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Gender and ethnic differences in perceptions of mortality risk Grunau, Gilat; Ratner, Pamela; Hossain, Shahadut 2008

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ETHNIC AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTIONS OF MORTALITY RISKGilat L GrunauPamela A RatnerShahadut HossainGENESIS: Gender and Sex Determinants of Cardiovascular DiseaseBackgroundsquare6square6 Cardiovascular disease in women –the numberssquare6square6 Cardiovascular disease in women –the perceptionsquare6square6 Limitations of research to dateMethodssquare6square6 Random sample of men and women, 40 years of age and older, living in Vancouver (n=3,419)square6square6 Administered in 4 languages: English, Punjabi, Mandarin, Cantonesesquare6square6 Classification of ethnicityQuestions1. Heart disease is the most common cause of death in women in Canada (True or False?)2. If false, what do you think is the most common cause of death in women? (Open ended, no response options provided)3. Heart disease is the most common cause of death in men in Canada (True or False?)4. If false, what do you think is the most common cause of death in men? (Open ended, no response options provided)Analysissquare6square6 Chi squaresquare6square6 Logistic regression for Questions 1 and 3. Independent variables: – Gender– Age– Ethnicity– Income– Education– History of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), either personally, in the family or among friends Results square6square6 Of the 3,419:– 976 people completed the survey– 759 refused to participate– 1,684 people were found to be ineligible or could not be contacted. 185 (19.0)Missing 171 (17.5)$100,000 + 107 (11.0)$80,000 – $99,999 118 (12.1)$60,000 – $79,999 168 (17.1)$40,000 – $59,999 150 (15.4)$20,000 - $39,999 77 (7.9)$0-$19,999 Total household income (n (%))149 (15.3)Chinese (not born in Canada)67 (6.9)South Asian (not born in Canada)221 (22.7)Not born in Canada (Not Chinese/South   Asian)536 (55.1)Born in CanadaEthnicity (n (%))3 (0.3)Missing 548 (56.1)Female 425 (43.5)Male Gender (n (%))55.5 (11.1)Age (mean (SD) - years)9   (0.9)Missing693 (71.0)No274 (28.1)YesAMI history in self, family or friend (n (%))5 (0.5)Missing294 (30.1)Baccalaureate or higher342 (35.0)College/diploma/certificate/incompleteUniversity243 (24.9)High school92 (9.4)< High school      Education (n (%))Heart disease most common cause of death in womenFALSETRUE"Don't know"41.18%48.47%10.35%Men37.77%55.47%6.75%WomenOther causes of death for women –gender differences0.00.2No response2.74.2Don’t know1.11.6Other (e.g., stroke, heart disease and cancer, cardiovascular disease, car accidents, stress, poverty )0.50.9“Old age”0.70.0Ovarian cancer0.01.9Lung cancer16.117.2Breast cancer16.615.1All cancers combinedPercent of total women (n=548) Percent of total men(n=425) Heart disease most common cause of death in women – Ethnicity differences Born in Canada n=536 n (% of born in Canada) Not born in Canada (not Chinese/South Asian) n=221 n (% of not born in Canada, not Chinese/South Asian) South Asian n=67 n (% of South Asian) Chinese n=152 n (% of Chinese)          True 330 (61.6) 116 (52.5) 30 (44.8) 35 (23.0)          False 179 (33.4) 87 (39.4) 22 (32.8) 96 (63.2)          Don’t know 27 (5.0) 18 (8.1) 15 (22.4) 21 (13.8)  Logistic Regression Resultssquare6 For heart disease is the most common cause of death in men in Canada, none of the explanatory variables was found to be significant square6 Knowing that heart disease is the most common cause of death in women was significantly associated with ethnicitysquare6 Interactions of ethnicity with age and with gender were not significant for both outcomesDiscussionsquare6square6 Study included both men and women, can assess gender differencessquare6square6 Significant ethnic differences in the participants’ understanding of the risk of heart disease mortality in womensquare6square6 Responses for other causes of death for women raise concernLimitations and Implicationssquare6square6 Wording of question – vague or leading?square6square6 Chinese community – why are they different?square6square6 Women will need to see themselves as vulnerable to heart disease before they will be willing to adopt measures to prevent itsquare6square6 Men will need to see the women in their lives as vulnerable to heart disease to help them take action to prevent it

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