TRIUMF: Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics

Conceptual design study and cost estimate for the main coils for a 500 MeV H⁻ cyclotron Fredriksson, O. K.; Brobeck, W. M.; Gordon, H. S.; Hawks, N. L.; Tafelski, R. L.; Pellow, D. L.; Doyle, R. C.; William M. Brobeck & Associates Nov 30, 1968

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T R I  - UN I  V E R S I T Y  M E S O N  F A C I L I T YVT R I U M FCONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY AND COST ESTIMATE FOR THE MAIN CO ILS  FOR A 500 MEV H“ CYCLOTRONW.M. Brobeck  S A s s o c i a t e s  B e r k e l e y ,  C a l i f o r n i a ,  U . S .A .UN IVERS ITY  OF ALBERTA SIMON FRASER UN IVERS ITY  UN IVERS ITY  OF V ICTOR IA  UN IVERS ITY  OF B R IT I SH  COLUMBIA T R I - 6 8 - 3T R I - 6 8 - 3  WMBSA-179-1R1TR I -UN IV ER S IT Y  MESON FA C IL IT YCONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY AND COST ESTIMATE FOR THE MAIN CO IL S  FOR A 500 MeV H“ CYCLOTRONW.M. B robeck  & A s s o c i a t e s  B e r k e l e y ,  C a l i f o r n i a ,  U . S .A .P repa red  by:O.K. F r e d r i k s s o nA s s i s t e d  by:W.M. B robeck  H .S .  Gordon N.L .  Hawks R .L .  T a f e l s k i  D . L . P e 11ow R.C. Doy leP o s t a l  A d d r e s s :TRIUMFU n i v e r s i t y  o f  B r i t i s h  Co lumbia  Vancouve r  8,  B.C.Canada November 1968CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY AND COST ESTIMATE FOR THEMAIN CO IL S  FOR A 500 MeV H" CYCLOTRONC O N T E N T SPage1. SUMMARY 12. INTRODUCTION 33. CR IT ER IA  FOR MAIN MAGNET CO ILS  44. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 65. CHOICE OF CONDUCTOR MATERIAL 95.1 Conduc to r  M a t e r i a l  95 - 2  H o l l ow  Copper Conduc to r  C o i l s  95 - 3  F l a t  Bar  Aluminum Conduc to r  C o i l s  105 . 3 . 1  Welded Jumper C on ne c t i o n s  115 . 3 . 2  B o l t e d  Jumper C on n e c t i o n s  145 . 3 - 3  C o o l i n g  Water C o n n e c t i o n s  165 . 4 F l a t  Bar  Copper  Conduc to r  C o i l s  166. POWER SUPPLY COST STUDY TO ARR IVE  AT OPTIMUMCONDUCTOR CROSS -SECTION 186.1 Genera l  186 . 2  Power S u pp l y  197. PREL IM INARY  DESIGN OF CO ILS  218. WINDING F IXTURES ,  L I FT ING  F IXTURES ,  WINDINGAND ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES 229. S PEC IF ICAT ION  FOR REQUIRED TEST PROCEDURES 2210. T IME SCHEDULE 2311. OPERATING COST 2412. COOLING WATER AND COOLING SYSTEM 2513- RECOMMENDATIONS 2614. DRAFT SPEC IF ICAT ION  FOR MAIN CO ILS  FOR THETRIUMF CYCLOTRON 28A. Genera l  P a r a g r a p h s  28B. D e t a i l e d  Requ i rements  f o r  the  MainMagnet C o i I s  31iL IST  OF FIGURESFi gu re  Number1 120° CO IL  SEGMENT (FOR WELDED CONNECTIONS)2 ALUMINUM CONDUCTOR CROSS-SECTION3 COPPER CONDUCTOR CROSS-SECTION4 CO IL  SEGMENT FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS (BOTTOM)5 COIL SEGMENT FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS (TOP)6 CO IL  SEGMENT FOR BOLTED CONNECTIONS, SPARE (BOTTOM & TOP)7 F LEX IB LE  CONNECTOR8 COIL  HOUSING ASSEMBLY9 STRETCH FORMING OF CONDUCTOR BARS10 INSPECTION GAUGE11 POWER SUPPLY COST AND NUMBER OF COIL -TURNS v s  POWER SUPPLY VOLTAGE12 POWER CONSUMPTION OF CO ILS  v s  NUMBER OF TURNS PER COIL13 CAP ITAL  COST v s  NUMBER OF TURNS PER COIL14 OPERATING COST v s  NUMBER OF TURNS PER COIL15 PROPOSED FABRICAT ION SCHEDULEL I ST  OF DRAWINGSDraw ingNumber179-1D1 JUMPER CONNECTION AREAWELDED CONNECTIONS PLAN VIEW179-1D2  JUMPER CONNECTION AREABOLTED CONNECTIONS PLAN VIEWI7 9 - 1C 3  JUMPER CONNECTION AREABOLTED CONNECTIONS CROSS-SECTION179 -1E4  CROSS -SECTION THROUGH COIL179-1C5  F L EX IB L E  CONNECTIONSFROM BOTTOM TO TOP C O I Li i iA s t u d y  has been conducted  f o r  the  pu rpo se  o f  d e v e l o p i n g  a d e s i g n  f o r  the  TRIUMF main magnet c o i l s  wh ich  was to  r e s u l t  in a minimum c a p i t a l  i n ve s tment  when the c o s t s  o f  the  c o i l s  and the  power s u p p l y  were added t o g e t h e r .  Two b a s i c  d e s i g n s  were c o n s i d e r e d ,  one be ing  the more c o n v e n t i o n a l  d e s i g n  emp loy ing  e x t r uded  squa re  h o l l ow  c o ndu c to r ,  the o t h e r  mak ing u se  o f  r e c t a n g u l a r  c o ndu c t o r  b a r s .The c o n v e n t i o n a l  d e s i g n  was found t o  be u n s u i t a b l e  f o r  the TRIUMF c o i l s  due to  l a c k  o f  space  f o r  the  l a r g e  number o f  wa te r  c i r c u i t s  t h a t  wou ld  be needed in o r d e r  to  p r e v e n t  e x c e s s i v e  tempera tu re  r i s e  and d e s t r u c t i v e  s h e a r  f o r c e s  to  d eve lop  w i t h i n  the  c o i l .  In a d d i ­t i o n ,  the  c o i l s  would have to  be wound a t  the s i t e  due to  t h e i r  l a r g e  s i z e ,  mak ing the f a b r i c a t i o n  work  u ndu l y  e x p e n s i v e .The r e c t a n g u l a r  ba r  d e s i g n  p e rm i t s  the c o i l s  to  be d i v i d e d  in t o  segment s ,  th u s  mak ing i t  f e a s i b l e  to  do the m anu fa c tu r i n g  work  in  a c o i l  m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s  p l a n t .  Minimum c a p i t a l  in ve s tment  i s  a ch ie ved  i f  the  c o i l s  a r e  made in  120 -deg ree  segments  u s i n g  ex t ruded  aluminum as  c o n d u c to r  m a t e r i a l .S i x t y - d e g r e e  segments  a r e  more e x p e n s i v e  than  120 -deg ree  segments but o f f e r  c e r t a i n  a dvan ta ge s  wh ich  a r e  not found in  the  60 -de g ree  segment v e r s i o n .  Thu s ,  the  magne t i c  f i e l d  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s  produced  in the  segment j u n c t i o n  a r e a s  o c c u r  in s i x  p l a c e s ,  wh i ch  i s  p r e f e r a b l e  t o  h a v i n g  the  f i e l d  d i s t o r t i o n  in o n l y  th re e  p l a c e s .  The 6 0 -d e g ree  segments  a l s o  p r o v i d e  a d e s i r a b l e  f l e x i b i l i t y  between a l l  magnet s e c t o r s  p e rm i t t i n g  i n d i v i d u a l  h e i g h t  ad ju s tment  o f  the m a gn e t s .The c o s t  o f  power s u p p l i e s  w i t h  v a r i o u s  o u tpu t  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  has been e s t im a t e d .  Two p r e l im i n a r y  c o s t  e s t im a t e s  were r e c e i v e d  from1 . SUMMARYtwo power s u p p l y  m a nu f a c t u r e r s .  These  e s t im a t e s  were  based  on a power s u p p l y  w i t h  an ou tpu t  c u r r e n t  o f  16 ,000  amperes and an ou tpu t  power o f  2 megawatt s .As  a r e s u l t  o f  the f i n d i n g s ,  i t  has been recommended t h a t  ex t ruded  ba r  aluminum c ondu c to r  be employed in the  f a b r i c a t i o n  o f  the c o i l s  and t h a t  6 0 -d e g ree  segments  be used .  The c o n d u c t o r s  s h o u ld  be i n s u l a t e d  from each o t h e r  and from ground  by means o f  g l a s s - e p o x y  l am in a t e s .  I t  i s  a l s o  p ropo sed  t h a t  the i n s u l a t i o n  be r e i n f o r c e d  by epoxy  p o t t i n g  o f  the c o i l  segments .  The epoxy  s h o u ld  be f o rmu la ted  to  g i v e  maximum r a d i a t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e ,  and a lum ina  g r a i n s  s h o u ld  be used t o  f u r t h e r  enhance  t h i s  p r o p e r t y .B o l t e d  f l e x i b l e  coppe r  c o n n e c t o r s  have  been recommended f o r  use  between c o i l  s egment s .The recommended c o i l  d e s i g n  i s  shown on v a r i o u s  f i g u r e s  and d r aw in g s  i n c lu d ed  in the r e p o r t  a l o n g  w i t h  g r a p h s  d em on s t r a t i n g  power demands, c a p i t a l  in ve s tment  c o s t s  and o p e r a t i n g  c o s t s  f o r  d i f f e r e n t  c o ndu c to r  m a t e r i a l s  and d i f f e r e n t  number o f  c o i l  t u r n s .-  2 -2. INTRODUCTIONFo r  p r o d u c t i o n  o f  l a r g e  f l u x e s  o f  mesons and o t h e r  s e conda r y  p a r t i c l e s  a meson p r o d u c t i o n  f a c i l i t y  i s  b e i n g  p lanned  at  Vancouve r ,  B .C . ,  Canada. The s o u r c e  o f  p r im a r y  p a r t i c l e s  w i l l  be a s e c t o r -  f o cu se d  n e g a t i v e  hyd rogen  ion c y c l o t r o n .  In o r d e r  t o  m a in t a i n  the beam l o s s e s  a t  an a c c e p t a b l e  l e v e l  d u r i n g  a c c e l e r a t i o n ,  the u se  o f  a r e l a t i v e l y  weak magne t i c  g u i d e  f i e l d  i s  r e q u i r e d .  T h i s  low f i e l d  in t u r n  n e c e s s i t a t e s  a l a r g e  o r b i t  r a d i u s  f o r  con f inement  and s t e e r i n g  o f  the  i o n s  i n t o  p rope r  o r b i t s .  Fo r  t h e se  r e a s o n s ,  the  main magnet c o i l s  a re  u n u s u a l l y  l a r g e  f o r  a c y c l o t r o n .The d e s i r e d  magne t i c  f i e l d  i s  p r o v i d e d  by s i x  s e p a r a t e  magnets  e x c i t e d  c o l l e c t i v e l y  by two main e x c i t a t i o n  c o i l s  (main magnet c o i l s )  and a number o f  t r imm ing  c o i l s .  The main magnet c o i l s  have an e x t e r n a l  d i ame te r  o f  690 i n c h e s , o r  a p p r o x im a t e l y  5 7 -1/ 2  f e e t ,  and a re  p o s i t i o n e d  s ymm e t r i c a l l y  about the  median p l a ne  in s l o t s  in the magnet y o k e s .  The c r o s s - s e c t i o n  t h rou gh  each c o i l  i s  20 in che s  x 20 i n c h e s .Due t o  t h e i r  l a r g e  s i z e  the c o i l s  canno t  be c omp le te l y  manufactu red  in  a c o i l  m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s  p l a n t  and t r a n s p o r t e d  to  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n  s i t e  f o r  e r e c t i o n  on the magnets .  Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s  a re  thus  l e f t  o p e n :1. C o n s t r u c t i o n  o f  the c o i l s  a t  the  c y c l o t r o n  s i t e  u s i n g  p r e ­f a b r i c a t e d  c o n s t r u c t i o n  e lement s .2.  F a b r i c a t i o n  o f  c o i l  segments  away from the c y c l o t r o n  s i t e  and a s semb ly  o f  t h e se  segments  i n t o  c o i l  a s s em b l i e s  a t  the s i te .In o r d e r  to  e s t a b l i s h  the  most economica l  app roach  t o  s o l v i n g  the c o i l  f a b r i c a t i o n  and a s s o c i a t e d  p rob lem s ,  W.M. B robeck  & A s s o c i a t e s  was awarded a c o n t r a c t  f o r  a concep tua l  d e s i g n  s t u d y  and c o s t  e s t im a t e  f o r  the  main c o i l s  f o r  the TRIUMF c y c l o t r o n .