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Indian Education Newsletter (Vol. 2, No. 1) Indian Education Resources Center 1971-09-30

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 Indian Education NewsletterVOLUME 2, #1 SEPTEMBER, 1971Indian Education Resources CenterUniversity of B. C., Vancouver."THE WAY I SEE IT"...byGeorge Wilson - Chairman Center Council BCNITAMany questions linger in the minds of Indian students and parents. Oneall-encompassing question is, "What is formal education doing for the Indian?" How-ever, to ask the questions is to beg for a definition of education. For the purposeof this article let us say that an important aspect of education is to preserve anddevelop the culture, the say of life. If formal education is there to preserve anddevelop the way of life - why isn't it serving that function for the Indians? It isthis point and other related ideas that I wish to discuss.Indian students and parents have felt short changed educationally in thepast because there has been very little about Indian values and contributions notedin the history books of our schools. We, as Indians like to feel that we do not takesecond place to anyone as benefactors in the Canadian heritage. Our sense of prideneeds to be boldtered and this can be done by noting some of our past achievements.This needn't be done, as so often happens, in the form of tokenisms. Very littledigging into the past unveils mounds of achievements and contributions from the pastand present. However, I wish not to dwell on this aspect of Indian Education.The one aspect of education I consider very important is that of languageeducation. If there is one great stumbling block, a "bug bear", or a necessary evil,call it what you will to students, it's the study of English. It is especiallydifficult for Indian students to master the skills involved in learning the Englishlanguage. English is not the first language of many Indians and as such should betreated by teachers of Indian students as a second language. Many Indian home useEnglish in a practical sense rather than as a vehicle to transmit intricate ideas,descriptions and feelings of deep emotion. The ability to use English to transmitintricate and deep ideas cannot be completely developed in the study of the Englishlanguage in formal classes. This ability has been developed within households ofnon-Indians through generations. The Indian student lacks this advantage and as aresult may suffer in the use of rich communications in English. It is my contentionif English was taught as a second language instead of being taught under the assump-tion that the students have a great deal of facility in English it might make-up.forsome of the disadvantage Indian students have. Enrichment in Language Arts, both inoral and written language at all levels of the school system is needed for the Indianstuderit to be successful in school. There is no doubting the fact, that unless theIndian student masters the English language to a great degree, he has little hopeof succeeding in the highly competitive white society. If teachers would do thisone thing only, some measure of gain will be ensured and some relevance will be seenin formal education by the Indian students and parents.A year or so ago in educational circles, 'accountability' was a petword bantered about by educators and others more or less versed in the subject ofeducation. The word was levelled against the hierarchy of education. This, asa spur, was made effortlessly because of . the public nature of the school system.Who can lay down a set of criteria for judgmdht as to the success or worth of oureducational system? No one has ever been completely educated and has returned fromthe dead, so to speak, to inform the mass they are going the right or wrong directionin the matter. In explaining and accounting for education I think the genuine concern- 2 -of the public is whether our school system adequately and accurately enough reflectsand helps sustain the values of society today. The holistic educational develop-ment of the child is multi-natured and the source of the cultural milieu derivesalso from many directions, a portion, and not by far the greatest, coming from whatwe call formal education. In this light, it is unfair to ask the school system toaccount for education without also asking the parents of the child to do likewise.At this point or thereabouts the word accountability becomes a sacred cow.The Indian student like all students receives his share of the culturaldiet in the school but with a difference.... The diet doesn't suit him, so theteacher like the driver of a sick yak is at a loss and demeans and scolds the sickanimal. The blame lies not always with the yak and the driver but the onus forrectifying the problem that lies on the shoulders of the owner and the driver. TheIndian child of today represents a product of a race of