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Indian Education Newsletter (Vol. 1, No. 4) Indian Education Resources Center 1971-04-30

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Indian Education NewsletterIndian Education Resources Center•	 University of B. C., Vancouver.*************** ********************* ********************** *******************#* *Volume 1, No. 4	 April, 1971************* *************************************** ****************************TEXTBOOKS:	 LESSONS	 IN DEGRADING THE INDIANTextbooks that degrade, insult or forget the Indian have been used foryears. Indians complain about these books, so a list is compiled and that isthe end of it. Publishers are reluctant to change a book once published,authors 7)eco	defensive and Departments of Education avoid the issue.There are complaints about Indians being called "savages, with murderouseyeballs"; there are complaints about references to the two "founding races" ofCanada. (meaning British and French) and almost complete omission of the Indians'contributions; there are complaints about army and cavalry victories being calledvictories, but Indian victories being called "massacres"; there are complaintsabout cliches such as "heap big Indian" and errors such as the notion that allIndians lived in teepees and wore "head-dresses with stand-up feathers"; thereare complaints that the complete dependence of the early map-makers (they weren'treally explorers) on the Indians is omitted from the Social Studies, even thoughthe diaries of most of these map-makers give credit to the Indians;This article is about one of the worst offenders, a story called "AlmightyVoice' in the Grade 5 reader Under Canadian Skies published by J.M. Dent • Sons.The story could be one of sharing, strength, bravery and honour. Instead it isa story filled with cliches, which piles dishonour on the .memory of Almighty Voiceand makes him look more like a fool. than a brave man caught up in a series of mis-understandings.Another version of the story is in Long Lance an autobiography of ChiefBuffalo Long 7-ance, half-brother to Almighty Voice.-2 -Here is how Long Lance sets the scene:'Almighty Voice,.	 been arrested by the mounted police for killing arange steer that belonged to the Government of the :orth-West Territories. Hehad thought it was one of a =all herd that had been given to his father." (p.273)''ere is how the Reading Text begins the story:-Almighty Voice was not really a bad Indian. He just wanted his own wayand didn't want to obey laws....He wanted to show them (his own people) what a`heap big Indian' he 7.7as....One day when Almighty Voice was riding across the prairie, he suddenlycame upon a cow that had strayed from its herd. There was no one to be seenanywhere. He thought he could break the law without being found out. He shotthe cow....' (p. 135,136)In the opening paragraphs the Reading Text has already completely missedthe chance to show a classic misunderstanding which occurred time-and-againbetween the Indians and the Europeans. No mention is made of the fact that thelaws were not the Indians' laws but those of the Europeans. Instead of the mis-understanding being portrayed, Almighty Voice is made to look cowardly, dishonestand a show-off. The only good thing written about Almighty Voice is a mention inpassing that he shared the meat with the rest of his tribe, No mention is madeof the question that if Almighty Voice was so cowardly and dishonest, why wouldhe share the meat with his tribe? Here the act of sharing, which is an importantpart of so many Indian cultures and is one of the things that many non-Indiansdon't think is important, is given only a passing mention.After he was arrested for killing the steer, Almighty voice escaped. Hereis how Long Lance tells of it"One of the mounted police...jokingly told Almighty Voice, through aninterpreter that they were going to'hang him for killing that steer'. The corporaldid this to scare him he said." (p. 273). Long Lance tells of the escape inwhich AlMighty Voice ran 14 miles carrying a ball and chain which had been strappedto his leg, and swam across the Saskatchewan River with the help of apuicklymade raft (p. 274-276), Brave? Yes. A feat of strength? Yes. A misunderstand-ing? Yes.But what does the Reading Text say?"He was put in jail for a month as punishment for what he had done....Almighty Voice managed to slip through the door and escape. He reached the Creecamp, picked up a horse and galloped across the prairie" (p. 137). Brave? Notespecially. :A feat of strength? No. A misunderstanding? No.,Within a short time a mountie found him and was killed by Almighty Voicewho thoUght he was fighting for his life. Almighty Voice managed to elude capturefor two years, despite a massive man-hunt. Finally, according to Long Lance,Almighty Voice decided to stop running and make a stand,- 3-This he di' with two other Indians, according to Long Lance, holding off12 mounties, '...further reinforced by a command consisting of every spare manfrom the