-  3 -3. CR IT ER IA  FOR THE MAIN MAGNET COILS3.1 Ampere Tu rn sMaximum and c o n t i n u o u s  requ i rement  7 2 0 ,0 00  AT.3 -2  Conduc to r  M a t e r i a lHo l l ow ,  w a t e r - c o o l e d  coppe r  o r  a luminum. E x t ruded  aluminum c o u ld  be produced  l o c a l l y  ( A l c a n ,  Richmond) o r  in  e a s t e r n  Canada. Ex t ruded  copper  pe rhap s  o n l y  in  e a s t e r n  Canada. Canad ian  s o u r c e s  s h o u ld  be e v a l u a t e d  and compared w i t h  U .S .  s u p p l i e r s .3 . 3  C u r r e n tDependent on power s u p p l y  c o s t  o p t im i z a t i o n .2>.b V o l t a g e  and PowerDependent on c h o i c e  o f  m a t e r i a l  f o r  c o ndu c to r .3 . 5  I n s u l a t i o nC l a s s  o f  i n s u l a t i o n  to  be adequate  f o r  the expec ted  o p e r a t i n g  c o n d i t i o n s ,  wh ich  i s  no t n e c e s s a r i l y  the h i g h e s t  c l a s s .R a d i a t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e  to  be based  on 25 y e a r s  o f  c o n t i n u o u s  o p e r a t i o n  a t  maximum c y c l o t r o n  r a t i n g s  (500 MeV; 100 yA. Beam l o s s  in  c y c l o t r o n  to  be 20 yamp at 500 M eV ) .3 . 6  Power S u pp l yS o l i d  s t a t e ,  c omp le te l y  w a t e r - c o o l e d  equ ipment to  be c o n s i d e r e d  o n l y .  C u r r e n t  s t a b i l i t y  ± 1 0 -5  long  and s h o r t  term a t  ±5% l i n e  v o l t a g e  v a r i a t i o n s .3 . 7  C o i l  C o n ne c t i o n sD i s t a n c e  between c o i l s  and power s u p p l y  100 f e e t .  The lower  c o i l  can have f i x e d  c o n n e c t i o n s ;  the upper  c o i l  s h o u l d  have f l e x i b l e  c o n n e c t i o n s  t h a t  a l l o w  the c o i l  to  be r a i s e d  by 3 f e e t ,  f o r  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  o f  the  i n s i d e  o f  the vacuum tank .  Water -  co o le d  aluminum c a b l e s  and bus b a r s  s h o u l d  be c o n s i d e r e d .-  4 --  5 -3 . 8  Dimens i o n sThe c o i l s  s h o u ld  be d imen s ioned  to  f i t  s l o t s  in  the magnet c o r e s  o f  20 i n che s  x  20 i n che s  and wh ich  have a common i n s i d e  r a d i u s  o f  325 i n c h e s .  Each c o re  o ccup ie s  2+0 deg ree s  o f  the p e r i p h e r y  o f  the c o i l s .3 . 9  C o i l  Cove r sThe c o i l  w i n d i n g s  a re  to  be c o n t a i n e d  in aluminum cans  to  p r o ­v i d e  p r o t e c t i o n  f o r  the i n s u l a t i o n  and adequate  r i g i d i t y  to  a l l o w  the c o i l s  t o  be l i f t e d  from the  w i n d i n g  f l o o r  and i n t o  the  s l o t s  in the  c o r e s .3 .1 0  H a n d l i n gTwo b r i d g e  c r a n e s ,  each w i t h  two 2 5 _ ton t r o l l e y s ,  w i l l  p r o v i d e  a t o t a l  l i f t i n g  c a p a c i t y  o f  100 t o n s .3.11 A s semb lyThe c o i l s  have t o  be mounted to  the s i x  c o r e s  in  a way wh ich  does  not i n t e r f e r e  w i t h  the  i n d i v i d u a l  l e v e l l i n g  requ i remen t s  f o r  the s i x  c o r e s .  The upper c o i l  w i l l  be r a i s e d  3 f e e t  t o g e t h e r  w i t h  the top  c o r e s  f o r  s e r v i c i n g  o f  the  mach ine.3 . 1 2  C o o l i n g  WaterI t  i s  assumed t h a t  c o o l i n g  wa te r  can be s u p p l i e d  to  the c o i l s  a t  a tempera tu re  o f  27°C. The tempera tu re  r i s e  in the c o i l s  i s  to  be kept  minimum. The p r e s s u r e  d rop  i s  t o  be kept  low by h a v i n g  many wate r  c i r c u i t s  in  p a r a l l e l .3 . 1 3 . Q u a l i t y  o f  C o o l i n g  WaterThe q u a l i t y  o f  the c o o l i n g  wa te r  to  be such  as  to  p re ven t  damage due to  c o r r o s i o n  based  on a 2 5 - y e a r  p e r i o d  o f  c o n t i n u o u s  du ty  a t  maximum r a t i n g s .-  6 -4. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONSMost o f  the  modern c y c l o t r o n s  have e x c i t a t i o n  c o i l s  wh ich  a re  made f rom e x t ruded  o r  drawn h o l l ow  copper  o r  a luminum c o ndu c to r .  The c o n d u c to r  i s  wrapped w i t h  i n s u l a t i n g  m a t e r i a l  and wound on to  a c o i l  f o rmer ,  " p o t t e d "  w i t h  epoxy  o r  s i m i l a r  p o u r a b l e  i n s u l a t i n g  and bond in g  agent  -  o f t e n  under vacuum, and cu red  a t  room o r  e l e v a t e d  tempera tu re .  The r e s u l t ,  i f  s u c c e s s f u l l y  e xecu ted ,  i s  a w e l l -  i n s u l a t e d  c o i l  im pe rv iou s  t o  m o i s t u r e .In l a r g e  and l im be r  c o i l s  l i k e  the ones  in tended  f o r  the TRIUMF c y c l o t r o n ,  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  d e s i g n  d e s c r i b e d  above does  not appear  too  a t t r a c t i v e  f o r  a number o f  r e a s o n s .F i r s t ,  the d i ame te r  o f  the  TRIUMF c o i l s  i s  so  l a r g e  t h a t  they  would have to  be wound a t  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  s i t e ,  t y i n g  up a s u b s t a n t i a l  f l o o r  a rea  f o r  a c o n s i d e r a b l e  l e n g th  o f  t ime.  In a d d i t i o n ,  e xp e n s i v e  c o i l - w i n d i n g  equ ipment would be r e q u i r e d .  A l s o ,  the  c o i l s  would have to  be made in an a rea  where o t h e r  a c t i v i t i e s  a re  g o i n g  on c o n c u r r e n t l y ,  and e x p e r i e n c e  has shown t h a t  no ma t te r  how c a r e f u l l y  one t r i e s  t o  p r o t e c t  the c o i l  w i n d i n g  a r e a ,  d i r t  and d u s t  w i l l  be p r e s e n t ,  j e o p a r d i z i n g  the  i n t e g r i t y  o f  the  i n s u l a t i o n .Second, h a n d l i n g  and i n s t a l l a t i o n  o f  the  c o i l s  would be most d i f f i ­c u l t  and e x p e n s i v e ,  s i n c e  f a i r l y  e l a b o r a t e  h a n d l i n g  ge a r  would have to  be d e s i g n e d  and manu fac tu red .T h i r d ,  p o t t i n g  o f  the c o i l s  wou ld  be a lmo s t  im p o s s i b l e  and i f  a t  a l l  f e a s i b l e ,  v e r y  e x p e n s i v e .F o u r t h ,  r e p a i r s  on o r  rep lacement  o f  the  c o i l  in c a se  o f  t u r n - t o -  t u r n  s h o r t  c i r c u i t s  o r  g round  i n s u l a t i o n  breakdown would  be a f o rm id a b l e  t a s k .-  7 -F i f t h ,  w i t h  the  space  a v a i l a b l e  between magnets  f o r  making wate r  c o n n e c t i o n s ,  o n l y  a few p a r a l l e l  wa te r  c i r c u i t s  may be employed.T h i s  in t u rn  r e s u l t s  in  h i g h  s h e a r  s t r e s s e s  in the i n s u l a t i o n  between t u r n s  and l a y e r s  in the c o i l  due to  the u n a v o id a b l e  tempera tu re  g rad  i e n t .In v iew  o f  the above-enumerated  r e a s o n s ,  t o  wh ich  s e v e r a l  more cou ld  be added,  i t  became c l e a r  e a r l y  in the  s t u d y  t h a t  one s h o u ld  t r y  to  f i n d  a s o l u t i o n  which  would pe rm i t  the c o i l s  t o  be manu fac tu red  in a p l a c e  away from the  s i t e .  T h i s  in  t u rn  im p l i e s  t h a t  the  c o i l s  have to  be broken  down i n t o  manageable p i e c e s .  I f  each c o i l  were made in t h r e e  1 2 0 -deg ree  segment s ,  the o v e r a l l  s i z e  o f  each segment would be a p p r o x im a t e l y  50 f e e t  l ong  x  15 -1/2  f e e t  w ide  by 20 in che s  t h i c k  ( F i g u r e  1).  In the  a r e a s  where the segments  a re  connected  t o g e t h e r ,  the  c o n d u c t o r s  must be b rough t  r a d i a l l y  outward c a u s i n g  th ree  l o c a l i z e d  magne t i c  f i e l d  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s ,  r e s u l t i n g  in an unwanted t h i r d  ha rmon ic  a z im u tha l  f i e l d  component.  S i n c e  th e re  a re  s i x  magnets  in the c y c l o t r o n  a s s emb ly ,  d i v i d i n g  the  c o i l s  i n t o  s i x  i n s t e ad  o f  th re e  segments  each would seem to  be a n a t u r a l  t h i n g  t o  do. T h i s  would then m a in t a i n  the d e s i r e d  s i x - f o l d  symmetry but c o u ld  make the c o i l s  more e x p e n s i v e ,  due t o  the f a c t  t h a t  the number o f  c o n n e c t i o n s  i s  i n c r e a s e d  by a f a c t o r  o f  two.The s i x - s e gm e n t  a lternat i ve  has o t h e r  a d v a n ta ge s  o v e r  the t h ree - segment  one, namely,  the  segments  a re  sm a l l e r  (35 f e e t  l ong  by 6 f e e t  wide by 20 i n che s  t h i c k ) ,  e a s i e r  to  hand le  and i n s t a l l ,  e a s i e r  to  re p l a ce  in c a se  o f  damage, e a s i e r  to  impregnate .  T h i s  s y s t em  a l s o  p r o v i d e s  a f l e x i b l e  j o i n t  between each magnet r e d u c i n g  the  r i s k  o f  damage to  the  c o i l s  d u r i n g  l e v e l l i n g  o f  the magnets .  A t y p i c a l  6 0 -de g ree  segment i s  shown in F i g u r e  4.In t h i s  s t u d y  we have c o n s i d e r e d  bo th  the t h r e e -  and s i x - s e gm en t  a l te rna t i ve s  as  w e l l  a s  the m e r i t s  o f  b o l t e d  and welded c o n n e c t i o n s .-  8 -The c o s t  f i g u r e s  a p p e a r i n g  in S e c t i o n s  5 -3 -1  th r ou gh  5.h a p p l y  to  c o i l s  h a v i n g  22 c o i l  t u r n s  each. C o s t  v a r i a t i o n  a s  a f u n c t i o n  o f  the number o f  c o i l  t u r n s  i s  found in  F i g u r e  3. A l l  c o s t  f i g u r e s  a re  quoted  a t  t o d a y ' s  p r i c e s  in U . S .  d o l l a r s .- 9 -5. CHOICE OF CONDUCTOR MATERIAL5.1 Conduc to r  M a t e r i a lThere  a re  two m a t e r i a l s  t h a t  may be used in the TRIUMF c o i l s ,  namely,  a luminum and copper .  Aluminum a l l o y s  s u i t a b l e  f o r  the  a p p l i c a t i o n  a re  EC—H111 (Amer ican c o d in g )  o r  I S  (Canad ian  c o d i n g ) .  The c o n d u c t i v i t y  o f  t h e se  a l l o y s  range s  between 60 and 61 pe r  cent  o f  the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Annea led  Copper S t a nda rd  ( l A C S ) .  A s u i t a b l e  copper  a l l o y  i s  E l e c t r o l y t i c  Tough P i t c h  ( E T P ) , w i t h  a c o n d u c t i v i t y  o f  100 t o  101 pe r  cent I ACS.  