people undergoing a change inlife style. With the change or transition as it is often referred, values are beingshifted, some naturally, some in a static state and others absent. Such values oftime, punctuality, honesty, cleanliness etc. meaning different things to the Indianand non-Indian, if absent confuses a well-ordered school system. I think the Indianparents, whatever other views they may have about education, would like to see thebest of both white and Indian values be reflected in the educational system.If Indian parents harbour any hope for their child being successful inany field of the white man's school system, they must realize and make deliberateefforts to start that form of education at home. They must help to guarantee theirchild initial success and thereafter reinforce at home the learning which takes placein school. Let me say, not all Indians harbour this hope but I contend a greatmajority hold this view.The guarantee of initial success must beconceived. It is at this initial stage of life tiltthe battle of living. The question as to whether the chithe day the child is^ often loses halfis born healthy, deformed,mentally retarded or underdeveloped hinges on how well the mother cared for herphysical and mental well-being during pregnancy. Research has shown clearly and with-out controversy the excessive use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs cause irreparabledamage to the unborn child. If a child is introduced to a hostile environment suchas this during its early developmental stages what hope has he when formal learningtakes place?The intellectual and social development of a child is governed largely bythe environment. Parents more than anyone else in the child's environment transmitideas, attitudes and values to the child. If the school attempts to teach the childto read and value the attitude of reading, it will never become a reality of this isnot reinforced at home. That is to say, if the home has no reading material availableto the child beyond the Simpson-Sears catalogue one cannot expect the child to acceptreading as a value This has vast implications for Indian homes in general, for manyIndian homes are hampered on this regard by their low-socio economic status.One of the most powerful of the environmental factor which very readilyaffects the learning receptability of the child is diet. Before a child is receptiveto any sort of learning this physical needs must be met. The well balanced dietespecially to an Indian child could mean he isn't susceptible to coughs, and runningnose, sore, malnutrition and pneumonia and as a result never absent from school. Thisone factor of diet and regular meals has vast educational implications. It wouldn'tbe difficult for anyone to tie in low scholarly performance, a high absentee rate, ahigh drop out rate to this idea.- 3 -I choose to believe, Indian people prefer a better kind of life and willbe successful in getting it. I also believe some co-operative harmony on the Indianand non-Indians part is needed to sustain and recognize the Indian culture in oureducational system. The demands of the future should be met in this fashion.ART PACIFIC NORTHWEST COAST INDIANSbyViolet BellThe contents of my project deals with the Art of the Pacific NorthwestCoast Indians in general. It is broken up into four main units, which are thedifferent artifacts, meaning of the symbols, difference in style of art, and howart is involved with the home environment.There are many different artifacts which are not known to many childrenand so to give them an idea, I have broken this up into units also. The artifactsare such things as totem poles, carving of wood, silver, weaving baskets, hats,clothing, spoons, tools, etc	The meaning of the symbols is to show what they are, such as a bearand how you can distinguish it from other symbols. Then there is the supernaturalmeaning of symbol which is very important to understand why its placed on whateverits on.Then there is the difference of the art style amongst the differenttribes of B.C. Many children take it for granted that Indian art is the same forevery Indian in B.C. which is not true. So I pointed out the difference in thestyle of the art to help them distinguish which tribe did which artifact.The last unit has to do with how art is part of the Indians way oflife, because he uses his artifacts to cook, hunt, ceremonies, clothing, andshelter.The project is written mainly for the elementary level, but can beused as a general outline on Art of the Pacific Northwest Coast Indians.