cut out. I say to you that there will be justificationthat will side step the more important issue.^The issue here isthat the decision making process, and power must stay with theeducational adminis trative structure, in the office of the RegionalSuperintendent of Education, no matter how much, the budget iscut, or how small it is roi that matter.Another probably more important, certainly no less of anissue than the rest is that concerning the physical plants, theschools. All reserve schools are in rural settings - rural settingswhere population will probabjy increase very little even in the next50 years. In these rural settings are reservations with 1 or 2 or 4classrooms. Schools without gyrnasiums, let alone activity rooms.- 21 -•Each of these schools will probably never ever have gymnasiums. Theywere not there when you were children, they are not there now andprobably will not exist in the next 50 years. In other words,generations of Indians have been short changed in the physical educa-tion and cultural education sector of their education. We, as Indians,cannot accept anymore the old argument that "oneday, when your villagegrows in population, the enrollment of the school reaches 300 studentsand that will warrant 8 classrooms then you will have a gymnasium."We all know better than that: How many villages can you count todaythat have schools with 8 or more classrooms and that have gymnasiums-- one? two?I say the physical development of a child is just asimportant as the spiritual and the mental development of the samechild. Lets face the fact. The greatest percentage of all IndianReserves in B. C. will not have 8 classrooms in the next 50 yearsand lets not wait 50 more years to demand at the very least largeactivity rooms in all small day schools in all of British Columbia.Finally, it disturbs me to know as it probably does youthat we have produced students in the present educational systemwho are failures. Failures to the extent that over 90% of ourstudents fail to complete high school. It bothers me to thinkthat we may continue to permit our Indian. students to continue tofail. 1 believe, at this point in time, we should question theeducational system, of the past and today. I would go as far asto suggest, we begin to investigate for ourselves the reasons for.being misfits in the education system. I suggest further that weset up model learning centers or schools where we can begin to basea curriculum on Indian values. In. a model school setting differentlearning and teaching approaches can be tested as that educationto us can be relevant and in the end produce success not failures.Let us investigate Indian Valleys today, begin to build curriculumon that foundation, and use different approaches to teach ourchildren. There is no question in my mind that Indian childrenare as intelligent as any non-Indian. I question, however, themethod of teaching, the contents of curriculum then would suggestthat the curriculum is irrelevant for us and the teaching methodsinappropriate.ConclusionIn conclusion, the issues I have raised are here today,they are issues you must consider, and because of the limited timeI have, I cannot raise others, but I am certain that in the future,we will, be in consultation.^Tomorrow you will hear more fromour friend Mr. Alvin McKay on the subject of Issues in IndianEducation.* * ** ************ ******1;:************ ***********- 22 -BELLA COOLA WORKSHOPByRobert SterlingAssistant Directo - Indian Education Resources CenterThe Education Workshop at Bella Coola on November 24 madea special effort to involve Indian people on the programme. It was thefirst time that Indian people in Bella Coola had been given an opportunitylike this, and they took full advantage of it. Sitting before a group ofsome 45 people, mostly teachers, a panel consisting of Bella Coola Chief -Ivan Tallio, Band Manager - Ed Moody, Home-School Co-ordinator - SandraTallio, Indian Education Committee Members - Francis Mack,and JemimaSchooner and Secondary Students - Wally Weber, Wilma Mack and AliceSchooner outlined problems. weakness areas and faults giving evidence thatIndians, in their unique citation, were not having their needs met in theschool system. The theme of the workshop was communication and dialogueand the resultant exchange of ideas, plans for further meetings and theenthusiasm over the results of this =hange can clearly be seen as asuccessful effort.Much of the credit for this successful effort go to thepeople involved, including the local teachers association, Indian people,various Principals of schools, and a seemingly nameless group of ladieswho prenared the de 4 adohs. pre-conference lienn7h-^personal nowrespect goes to Richard "Ized" hughes whose hospitality, concern for peopleand willingness to seek new approaches in education make him as a man toadmire and respect.Bella Coola WES one of the first districts in the Provinceto institute the Integration system, allowing Indians to attend Provincialschools some 20 gears ago. In. this small area of about 1500 population,the 550 Indians account for nearly half of the school enrollment and around3U of the secondary School enrollment. A. very good pupil/teacher ratioof some 13 students per teacher average gives evidence of plenty of time togive individual attention. The majority of teachers are "old-timers" manyof whom have been teaching in Bella. Coola for over a decade, and would knowthe needs of their area and how to meet them. The Indians do not have aSchool Board member and ha- re not been involved in any of the school programsaffecting their children. In an integration set-up that is 20 years oldthe Indian people are finally being given a chance to participate.The dialoge that took place at the Boils Coola workshop wasan inspiring afternoon. of 2-way communication. The ideas and opinions thatcame up, the questions and answers, and the desire to carry this exchangefurther, into plans of action, has see tie tone for a future of sharing &co-operation. All persons who participated can feel proud to have done so,and enlightened ) • for Indians have so much to offer, but most of all a co-operative etfort of this type is so all-necess..u,.y to ensure a relevantfuture not only for Indian children but all children of• Bella Coola-*************-23-LILLOOET SCHOOL DISTRICT t29 -REPORT FROM INDIAN HOME-SCHOOL CO-ORDINATORSAUL TERRYTeacher Aide Training This idea