T h i s  means t h a t  i f  one were t o  u se  the same vo lume o f  m a t e r i a l  and run the c o i l s  a t  the same tempera tu re  in the two a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  the aluminum c o i l s  wou ld  consume about 67 per  cen t  more power than the  copper  c o i l s .  T hu s ,  f o r  the same volume o f  c o ndu c to r  the  o p e r a t i n g  c o s t  wou ld  be c o n s i d e r a b l y  lower  f o r  copper  than  f o r  a luminum. However, in t h i s  s t u d y  o p e r a t i n g  c o s t  was not used  as  a c r i t e r i o n  f o r  s e l e c t i o n .Aluminum c ondu c to r  can be o b t a i n e d  in  any l e n g th  and shape  t h a t  would  be d e s i r a b l e  f o r  use  in the  TRIUMF c o i l s .  Copper i s  more l im i t e d  in t h e se  r e s p e c t s .  H o l l ow  coppe r  c o ndu c to r s  may be f a b r i c a t e d  h a v i n g  a maximum f i n i s h e d  w e i g h t  o f  300 pounds pe r  l e n g t h ,  but th e re  a re  c e r t a i n  r e s t r i c t i o n s  on the a c h i e v a b l e  length, due to  the a v a i l a b l e  d r aw -b e n c h e s . Thus ,  a 1 - 1 /4 x  1 - 1 / 4 - i n c h  c o ndu c to r  w i t h  a 3 / 4 - i n c h  bore  can be drawn to  a maximum l e n g th  o f  55 f e e t .5 . 2  Ho l l ow  Copper  Conduc to r  C o i l sHo l l ow  copper  c o ndu c to r  may be pu rcha sed  today  a t  a p r i c e  o f  $ 1 . 15/pound. M a t e r i a l  r e q u i r e d  f o r  1wo c o i l s  would be a p p r o x i ­ma te ly  3 2 0 ,0 00  pounds .  Thu s ,  the m a te r i a l  c o s t  would amount to  $ 3 68 ,000 .  S i n c e  the  c o ndu c to r  b a r s  a re  l im i t e d  to  55“ f oo t  l e n g t h ,  a g r e a t  number o f  s p l i c e s  wou ld  have t o  be made. I f  a c o n d u c t o r  o f  1-1/4  x 1 -1/4  i n che s  x 3 / 4 - i n c h  bore  was used ,one would  be a b l e  to  make each c o i l  c o n t a i n  196  t u r n s .  T h i s  number o f  t u r n s  c o r r e s p o n d s  t o  a t o t a l  c o ndu c to r  l e n g th  per c o i l  o f  about 3^ ,300  f e e t .  T h e r e f o r e ,  a minimum o f  624 s p l i c e s  would  have  to  be made in each c o i l ,  o r  a t o t a l  o f  about 1 ,300  s p l i c e s  i f  one adds  t e s t  s p l i c e s  and c o n t i n g e n c y  f o r  u n a c c ep t ­a b l e  s p l i  c e s .A t y p i c a l  s p l i c e  c o s t  i s  $100.  The s p l i c i n g  c o s t  would thu s  become $ 130 ,000  f o r  both c o i l s .  The c o s t  o f  the  c o ndu c to r  m a t e r i a l  and s p l i c e s  o n l y  would amount to  about $ 5 00 ,000 .  W i t h ­ou t  any d e t a i l e d  a n a l y s i s  o f  the r e s t  o f  the c o s t s  a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h  the w i n d i n g  and i n s t a l l a t i o n  o f  the c o i l s  u s i n g  h o l l ow  copper  c o n d u c t o r ,  one can s a f e l y  assume t h a t  t h i s  a d d i t i o n a l  c o s t  wou ld  not be below $200 ,000 ,  b r i n g i n g  the  t o t a l  to  $ 7 00 ,000  minimum. T h i s  f i g u r e  i s  a l r e a d y  more than $200 ,000  h i g h e r  than  the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  c o s t  f i g u r e  f o r  a luminum c o i l s  o f  the d e s i g n  wh ich  i s  recommended f o r  u se  a t  TRIUMF. The s a v i n g  in  power s u p p l y  c o s t  by u s i n g  copper  i n s t e a d  o f  a luminum would be a t  the most $60 ,0 00 .  A p a r t  from the economica l  i n f e r i o r i t y  o f  t h i s  copper  c o i l  d e s i g n  when compared to  the  s e l e c t e d  aluminum c o i l  d e s i g n ,  t h e re  a re  o t h e r  d i s a d v a n t a g e s ,  some o f  wh ich  have been p o i n t e d  ou t  in S e c t i o n  k above. Other  u n a t t r a c t i v e  a t t r i b u t e s  a re  the  p o t e n t i a l  l e a k  ha za rd  due to the j o i n t s ,  the h i g h  l e v e l  o f  induced r a d i o a c t i v i t y  in  copper  compared to  aluminum, and s u s c e p t i b i l i t y  t o  mechan ica l  and e l e c t r i c a l  damage to  the  i n s u l a t i o n .On the  above g r o u n d s ,  i t  i s  c onc luded  th a t  the  use  o f  h o l l ow  copper  c o ndu c to r  f o r  the c o i l s  s h o u ld  not be s u b j e c t  to  f u r t h e r  e x p l o r a t i o n .F l a t  Bar  Aluminum Conduc to r  C o i l sAluminum c o n d u c to r s  may be o b t a i n e d  in a v a r i e t y  o f  s hape s .Fo r  the  TRIUMF c o i l s  a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  shape  l i k e  the one shown-  11 -in  F i g u r e  2 seems to  be most s u i t a b l e .  W ith  22 t u r n s  per c o i l  and a p p r o p r i a t e  a l l ow an ce  f o r  mechan ica l  t o l e r a n c e s  and i n s u l a t i o n ,  the t o t a l  amount o f  a luminum r e q u i r e d  would be about  130 ,000  pounds .  T h i s  c o ndu c t o r  can be produced f o r  a p r i c e  o f  about $ 0 . 71/pound,  i n c l u d i n g  t o o l i n g  and s e t - u p  c h a r g e s .The p a r a g r a p h s  be low c o n t a i n  c o s t  breakdowns f o r  a luminum c o i l s  u s i n g  two p o s s i b l e  c o n d u c t o r - b a r  j o i n i n g  methods.  The t o t a l  c o s t  o f  the c o i l s  i n c l u d e s  e n g i n e e r i n g ,  d e s i g n ,  m a t e r i a l ,  l a b o u r ,  shop  s u p e r v i s i o n ,  i n s p e c t i o n ,  f a c t o r y  t e s t ­i n g ,  sh ipment  and i n s t a l l a t i o n  o f  the  c o i l s  on the magnets .The c o s t  o f  the power s u p p l y  i s  no t i n c l u d ed .5 - 3 . 1  Welded Jumper C on ne c t i o n sWe ld in g  aluminum i s  c om p a r a t i v e l y  e a s y  and s h o u ld  r e s u l t  in r e l i a b l e  c o n n e c t i o n s .  However,  s i n c e  a l ong  and heavy  weld  would  be r e q u i r e d  in  t h i s  a p p l i c a t i o n ,  the  epoxy ­po t t ed  c o i l  would have to  be p r o t e c t e d  from e x c e s s i v e  t empe ra tu re s  d u r i n g  the w e l d i n g  o p e r a t i o n .  T h i s  can be done by p a s s i n g  c o o l i n g  wate r  t h r ou gh  the wa te r  p a s s a ge s  in  the  c o ndu c to r .The c o n n e c t i o n s  between c o i l  segments  have t o  perm it  a z i ­muthal  d i s p l a c em en t s  o f  the c o i l  ends  caused  by thermal  e x p a n s i o n .  In the ca se  o f  the  120 -deg ree  segment v e r s i o n  t h i s  d i s p l a c emen t  would  amount to abou t  1/2 in ch ,  w h i l e  a 6 0 - d e g re e  segment would  ex tend  about  1 A  in ch .  To p r o v i d e  f o r  t h i s  e x p a n s i o n  f l e x i b l e  s t r a p  s e c t i o n s  a r e  used. As f l e x i b l e  s t r a p  m a t e r i a l ,  a luminum would be most c o n v e n ie n t ,  s i n c e  the s t r a p s  co u ld  be b razed  o r  welded  to  the s t i f f  a luminum ba r .  Th rough  c o n v e r s a t i o n  w i t h  e n g i n e e r s  a t  the P a c i f i c  Gas and E l e c t r i c  Company in San F r a n c i s c o  we have l ea rned  t h a t  in t h e i r  e x p e r i e n c e  f l e x i b l e  aluminum-  12 -s t r a p s  f a t i g u e  a f t e r  a c om p a r a t i v e l y  s h o r t  l e n g t h  o f  t ime. The PGSE Company t h e r e f o r e  u se s  copper  s t r a p s  w i t h  aluminum c o n d u c t o r s .  The coppe r  s t r a p s  in P G s E ' s  ca se  a re  b o l t e d  t o  the aluminum c o n d u c t o r ,  w i t h  a p p r o p r i a t e  s t e p s  taken  t o  p re ven t  c o r r o s i o n .  As  coppe r  does not weld o r  b ra ze  e a s i l y  to  aluminum,  i n t e r f a c e  p i e c e s  in wh ich  the c o ppe r - t o - a l um in um  j o i n t  i s  made by f l a s h  w e l d i n g  o r  impact f o rm in g  a re  n e c e s s a r y .  The copper  s t r a p s  c ou ld  then be b razed  to  the coppe r  p o r t i o n  o f  t h i s  p i e c e  and the s t i f f  a luminum bar  welded to  the  aluminum p o r t i o n .S hou ld  i t  p ro ve  n e c e s s a r y  to  d i sm a n t l e  a c o i l ,  a l l  c onne c ­t i o n s  would have to  be cu t  and new ones  made upon r e i n s t a l l a t i o n .  I t  goes  w i t h o u t  s a y i n g  t h a t  the  work would  have t o  be perfo rmed by w e l 1- q u a l i f i e d  w e ld e r s .The above  method o f  i n s t a l l i n g  the  jumpers  i s  no t recom- mendable because  o f  the  r i s k  o f  damage to  the  c o i l  i n s u l a t i o n  caused  by weld  s p l a t t e r  and p o s s i b l e  c r a c k i n g  o f  the  epoxy  due to  heat  d e f o rm a t io n  o f  the  c o ndu c to r  b a r s .The c o s t  breakdown f o r  the t o t a l  package  (12 segments i n s t a l l e d  p l u s  one s p a r e  segment in the 6 0 - d e g r e e  segment v e r s i o n  and 6 segments  i n s t a l l e d  p l u s  one s p a r e  segment in the  120 -deg ree  v e r s i o n )  i s  shown below.Note t h a t  the  c o s t  f i g u r e s  r e l a t e  to  aluminum s t r a p  c o n n e c t i o n s  o n l y .  R e l i a b l e  c o s t  f i g u r e s  f o r  the more com­p l i c a t e d  copper  s t r a p - b im e t a l  d e s i g n  a re  not a v a i l a b l e .The welded  jumper  c o n n e c t i o n s  a re  shown on D raw ing  1 7 9 - l D l .-  13 -120° SEGMENTS M a t e r i a l  C o s t  $ 2 1 ^ ,8 10M a t e r i a l  C o s t  C on t in g e n c y  15% ________ 32,221S u b t o t a l  247,031Labou r  Co s t  81 ,650Labour  Co s t  C on t in g e n c y  25% ______ 20 ,412S u b t o t a l  102,062E n g i n e e r i n g  S S u p e r v i s i o n :D e s i g n  & e n g i n e e r i n g  s p e c . , e t c .Shop S u p e r v i s i o nShop DrawingS u b t o t a lT o t a l  B e f o re  P r o f i t  P r o f i t  @ 15%TOTALOne S p a r e  S e g m e n t15,00010,0002,00027,000376 ,09356 ,41360° SEGMENTS $ 281 ,40042 ,210  323 ,610  125,500 31 ,375  156,87515,00010,0002,00027,000507 ,48576,122(6 SEGMENTS) 4 3 2 , 5 0 6  (12 SEGMENTS) 5 8 3 ,6 0758,051 41 ,607(7 SEGMENTS) , (13 SEGMENTS) ,C o s t  o f  T o t a l  Package  $ 4 9 0 ,5 57  $ 6 2 5 ,2 14Co s t  pe r  Pound $ 3 . 2 4 / lb . $ 4 . 17/ lb .-  lit -5 . 3 . 2  B o l t e d  Jumper C on ne c t i o n sB o l t e d  jumper c o n n e c t i o n s  a re  f e a s i b l e  and p r e f e r a b l e ,  s i n c e  they  o f f e r  a number o f  a d van ta ge s  o v e r  the welded one s :The hook -up  work can be g o i n g  on c o n c u r r e n t l y  in  a l l  p l a c e s  where c o n n e c t i o n s  have t o  be made. No heat  o r  d u s t  i s  p roduced .  