**** * *** ***** *** * * ** * *** * * **** * **** ****-4 -SUMARY IfFORT ON COLLECT= STMIES OF THE W7ST COAST ‘ ,ANCOUVEP ISLANDbyRichard AtleoSometimes things don't work out as planned. Take my idea for collectingfables, legends and stories from the West Coast of Vancouver Island. I had planned,in my ignorance, to range the West Coast from Bamfield to Kyuquot. I managed torange from one end of my village (Ahousat) to the other. Initially the plan wasto call it at least ten stories but I only managed to collect eight. Of thenumerous contributing factors to my failure to reach my goal, the most importantwas the difficulty of translation. Although I understand a limited conversationalvocabulary of my language, I discovered it was practically useless for story tellingtranslation. Story telling employs many words not normally used and many words thatare no longer used except in the story telling. The reason, of course, in thatEnglish has largely implanted Indian were amongst the older people. Thus only inrare instances will you hear our native tongue as it used to be spoken.A point of interest I have mentioned in my preface to the collectionregards criticism of already published native stories by other natives. Forexample, I heard from several people that the stories written by George Clutesiwere all wrong, that the stories were not told the way they should be. Yet amongstthese very same detractors I discovered variations of story themes. Probably thegreatest contributing factor to there variations is the fact that these fableswere largely bedtime stories with each family groups embellishing their storiesaccording to their creative imagination or word.My experience this summer was culturally enriching and almost too latefor I discovered with sadness that our story tellers are beginning to forget. Itis my hope to preserve what is left.* * * * * * ** * * * ** * **HOW TO DRY FISHby'Torma PointPictures of coloured, black and white on curing fish.Information on and how to dry fish.Where to get more information and recipes.Activities for the young children.Hopefully a childrens story about the salmons migration.* * * * * * ** * * * ** * *-5 -INDIANSbyAllan Roberts (Jr.)We are playing indeaens and cow-boys.We have a little hide out on a tree.There are three againste one.There are three indeaens and one cow-boy.The cow-boy does not think it is fair.The indeeins have nothing.But the cow-boy has a gun.That is not fair.Thats what the indeeins think about.The End.This was a story written by a grade one Indian student, age 6. It is being publishedwith parents permission.* * * * * * * ** * * * * ** * * ** *LANGUAGE ARTS PROJECT - TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGEbyJoan F. RyanThis project may well be critized for not being very specific in itscontent but the idea of this project was not meant to be prescriptive in nature, notmeant to cure all the problems experienced by an Indian student in any classroom butrather the project was undertaken with the idea in mind of having a collection ofresource materials for Teacher's in the province who are or who will be teaching theB.C. Indian students, English as a Second Language. This project was prompted largelyby the question which I have been asked over and over again within the last threeyears:- "What can I do in the classroom to help an Indian student become more success-ful in the classroom?"The medium of instruction in the classroom is English therefore theemphasis is going to be on how best can the language be taught to the student whohas to learn the language skills first before learning the specific subject contentssuch as Science, Social Studies, Health and Arithmetic. Each subject area will haveits own vocabulary to be mastered but the important thing to remember is that thebasic necessities of understanding English -- its sound system, articulation,pronunciation, vocabulary and syntax --- must be taught throughly to the studentright from the start of his school career. These are new speech habits and will haveto be "drilled" in the old fashioned sense of the word "drilling" in order for thestudent to achieve mastery over the language."To play around" with the language means having plenty of experienceand if this background experience is lacking in the student, then it should be ex-panded in the classroom with the help of pictures, books, filmstrips, and films.This material should be treated as an interim publication and as suchis subject to revision.Good-luck in your efforts to teach English as a Second Language.* * * * * * * * ** * * * * * ** * * * ** * **Walsh, Gerald, Indians in Transition: (from Northian Newsletter) An Inquiry Approach.Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1971. pp. v-200.The book is one of the latest in the excellent Curriculum and Resource Books Series. Based on the inquiry approach, the book is an ordered collection ofdocuments "designed to encourage the student to think for himself." As a problempeculiar to Canada, the book deals with the role of Indians in Canadian society.The purpose of the book is to introduce the student to the study of this importantand complex problem, to present the student with facts, ideas and often conflictingpoints of view so that he will be able to develop his own well-informed opinion.The book segmented into three parts. Part one, The Problem, presentsmaterial recognizing the existence of a problem and its parameters. Part two,The Roots of the Problem, features documentary data tracing the history of Indianand non-Indian contact in Canada, the impact of this culture contact and theresultant effects wrought upon the former cultural group. Part three, Solving theProblem, reconsiders the problem in the context of solutions proposed to dealeffectively with it.The text of the book, per se, suggest that it is intended for the Juniorto Senior Secondary level but with some mindful editing and simplification, elementaryschool children would greatly profit from the book's timely purpose. This book hasbeen formally adopted as a required text by the Department of Education in B. C.and will be introduced into B. C. classrooms as of September 1, 1971.Indians in Transition: An Inquiry Approach is highly recommended foruse in cross-cultural classrooms, and in non-Indian classrooms also.* * * * * * * * *SEPTEMBER TEACHER-HELPS --1. Most teachers are too crisis or trouble oriented, and as such, only payattention to the misfits of the class. All students need attention -- keepin mind that positiveness gains positiveness.2. Every child or person has some good in them. If this attribute can be broughtout, it will counteract the bad points.3. Every child or persqn has some weak points and some strong points. Emphasisshould be placed on the strong points, and weaknesses played down as much aspossible. This approach builds confidence.Every child or person has a sense of identity -- that is they can relate tofamily ties, community ties, historical ties etc. With this in mind teachersin Indian day schools, and those provincial school teachers who are close toIndian reservations, should make an attempt at getting to know the parents etc.of their Indian students, for if a child feels that he belongs, -- insecurity,possiviness, inferiority complexes are lessened.Students on the boarding home program have this sense of identity destroyed --for being hundreds of miles away from home, they are in a "no man's" world.Teachers in this category should strive for every effort to make their studentsfeel wanted and accepted.4. When students are frustrated, restless, unfair, unco-operative, unresourcefuletc. -- it maybe due to teachers being frustrated, unfair, unco-operative,unresourceful etc.5. Every child or person has some interest or interests in life. Isolate andcapitalize on these, as points of incentives or motivation.6. Every child or person has energy. The secret is to channel it in the rightdirection. Misdemeanors or delinquent actions are frequently a misuse ofthis store of energy.7. Sudden, abrupt changes in the child's behaviour are indicators that somethinghas gone wrong in his routine of life. Note achievement level variations or,attendance records. \Treating symptoms are only stop-gap measures, the causeof the problems maybe deep rooted, and needs analytic, follow-up treatments.* *ANTHROPOLOGY & EDUCATION (ED 425)Studies of Intercultural Education In its formative stages, the Studies in Intercultural Education consistsof one course in educational foundations entitled Anthropology & Education (ED 425),as well as a special seminar and practicum course. The course developed out of thepracticum experience of a group of students under faculty supervision in an integratedschool situation. The success of this venture has prompted the offering of anotherpracticum course described as "Practice in team teaching and the use of teacher aides."This will be open to senior and graduate students who have already completed their'basic certification practica.For further information, inquires should be addressed to:Dr. A. Richard King, ChairmanStudies in Intercultural EducationFaculty of EducationUniversity of Victoria, B.C.* * * * * * * * *- 8 -"TWO BOOKS AND A VIEWPOINT"byELIZABETH INGERSOLL-SIMPSONA REVIEWCHRISTIE HARRISMcCLELLAND & STEWART LTD. TORONTO 1966ANDPOTLATCHGEORGE CLUTESIGRAY'S PUB. LTD. SIDNEY, B.C. 1969-9-The two books put in this grouping developed from a desire to investigatethrough readings some of the traditional beliefs, taboos, and environment of theHaida and Kwakiutl tribes. Curiosity had first been aroused after viewing, manyyears ago in the Portland, Oregon Historical Museum, some of the carving's ceremonialblankets, masks, and hugh potlatch utensils. The questions arose--'If Indian Culturewas so primitive, how did such a highly developed art form arise?; and how did this"peculiar social institution" 1-the potltach, fit into the culture?'During the past year, living in an Athabascan Indian village in Alaska,I find the term potlatch used as a name for all village feasts, and which, with theexception of a mortuary feast - The feast of the Dead, have little in common withthe coastal