Prince Albert barracks of the North-West 'founted	 (p. 287).This was further reinforced by a 25 man contingent from Regina, a 9-pounder fieldgun and a - axim. gun plus uncounted civilian volunteers (p. 239),At the end of tlqe first day of fighting Al -eighty woice sent the message:"'We have had a good right to•day. I have worked hard and I an hungry.You have plenty of food- send no nome, and tomorrow we'll finish the fight'When this message was interpreted to the mounted police they were struckwith surprise. But it was the Indian's code;Fair fight, fair game, no bad feeling in the heart. It. may be hard tobelieve but Almighty Voice adnired the dashing courage of the mounted police fullyas much as he did that of his two boy campanions. The Indian loves the brave,strong fighting opponent and hates the weak, cowardly adversary" (from Long Lance,p. 290). This message, which shows the bravery, honour and respect of AlmightyVoice is not mentioned in. the Reading Text.The final killing of Almighty Voice, according to Long Lance, occurredafter a number of days of siege including about 8 hours of shelling by two cannons.There isn't room to detail the final assault. We relate only one other incidentthat does nod appear in the Reading Text.Almighty Voice's cousin was found wounded but alive beside the body ofAlmighty Voice and the third Indian, his brother-in-law. A mounted policeman'...Walked up to the hole andnput a finishing bullet through the wounded lad's(p. .296).The Reading Text condenses the story of the capture to less than twopages and ends with!"Poor mistaken Almighty Voice: By breaking the law and fighting, hethought he would show his people what a big Brave he was. He, forgot that thelaw he broke was made to nrotect Indians as well as white settlers". (p. 143).If you would like to borrow the Long Lance version of the story justwrite. We have a limited number of loan copies.There are many other examples of errors and omissions in texts. We wouldlike to highlight one in each issue of this Newsletter. If you come across oneof these references or stories write us about it and wc will do our best topublish it. Here are a few nlaces you can begin looking.Look up'aesection called 'The Aborigines' in Canada: A Political	 Social History pp. 11112, "The aborigines made no major contribution to the culture thatdeveloped in the settled communities of Canada....the Indian was-not only uselessbut an active menace whose speedy extermination would he an unqualified boon";or a section called Indian 'Civilization- in Our Canada p. 17. "The northern Indianswere.much poorer artists than the Indians of the south' and an unchallenged quotefrom a Jesuit priest (p.14).	 ...the unsavouray and insipid food of Cite savages,of which it is enough to say that the daintiest and most delicate of it would berefused by dogs in France.' Finally in Stories Old and New read the poem forGrade 2 children called "The Lrcher" which ends:"And sometimes I am Robin Hood,That olden archer brave and good;And sometimes I'm an Indian sly;Who waits to shoot the passers-."* * * * * * ** * * * ** * *OUT OF THE PASTOur thanks to Harvey Brooks for passing this on to us) ,from the Commencement Annual, Coqualeetza IndianResidential School, Sardis, June, 1934Foreword and ValedictoryThe term ends, the school year ends also, examinations are over, a largeclass of graduates have delivered their valedictory. Some students leave for theirholidays with the assurance that they will return in the fall. Others, the graduates,do not sever connections so easily because of the knowledge that, as they say "good-bye." It is farewell to much thoughtful care, kindliness of action, pleasant re-lationships, happy school associates, but it has to be.I also, after 20 years residence make this foreword a valedictory. Afterall, my thought is akin to the of the students, more mature because of accumulatedexperience: it is one of gratitude and devotion to the members of the staff, presentand past, who have loyally supported the school in its educational, religious andcharacter building ideals. During the years Coqualeetza has borne in mind severalfundamental ends in the education of the Native children.Let me also express my thanks to the Department of Indian Affairs, bothin the service at Ottawa and outside service in British Columbia. Their unfail,ia;courtesy and active co-operation could not have been surpassed by any departmentin the service of the country. I do not hesitate to say that rightly understood,the officers of the Department of Indian Affairs are really "the friends of theIndians." They have solved the problem of Indian education. They have as faras possible, humanly speaking, gone a long distance towards solving the complexproblem of the health of the Native people. They are striving to solve now whatis essential for their welfare and contentment, the problem of today which isessentially economic. We are proud of a Department which has tried to take careof the Native people of Canada, probably in a more sympathetic and practical mannerthan any other country which is responsible for the welfare of a dependent orprimitive people.