L e s s  s k i l l e d  l a b o u r  can be employed. C onnec t i o n s  a re  e a s y  to  remove and/or  r e p l a c e .  No c u t t i n g  i s  r e q u i r e d  s h o u l d  a c o i l  segment have to  be r e p l a c ed .  They a re  u s a b l e  on both  aluminum and coppe r  c o i l s .E x p e r i e n c e  has shown t h a t  f l e x i b l e  c o n n e c t o r s  composed o f  t h i n  copper  s t r a p s  a re  more d u r a b l e  than c o n n e c t o r s  made from aluminum m a t e r i a l .  In the p r e l im i n a r y  d e s i g n  we have t h e r e f o r e  c o n s i d e r e d  o n l y  copper  c o n d u c t o r s .  When copper  s t r a p s  a re  used  to  j o i n  the aluminum c o ndu c to r  b a r s ,  s p e c i a l  p r e c a u t i o n s  have to  be taken  in o r d e r  to  a v o i d  c o r r o s i o n  at  the i n t e r f a c e .  Thu s ,  the aluminum b a r s  s h o u l d  be f re ed  from o x i d e  by the use  o f  a s p e c i a l  compound deve loped  f o r  t h i s  pu rpo se  and a w i r e  b r u sh .  The loo sened  o x i d e  s h o u ld  be wiped  o f f ,  l e a v i n g  a t h i n  coat  o f  compound on the aluminum s u r f a c e  to  p r o t e c t  i t  f rom f u r t h e r  o x i d a t i o n .  The copper  s t r a p s  s h o u ld  be e l e c t r o - t i n - p l a t e d  b e f o r e  they  a re  i n s t a l l e d .  A f t e r  i n s t a l l a t i o n  o f  the c o n n e c t o r s ,  a t h i n  coa t  o f  compound s h o u ld  be a p p l i e d  to  the  j o i n t  a l o n g  the edges  o f  the i n t e r f a c e  ( F i g u r e  7)•An o th e r  method used to  p re v en t  c o r r o s i o n  a t  the j o i n t  between the two d i s s i m i l a r  me ta l s  employs  a s e p a r a t e  i n t e r f a c e  p l a t e .  T h i s  p l a t e  s h o u ld  be an a lum inum -copper  sandw ich  formed by im pa c t - f o rm in g  t e chn ique  o r  by a f l a s h - w e l d i n g  method.In the  p r e l im i n a r y  c o i l  d e s i g n  we have e n v i s a g e d  the u se  o f  the f i r s t  method d e s c r i b e d  above.-  15 -The c o s t  breakdown f o r  the  t o t a l  package  (12 segments  i n s t a l l e d  p l u s  one s p a r e  segment in the  6 0 - d e g r e e  v e r s i o n  and 6 segments  i n s t a l l e d  p l u s  one s p a r e  segment in the 120 -deg ree  v e r s i o n  w i t h  b o l t e d  c o n n e c t i o n s )  i s  shown below.A l a y o u t  o f  the b o l t e d  c o n n e c t i o n s  i s  shown on Drawing  179” 1D2.120° SEGMENTS 60° SEGMENTSM a t e r i a l  C o s t  $ 2 2 0 ,5 30  $ 2 9 2 ,8 40M a t e r i a l  C o s t  C on t in g e n c y  15% ________ 3 3 ,079 4 3>926S u b t o t a l  2 5 3 , 6 09  336 ,766Labour  C o s t  7 7 , 85 6  117 ,912Labour  Co s t  C on t i n g e n c y  25% ______ 1 9 , 465 29 ,478S u b t o t a l  97 ,321  147,390E n g i n e e r i n g  & S u p e r v i s i o n :D e s i g n  & e n g i n e e r i n gs p e c . ,  e t c .  15 ,000  15 ,000Shop S u p e r v i s i o n  10 ,000  10 ,000Shop D raw ing  _______ 2 ,0 00________________ ______ 2 ,000S u b t o t a l  2 7 , 00 0  27 ,000T o ta l  B e fo re  P r o f i t  3 7 7 ,9 30  511 ,156P r o f i t  @ 15%  5 6 , 68 9  76 ,673TOTAL (6 SEGMENTS) 4 3 4 ,6 19  (12 SEGMENTS) 5 8 7 ,8 29One Spa re  Segment 5 8 , 35 6  41,921Co s t  o f  T o t a l  Package(7 SEGMENTS)$ 4 9 2 ,9 7 5  (13 SEGMENTS)$ 6 2 9 ,7 50Co s t  per  Pound $ 3 . 2 5 / lb .  $ 4 . 2 0 / l b .-  16 -5 . 3 * 3  C o o l i n g  Water C on ne c t i o n sI t  i s  i n tended  th a t  the wa te r  f i t t i n g s  s u i t a b l e  f o r  a t t a c h ­ment o f  i n s u l a t i n g  ho se s  be welded o n to  the c o ndu c to r  ba r s  ( see  F i g u r e s  A and 5 ) .  The s p a r e  segment,  wh ich  i s  to  be used  a s  a rep lacement  segment f o r  e i t h e r  a top o r  a bottom segment,  i s  to  be f u r n i s h e d  w i t h o u t  we lded -on  ho se  f i t t i n g s ,  a s  shown in  F i g u r e  6. Loose  f i t t i n g s  s h o u l d ,  however,  be i n c lu d ed  in  the d e l i v e r y  f o r  l a t e r  a t tachment  to  the c o n d u c t o r s .  In o r d e r  t o  f a c i l i t a t e  f l ow  r a t e  t e s t  o f  the s p a r e  segment,  temporary  th readed  f i t t i n g s  s h o u ld  be used.Water m a n i f o l d s  a re  to  be p r o v i d e d :  two a t  each s e c t o r  j u n c t i o n  a rea ,  one f o r  s u p p l y  wa te r  and one f o r  r e t u r n .  The m a n i f o l d s  s h o u ld  be made from aluminum t u b i n g  and a t t a ched  to  the  magnets .  A v e r t i c a l  d i s t a n c e  o f  a p p r o x im a t e l y  2 f t .  between the hose  f i t t i n g s  on the c o n d u c t o r s  and th o se  on the m a n i f o l d s  p r o v i d e s  a wa te r  column such  t h a t  t h e re  i s  no dange r  o f  d e s t r u c t i v e  e l e c t r o l y t i c  c o r r o s i o n  o f  the c o ndu c to r  m a t e r i a l .  I f  one would  want to  add w a t e r f l ow  sw i t c h e s  to  the wa te r  c i r c u i t s ,  they  c o u ld  most c o n v e n i e n t l y  be mounted to  the r e t u r n  m a n i f o l d s .  The hose  m a t e r i a l  s h o u ld  be a u re t h ane  e l a s t om e r ,  o r  s i m i l a r  m a t e r i a l  h a v i n g  a good r a d i a ­t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e  p r o p e r t y .5 . b F l a t  Bar  Copper C onduc to r  C o i l sA d e s i g n  s i m i l a r  to  the  " f l a t  ba r  aluminum c ondu c to r  c o i l s "  may be e n v i s a g e d ,  s u b s t i t u t i n g  copper  f o r  a luminum. S i n c e  copper  b a r s  o f  the  s i z e  r e q u i r e d  cannot  be e x t ruded  w i t h  h o l e s  f o r  c o o l a n t ,  i t  i s  p ropo sed  in t h i s  d e s i g n  to  use  copper  tubes  b ra zed  a l o n g  the edges  o f  the b a r s  f o r  p a s s a ge  o f  c o o l i n g  water .  F l a t  h o t - r o l l e d ,  s a n d b l a s t e d  and p i c k l e d  coppe r  ba r  16 .7  in ches  by .75 i n che s  by 31 f e e t  can be pu rcha sed  a t  $0 ,637  per  pound. Squa re  copper  t u b i n g  .75 in che s  by .75 i n che s  by .310 in ches  bore  c o s t s  $ 1 .15  per pound.-  17 -A copper  c o ndu c to r  w i t h  a t t a c he d  c o o l i n g  tubes  would  c o s t  about $ 0 . 73/pound.  The c o ndu c to r  i s  shown in F i g u r e  3-F i e l d  w e l d i n g  o r  b r a z i n g  o f  ETP coppe r  i s  no t r e a d i l y  done. One has a l s o  to  c o n s i d e r  the hydrogen  emb r i t t l em en t  ha za rd  a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h  t h e se  o p e r a t i o n s .  We have t h e r e f o r e  dec ided  t o  conce rn  o u r ­s e l v e s  w i t h  o n l y  the b o l t e d  jumper c o n n e c t i o n  method. F l a t  copper  b a r s  a re  a v a i l a b l e  in a maximum l e n g th  o f  42 f e e t .  T h e re ­f o r e ,  o n l y  6 0 -de g ree  segments  may be f a b r i c a t e d .  The c o s t  b r e a k ­down f o r  a package  c o n s i s t i n g  o f  12 segments  i n s t a l l e d  p l u s  one s p a r e  segment f o r  the  6 0 -de g ree  segment v e r s i o n  w i t h  b o l t e d  jumperc o n n e c t i o n s  would be as  f o l l o w s :60° S EGMENTSM a t e r i a l  Co s t  $ 540 ,100M a t e r i a l  Cos t  C on t in g en c y  15% 81 ,015S u b t o t a l  621 ,115Labour  Cos t  153,200Labour  Co s t  C on t in g e n c y  25% 38 ,000S u b t o t a l  191 ,500E n g i n e e r i n g  S S u p e r v i s i o n :D e s i g n  S e n g i n e e r i n g  s p e c . ,  e t c .  15 ,000Shop S u p e r v i s i o n  10 ,000Shop D raw ing  ______ 2 ,000S u b t o t a l  27 ,000T o ta l  B e fo re  P r o f i t  839 ,615P r o f i t  @ 15% 125,743TOTAL (12 SEGMENTS) 965 ,558One Spa re  Segment 72 ,425Co s t  o f  To ta l  Package  (13 SEGMENTS) $ 1 , 0 3 7 ,9 8 3Co s t  per Pound $2 .09-  18 -6. POWER SUPPLY COST STUDY TO ARR IVE  AT OPTIMUM CONDUCTOR CROSS-SECTION___________________________6.1 Genera lAs  the ampere t u r n s ,  i n s i d e  d i ame te r  and a v a i l a b l e  c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l  space  f o r  the  c o i l s  have been s p e c i f i e d ,  the rema in in g  c o n s i d e r a ­t i o n s  in s e l e c t i n g  the c o ndu c to r  c r o s s - s e c t i o n  a re :1. Space f a c t o r2. Power s u p p l y  v o l t a g e ,  c u r r e n t  and c o s t3. W ind i n g  c o s t s4. M echan i c a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n sThe v a r i a t i o n s  p o s s i b l e  w i t h i n  the  c o n d u c to r  a re  the  w id th  and t h i c k n e s s  o f  the b a r s .  The e f f e c t  o f  t h e se  v a r i a t i o n s  on the  space  f a c t o r  i s  s l i g h t .  I n c r e a s i n g  the  c o n d u c to r  c r o s s - s e c t i o n  w i l l  reduce  the w i n d i n g  c o s t  t h rou gh  r e d u c t i o n  in the number o f  t u r n s .The optimum p o i n t  i s  reached  when the combined c o s t  o f  the c o i l s  and the power s u p p l y  i s  minimum.A g raph  o f  the  power s u p p l y  c o s t  e x p r e s s e d  as  d o l l a r s  pe r  k i l o w a t t  v e r s u s  the o u tp u t  v o l t a g e  i s  shown in  F i g u r e  11. A l s o  shown i s  the r e q u i r e d  o u tp u t  v o l t a g e  as  a f u n c t i o n  o f  the number o f  t u r n s  per  c o i l .  F i g u r e  12 i l l u s t r a t e s  the  o u tp u t  power r e q u i r e d  f o r  d i f f e r e n t  numbers o f  c o i l  t u r n s .  The power v a r i a t i o n  i s  due e n t i r e l y  t o  the change in  space  f a c t o r .  The t h i c k n e s s  o f  the i n s u l a t i o n  between t u r n s ,  wh ich  in  t h i s  d e s i g n  i s  de te rm ined  by mechan ica l  requ i rement s  r a t h e r  than  e l e c t r i c a l ,  has been kept  c o n s t a n t  a t  1/16 inch .F i n a l l y ,  F i g u r e  13 shows the o v e r a l l  c o s t  o f  the power s u p p l y  and the  c o i l s  a s  a f u n c t i o n  o f  the number o f  t u r n s .  