potlatches of the past. Perhaps, at a later date it would be interestingto trace how this custom travelled so far north to almost the Arctic Circle andamong an inland group of Indians, as also there is a great similiarity of the mythsand legends.Assuming that culture is communication between individuals and withgroups, there are descernible patterns of formal, informal, and technical relation-ships. All three seemingly bound by laws of order, selection, and congruence.Retrospectively it seems inevitable that misunderstandings and conflicts would, anddid occur when two completely different cultural systems met. It was not just amatter of language-spoken differences. Three other basic differences appeared inthe two books, Potlatch by George Clutesi, and Raven's Cry, by Christie Harris.These three differences between the Indian Culture and the white cultureof the outsiders were: 1) A formal hiarch, or status system; 2) Uses of space(territory); 3) Division of time (temporality). Most societies have some form ofa status system - the white explorers and sailors as well as the contemporarysocieties - we all have our caste systems, but the early white man could not believethat this was a matter of great importance to what he considered uncivilized savages.Incidents in the Raven's Cri. repeatedly show a chief or other ranking person treatedin the manner of slave. A few perceptive captains were able to be discriminating.Differences in the uses of space (territory), misunderstandings of what can beowned and thus free to be sold or given away is the basis of misunderstanding on theunderstanding of the how and whys of the treaties between the Indians' and non-Indians. When you tie this in with concepts of time (temporality) and how with theIndian the past and present are so very closely akin, one understands better whythe white man's concepts were so greatly threatened by the Potlatch (excluding themissionaries interpretations of paganism), for the white man was (and is still)saying that what belongs to all can be owned by one, and that even time is some-thing to be owned - you owe me x-number of hours of your time for such a thing asa piece of ground, etc. Past events weighed heavily with Maada in Raven's Cry which made necessary a revenge cleansing of past insults. 'Time does not heal!'The Indian in honesty believes this. The Western civilization mouths - 'time healsall wounds,! yet he too has shown that revenge plays a great part in his actions.The skillful blending of past and present in Clutesi's book Potlatch leaves the reader wondering how much was in actuality a description of an actualcontemporary potlatch and how much was a drawing upon past collective descriptions.With a interweaving of mythology, customs, rituals, poetry, art, dance, and song,the reader becomes a participant in the story. The author has used a style whichblends the visual, aural, and oral.*********************************************************************u*************1 To Make My Name Good, Philip Drucker & Robert Heizer., University of CaliforniaPress., Los Angeles, 1967.- 10 -The only fault I could find was in the use of repetitive footnotes; i.e.To-pah-ti = mystical inherited nites. The term was used dozens of times and eachtime was found as a footnote. A glossary of terms could have been placed either atthe beginnidg or the end of the book. Potlatch is a book to be read and re-read.In the classroom and visualize extracting art scenes, dance descriptions, the songsand poetry. I plan to compare and lead to how we give names to the length of timecalled months. The beauty of some sections should be read aloud to the class, othersections could be used as introductory unit in drama.I would possibly use the Raven's Cubefore Potlatch. The author ofRaven's Cry richly described with great detail the (costumes) native dress of theHaida's. Again using the force of the visual I would then hope, after discussionson how people live, what they wear, eat, etc., go into the specifics of theparticular custom of potlatches - past and present. An additional unit woulddevelop along the lines of studying myths and legends.************************************************************************************Additional Readings:Drucker, Philip & Heizer, R.F. - To Make a Name Good.University of California Press, 1967.Hall, Edward T. - The Silent Language.Fawcett Publishing Incorporated, 1959.** * * ** * * * * ** * * * * * * * *"WITHIN TWO WORLDS"byELIZABETH INGERSOLL-SIMPSONAREVIEWOFGUESTS NEVER LEAVE HUNGRYJAMES P. SPRADLEYThe Autobiography of James Sewid, a Kwakiutl Indian.New Haven, Yale University Press, 1969.ANDRED ON WHITEMARTY DUNNAutobiography of Duke Redbird, New Press, 1971.