* * * * * * * * **	 * * ** * * * ** *-5-Let me voice my appreciation of the officers of the United Church and theWoman's Missionary Society whose interest has always been of a helpful character:their day and residential schoOls and hospitals have been a great uplifting forcein.the livei of thousands of "the real Canadians." Their visits to Coqualeetzahave been inspirational and are-redjetter days in the school calendar.,,Now, as this is my last forward I am wondering what to say to the students.The constituency from which you come is largely that of the North Pacific Coast,from the Straits of San Juan to the border of Alaska. I have said that the Indianproblem of today is essentially economic and to my vision there is a possibility ofsolving that problem to a large extent with Indian handicraft arts. If you and theNative people grasp the opportunity there is a road that will lead to work and content-ment. If you are indifferent the chance is lost forever.How can this be accomplished? First, by reviving Indian Handicraft and Artdesigns and applying them to modern commodities for which there is always a demand.Second, by capturing the tourist trade of the country.The first is possible through the training of the rising generation in theresidential Schools'in'handiCraft arts with Indian designs, thus finding a way tosecure a sufficient quantity to supply an increasing demand. The second can beeffected' and the MarketdevelOPed -throUgh theasSistance of the Department of IndianAffairs and a nation-wide campaign . in which the churches, the social service councilof Canada, service clubs, tourist bureaus, transportation lines, the radio, movingpictures and exhibitions would become interested and create an Indian-minded atmos-phere--favourable to solving for the native people their economic problem.TheattentiOn of manufacturers throughout Canada,. the United ,ptatear4..the continent Of Europe Can'be caught and held by unique and artistic designs with-.the unusual'appeal of strong syMbolic Indian.art not found Anywhere in the world,,,except on the Pacific Coast: 'In Many industrieS your designs are applicable,manufacturers want them.It is not to the credit Of the Canadian people that they do not makestrenudUaaffort'afthe_present time to save Indian handicraft art which J.P.PuFe1YCanadian.. -There is `much more to be said on the subject but .it will suffice :to saywto you and-the NatiVe people of British Columbia this is a, worthy experiment. foryour welfare at the. present time and if successfully. carried out your more remote,.future is full of promise ..:."(Signed). H. Raley, Administrator.- 6SUGGESTIONS FOR A CLASSR001."	 SILDENTS WHO SPEAK ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGEby Joy WildOften in a classroom in	 there are students who speak English as asecond language, it is advisable so concentrate on the Lanuage Arts program.Without a working knowled7,e of Er4,lish,students find other subjects very difficult,if not impossible to do, nevor mind enjoy. Never forget that languages areequally 'good.' Englsh is not a better language than any other. It is taughtin Canadian Schools because it is the most widely user' language in this countryand thus is useful to people who have a -mastery of it There is a danger ofteachers transmitting to students whose native language is not English, thattheir own language is inferior. such an idea attacks the learners self imageand culture as well as his language. Here are some ideas:Set up_ a Listening PostThis is a tape recorder or record player into which children can plug upto 8 pairs of earphones.?Make up your own drills of minimal pairs, spelling (can be based onstudents own experiences), repetition of phrases, sentences, stories. Alsoexercises in stress and intonation patterns. Spoken English depends on theseas much as on the meaning of words.The C.B.C. radio School Broadcasts are handy, and you can tape themyourself. Also there are tapes on each major Indian tribe in. B.C., based on theB.C. Heritage Series available from the Center.Whenever students have finished their own work, or just feel like talking,have them go to the Listening Post and talieto themselves or make up stories ortalk about what happened to them that day. These tapes can then be used by theteacher to analyze problems in language, or they couldebe played back to thestudent so that he can hear his own difficulties. A students tape can also serveas a basis for writing. :rote, if students are listening to themselves on tape,always provide a good model as wall, such as your own voice. If this isn't donestudents may only reinforce their own mistakes.Reading The S.R.A. Individualized Reading Program and Reader's Digest Skill Booksare good.Crossword puzzles are good for building vocabulary and for reading skills.After they learn how, have the students make up their own, as well as other wordgames.Build a Post Office	 If you want