The c u r v e s  a re  r e l a t i v e l y  f l a t  near  the optimum p o i n t ,  and a d e v i a t i o n  by a few t u r n s  toward  e i t h e r  s i d e  o f  the optimum has n e g l i g i b l e  e f f e c t  on the  t o t a l  c o s t .V a r i a b l e s  shown on the g r a p h s ,  such  as  v o l t a g e ,  power and c o s t ,  i n ­c l u d e  v o l t a g e  d rop ,  power l o s s e s  and c o s t  a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h  the  bus ba r  s y s t em  needed f o r  the c o n n e c t i o n s  between the  c o i l s  and the  power s u p p l y .The e s t im a t e d  c o s t  o f  the c o i l s  has been based  on c o ndu c to r  ba r m a t e r i a l s  o f  . 7 5 0 - inch  t h i c k n e s s .  I t  i s  e xpec ted ,  however,-  19 -th a t  a v a r i a t i o n  o f  the  ba r  t h i c k n e s s  w i l l  no t  a l t e r  the  c o s t  per  pound o f  the  m a t e r i a l .M echan i c a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  o t h e r  than  w i n d i n g  c o s t  f a v o u r  l a r g e  c o n d u c t o r s .  I t  i s  d e s i r a b l e  from the  s t a n d p o i n t  o f  s t r e n g t h  and s t i f f n e s s  t o  use  c o n d u c t o r s  o f  the f u l l  h e i g h t  o f  the  c o i l .  I t  i s  a l s o  d e s i r a b l e  t h a t  the  wa te r  p a s s a g e s  be l a r g e  and t h a t  th e r e  be p l e n t y  o f  w a l l  t h i c k n e s s  o v e r  the  wa te r  p a s s a g e s .From t h e se  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  the minimum c o ndu c to r  c r o s s - s e c t i o n  d e s i r e d  i s  18 .3  by .75 i n c he s .The c o s t  o f  AC s e r v i c e  to  the power s u p p l y ,  and t h a t  o f  the c o o l i n g  s y s tem  f o r  the  c o i l s ,  i s  a f u n c t i o n  o f  the  c o i l  power. However,  because  the c o i l  power i s  s o  s l i g h t l y  a f f e c t e d  by the c o ndu c to r  c r o s s - s e c t i o n  in the range o f  p o s s i b l e  v a r i a t i o n ,  and because  th e se  sy s tem s  depend on many o t h e r  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  such  as  the  number o f  c o n n e c t i o n  p o i n t s ,  the  t o t a l  s i t e  load  and the number o f  heat  e x c h an ge r s  and t r a n s f o rm e r s  used ,  i t  i s  no t c o n s i d e r e d  r e a l i s t i c  to  i n c l u d e  t h e se  c o s t s  as  d e t e rm in i n g  f a c t o r s  in s e l e c t i n g  the  c o ndu c to r  s i z e .6 . 2  Power S upp l yPower s u p p l i e s  f o r  c y c l o t r o n  use  emp lo y i n g  s i l i c o n - c o n t r o l l e d  r e c t i f i e r s  have been b u i l t  w i t h  r a t i n g s  o f  2 5 0 -3 00  kW and r e g u l a t i o n  o f  s l i g h t l y  b e t t e r  than 5 x 10- 5 . A few power s u p p l y  d e s i g n e r s  b e l i e v e  t h a t  1 x  10 ^ r e g u l a t i o n  can be a c h ie v ed  w i t h  an SCR s y s tem  o n l y ,  but the  m a j o r i t y  o f  power s u p p l y  b u i l d e r s  wou ld  u se  r e c t i f i e r s  in comb in a t i o n  w i t h  t r a n ­s i s t o r  r e g u l a t o r s .T r a n s i s t o r s  a r e  under  c o n t i n u i n g  deve lopment ,  and today  s i n g l e  u n i t s  c a p ab le  o f  h a n d l i n g  as  much as  350 amperes each a re  a v a i l a b l e  on the  market .We have r e c e i v e d  two p r e l im i n a r y  c o s t  e s t im a t e s  f o r  s o l i d  s t a t e  power s u p p l i e s  w i t h  a r a t i n g  o f  16 ,000  amperes,  2 megawatts .  Both v en do r s  i n d i c a t e  a p r i c e  o f  $ 2 00 ,000 .-  20 -The c o s t  o f  a power s u p p l y  i s  dependent both on the  ou tpu t  power and the  o u tp u t  c u r r e n t  (o r  v o l t a g e ) .  We have not been a b l e  to  o b t a i n  enough c o s t  da ta  on power s u p p l i e s  o f  the s i z e  r e q u i r e d  by the TRIUMF c o i l s  t o  e n ab le  us  to  e s t a b l i s h  an a c c u r a t e  r e l a t i o n s h i p  between c o s t  pe r  kW and o u tp u t  r a t i n g s  o f  the s u p p l y .  The c u r v e s  in  F i g u r e  11 have been d e r i v e d  by the u se  o f  s i m i l a r  c u r v e s  f o r  sm a l l e r  s u p p l i e s ,  200 kW and o u tp u t  v o l t a g e s  from 3 t o  120 v o l t s ,  a f t e r  a p p l i c a t i o n  o f  c e r t a i n  s c a l e  f a c t o r s .I t  i s  r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t  t h i s  method g i v e s  o n l y  a pp rox imate  v a l u e s  o f  the pa ramete rs  s ou gh t  and t h a t  the o n l y  way to  improve the a c c u r a c y  would be to  r e que s t  f i rm  b i d s .I t  wou ld  th u s  be a d v i s a b l e  to  p rep a re  the  f i n a l  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  f o r  the power s u p p l y  and r e que s t  b i d s  b e f o r e  f i n a l i z i n g  the c o i l  d e s i g n .  The s p e c i f i c a t i o n  s h o u l d  be w r i t t e n  to  c o ve r  s u p p l i e s  w i t h  a t  l e a s t  t h ree  d i f f e r e n t  o u tpu t  c u r r e n t s :  namely,  3 6 , 0 0 0 ,  2 6 , 00 0  and 20 , 00 0  amperes,  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  to  about 10,14 and 18 c o i l  t u r n s .  I t  i s  b e l i e v e d  th a t  the o v e r a l l  c o n s t r u c ­t i o n  s c h e d u le  would pe rm i t  b i d d i n g  o f  the  power s u p p l y  b e fo re  f i n a l i z i n g  the  c o i l  d e s i g n .-  21 -7. PREL IM INARY DESIGN OF CO ILSThe o b j e c t i v e  o f  the  s t u d y  i s  to  o p t im i z e  the c o s t  o f  c o i l s  and power s u p p l y .  As  can be seen  from the t a b u l a t i o n s  in S e c t i o n s  5 - 3 . 1 ,  5 . 3 . 2  and 5 . 4 ,  the 120 -deg ree  segment aluminum c o i l  d e s i g n  r e s u l t s  in the  lowes t  c a p i t a l  i n ve s tment .  The optimum p o i n t  o c c u r s  a t  14 c o i l  t u r n s  ( see  F i g u r e  13).S i n c e ,  however ,  the 120 -deg ree  segments  a re  l e s s  s u i t a b l e  from f i e l d  ha rmon ic  p o i n t  o f  v iew ,  a re  more d i f f i c u l t  t o  h and le ,  and r e q u i r e  more c omp l i c a t e d  mount in g  ha rdware  to  a l l o w  i n d i v i d u a l  h e i g h t  a d ju s tm en t s  o f  the s e c t o r  magnets ,  we have e l e c t e d  to  ba se  o u r  p r e l im i n a r y  d e s i g n  on the 6 0 - d e g r e e  segment aluminum c o i l  a l t e r n a t i v e  w i t h  b o l t e d  jumper  c o n n e c t i o n s .A c r o s s - s e c t i o n  th rough  the c o i l  o f  the d e s i g n  i s  shown on D raw ing  179~1E4 and a t y p i c a l  c o i l  segment in  F i g u r e  4. The jumper c o n n e c t i o n  a rea  i s  shown on D raw in g s  179-1D2  and 179- 1C 3 -The p r e l im i n a r y  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  wh ich  f o l l o w s  ( S e c t i o n  14) has been p repa red  in d r a f t  form. I t  i s  i n tended  to  c o ve r  the  i tems r e q u i r ­ing  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  but not n e c e s s a r i l y  in  the  f i n a l  form.No s p e c i a l  f i x t u r e s  f o r  i n s t a l l a t i o n  o f  the  c o i l s  on the magnet have  been d e s i g n e d  s i n c e  the  c o i l  segments  a re  e a s i l y  hand led  by the c rane  u s i n g  n y l o n  s l i n g s  f o r  h o i s t i n g .-  22 -8. WINDING F IXTURES ,  L I FT ING  F IXTURES,  WINDING AND ASSEMBLY PROCEDURES__________________________The p ropo sed  c o i l  d e s i g n  r e q u i r e s  v e r y  l i t t l e  in the  way o f  w i n d i n g  f i x t u r e s  and no s p e c i a l  l i f t i n g  f i x t u r e s .  A p ropo sed  method as  an a l t e r n a t i v e  to  r o l l i n g  the c o n d u c to r  b a r s  f o r  o b t a i n i n g  the  cu rved  shape  i s  shown in  F i g u r e  9. A method o f  a s s em b l i n g  the c o i l  h o u s i n g  and s t a c k i n g  o f  the  c o ndu c to r  b a r s  and i n s u l a t i o n  i s  shown in F i g u r e  8.  The imp regna t io n  o f  the  w i n d i n g  i s  in tended  t o  be done under  vacuum, and F i g u r e  8 a l s o  shows the e n v i s a g e d  methods o f  s e a l i n g  the  c o i l  h o u s i n g .  Fo r  f u r t h e r  i n f o rm a t i o n  on the  f a b r i c a t i o n  p r o c e d u r e s ,  r e f e r  t o  the c o i l  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  in S e c t i o n  1^.The u se  o f  an i n s p e c t i o n  gauge f o r  v e r i f i c a t i o n  o f  comp l i an ce  w i t h  the  s p e c i f i e d  d im en s i o n s  and t o l e r a n c e s  i s  recommended. A s u i t a b l e  gauge  i s  shown in  F i g u r e  10.9. S PEC IF ICAT ION  FOR REQUIRED TEST PROCEDURESThe t e s t  p r o c edu re s  have been o u t l i n e d  in S e c t  ion 14 , "D r a f t  S p e c i f i c a t  ion f o r  Ma in  C o i l s  f o r  the TRIUMF C y c l o t r o n " .One European  c o i l  m anu fa c tu re r  h i g h  p o t e n t i a l  t e s t s  a l l  c o i l s  s u b ­merged in wa te r .  T h i s  i s  p r o b a b l y  a good a s s u r a n c e  a g a i n s t  d e f e c t i v e  " a s  f a b r i c a t e d "  i n s u l a t i o n .  However,  a r e d u c t i o n  in i n s u l a t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e  when a c o i l  i s  soaked  in wa te r  does  not n e c e s s a r i l y  mean th a t  the c o i l  i s  u n s u i t a b l e  f o r  the in tended  s e r v i c e .  An o th e r  f a c t  t h a t  s h o u l d  be bo rne  in mind i s  t h a t  a c o i l  wh ich  has not been exposed  to  any  thermal  c y c l i n g  i s  no t v e r y  l i k e l y  to  have c r a c k s  in the  i n s u l a t i o n  where wa te r  can p e n e t r a t e  and d e t e r i o r a t e  the r e s i s t a n c e .  In  o r d e r  f o r  the wa te r  to  have some e f f e c t  on the i n s u l a ­t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e ,  i t  has to  have a c e r t a i n  c o n d u c t i v i t y ,  i . e .  be con tam ina ted .  S h ou ld  t h i s  wa te r  ge t  i n t o  a weak s p o t  and e v e n t u a l l y  e v a p o r a t e ,  i t  wou ld  leave  some unwanted c o n t am in a t i o n  in t h i s  a r e a ,  wh ich  m igh t  cau se  t r o u b l e  a t  a l a t e r  da te .In the  c a se  o f  the TRIUMF c o i l  t e s t  under  wa te r  i s  t h e r e f o r e  not recommended. The d e s i g n  o f  the  c o i l  h o u s i n g  i s  such  t h a t  i t  p r o t e c t s  the  c o i l  f rom a c c i d e n t a l  w a te r  s p r a y s .  