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Indian Education Newsletter (Vol. 2, No. 6) Indian Education Resources Center 1972-02-29

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Indian Education NewsletterVOLUME 2 #6 FEBRUARY, 1972INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTERUNIVERSITY OF B. C., VANCOUVER.ANNOUNCEMENTSAn updated resources list of books, pamphlets etc., alongwith a referral list of films regarding Indian background information, andalso a readability list is now in a booklet form which can be ordered.Due to the number of pages involved, this resource booklet will be sentout on request.* * * * * * ** * * * ** * **Our Indian Education Newsletter is free, and so is sent on re-quest. A number of copies are being returned -- PLEASE let us have yourchange of address.* * * * fe, * ** * * * ** * *Our last issue for this school term will be during the firstweek of June (a May/June issue), - again, PLEASE let us have your changeof address - August, September at latest for September issue of our IERCNewsletter - if you wish to receive the newsletter.* * * * * * ** * * * ** * **The B. C. Native Indian Teachers Association semi-annualgeneral Conference is being held at U.B.C. - April 3, 4, 5, 1972. Any-one, especially teachers who are out to visit our Center during that weekis welcome to observe.* * * * *** * **** * ** * ** *** *** ** * *** *** * ** * * *** *** * * ****' **** * * * **************************** *************- 2 -WHEN STRANGERS MEETCHARLIE HOUIn the summer of 1969 John Thomas and George Clutesi wereinvited by Professor Frank Hardwick of the UBC Department of Education todiscuss with Social Studies teachers the role played by Indians in B. C.'shistory. Their efforts were successful in inspiring a number of graduateand undergraduate teachers to prepare teaching materials showing the placeof Indians in our history.It was intended that as many of these studies as possiblewould be published and distributed to interested teachers who do not havethe resources of the UBC library and Provincial Archives at their fingertips. One study has already been published by the Indian Education ResourcesCenter and the Center for Continuing Education. The Helping Hand, basedon materials prepared by Sister Mary Paul Howlitt, deals with the helpwhich Interior. Indians gave Alexander MacKenzie on his journey to the PacificOcean in 1793.A second study, based on materials prepared by Charles Hou, willsoon be published. The theme that runs throughout the study is aptly sum-marized by the title, When Strangers Meet. The first documents show whathappened when Europeans traded or lived in a region where a well developednative culture was dominant, and later documents show what happened whenthe same region dominated by a technologically advanced European culture.It is hoped that by studying these documents students will become moresensitive to the problems faced by minority groups in any society.This study differs from The Helping Hand in several ways. rnthe first place, it deals with numerous events spread out over a muchlonger periof of time. Secondly, a deliberate attempt was made to providea variety of source materials which an historian would consult before writ-ing his history. Thirdly, the materials are often highly biased and contro-versial in nature so that students cannot accept everything that is saidor pictured in the materials, but must evaluate the evidence carefullybefore drawing any conclusions. Finally, the study is meant not only toshow the role that Indians have played in our history but also to teachthe students the many critical thinking skills needed in order to evaluatethe mass of information directed at them by today's mass media.Professor Hardwick is currently editing a study on the goldrush and plans to expand the series to include the contributions of otherminority groups to the rich mosaic of Canadian history. The first studyin the expanded series will deal with the contributions of Ukrainians.Adam Kozoak has been responsible for doing the necessary research.* * * * * * ** * * * ** * *** * * * * * *3READINGS IN CHILD DEVELOPMENTROGER C. BARKER"SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN THE CLASSROOM"PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION, 19 (1942) P. 221-224 One of the studies by Lewin and Hoppe tried to answer thequestion: When does a person experience success and failure?Method: Adult subjects were given simple motorand intellectual tasks. ie: hangingas many rings upon a moving belt aspossible. Subjects were observedsecretly then interviewed.Hoppe's found success and failure wereunrelated to actual achievement ofindividuals. He concluded that successand failure were independent of actualachievement but was determined by goals,expectations and aspirations set by in-dividuals at a particular time.Study 2: Effects of success and failure on levelof aspiration. Hoppe found;1) Subjects changed level of aspirationif they met with success they set ahigher goal. If they met with failurethey lowered their goal.2) Thus, a person could protect himselffrom continued failure or againsteasy attainment by setting highergoals.If a child's aspirations are continuallyset too high, above achievement, he maybe subjected to continual failure whichcould have a disasterous effect on hisadjustment and happiness or, if a childplaces his aspiration below achievementit could result in a lack of ambition andcynicism, which could be serious person-ally and socially.Pressure from society has pushed many beyond ability. Thechild who experiences failure has set aspirations above level of possibleachievement. Those in the upper end of achievement