a real post office, it's easier if youhave woodworking skills, but that's not necessary: Usa wooden boxes or cardboardif you have to. Students can write each other letters, complaints to the teacher,suggestions for activities. For practise in reading and comprehension get mail-- 7 -order catelogues from Eatens or Simpson-Sears, himeograph regular order forms-hundreds of them-the kind you find in the catelogues. The students then lookthrough the catelogue to finites they like. • They.pick out the. rolewilit it-formation and fill out the order :arm. - After they . properlY address the envelope,they mail it at the post officn. To give added incent-Eve make this a contest.Each week the teacher goes through the nrder forms and nicks out those that areperfect. These are then put in a box and five are randomly picked out. The fiveare out in a master box, and when enough accumulate there is a draw. The winning-student receives a prize which could be in: the form of a gift_ certificate fromthe.cateloguo.Match BOY Library. This is an incentive for extra reading. As studentsfinish books have them write a short sentence or question about their reading-something which they feel is particularly interesting or significant about theparticular book.. This is for the benefit of other: Students. The student thengets an Eddy match box or the equivalent, covers it with a colourful pattern,labels it with the authors name and the title and puts it on a shelf, where otherstudents can take it out.Setting up a General Store gives practise in speaking, taking orders,handling money, counting, reading. Eave students bring empty food cartons, emswith labelS on, etc.. ftom home. In a corner of the classroom set. up shelves(they can be made of boxes), and a counter. The students can then take shiftsas being the store clerk.Singing is good practiSe in speaking the language, and can be used forteaching sounds and structures. ' Besides kids like it"rake your own songsusing sentence patterns as a basis-steal tunes from other songs (easy to remember).,Students Individual Files lake up files for each-student. These can include drills and exercisesspecifically designed for the areas in which the student is having difficulty.A good source for-drills and - exercises is CarSon Tartin. The student does anexercise, then marks-it -himself from a master...sheet. Be then counts. the numberof right answers he Tade, and the number of total possible correct answers.From this he charts and-"graphs his own progress. These files are for the studentsand--so should be easily accessible to theM.A plug for the teacher's files: It may seem like a lot of unwarrantedtrouble or unnecessary panerwork but an up-to-date file of a students progressis very handy when you are planning out individualize programs.Remember, whenever possible use the children's own experiences as a basisfor -learning language. It's difficult enough for them to use a new language with-out being bombarded with any in.l• and foreign concepts at the same time.Science and Social Studies	 These subjects often have to take second placeto-the language Arts until the students know enough English to cope with thematerials. IT.owever, they can often be incorporate ,!. into the teaching of English.* * * * * * * * ** * * * * * ** * * * ** * *,*- 8 -'ocience: The discovery method of teaching science is very useful, in-addition to ritrclucing children to concepts of science, it provided them with ex-periences of lorking together which they can then talk about. You can see my bias asan English Teacher!'o)cial Studies: The ideas presented here are oriented to the teacher whois working ir a f-,ulti-level classroom or in a more isolated area or with Indian students;however, the: could apply to any ehnic group.ield trips to study the local area i.e. could be studying maps-first studymaps to detk - nine the symbols used, have students use these symbols to make their own.maps cf the :3untry they know:--next learn the system of topographical maps, and map nearby terraine.and models may give them a better idea of how this is done._:- teaching the use of a compass and how to correlate this with a map isalso interesting.fln anthropological study could be done of the area i.e. what kind of workthe people do and how this is suitable to the country; what kind of houses they livein; what kins of things they do for recreation; the source of food e.g. in theChilcotin many people hunt deer and moose and fish for meat supplies. After the areahas been thoroughly explored look at another "different" area and explore that. Ifyou have students who have never been to a city or vice versa have never been to thecountry, try to arrange a trip. School boards are frequently more receptive thanteachers give theaeredit far, and although you may have to raise most of the moneyfb finance it you can get the time off school for the trip._aother possibility is to study a foreign country by having the studentsdraw a map	 the floor of the classroom, decide on an imaginery trip they wouldlike