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  c o i l s  a re  so  e x p e n s i v e  t h a t  no u n n e c e s s a r y  and r i s k y  t e s t s  s h o u l d  be contemp la ted .-  23 -10. T IME SCHEDULEI t  i s  in tended  th a t  the c o i l  segments  be manu fac tu red  by a r e p u t a b l e  c o i l  m anu fa c tu re r  and in  h i s  p l a n t .  The t ime  s c h e du le  t h u s  becomes l e s s  c r i t i c a l  than  i f  the  c o i l s  were to  be wound at  the s i t e ,  s i n c e  no c om pe t i t i o n  f o r  the u se  o f  any s i g n i f i c a n t  s i t e  f l o o r  a rea  o r  c rane  i s  i n t r o d u ce d  by the c o i l  work  b e f o re  the  t ime o f  c o i l  i n s t a l l a t i o n .A p r e l im i n a r y  f a b r i c a t i o n  s c h e d u le  has been d e s i g n e d  and appea r s  in  F i g u r e  15.-  24 -O P E R A T I N G  CO STThe c o s t  o f  o p e r a t i n g  the  power s u p p l y ,  c o o l i n g  equ ipment and the c y c l o t r o n  c o i l s  has been e s t im a te d  on a b a s i s  o f  6 5 , 0 0 0  ho u r s  o f  o p e r a t i o n  o v e r  a p e r i o d  o f  t ime o f  10 y e a r s ,  c o r r e s p o n d i n g  t o  a u t i l i z a t i o n  f a c t o r  o f  75%. An ene r g y  c o s t  r a te  o f  .8c per  k i l o w a t t -  hou r  has been used .  The o p e r a t i n g  c o s t  as  a f u n c t i o n  o f  number o f  c o i l  t u r n s  i s  p r e s en ted  in F i g u r e  14.The c o s t  o f  o p e r a t i n g  the  aluminum c o i l s  o v e r  the  1 0 - y e a r  p e r i o d  i s  a p p r o x im a t e l y  $ 5 40 ,000  h i g h e r  than the  c o s t  o f  o p e r a t i n g  the copper  c o i I s .I f  t h i s  c o s t  d i f f e r e n c e  i s  c o n ve r t ed  i n t o  p r e s e n t  v a l u e  u s i n g  an i n t e r e s t  r a t e  o f  6%, the d i f f e r e n c e  reduces  to  about $ 4 04 ,000 ,  wh ich  r e p r e s e n t s  a net i n c r e a s e  o f  a p p r o x im a t e l y  $ 4 4 ,0 00  a f t e r  the c a p i t a l  c o s t  s a v i n g  g a in ed  by the use  o f  a luminum c o i l s  ha s  been a p p l i  e d .S i n c e  the u t i l i z a t i o n  f a c t o r  w i l l  u n doub ted l y  be lower  than the assumed 75% immed ia te ly  a f t e r  d e l i v e r y  and e r e c t i o n  o f  the c o i l s ,  i t  seems r e a s o n a b le  t o  assume th a t  the t o t a l  o f  c a p i t a l  in ve s tment  and o p e r a t i n g  c o s t s  w i l l  amount to  a p p r o x im a t e l y  the  same f i g u r e  f o r  bo th  aluminum and coppe r  c o i l s  o v e r  the  f i r s t  1 0 - y e a r  p e r i o d .-  25 -12. COOLING WATER AND COOLING SYSTEMThe d em in e r a l i z e d  wa te r  s h o u ld  have a c o n d u c t i v i t y  o f  5 micromhos maximum. W i th  t h i s  c o n d u c t i v i t y  and a w a te r  column o f  1 -1/2  to 2 f e e t  and a d i amete r  o f  1/2 inch  between c u r r e n t - c a r r y i n g  c o ndu c to r  and g round ,  the e l e c t r o l y t i c  c o r r o s i o n  e f f e c t  on the a luminum m a t e r i a l  in the wate r  c i r c u i t  w i l l  be n e g l i g i b l e .A l t h o u g h  some i n s t a l l a t i o n s  have s u c c e s s f u l l y  used  a common c o o l i n g  s y s tem  f o r  c o o l i n g  l o a d s ,  c o n t a i n i n g  bo th  aluminum and coppe r ,  we would  recommend th a t  the TRIUMF c o i l s  be co o le d  by a s y s tem  composed e n t i r e l y  o f  a luminum o r  s t a i n l e s s  s t e e l  and i s o l a t e d  from o t h e r  l o a d s .  T h i s ,  we b e l i e v e ,  i s  j u s t i f i a b l e ,  due to  the importance  o f  the c o i l s ,  the s i z e  o f  the c o o l i n g  s y s tem  r e q u i r e d  and the d e s i r a b i l i t y  o f  independence  from o t h e r  wa te r  u s e r s  who may not be under  the s u r v e i l l a n c e  o f  the mach ine -  o p e r a t i n g  g roup .-  26 -13. RECOMMENDATIONS C o i l  C onduc to rI t  i s  recommended th a t  f l a t  ba r  aluminum c o ndu c to r  be used  in the TRIUMF main magnet c o i l s  and t h a t  the c o i l s  be made in s i x  6 0 - d e g r e e  segments  each.I t  i s  a l s o  recommended th a t  the  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  f o r  the power s u p p l y  be p repared  and b i d s  o b t a i n e d  b e f o r e  the c o ndu c to r  c r o s s - s e c t i o n  i s  dec ided .I n s u l a t i o nI t  i s  f u r t h e r  recommended th a t  two t h i c k n e s s e s  o f  p r e f a b r i c a t e d  L - s haped  i n s u l a t i n g  s h e e t s ,  1 / 3 2 - i n c h  t h i c k  each,  be used between c o i l  t u r n s .  These  s h e e t s  s h o u l d  c o n s i s t  o f  a medium o r  open weave g l a s s  c l o t h  type  " E "  impregnated  w i t h  a l u m i n a - f i l l e d  epoxy .The c o i l  c o ndu c to r  b a r s  and the s hee t  i n s u l a t i o n  s h o u ld  upon a s semb ly  i n t o  the c o i l  h o u s i n g  be " p o t t e d "  w i t h  f i l l e d  epoxy under  vacuum so  a s  to  form an i n t e g r a l  c o i l  segment.Spa re  SegmentIn a d d i t i o n  to  the 12 c o i l  segments  r e q u i r e d  in o r d e r  to  make up two comple te  c o i l  a s s em b l i e s ,  i t  i s  recommended th a t  one s p a r e  segment be p ro cu red .Connect  i onsB o l t e d ,  f l e x i b l e  copper  s t r a p  c o n n e c t i o n s  s h o u ld  be used in i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g  the c o i l  s egment s .  F l e x i b l e  c o n n e c t i o n s  s h o u ld  a l s o  be used  between upper and lower  c o i l s  and upper c o i l  and power s u p p l y  lead.  These  c o n n e c t i o n s  s h o u l d  pe rm it  e l e v a t i o n  o f  the magnet top h a l v e s  by t h re e  f e e t  w i t h o u t  any p r i o r  d i s ­c o n n e c t i n g  work  b e i n g  done.* -  27 -T e s t  i ngThe t e s t  program f o r  a f i n i s h e d  c o i l  segment i s  recommended t o  i n c l u d e  h i g h  p o t e n t i a l  t e s t ,  w a te r  f l ow  t e s t  and h y d r o ­s t a t i c  p r e s s u r e  t e s t s .  The h i g h  p o t e n t i a l  t e s t  performed w i t h  the  c o i l  segment submerged in  w a te r  i s  no t recommended.C o o l i n g  Sys temA s e p a r a t e  c o o l i n g  s y s tem  made s u b s t a n t i a l l y  from aluminum o r  s t a i n l e s s  s t e e l  s h o u l d  be employed f o r  the  magnet c o i l s .  The c o n d u c t i v i t y  o f  the  wa te r  s h o u l d  be 5 micromhos o r  l e s s .Bus B a r sW a te r - c o o l e d  bus b a r s  s e r v i n g  as  c o n n e c t i n g  le ad s  between power s u p p l y  and c o i l s  s h o u ld  be made from the same c ondu c to r  m a t e r i a l  a s  the c o i l s .  T e s t  b a r s  f rom the e x t r u s i o n  t r i a l  run s  s h o u l d  be c o n s i d e r e d  f o r  t h i s  p u rpo se ,  s i n c e  d im en s i o n a l  r e qu i r emen t s  a re  o f  m ino r  importance  in t h i s  a p p l i c a t i o n .-  28 -14. DRAFT SPEC IF ICAT ION  FOR MAIN MAGNET CO IL S  FOR THETRIUMF CYCLOTRON__________________________________________A. Genera l  P a r a g r a p h sA l .  Genera l  I n t e n t i o n . I t  i s  the d e c l a r e d  and acknow ledged  i n t e n ­t i o n  and meaning  to  p r o v i d e  and s e c u r e  p u r c h a se  o f  the Main Magnet C o i l s  f o r  the 500 MeV n e g a t i v e  hyd rogen  ion c y c l o t r o n  wh ich  i s  under c o n s t r u c t i o n  a t  the U n i v e r s i t y  o f  B r i t i s h  Co lumb ia ,  Van cou ve r ,  B .C . ,  Canada. The c o i l s  s h a l l  be comple te  and ready  f o r  i n s t a l l a t i o n  on the c y c l o t r o n .  U n c r a t i n g ,  e r e c t i o n  and t e s t i n g  a f t e r  i n s t a l l a t i o n  w i l l  be done by and at  the expense  o f  the Customer.A2. Genera l  D e s c r i p t i o n . The c y c l o t r o n  c o n s i s t s  o f  s i x  p i e - s h a p e d  magnet c o r e s  a r ra n g ed  in  a c i r c l e .  The c o r e s  a re  t o  be e x c i t e d  c o l l e c t i v e l y  by two e x c i t a t i o n  c o i l s  wh ich  a re  about 57 -1/ 2  fee t  in  o u t e r  d i ame te r  and w i t h  a c r o s s - s e c t i o n  o f  about 20 by 20 i n c h e s .  The c o i l s  a re  p o s i t i o n e d  s ymm e t r i c a l l y  about the h o r i z o n t a l  p l a ne  o f  the  magnet gap. Each c o i l  i s  to  be f a b r i ­ca ted  in  6 segments  wh ich  a f t e r  i n s t a l l a t i o n  on the magnets  w i l l  be connec ted  t o g e t h e r  s o  as  to  form a comple te  c i r c u l a r  c o i l .A3. De1 i v e r y . The two s e t s  o f  c o i l  segments  (12 segments  + 1 sp a re )  s h a l l  be d e l i v e r e d ,  packed, o f f - l o a d e d ,  ready  to  be unpacked and i n s t a l l e d  a t  the TRIUMF P r o j e c t  F a c i l i t y ,  U n i v e r s i t y  o f  B r i t i s h  Co lumb ia ,  V an cou ve r ,  B .C . ,  Canada.  A l l  p i e c e s  s h a l l  be d e l i v e r e d  a t  one t ime.A4. Time f o r  C om p le t i o n . The equipment  s h a l l  be d e l i v e r e d  w i t h i n  280 c a l e n d a r  days  a f t e r  da te  o f  r e c e i p t  o f  n o t i c e  o f  award o r  any o t h e r  commun icat ion  a u t h o r i z i n g  the  C o n t r a c t o r  to  proceed .A5. Damage f o r  De la y .-  29 -A6. D raw in g s  Accompany ing  S p e c i f i c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g  d r aw in g s  accompany t h i s  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  and a re  a p a r t  t h e r e o f .  D raw ing s  a re  the  p r o p e r t y  o f  the  Customer  and s h a l l  no t be used f o r  any pu rpo se  o t h e r  than th a t  con temp la ted  by the s p e c i f i c a t i o n .S e t s  o f  d r aw in g s  o f  the s i z e  i s s u e d  t o  p r o s p e c t i v e  b i d d e r s ,  l im i t e d  in q u a n t i t y  to  the number o f  s e t s  a v a i l a b l e  and s u r p l u s  t o  the  needs o f  the  Customer,  w i l l  be made a v a i l a b l e  to  the C o n t r a c t o r  ( s u c c e s s f u l  b i d d e r )  a t  no c o s t .  At  the  reque s t  o f  the C o n t r a c t o r  ( s u c c e s s f u l  b i d d e r )  t h e r e  w i l l  be p r o v i d e d  f r e e  o f  c o s t  an approved  number, not in  e x c e s s  o f  15, o f  s e t s  o f  f u l l - s i z e  d r aw in g s .  