have set aspirationsbelow level of achievement and have thus experienced success.4School pressures could put off balance the protective mech-anism of level of aspiration. These pressures could arise from socialacceptability and require a child to conform to group standards.School can become overwhelming for a middle-class child ifsuccess is academic achievement. A child who may be kind, courageous andhave certain mechanical abilities may fail in school until he can establishhimself with an organization which values his behaviour, non-academicachievement.Sears studied the.effects of chronic failure and success en-forced by many schools. She found the child which had experience incontinual success set their aspirations at a realistic level whereas thechild who met continual failure had set aspirations with little regardto their achievement level.To avoid off balancing a child's protective mechanism theteacher needs to broaden the basis for evaluating pupils; allow pupilsmaximum freedom in setting their own goals; reduce to a minimum theprominence of the relative standing of pupils and to reduce dominanceof the teacher.This can be avoided if democratic teaching procedures areused, if interests of the child are followed, and group undertakings arean important part of school activities.* * * * * * ** * * * ** * * ** * * * * * *COMMENTS FROM INDIAN DAY SCHOOL PUPILS - GRADE 1 - 2 ONBOOKS ON LOAN FROM IERC.I liked the book. I couldn't stop reading it. - Robin Tait.I like the story it is good. I hope you don't give it back.- Mary Davis.5ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR NATIVE INDIAN CHILDRENCRAIGFLOWER ELEMENTARY SCHOOLOVERALL PLAN:A. Objectives of the program.B. The Program:1. Role of various personnel involved in program.2. Metholodology:(a) Tutoring.(b) Cultural Activities.3. Pupil Materials.4. Timetable and personnel involved in culturalactivities.C. Evaluations.D. Teacher References.A. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM1. Develop a sense of pride in being an Indian.2. Encourage local parents from reserve to be involved in the program.3. Involve all Indian children in this program who are currentlyattending Craigflower School.4. Help the child to think positively through success at whateverlevel he or she works.5. Involve native Indians from the Adult Institute to act as tutors.6. Give the pupils the opportunity to identify with adult Indianswho have had academic success.7. Increase teachers' knowledge and awareness of Indian Culture.8. Employ Indian teacher aide to help develop suitable materialsfor this program.B. THE PROGRAM 1. Role of the various personnel involved:(a) The Principal- overall co-ordination of program61. (b) The Learning Assistance Teacher - screening through testing and observation to gain know-ledge of child.- help for both teacher and tutor both in diagnosingacademic problems and in remedial methods when such helpis required.(c) The Classroom Teacher - allow children to feel successful in class.- provide direction for tutors in academic skills.- provide materials.- suggest methodology.- set academic aims for individual children.- guide and evaluate program with tutor.(d) The Indian Tutors - provide practice for skills or remedial work underteacher's direction.- allow children to feel more worthy as individualsthrough individual time allotments.- help children improve work habits.- gain some knowledge of children's home backgroundand relate it to the teacher.- encourage interest in Indian Culture.- provide a list of concepts unknown to IndianChildren that we take for granted.(e) The Parents from the Reserve - provide a cultural background through such activitiesas Carving, Indian Legends, Beading, Knitting andSewing.(f) The Local Indian Teacher-Aide - teach about things Indian.- encourage interest in anything Indian - Build up alibrary and resource center of things Indian; Legend,books, filmstrips etc.- take children on field trips to provide them withexperiences they might not otherwise have. i.e.Provincial Museum (Potlatch Program) ThunderbirdPark, Sealand, etc.(g) The Special Counsellor - liaison person between tutors and school andVocational Counsellor.- hiring and paying of tutors.- be familiar with children's homes and conditionsthere.7^1.^(h) The Vocational Counsellor - this person is a native Indian at the Adult Institute,and makes the initial contact of students who wish toact as tutors at Craigflower School. He also chairsthe special committee on the reserve, who suppliesthe adults for the cultural activities in the school.(i) The School Nurse - keep in close contact with families on the reserveand provide information to the staff that will en-able them to deal more effectively with the child.2.^Methodology (a) Tutoring - tutors work with children on individual basis - inclassroom situation as much as possible.- tutors come into classrooms to observe Indian stu-dents in class and small group situations - pre-ferably during undirected activities in intermediategrades.- In primary grades tutors could work with group doingseatwork to improve work habits. (This group wouldinclude any children needing help, not only Indianchildren).- Small group situations could be provided for thosewho may have difficulty communicating. Any dis-cussions would be encouraged. This is particularlyimportant with intermediate children.(b) Cultural Activities (i) In the School: the following activities arecarried out by the parents who live on thereserve: carving, Indian legends, knittingsewing and beading.(ii) Field Trips: during the fall term the studentsvisited the Provincial Museum twice to learnmore about the Coastal Indians, their sociallife, dwellings and industries. The MaritimeMuseum was also visited.