to take research it threugh pictures, slides, films, books, then present tothe class. They could do this by walking over their trip and at each importantstopping anc ceiling others what they. see.Ering resource people la. from the community i.e. Indian people to tellabout the Ir:ian stories and legends, or teach the children the songs and dances oftheir culture,Things Other Than Academics Vood working programs or sewing progremt for girls. (And I don't meanjust embroi.62ry! Often one of the mothers will help out on this.)''eating rink or ski hill; mats on the floor of the basement for boys whofeet-like fiOting.Lunch program. particularly if you have students who you suspect are lack-ing in nutrition. If pays off in enthusiasm and attentiveness in school!,	 35	 North Vancouver	 .20	 Shalalth	 One-halfmile.VANCOUVER ISLAND- 9 -INDIAN SCHOOLS-BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON REGION1970 - 1971Chehalis 4 K-641omalcd: . 176dint Currie 5 K-5St.	 Paul's:	 . 1 IC,4npton Lake' K(.1-,Ahousaht 4 K-7Christie StudentYR 1-8Kingceme.,,Inlet	 '':-::: K-7.,--Kuper Island Student Red':- 1-5Kyuquot 1 1-7OPitsaht	 -14.,!St. Catherine's "-6,7K-2Tsartlip 4 1-6LOWER MAINLAND 69	 Agassiz45	 Campbell River160 .	 Pemberton _	81	 Tofinc5	134.	 Tofino	28	 (Simoon Sound ,(Alert Bay	102	 Chemainus	16	 (Kyuquot(Tabs is	11	 Tofino	88	 Duncan	90	 BrentwoodDistance20 m.b.r. *15 m.b-a. *5	 m.. h,. *20 m.b.a.o.w.*3 m.b.a.o.w.*20 m.b.a.o.w.*48 m.b.a.3 m.b.f. *3 m.b.w. *30 m.b.a.o.w. *2 m.b.w.2 m.b.r.1 m.b.r.	 *- SchoOi	 No.	 No.Classrooms Grades Pupils Shopping CenterSOUTHERN:INTERIOR Adams LakeAlkali LakeAnahim LakeCanoe Creek 1Cariboo -Student Res.— ''' 7.Chilcotin 6Shulus 1Stone 13,4 9 ChaseK-4 46. Williams Lake1-7 48 Williams Lake1-4 12 Clinton1. 18 Williams LakeK-789 Williams LakeK 22 Merritt1,2 14 Williams Lake1 n.b.r. *35 n.b.r. *220 miles byroad52 m.b.r. *17 m.b.r. *70 m.b.r. *3 m.b.r. *65 m.b.r. **m.b.r.-mile by road	 *m.b.a.-mile by air *m.b.a.o.w.-mile by air .or water*m.b.f.-mile by ferry.- 10 -SchoolNo.Classrooms	 GradesNo.Pupils Shopping Center DistanceNORTHERN INTERIORBlueberry River 1 1-5 19 Ft. St. John 64 mi. byroadFort Babine 1 1-4 17 (Smithers Ldg. 125 mi. byroad orwater(Burns Lake 150 mi. byairFort Ware 1 1-7 28 (Finlay Forks 160 mi, byair(Local store FoodHalfyiay, 2 1-5 24 Ft. St. John 68 mi. byroad'Lejac.Student Res. 7 1-8 211 (Vanderhoof 30 mi. byroad(EndakoProphet River 1 1-6 14 Ft. St. John 182 mi. byroadStone Creek 1 K 30 Vanderhoof 9 mi. byroadTache 3 1-6 68 Ft. St. James 35 mi. byair orwater40 mi. bywinterroadTakla Landing 1 1-6 32 Ft. St. James -25 mi. bYair orwaterNORTH COASTAiyansh 7 K-7 171 Terrace 63 mi. byroadlBella Bella 12 K-7 312 Ocean Falls 23 m.b.lt,Canyon City 1 K-3 7 Terrace 65 m.b.k.Hartley Bay 3 1-7 55 Prince Rupert 80 m.b.a.Kinclith 6 K-7 134 Prince Rupert 62 m.b.a.Kispiox 6 K-7 125 Hazelton 10 m.b.r.Kitimaat 3 K-1 65 Kitimat 8 m.b.k.Kitkatla 7 K-7 156 Prince Rupert 32 m.b.a.Kitsegukla 5 K-6 110 Hazelton 22 m.b.r.Kitwancool 2 1-7 35 Hazelton 42 m.b.r.Kitwanga 2 1-7 48 Hazelton 32 m.b.r.Klemtu 3 1-7 59 Ocean Falls 37 m.b.a.Lakalzap 5 K-7 109 Terrace 92 m.b.r.Masset 2 K 42 Masset 3 m.b.r.Port Simpson 12 K-7 272 Prince Rupert 20 m.b.a.Klappan 4 K-7 65 Eddontenajon 2 m.b.r.Lower Post Student Res. 4 1-4 66 Lower Post 1 m.b.r.EDUCATION 479 - INDIAN EDUCATIONEducation 479 is a new course, designed to aid teachers in adaptingeducation to the needs of Indian students. A basic assumption in the course is that,while there are many similarities and differences between all individual children, ourpresent educational programs generally do not take into account differences, mostlycultural, which many Indian children share.The course is presented by many people including Indian teachers and students;representatives of Indian organizations; specialists in anthropology, sociology,psychology, language arts, Indian culture, arts and crafts; and by the courseparticipants. A large part of the course is based on an exchange of ideas betweenpeople in the course. The course is co-ordinated by Dr. Art More.The content is divided into two parts. Part One emphasizes backgroundknowledge and includes historical and contemporary background; attitudes towardseducation by Indian parents, teachers, students and organizations; and policies ofthe Provincial Department of Education, Department of Indian Affairs and B. C. TeachersFederation. Part Two emphasizes adapting teaching and includes language arts, usingIndian contributions in teaching, using community resources and dealing with potentialproblem areas. Part Two represents about one-half of the course.The course is offered during Summer Session, July 5 to August 20 at U.B.C.Classes will meet Monday through Friday, 1:30 to 3:30. Students registering forcredit (3 units) should do so through the Registrar's Office. Non Credit--the courseis open to a number of auditors. Please contact Dr. More at the Center for furtherinformation. * * * * * ** * * ** *


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