A d d i t i o n a l  s e t s  r e q u i r e d  by the  C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l l  be o b t a i n e d  a t  i t s  expense .A7. D raw in g s  and I n f o rm a t i o n  Requ i red  o f  the C o n t r a c t o r . B e fo re  s t a r t i n g  w i t h  f a b r i c a t i o n  o f  any o f  t h i s  work ,  the C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l l  subm it  f o r  and r e c e i v e  app ro va l  o f  such  d r aw in g s  as  may be requ i r e d .I f  d r aw in g s  o r  p r o c e du re s  a re  a pp roved ,  one s e t  o f  c o p i e s  w i l l  be r e t u rned  to  the C o n t r a c t o r  marked app roved .  I f  changes  o r  c o r r e c t i o n s  a re  n e c e s s a r y ,  one s e t  w i l l  be r e t u r n ed  to  the C o n t r a c t o r  w i t h  such  changes  o r  c o r r e c t i o n s  no ted ,  and the C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l l  r e subm it  p r i n t s  o f  the  c o r r e c t e d  o r  changed d r aw in g s  in d u p l i c a t e .  I t  i s  u n de r s t o od  t h a t  the  app ro va l  by the  Customer  o f  the C o n t r a c t o r ' s  d r aw in g s ,  whethe r  g ene ra l  o r  d e t a i l e d ,  i s  a g ene ra l  app ro va l  r e l a t i n g  o n l y  t o  t h e i r  s u f f i c i e n c y  and comp l i an ce  w i t h  the  i n t e n t i o n  o f  the  c o n t r a c t  and s h a l l  not e x cu se  o r  c o n s t i t u t e  a w a i v e r  o f  e r r o r s ,  d i s c r e p a n c i e s  o r  o m i s s i o n s ,  o r  o f  d e t a i l e d  r e q u i r em en t s .  When a d raw ing  has been app roved ,  the  C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l l  f u r n i s h  the Customer w i t h  f o u r  a d d i t i o n a l  p r i n t s  o r  w i t h  the  t r a c i n g  o r  a r e p r o d u c i b l e  p r i n t .I f  a t r a c i n g  i s  s u bm i t t e d ,  the  Customer w i l l  make such  p r i n t s  as a re  r e q u i r e d  and w i l l  r e t u r n  the t r a c i n g  to  the C o n t r a c t o r .  A l l  d r aw in g s  s h a l l  become the p r o p e r t y  o f  the  Customer,  and the Customer  s h a l l  be e n t i t l e d ,  w i t h o u t  f u r t h e r  payment o r  l i a b i l i t y  to  the C o n t r a c t o r  and w i t h o u t  f u r t h e r  p e rm i s s i o n ,  to  use  suchd raw in g s  and to  rep roduce  them f o r  any p u rpo se ;  p r o v i d e d ,  however ,  the  u se  o f  such  d r aw ing s  s h a l l  no t imply  a l i c e n c e  to  the  Customer under  any pa ten t  o r  s h a l l  no t  be c o n s t r u ed  as a f f e c t i n g  the scope  o f  any l i c e n c e  o t h e rw i s e  g r a n t e d  to  the Customer under  any p a ten t .  Upon c omp le t i o n  o f  the  work,  the C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l l  f u r n i s h  the  Customer  w i t h  two comple te  s e t s  o f  " a s - f a b r i c a t e d " ,  r e p r o d u c i b l e  p r i n t s ,  each p r i n t  to  be marked " a s  f a b r i c a t e d " .  (A p e r i o d  o f  twen ty -one  c a l e n d a r  days  from date  o f  r e c e i p t  by the Customer  to  da te  o f  app ro va l  s h a l l  be a l l owed  f o r  a l l  s u b m i t t a l s ,  o r  r e s u b m i t t a l s ,  o f  shop  d raw in g s .  When magn i tude  o r  c om p le x i t y  o f  s u bm i t t a l  m a t e r i a l  p r e c l u d e s  p r o c e s s i n g  in e n t i r e t y  w i t h i n  the p e r i o d ,  in c rementa l  p r o c e s s ­in g  w i l l  be u t i l i z e d  to  e x t e n t  p o s s i b l e  to  a v o i d  ex tended d e l a y s .)The f o l l o w i n g  d r aw in g s  and i n f o rm a t i o n  a re  r e q u i r e d :a. Epoxy f o rm u l a t i o nb. Shop d r aw ing s  f o r  j i g s ,  f i x t u r e s ,  f a b r i c a t e d  p a r t s  f o r  c o i l s ,  and i n s p e c t i o n  gaugesA8. Time S chedu le  and P r o g r e s s  R e p o r t s . The C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l la n a l y z e  the  e n t i r e  work  and p r o j e c t  the  t im i n g  and r equ i rement s  f o r  d e s i g n  arid e n g i n e e r i n g ,  p rocu rement ,  f a b r i c a t i o n  and t e s t ­ing  o f  a l l  work  as  r e q u i r e d  by t h i s  s p e c i f i c a t i o n .  The a n a l y s i s  s h a l l  r e s u l t  in comp le t i o n  o f  the  work  and d e l i v e r y  in the r e q u i r e d  number o f  c a l e n d a r  days  f o r  each item o f  the s p e c i f i c a ­t i o n .  The a n a l y s i s  s h a l l  be p r e s en ted  to  the Customer f o r  app ro va l  w i t h i n  30 days  from the da te  o f  a u t h o r i z a t i o n  to  proceed  w i t h  the work  con temp la ted .  P r o g r e s s  r e p o r t s  s h a l l  be s ubm i t ted  in q u a d r u p l i c a t e  by the C o n t r a c t o r  a t  two-week i n t e r v a l s  s t a r t i n g  one week from the  da te  o f  the c o n t r a c t .  The p r o g r e s s  r e p o r t s  s h a l l  i n c l u d e  s t a r t i n g  and c omp le t i o n  da te s  f o r  m a t e r i a l  p rocurement p l u s  each phase  o f  the  f a b r i c a t i o n  and t e s t  t h r ou gh  sh ipmen t .  Each r e p o r t  s h a l l  c o n t a i n  i n f o rm a t i o n  on each  a c t i v i t y  in p r o g r e s s  a c c o r d i n g  to  the s c h e du le .  P r o g r e s s-  30 --  31 -r e p o r t s  s h a l l  c o n t i n u e  u n t i l  a l l  equ ipment i s  a ccep ted  a t  the s i t e  o f  the  i n s t a l l a t i o n .A9. F a c t o r y  I n s p e c t i o n . F a c t o r y  i n s p e c t i o n  s h a l l  a p p l y  to  a l lcomponents  o f  t h i s  s p e c i f i c a t i o n .  S ou rc e  i n s p e c t i o n  s h a l l  a p p l y  t o  the  aluminum c o ndu c to r .A10. O p t i o n s . Where a c h o i c e  o f  m a t e r i a l s  and/o r  methods i sp e rm i t ted  h e r e i n ,  the C o n t r a c t o r  w i l l  be g i v e n  the  r i g h t  toe x e r c i s e  the  o p t i o n  u n l e s s  s p e c i f i c a l l y  s t a t e d  o t h e rw i s e .A l l .  F i n a l  A c c e p t a n c e . F i n a l  a c cep t an ce  w i l l  be made by the  Customer a t  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  s i t e  o n l y  a f t e r  d em on s t r a t i o n  t h a t  the  Main Magnet  C o i l s  and a s s o c i a t e d  p a r t s  meet the r e qu i remen t s  o f  t h i s  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  and the d e s i g n  d r aw in g s .A12. Competence o f  B i d d e r s . B i d s  w i l l  be c o n s i d e r e d  o n l y  fromb i d d e r s  who, in  the judgment o f  the Cus tomer,  have the f i n a n c e s ,  o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  s k i l l e d  p e r s o n n e l ,  and equ ipment n e c e s s a r y  to  comple te  the  work  s u c c e s s f u l l y .B. D e t a i l e d  Requ i rements  f o r  the  Main Magnet  C o i l sB 1 . Genera l  R e q u i r em e n t s . T h i s  s e c t i o n  o f  the  s p e c i f i c a t i o n  embod iesthe  d e t a i l e d  r e qu i remen t s  f o r  the Ma in  Magnet C o i l s  and a s s o c i a t e d  p a r t s  to  be s u p p l i e d  f o r  the TRIUMF c y c l o t r o n  as1 i s  ted below:P a r t  Q u a n t i t yC o i l  Segment (Bottom) F i g u r e  4 6C o i l  Segment (Top) F i g u r e  5 6C o i l  Segment ( Spa re )  F i g u r e  6 1F l e x i b l e  Connec to r  F i g u r e  7 1048B2. C o n t r a c t o r ' s  A d d i t i o n s . L i f t i n g  l u g s ,  b r a c e s ,  h o l e s  and name­p l a t e s ,  o r  o t h e r  temporary  o r  permanent a d d i t i o n s  not shown on the  d e s i g n  d r aw in g s  o r  approved  shop d r aw in g s ,  s h a l l  not be a t t a c h e d  t o  any p i e c e  w i t h o u t  p r i o r  w r i t t e n  app ro va l  by the Cus tomer .No r e p a i r  work  o f  any  k i n d  s h a l l  be per fo rmed  w i t h o u t  a pp ro va l  by the Cus tomer.-  32 -B3. M a t e r i a l sB3.1 Aluminum used as  a c o ndu c to r  m a t e r i a l  s h a l l  have aminimum c o n d u c t i v i t y  o f  61 pe r  cen t  IACS and s o f t  temper. Mach ined  p a r t s  such  as  the wa te r  c o n n e c t i o n  may be o f  the same m a te r i a l  as  t h a t  o f  the  c o n d u c t o r ,  o r  o f  a d i f f e r e n t  a l l o y  in h a rde r  temper p r o v i d e d  i t  i s  c ompa t i b le  w i t h  the c o n d u c to r  m a t e r i a l .The aluminum c o i l  h o u s i n g  s h a l l  be made from a ha rd  temper a l l o y  such  as  6 0 61 -T6 ,  o r  e q u i v a l e n t .B3 .2  G l a s s  C l o t h  s h a l l  be medium o r  open weave type  E, heat c l e aned  and c h em i c a l l y  t r e a te d .B3.3  Epoxy s h a l l  be o f  t h e rm o s e t t i n g  type  w i t h  a lum ina  f i l l e r  m a t e r i a l .  The epoxy  r e s i n ,  the ha rdene r  and the  a lum ina  g r a i n  s i z e  s h a l l  be s o  s e l e c t e d  as  t o  g i v e  maximum r a d i a t i o n  r e s i s t a n c e ,  c o n s i s t e n t  w i t h  a s u i t a b l e  c o e f f i c i e n t  o f  thermal  e x p a n s i o n  and a good p o u r a b i l i t y .  A r a l d i t e  F, r e s i n  h a rdene r  X 8 157/131 and an a lum ina  g r a i n  s i z e  o f  2 0 - 3 0  m i c ron s  a r e  a c c e p t a b l e .B4. F a b r i c a t i o n1 1 ■ 1    \B4.1 G e n e r a l . A l l  f a b r i c a t i o n  work s h a l l  be perfo rmed in s t r i c t  a c co rd an ce  w i t h  the d e s i g n  o r  Cu s tome r -app roved  shop d r aw in g s  and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .  U n l e s s  o t h e rw i s e  i n d i c a t e d ,  workmansh ip  s h a l l  con form to  the  b e s t  i n d u s t r i a l  s t a n d a r d s  f o r  t h i s  c l a s s  o f  work.B4 .2  Fo rm ing  o f  Aluminum C o n d u c t o r . The aluminum c ondu c to rp l a t e s  s h a l l  be r o l l e d  to  a p p r o p r i a t e  r a d i u s  o r  s t r e t c h -  formed to  a c h i e v e  the  p r o p e r  shape .  S p e c i a l  ca re  s h a l l  be e x e r c i s e d  d u r i n g  a l l  f a b r i c a t i o n  phase s  t o  p re ven t  n i c k i n g ,  s c r a t c h i n g  o r  o t h e r  damage o c c u r r i n g  to  the  b a r s .  A b end in g  method s h a l l  be deve loped  and used when bend ing  the  aluminum b a r s  a t  the t e rm in a l  a r e a s .  