(iii) Future Field Trips: these will include Thunder-bird Park, Sealand, taking part in a Potlatch,Craigflower Manor, and Fort Rodd Hill.3.^Pupil Materials The following have been purchased: Readers: Neepawa Seriesbeading materials, knives for carving, wood, knitting wool and needles,magnetic number and letter boards.ANNOUNCINGINDIAN EDUCATION - EDUCATION 479SUMMER SESSION, 1972^3 UNITS CREDITTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAInstructional techniques for adapting teaching to the needs of Indianstudents; method of enriching the curriculum by including the culturalbackground of all students; the course will include some examinationof the anthroplogical, sociological and historical background of nativeIndians with an emphasis on contemporary situations as these relate toteaching.Staff. Instructor: Dr. Art More, Faculty of Education; Indian EducationResources Centre staff; native Indian Resource persons and guest Facultyfrom other university departments.Course Description: Education 479 is a relatively new course, designedto aid teachers developing the ability to adapt education to the needsof Indian students. A basic assumption in the course is that, whilethere are many similarities and differences between all individualschildren, a permanent educational programme often do not take intoaccount differences, mostly cultural and economic which many Indianchildren share.The course will be presented by many individuals including Indianteachers and students; representatives of Indian organizations; repre-sentatives of other educational organizations: specialists in anthro-pology, sociology, psychology, language arts, Indian culture, Artsand crafts; and by the course participants.The content is divided into two parts. Part I emphasis backgroundknowledge and includes historical and contemporary backgrounds; atti-tudes toward education by Indian parents, teachers, students and organ-izations: and policies of the provincial Department of Education,Department of Indian Affairs and B.C. Teachers. Part II emphasizesadapting teaching, using community resources, and dealing with poten-tial problem areas. Part. II represents about two-thirds of the course.Information on registration credit - students wishing 3 units ofcredit for Education 479 must register as extrasessional students;contact Registrar's Office, 228-2418 for registration cards and infor-mation. Registration for Summer Session 1972 closes June 15. Regis-tration for Winter Session 1972-73 closes in mid-September. Creditfee $100.Non-credit - a number of auditors will be accepted into the course;please apply to Dr. More or Education - Extension (228-2181): do notcontact the Registrar's Office. Non-credit fee $5.Please write a letter to Dr. More, Faculty of Education, University ofB.C. giving information on your present concerns in the area of NativeIndian Education including mention of background knowledge of B.C.Indians or active participation in Education of Indian Children. Enrol-ment limited to 80 students.83. As the cultural activities are expanded more materials will berequired, such as cane for basket work, simple looms, wool for weaving,and leather tools for leatherwork.4. Timetable and Personnel -Involved in Activities TUTORSDAY NAME TIMEMonday Miss Linda George 1:00 - 2:00Tuesday Miss Linda George 1:00 - 2:00WednesdayMrs. Alice DickMr. Tom Jack1:00 - 2:001:00 - 3:00Thursday Mr. Tom Jack 1:00 - 3:00ADULTS^FROM^THE^RESERVEDAY NAME ACTIVITY TIMETuesdayMr. HillisMr. Williams Carving 1:00 - 3:00Wednesday Mrs. George Legends 2:00 - 3:00Thursday Mrs. Dick Knitting & Sewing 2:00 - 3:00FridayMrs. MorrisMiss Dyer Beading 2:00 - 3:00C. EVALUATION1. Tutors to be involved and present at parent-teacher interviews.2. Tutors to give written report on her assessment of child con-cerned at report card time (to be considered by teacher whenplanning and preparing reports.3. Tutors to recommend areas of instruction in which child may belacking.4. Recommend program be evaluated several times a year (possiblyat report time) so change can be made as required.9C.^5. Teachers to make written report of what each child has done duringthe current year, and make recommendations for the following year.6. Booklets of the written reports to be prepared and kept in theoffice, and then given to the teachers concerned in the followingyear in order to ensure continuity.D. TEACHER REFERENCES The following materials are in the school and have been founduseful in giving the teacher a background that enables him or her toparticipate more effectively in the program.1. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: The Coast Salish Tribe of Indians ofthe Pacific North West.2. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: Indians of the Northwest Coast.3. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: The Life of the Coast Salish Indians.4. Government of B.C. Nootka, B.C. Heritage Series.5. Government of B.C. Bella Coola, B.C. Heritage Series.6. C.T. Curteis, Indian Education, The Indian Child's Background.7. C. Galloway, et al., Orientation, Pre-school and Pre-kindergartenSummer Program for Indian Children. Educational Research Instituteof British Columbia.8. George Clutesi, Son of Raven, Son of Deer.9. George Clutesi, Potlatch.10. Anthony Carter, This is Haida.11. H.P. Corser, Totem Lore of the Alaska Indians.*************** o o ***************** *RETURN ADDRESS FOR NEWSLETTER:INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTERHUT 0-12, UNIVERSITY OF B. C.VANCOUVER 8, B. C.Signature(s) removed to protect privacy


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