-12-After reading a series of books in which there was rarely if ever anIndian who was portrayed as a person who successfully was able to maintain a dualidentity, I decided to seek answers in these two autobiographies. According tocurrent day sociological trends, both James Sewid and Duke Redbird had littlebuilt-in success from home environments. Both lost a parent during childhood.Neither completed but minimal amounts of schooling. Psychologically they differedgreatly. James Sewid always knew and never denied or doubted his Indian identity.Both seemed to use frustrations combined with anger, and to push themselves withthese drives into producing visible results. The question here is not whether avalve judgment is to be made from either a white oriented social viewpoint or froman Indian viewpoint. Both men say they have found some inner peace of mind.In more ways than less, both men are similiar. They both are possessedof abnormal (rather above normal) amounts of energy, and a drive to enter into amultitude of diversified activities. Duke Redbird (baptized) James Richardson)calls himself, "a 21st century man -- and he must do all things well. Leonardo daVinci was , a 21st century man..."1Sewid and Redbird may be said to differ in that Sewid has always triedto conform to the expected in some areas of both worlds. He was born into afamily that had definite role expectations and role definitions, and he used thestrengths of kinship ties, deference to elders, assigned heirditary position andnames, and tribal memberships, which gave him behavioral ego models, and yet wasable to assimilate some of the white world expectations of individualism (to anextent); acquiring of wealth (yet he never completely abandoned the potlatch) andhe became bi-cultural. Always he held onto and revived some of the old arts andfeelings of community.Redbird, thrown into the white world because of family problems whilestill an infant, had to seek his way toward a feeling of identity and worth. Hissoul searching included the deviant behavioural path of anti-social aspects anddid not gain a degree of satisfaction until he became involved with an activistgroup of Indians. Eventually he was able to set up goals and role definitionsbased upon an individualistic rather than group oriented outlook. Group acceptancedoes not play the same importance as it does to Sewid.A catalog of accomplishments for Redbird are basically individualistic:artist, poet, nightclub entertainer, film-maker, speaker. Unusual clothing andflashy cars are part of his needs as well as the many women in his life. One hasthe feeling that at the age of thirty, Redbird is still seeking.Sewid's accpmplishments include more group or socially oriented thingssuch as making improvements in village living conditions -- electric light plant,docking wharf, personally paying school teacher for additional month in the D.I.A.school, translating and conducting religious meetings in the Kwakwala tongue, pro-viding jobs through his industry in fishing and logging, developing village councilinto effective voice, work on forming fishing union and newspaper, restoring arts,potlatches etc.I foresee using the two books as discussion and debate material, alsoas free reading for my students who constantly ask for more books about Indians.************************************************************************************1 "The Northian". Volume 6 # 2, Spring 1969. "Listening in on Redbird".- 13 -POSITIVE IMPRESSIONS OF INDIAN PEOPLE1. Indian people are proud. They have inherent dignity that isreflected in their bearing and in their manner os speech. They resent thestereotypes of literature and film which have so often depicted them as un-lettered primitives steeped in traditions of violence. They equally resent thecomic stereotype, which makes a parody of their use of English and adoption ofnon-Indian ways of dress and conduct.2. Indian people value highly the communication of speech, but theydo not speak for speaking's sake. Long silences occur in an Indian dialogue.These often confound white persons, who seek to fill conversation gaps, if onlywith chatter. The Indian person speaks when he has something to say; he is notaccustomed to aimless conversation, and intervals of silence do not disturb him.3. In their use of English, Indian people often have a cadence,rhythm, that is suggestive of the oratorical gifts which have made many Indiannotable masters of the spoken tongue. There is an almost Biblical sweep ofexpression in their phrasing, which in its highest form becomes what Churchillcalled the search for the inevitable word.4. Indian people are generous. They share. Their lack of acquisi-tiveness and a matching lack of envy for those who may have more is perhaps ahandicap in an acquisitive society. To the sympathetic white observer, it isnevertheless an admirable trait. Indian people do not seek to gain individualadvantage, it appears; their approach to life is not so much to seek excellence,as to share excellence.5. Indian people have respect and affection for the old. This seemsto be deeply rooted. It may