The bend in g  ope ­r a t i o n  s h a l l  no t r e s u l t  in  an a rea  r e d u c t i o n  o f  the c o o l a n t  h o l e s  o f  more than 25 pe r  cen t  o v e r  a l e n g th  o f  2 in che s-  33 -a t  each  bend. F i l l i n g  the h o l e s  t e m p o r a r i l y  w i t h  a s o f t  a l l o y  such  a s  Wood ' s  metal i s  p e rm i s s i b l e .  J i g s  and f i x t u r e s  s h a l l  be used  to  e n su r e  meet in g  the t o l e r a n c e  requ i r em en t s .B4 .3  W e i d i n g . We ld in g  o f  w a te r  c o n n e c t i o n s  and p l u g s  inc o o l a n t  h o l e s  s h a l l  be done by the  u se  o f  a f l u x - f r e e  method such  as  A rgon  Tung s t e n  A r c  o r  I n e r t  Metal  A r c .B4 .4  C o i l  H o u s i n g . The c o i l  h o u s i n g  s h a l l  be made from 1 / 4 - inch aluminum p l a t e s .  A s u g g e s t e d  a s semb ly  p ro cedu re  f o r  the c o i l  h o u s i n g  and f o r  i n s t a l l i n g  the c o ndu c to r  ba r s  i s  o u t ­l i n e d  in  P a rag r aph  B4 .5 .  The C o n t r a c t o r  may use  o t h e r  t e c h n i q u e s  and methods ,  p r o v i d e d  the r e q u i r e d  goa l  i s  met. P r o c e d u re s  d i f f e r i n g  from th o s e  o u t l i n e d  must be approved  by the  Customer .The s t r o n g b a c k s  (see  F i g u r e  8) s h a l l  be mounted a l o n g  a*4" 1/8r a d i u s  o f  325 i n che s  _ C . The base  p l a t e  s h a l l  be shimmed and sc rewed  to  the work  s u r f a c e  in such  a manner t h a t  the f l a t n e s s  o f  the aluminum p l a t e  (B) remain s  w i t h i n  1/16 in ch .  The aluminum p l a t e  (A) s h a l l  be mounted such t h a t  the r a d i u s  o f  the o u t s i d e  s u r f a c e  becomes 325 in ches+ 1/8 -  0 *B4 .5  A s semb ly  o f  Conduc to r  Ba r s  i n t o  C o i l  S e gm en t s . B e fo re  the c o n d u c to r  b a r s  a re  p l a ced  in  the c o i l  h o u s i n g  the ends s h a l l  be wrapped w i t h  g l a s s - t a p e  and impregnated  w i t h  epoxy .  The w rapp in g  s h a l l  ex tend  a t  l e a s t  2 i n che s  beyond the  c a s t  epoxy  s u r f a c e .  T h r e e - i n c h -w i d e  p r e f a b r i c a t e d  i n s u l a t i n g  s t r i p s  s h a l l  be p l a ced  a c r o s s  the  aluminum p l a t e s  (A) and (B) a t  the l o c a t i o n  o f  the c lamps.  One L - s haped  p i e c e  i n s t e a d  o f  two s e p a r a t e  p i e c e s  may be used. I t  i s  p e rm i s s i b l e  to  cement t h e s e  p i e c e s  to  the aluminum p l a t e s .  Cement t h r e e - b y - t h r e e - i n c h  p i e c e s  o f  i n s u l a t i n g  m a t e r i a l  s l i g h t l y  t h i n n e r  than  the s t r i p s  between the s t r i p s  to  the aluminum p l a t e s  (A) and ( B ) . T h i s  w i l l  p r e v e n t  e x c e s s i v e  d e f l e c t i o n  o f  the p l a t e s  when the  c o i l  h o u s i n g  i s  e vacua ted .-  34 -Next ,  p l a c e  two t h i c k n e s s e s  o f  p r e f a b r i c a t e d  i n s u l a t i n g  s h e e t s  1 / 3 2 - i n c h  t h i c k  a g a i n s t  the s t r i p s  d e s c r i b e d  above.  The s h e e t s  may be o f  any  c o n v e n ie n t  l e n g th  from th r e e  f e e t  and up. The gaps  between s h e e t s  in  one l a y e r  may be 1 / 8 - i n c h  wide  maximum. Gaps between the  s h e e t s  in the  next  l a y e r  s h a l l  be p l a ced  a t  an a z imu tha l  d i s t a n c e  o f  1 f o o t  minimum from the  gap in p r e c e d in g  l a y e r  (1 f o o t  l a p p i n g ) .P l a c e  the c o ndu c to r  ba r  i n t o  the  c o i l  h o u s i n g  a f t e r  th o rough  c l e a n i n g  o f  the  ba r .  Proceed  as  o u t l i n e d  above u n t i l  a l l  b a r s  have been p l a ced  in the c o i l  h o u s i n g .P o s i t i o n  aluminum p l a t e  (C) and p l a c e  tempora ry  s t r i p s  o f  i n s u l a t i n g  m a te r i a l  between w i n d i n g  and aluminum p l a t e  at  each clamp.  A p p l y  p r e s s u r e  w i t h  s i d e  s c rew  c lamps  and move c o n d u c t o r s  t o g e t h e r .  When a r e a s o n a b le  p r e s s u r e  has been a p p l i e d ,  measure w id t h  o f  c o i l  and the  d i s t a n c e  from the  edges  o f  p l a t e s  (A) and (C) t o  s u r f a c e  o f  i n s u l a t i o n  on top  o f  c o n d u c t o r s  and re co rd  the  numbers.  Remove p r e s s u r e  and p rep a re  the f i n a l  i n s u l a t i n g  s t r i p s  a d j u s t i n g  t h e i r  t h i c k n e s s e s  such  t h a t  when they  a re  p l a ced  between the  w i n d i n g  and the aluminum p l a t e  and the  p r e s s u r e  i s  r e a p p l i e d  the w id th  o f  the c o i l  i s  1 9 "3 /8  i n che s  _ ^ g .The s t r i p  t h i c k n e s s e s  a t  the top  o f  the w i n d i n g  s h o u l d  be such  t h a t  a nomina l  gap o f  1/16 inch  e x i s t s  between the edges  o f  p l a t e s  (A) and (B) and the  i n n e r  s u r f a c e  o f  (D) b e f o r e  edge p r e s s u r e  i s  a p p l i e d  by means o f  the edge clamps.  As  b e f o r e ,  cement t h r e e - b y - t h r e e - i n c h  i n s u l a t i n g  p i e c e s  to  the aluminum p l a t e s  between the  s t r i p s .A f t e r  t e s t i n g  the i n t e g r i t y  o f  the  i n s u l a t i o n  as  d e s c r i b e d  in  P a rag r aph  B4 .4 ,  s e a l  c o r n e r  j o i n t s  and ends  o f  c o i l  h o u s i n g  and e va cua te  to  a p r e s s u r e  o f  .5 T o r r  and pour  epoxy .  Enough epoxy  volume s h o u ld  be p r o v i d e d  in the s u p p l y  c o n t a i n e r  to  a l l o w  f o r  f i l l i n g  the i n c r e a se d  volume due to  the s p r i n g  back  o f  the c o i l  h o u s i n g  p l a t e s  when p r e s s u r e  i s  e q u a l i z e d .-  35 -In o r d e r  to  a c c e l e r a t e  c u r i n g  o f  the  epoxy ,  warm wa te r  may be fed  th rou gh  the  c o o l a n t  h o l e s  in the  c o n d u c t o r s .Note t h a t  the  top  c o i l  segments  a re  m i r r o r  images o f  the bottom c o i l  segments  and t h a t  a l l  w a te r  c o n n e c t i o n s  a re  c o n s e q u e n t l y  on o p p o s i t e  s i d e s  o f  the  c o ndu c to r  b a r s .B4 .6  I n s p e c t i o n  and T e s t i n g  and P a c k i n gB4 .6 .1  Aluminum C o n d u c t o r . The aluminum c ondu c to r  s h a l l  be i n s p e c te d  a t  the  s o u r c e .  The i n s p e c t i o n  s h a l l  v e r i f y  the  d im en s i o n a l  t o l e r a n c e s  o f  the b a r s ,  s u r f a c e  f i n i s h  and e l e c t r i c a l  c o n d u c t i v i t y .  The C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l l  n o t i f y  the  Cus tomer  7 c a l e n d a r  days  ahead o f  t ime  as to  the  l o c a t i o n  and t ime  at  wh ich  i n s p e c t i o n  w i l l  ta ke  p l a c e .B 4 . 6 . 2  E p o x y . T y p i c a l  t e s t  samp le s  s h a l l  be made by the C o n t r a c t o r ,  u s i n g  the  p roposed  epoxy  f o rm u l a t i o n ,  f i l l e r  and g l a s s  c l o t h .  The samp le s  s h a l l  demon­s t r a t e  the w e t t i n g  p r o p e r t i e s  and peel s t r e n g t h  o f  the  epoxy  s y s t em  in c o n t a c t  w i t h  the  aluminum c ondu c to r  and h o u s i n g  s h e e t s .  The C o n t r a c t o r  s h a l l  p ropo se  sample s i z e  and, upon a p p r o v a l ,  p r o v i d e  f i v e  samp le s  to  the  Customer  f o r  e v a l u a t i o n .Samples  s h a l l  be s ubm i t ted  a t  l e a s t  21 c a l e n d a r  days  p r i o r  to  the s c h e du le d  da te  f o r  the epoxy im p re gna t i o n  o f  the f i r s t  c o i l  segment .B 4 . 6 . 3  H y d r a u l i c  T e s t . A f t e r  w e l d i n g  the  wa te r  c o n n e c t i o n s  to  the c o ndu c to r  b a r s ,  each ba r  s h a l l  be s u b j e c t e d  to  a h y d r o s t a t i c  p r e s s u r e  t e s t .  A t e s t  p r e s s u r eo f  200 p s i  s h a l l  be used .  The re  s h a l l  be noe v id e n c e  o f  l e a k s  o r  l o s s  o f  p r e s s u r e  o v e r  a p e r i o d  o f  two h ou r s .The c o o l a n t  f l ow  t h rou gh  each c o ndu c to r  ba r  s h a l lbe measured.  A t  a p r e s s u r e  d rop  o f  100 p s i  thef l ow  s h a l l  be 1.55 GPM minimum. A l l  f l ow  and p r e s s u r e  f i g u r e s  s h a l l  be reco rded .- 36 -Fo r  per fo rmance  o f  the h y d r a u l i c  t e s t s  on the s p a r e  segment,  use  s u i t a b l e  th readed  p l u g s  and f i  t t  i n g s .B 4 . 6 . 4  E l e c t r i  c T e s t . A h i g h  p o t e n t i a l  t e s t  u s i n g  a2 ,0 00  v o l t  DC t e s t  v o l t a g e  s h a l l  be perfo rmed on each c o ndu c to r  ba r  w i t h  a l l  o t h e r  b a r s  connected  t o g e t h e r  and to  g round .  The le akage  c u r r e n t  s h a l l  be l e s s  than 1.0 mA. A r e co rd  o f  the measured v a l u e s  s h a l l  be kept .A C u s t om e r ' s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  s h a l l  w i t n e s s  the t e s t  s p e c i f i e d  in P a ra g rap h  B 4 . 6 . 3  and B 4 . 6 . 4  above and s h a l l  be n o t i f i e d  7 c a l e n d a r  days  ahead o f  t ime.B 4 . 6 . 5  P a c k i n g . The c o i l  segments  s h a l l  be e n c l o s e d  inm o i s t u r e - t i g h t  p l a s t i c  bags  and boxed o r  c r a t e d  in such  a way as  to  p re ven t  any damage d u r i n g  l o a d i n g ,  s h ipmen t ,  u n l o a d i n g  and s ub sequen t  i n doo r  s t o r a g e  f o r  a p e r i o d  o f  6 months.A C u s t om e r ' s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  w i l l  be p r e s e n t  d u r i n g  the p r e p a r a t i o n  f o r  sh ipment  and s h a l l  be n o t i f i e d  a t  l e a s t  one week b e f o r e  p a c k in g  commences.FIGURE 2A l u m i n u m  C o n d u c t o r  C r o s s - S e c t i o nO NFIGURE 7FLEXIBLE CONNECTORFIGURE 9STRETCH FORMING OF CONDUCTOR BARSF / G U R E  1O  I N S P E C T I O N  G A U G EPOWER SUPPLY COST $/KWPOWER SUPPLY VOLTAGEFIGURE 11POWER SUPPLY COST AND NUMBER OF COIL TURNSVS„POWER SUPPLY VOLTAGEPOWER CONSUMPTION MEGA WATTSNUMBER OF TURNS PER COILFIGURE 12POWER CONSUMPTION OF COILS VS.NUMBER OF TURNS PER COIL*CAPITAL COST MILLION $NUMBER OF TURNS PER COILFIGURE 13CAPITAL COSTS VS„ NUMBER OF TURNS PER COIL«OPERATING COST MILLION DOLLARSFIGURE 14OPERATING COST VS.NUMBER OF TURNS PER COIL*SV. tO-IJ-434I

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