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Cover and Contents Vice President Research, Office of the 2006-05-31

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K CY MDocket no.: 1127Version no: 2Client : UBC ResearchDate: 2005 April 03Item: Frontier magazineSize: 8.5x11.75 inchesLogos: reproPhotos: fpoLine Screen: 150 lineFonts: DIN, A Garamond ProProofed by: gqA Journal of Research and Discovery > Issue 01 > May 2006 VOLCANOES ON VENUSLessons for earthTHE POWER OF ONEWhy even a single species mattersIN SEARCH OF ASYLUMExploring immigration lawsIS THE WORLDGETTING SAFER? Human Security ReportOffice of the Vice President ResearchK CY MDocket no.: 1127Version no: 2Client : UBC ResearchDate: 2005 April 03Item: Frontier magazineSize: 8.5x11.75 inchesLogos: reproPhotos: fpoLine Screen: 150 lineFonts: DIN, A Garamond ProProofed by: gq3K CY MDocket no.: 1127Version no: 2Client : UBC ResearchDate: 2005 April 03Item: Frontier magazineSize: 8.5x11.75 inchesLogos: reproPhotos: fpoLine Screen: 150 lineFonts: DIN, A Garamond ProProofed by: gqK CY MDocket no.: 1127Version no: 2Client : UBC ResearchDate: 2005 April 03Item: Frontier magazineSize: 8.5x11.75 inchesLogos: reproPhotos: fpoLine Screen: 150 lineFonts: DIN, A Garamond ProProofed by: gqAll trapping is the responsibility of the printer/pre-press company outputting fi fiDeep in the soil of New Zealand, buried traces of a richer moment in the country?s history form an archeological record of a world now vanished. Many layers down, strips of nitrogen-rich earth are evidence ofa time when billions of seabirds nested, their droppings completing an immense transfer of nutrients from the ocean to the land. It only took a short while, probably less thana century, for the enormous population of seabirds to be decimated by an unfamiliar foe. T_heir demise caused a key change in the soil; the insects that feasted on their litter died off, setting in motion a larger change that profoundly affected the entire country.?We?ve just woken up to what really happened in New Zealand ? until recently nobody had any idea,? says UBC Professor of Zoology Tony Sinclair, who?s been consulting with the New Zealand govern-ment. ?T_here must have been an explosion in the rat population of astronomical proportions ? the whole island must have been swimming with rats. T_he birds just stood around and got eaten. T_hey had no time in which to evolve behaviour to deal with them.? T_he rats ransacked the nestsof the seabirds and in doing so, caused a complete shift in the ecosystem. Without the nutrients the seabirds supplied, a rich fauna simply disappeared. One famous example is the Moa, a species of large, ostrich-like bird that is now completely extinct. With no written or oral record of the time, the evidence lay buried under-ground until the story was pieced together. ?It?s an eye-opener on how the world works and how it has changed,? says Sinclair.T_h Pacific rat still lives in New Zealand and is now regarded as a benign pest. But when the rats arrived, in the canoes of the Maori people who traveled to the island, they were one of the first mammals to land there. T_here are marine mammals native to New Zealand; seals and dolphins can travel TONY SINCLAIR IS UNCOVERING HOW INFINITESIMAL CHANGESTO AN ECOSYSTEM CAN PRODUCE DRASTIC RESULTS FOR US ALLIN THIS ISSUE >Species Showdown  03Removing just one species froman ecosystem can have radicalresults. Tony Sinclair?s grand-scalebiodiversity knockout experimentsets out to determine whyV is for Volcanology  06By studying volcanoes on Venus,Mark Jellinek is advancing thescience of predicting volcanicactivity on earthIn Search of Asylum  09Immigration laws have been shiftingunder the social and political pressures of globalization, according to Catherine Dauvergne, and the effects are notwhat you?d expectFREEDOM FROM FEAR  12A decline in the number of wars,genocides and human rightsabuses over the past decade? TheHuman Security Report 2005 uncoverssurprising trends in global conflDigging Deeper  16UBC?s Mineral Deposit ResearchUnit is advancing the long-termsuccess of the exploration and miningindustry within British ColumbiaWood Wide Web  18Melanie Jones and Dan Durall aren?tlooking to the treetops for clues aboutthe ?wood wide web.? They?re lookingto the soil at fungi that are crucial torenewing our forestsChatman?s Dilemma  20Stephen Chatman flourishes in the demanding world of experimental composition. His choral compositionsare winning him high praise as wellCover photo> Panos Pictures/Lana SlezicWelcome to the inaugural issue of frontier, the University of British Columbia?s new journal of research.As part of UBC?s vision to ?conduct outstanding research to serve the people of British Columbia, Canada and the world, e are proud to showcase some of the innovative research activities ? and the minds behind them ? inthe pages that follow.At UBC, we are dedicated to fostering an environment that will incubate ideas, offer world-calibre and meaningful research, advance knowledge and impact the communities we serve.The broad spectrum of disciplines across UBC mesh to create a unique environment for idea exchange and research collaboration that stimulates creativity and innovation. We are deeply committed to being an active and accessible member of local, national and international communities. This commitment, we believe, is evident through our participation in a varietyof research ventures, from the sequencing of the SARS genome to addressingthe changing face of global violence and championing human security inthe 21st century.The activities described in the pages that follow are just a few examplesof the myriad of research activity taking place at UBC. I hope you fi nd themto be of interest, and welcome your feedback.Enjoy this first issue of frontier.  Dr. John Hepburn, Vice President ResearchA MESSAGE FROMTHE VICE PRESIDENTRESEARCHSPECIES SHOWDOWNK CY MDocket no.: 1127Version no: 2Client : UBC ResearchDate: 2005 April 03Item: Frontier magazineSize: 8.5x11.75 inchesLogos: reproPhotos: fpoLine Screen: 150 lineFonts: DIN, A Garamond ProProofed by: gq www.research.ubc.caA Journal of Research and DiscoveryPublished By Office of the Vice PresidentResearch, UBCFax 604.822.6295Email info.frontier@ubc.caWriting and Design kaldor.comCirculation 3,000 (two issues per year)All Rights ReservedPrinted In CanadaPublications mail agreement no. 41268533Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to:University of British ColumbiaOffice of the Vice President ResearchRoom 224, 6328 Memorial RoadVancouver, BC  Canada  V6T 1Z2FREE SUBSCRIPTIONFor your free subscription to frontier, pleasecall 604.822.1995 or email info.frontier@ubc.caThis magazine was printed on recycled paper containing 10% post-consumer waste, saving the following: 1 tree, 275 litres of water, 25 kilograms of solid waste, 45 kilograms of greenhouse gases, 79 kilowatt hours of electricity.

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