represent the attitudes of earlier times, when formaleducation was obtained by few, and education itself consisted of life experience,in which older persons were recognized as superior. The so-called generation gapthreatens Indian ways even more than the white cow„ 	 these times when theyoung may achieve a high level of academic training unknoVn to many of theirelders. What will this do to the traditional respect for age?6. Indian people have a strong sense of humour. They laugh easily,and have a lively sense of ridicule, even of themselves. There is no malice inthis, but appreciation of the absurd, even when they themselves are the targets.They readily sense the absurdities of some aspects of the white society theyare invited to join, and their social criticisms are often highly perceptive.7. Indian people are polite. They dislike open disagreement, andwill become silent rather than contradict opposing points of view. This can bemisleading to the white observer, who may interpret silent acceptance as agree-ment or approval, when actually the Indian is deeply resentful of the viewpointoffered. This characteristic reminds one of the Japanese, who tend to say 'no'with such courtesy that the Westerner can be misled into believing the answerwas really 'yes'.8. Indian people are at times almost sardonic in their dealings withwhite persons. They are inclined to be suspicious, even cynical, and do notlightly give their trust to white outsiders. Their responses in first encounterswith white newcomers are sometimes slightly barbed, though completely courteous.The tone is subtle, and the white person may miss it (but it's there).* * * * * * ** From THE INDIAN NEWS - September 1969.- 14 -SUMMARY OF SUMMER PROJECTbyJo-ann ArchibaldA. Unit Study of Native Dyes.The main purpose of this project is to expose the students to theenvironment around them, and to help them gain an awareness of how the Indian people(of the Fraser Valley area) utilized their environment in their way of living.The main method the students use to obtain dyes is experimentation.An example would be the study or various lechens. The students wouldlearn the types of trees various lechen grow on and could compare the dyes obtainedfrom each.B. Unit Study on Reserves.The main purpose of this unit is to let the student experience what theconcept of the reserve system is by reading and discussing and dramatizing particularsituations.By reading legends and particular books e.g. "Ravens Cry" the studentswill discuss certain questions pertaining to the Indian people's way of life. Bydramatizing certain situations, the students might experience some of the feelingsIndian people feel about the land situation.The study begins with the past history of the contact between Indianand white people, and the consequences of this contact.The reserve as a community is also studied.e.g. - what comprised an Indian village.- study of "Chiefs".e.g. difference between Chiefs in past and in the present.* * * * * * * ** * * * * * ** * * * ** * **CURRICULUM PROJECT - HAZELTONbyGordon ReidI have compiled all material necessary for the written portion of myproject. Presently I am waiting for the return of films which I hope will go tomake-up two film strips. There are two more "happenings" I wish to include on thefilm strips - a totem pole raising at Kispiox on September 3, 1971 - dance and feastat Ksan. I have visited the Ksan Display at the Provincial Museum - will havepictures and also comments from a couple of museum personnel.-15 -Barring any unforeseen circumstances I should have the major portion ofmy project completed before the end of September. I feel that in the course of thenext year I will be able to add more to it as a much more development is planned inthe fall that would be of interest.* * * * * * ** * * * ** * *LEGENDS OF THE NORTHWEST PACIFIC COASTbySharon HitchcockThis summer my project for the I.E.R.C. turned out a real success. Iillustrated five different legends of which are the Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian,Kwakiutl and Nootka. In these illustrations I used only two colours, black andred on a white background. The purpose of these limited colours goes back to theuntouched Indian life in the Northwest Pacific Coast -- the Indians used only thesetwo colours. The colours and figures therefore were illustrated in very authenticterms.These legends are available for any classroom ranging from elementaryto secondary divisions, but it is the teacher's choice whether he wants to bringthem into the classroom to read or study these legends. I have not stopped justat these five legends but will continue to do more.	 -7.---- r-----------rl,-..'_* * * * *	 BC	 )1	 l'148103781* * ** * * * * **Special Collestions DivisionLibrary, Campus Mail, UBC* * * * * * * * * * ** * * * * * * * **24 1-X'71	 c% 0 ;,;,,,)u,....:.,


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