of training teacher aide originated from oneyoung Indian graduate who volunteered to work in Bridge RiverElementary as a volunteer aide. This person was doing such atremendous job and we clearly saw the change in attitude of anumber of pupils. This prompted us to look for funds and paythis aide for full time employment as an aide. We were unableto do this through Indian Affairs as they said that the persondid not have any training. From there a brief for trainingteacher aides materialized.Mr. Len Plater, our Elementary Supervisor, having hadprecious valuable experience put down on paper a detailed outlineof the course. (For details of brief---write to Saul Terry -Home-School Co-ordinator, P. 0. Box 556, Lillooet, B. C.)At any rate our brief won favourable comment fromDepartment of Indian Affairs officials but due to lack of policyfor such a program and further complicated by budget difficultiesour spirits were tried on a number of occasions. As Len wouldsay and did say, "We were born to be winners." - so we again triedanother approach. Finally the L.I.P. showed up to finally get uson the road.The course started last Monday, November 27 and willterminate on December 22/72. In a way the final course set--upwas basically what we had asked for the in the first place. Weended up with the instructor we first had in mind, a total oftwelve trainees, and our school board still: totally behind us.Apparently there is some uneasiness being, expressed on someteachers part but we hone through examples of the effectivenessof T.A.'s that this will nit be an on-going difficulty.The trainecs involved came from Bella Bella, WilliamsLake, and Lillooet, By nuHbers there are three from Bella Bella,five Williams Lake, and four from Lillooet. We are all quiteimpressed with the caliber and enthusiasm of these people.-24 -Perhaps I should point out that our Lillooet candidatesalong with the others will go on T. .J. in their home areas afterChristmas until the end of May. Our school board here is quiteprepared to employ them through the month of June. Preparationsare already underway to employ our people for next year.Needless to say we were very happy to finally get theshow on the road and we must surely congratulate our local traineesfor their patience with us. If the five applicants, four are withus, and the fifth wento into Welfare Aide Training so we don'tconsider her a loss.******^*******^**** *********** ****** ***** ************************ ****UNIVERSITYA.^KELSEYYesterd6::: I walked across the campus lawn...How many have walked before me?Many...Many...How many have walked before me...Only a few Indian brother...At what price?It cost my brothers much...It cost my brothers their life...His image is no longer Indian—.He no longer speaks the Indian mind...and he has become a dirty word......assimilated....White Indian is now his name...What small Indian thought is lefthe wears like a Ladge..Something is lost in the turning...He is not white, h is not Indian—.Shamed by a rich heritage...Disgraced by a proud people...Guilt-ridden in the tragdy ofconquered race...The same is his,not his people.-25-But the end is not near...For I am joined by one...two...I can hear the Indian Drums...and am strengthened...The price I pay is far less, then mybrother ^I walk the campus lawn ^and I am Indian ^THE ABOVE POEM IS TAKEN FROM: THE COYOTE - ("POO-TAY-TOY") VOLUME 2 #1ISSUE. --- DAVIS, CALIFORNIA.*******************^****************** * * **** ***AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS THAT HAVE BEEN PRODUCED BY THE I.E.R.C. -- ANDARE AVAILABLE FROM OUR CENTER FOR PURCHASE OR LOAN.1. Helping Hand - FOR PURCHASE FOR 5O PER COPY -- is based on materialsprepared by Sister Nary Paul Howlitt, deals withthe help which Interior Indians gave AlexanderMacKenzie on his journey to the Pacific Oceanin 1793.2. When Strangers Meet - FOR PURCHASE FOR $2.00 PER COPY - a secondstudy, based on materials prepared by CharlesHou. The theme that runs throughout the studyis aptly summarized by the title, When StrangersMeet. The first documents show what happenedwhen Europeans traded or lived in a region wherea well developed native culture was dominatedby a technologically advanced European culture.It is hoped that by studying these documentsstudents will become more sensitive to theproblems faced by rinority groups in anysociety.3. Chief Dan George Soliloquy Cassett Tare - FOR LOAN FOR ONE WEEK.Chief Dan George was born 72 years ago in asmall Indian. village on the north arm ofBurrard Inlet. For most of his life he hasworked as a woodsman, a longshoreman, and aconstruction worker. He served as Chief ofthe Burrard Indian Band for twelve years.More recently, he has become a successfulactor with major roles on television, on thestage, and in feature films. Probably few menof our time have gained as much respect inboth the Indian and white communities as ChiefDan George.-26-4. KSAN - teacher/pupil source unit. Prepared by a B. C. NativeIndian Teacher. An overview of the culturalhistory of the Skeena River Indian people. Itis comprised of 40 coloured frames of filmstripswith an accompanying text. FOR PURCHASE - $5.00 PER UNIT.5. Assessment of the Integration Program in the Sechelt School District- an attempt to determine the overall effect ofthe integration program for native Indian studentsin one area. FOR PURCHASE OR LOAN - 50c PER COPY.6. The Upper Staulo Indians (Fraser Valley)--Wilson Duff - a reprintingof an informative booklet about B. C. Indians inthis area. FOR PURCHASE OR LOAN - $2.00 PER COPY.7. Curtis Collection - 40 coloured slides of early Indian Life (1890'sonward) -- Coast Salish (Vancouver Island) andNootka areas. FOR PURCHASE OR LOAN - FULL SET $11.00.8. Jesup North Pacific Eypedition (Most of the papers prepared by Tait)- also referred to as "Teit Papers'. Deals withthe followinz areas:a) Thompson area - J. Teit (1900) 250 pages - $12.50.b) Shuswap area - J. Tait (1919)WiCh^- 332 1);:Z2S - $15.60.without myths - 175 pages - $8.75.c) Lillooet Indians - J. Teit (1908) - 107 pages - $ 5.35.d) Cnilcotin Indians - J. Ieit (1900)appridix to Shuswap - 32 pages - $1.60.e) Traditions of the Chilcotins^Farrand -56 pages - $2.80.*************.:,AA***.;:***^***^'^****.;:.* :***************7%*****sy-TImm A7D,p700 ,I ND f AN EDU CATC!2-1 PEsnr px:Pc; CENTSMOM 106 — Er.Ors,t,, ,VANc0HvEr•,*i


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