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Cover and Contents 2008

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K C Y M Docket no.: 1127 Version no: 2 Client : UBC Research Date: 2005 April 03 Item: Frontier magazine Size: 8.5x11.75 inches Logos: repro Photos: fpo Line Screen: 150 line Fonts: DIN, A Garamond Pro Proofed by: gq A Journal of Research and Discovery > Issue 01 > May 2006 VOLCANOES ON VENUS Lessons for earth THE POWER OF ONE Why even a single species matters IN SEARCH OF ASYLUM Exploring immigration laws IS THE WORLD GETTING SAFER? Human Security Report Offi ce of the Vice President Research K C Y M Docket no.: 1127 Version no: 2 Client : UBC Research Date: 2005 April 03 Item: Frontier magazine Size: 8.5x11.75 inches Logos: repro Photos: fpo Line Screen: 150 line Fonts: DIN, A Garamond Pro Proofed by: gq 3May 2006 K C Y M Docket no.: 1127 Version no: 2 Client : UBC Research Date: 2005 April 03 Item: Frontier magazine Size: 8.5x11.75 inches Logos: repro Photos: fpo Line Screen: 150 line Fonts: DIN, A Garamond Pro Proofed by: gq All trapping is the responsibility of the printer/ pre-press company outputting fi nal fi lm/plates. Deep in the soil of New Zealand, buried traces of a richer moment in the country’s history form an archeological record of a world now vanished. Many layers down, strips of nitrogen-rich earth are evidence of a time when billions of seabirds nested, their droppings completing an immense transfer of nutrients from the ocean to the land. It only took a short while, probably less than a century, for the enormous population of seabirds to be decimated by an unfamiliar foe. Th eir demise caused a key change in the soil; the insects that feasted on their litter died off , setting in motion a larger change that profoundly aff ected the entire country. “We’ve just woken up to what really happened in New Zealand — until recently nobody had any idea,” says UBC Professor of Zoology Tony Sinclair, who’s been consulting with the New Zealand govern- ment. “Th ere must have been an explosion in the rat population of astronomical proportions — the whole island must have been swimming with rats. Th e birds just stood around and got eaten. Th ey had no time in which to evolve behaviour to deal with them.” Th e rats ransacked the nests of the seabirds and in doing so, caused a complete shift in the ecosystem. Without the nutrients the seabirds supplied, a rich fauna simply disappeared. One famous example is the Moa, a species of large, ostrich-like bird that is now completely extinct. With no written or oral record of the time, the evidence lay buried under- ground until the story was pieced together. “It’s an eye-opener on how the world works and how it has changed,” says Sinclair. Th e Pacifi c rat still lives in New Zealand and is now regarded as a benign pest. But when the rats arrived, in the canoes of the Maori people who traveled to the island, they were one of the fi rst mammals to land there. Th ere are marine mammals native to New Zealand; seals and dolphins can travel TONY SINCLAIR IS UNCOVERING HOW INFINITESIMAL CHANGES TO AN ECOSYSTEM CAN PRODUCE DRASTIC RESULTS FOR US ALL IN THIS ISSUE > Species Showdown 03 Removing just one species from an ecosystem can have radical results. Tony Sinclair’s grand-scale biodiversity knockout experiment sets out to determine why V is for Volcanology 06 By studying volcanoes on Venus, Mark Jellinek is advancing the science of predicting volcanic activity on earth In Search of Asylum 09 Immigration laws have been shifting under the social and political pressures of globalization, according to Catherine Dauvergne, and the effects are not what you’d expect FREEDOM FROM FEAR 12 A decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses over the past decade? The Human Security Report 2005 uncovers surprising trends in global confl ict Digging Deeper 16 UBC’s Mineral Deposit Research Unit is advancing the long-term success of the exploration and mining industry within British Columbia Wood Wide Web 18 Melanie Jones and Dan Durall aren’t looking to the treetops for clues about the “wood wide web.” They’re looking to the soil at fungi that are crucial to renewing our forests Chatman’s Dilemma 20 Stephen Chatman fl ourishes in the demanding world of experimental composition. His choral compositions are winning him high praise as well Cover photo> Panos Pictures/Lana Slezic Welcome to the inaugural issue of frontier, the University of British Columbia’s new journal of research. As part of UBC’s vision to “conduct outstanding research to serve the people of British Columbia, Canada and the world,” we are proud to showcase some of the innovative research activities — and the minds behind them — in the pages that follow. At UBC, we are dedicated to fostering an environment that will incubate ideas, offer world-calibre and meaningful research, advance knowledge and impact the communities we serve. The broad spectrum of disciplines across UBC mesh to create a unique environment for idea exchange and research collaboration that stimulates creativity and innovation. We are deeply committed to being an active and accessible member of local, national and international communities. This commitment, we believe, is evident through our participation in a variety of research ventures, from the sequencing of the SARS genome to addressing the changing face of global violence and championing human security in the 21st century. The activities described in the pages that follow are just a few examples of the myriad of research activity taking place at UBC. I hope you fi nd them to be of interest, and welcome your feedback. Enjoy this fi rst issue of frontier.  Dr. John Hepburn, Vice President Research A MESSAGE FROM THE VICE PRESIDENT RESEARCH SPECIES SHOWDOWN K C Y M Docket no.: 1127 Version no: 2 Client : UBC Research Date: 2005 April 03 Item: Frontier magazine Size: 8.5x11.75 inches Logos: repro Photos: fpo Line Screen: 150 line Fonts: DIN, A Garamond Pro Proofed by: gq  www.research.ubc.ca A Journal of Research and Discovery Published By Offi ce of the Vice President Research, UBC Fax 604.822.6295 Email info.frontier@ubc.ca Writing and Design kaldor.com Circulation 3,000 (two issues per year) All Rights Reserved Printed In Canada Publications mail agreement no. 41268533 Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: University of British Columbia Offi ce of the Vice President Research Room 224, 6328 Memorial Road Vancouver, BC  Canada  V6T 1Z2 FREE SUBSCRIPTION For your free subscription to frontier, please call 604.822.1995 or email info.frontier@ubc.ca This magazine was printed on recycled paper containing 10% post-consumer waste, saving the following: 1 tree, 275 litres of water, 25 kilograms of solid waste, 45 kilograms of greenhouse gases, 79 kilowatt hours of electricity.

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