TRIUMF: Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics

Annual report, 1969 TRIUMF; Brearley, N. Feb 28, 1970

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T R I U M FANNUAL REPORT 1969MESON FACILITY OF:UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FEBRUARY 1970T R I U M FANNUAL REPORT 1969N. Brearley Ed i torPostal Address:TRIUMFUniversity of British Columbia Vancouver 8 , B.C.Canada February 1970F O R E W O R DThe last annual report documented the commencement of TRIUMF as an interuniversity venture with the object of building a major physics research facility. We are pleased to be able to report that the pattern established by TRIUMF has been followed by the formation of two further co-operative projects - WESTAR which will pursue astronomical research at the Mt. Kobau site, and WCUMBO which will build a marine biological station on the west coast of Vancouver Island.Plans for adding a radiobiology-radiotherapy unit to the TRIUMF main building are now well advanced. A beam of MES mesons will be used for research and therapy. The B.C. Cancer Research and Treatment Foundation and the Health Re­sources Fund are jointly supporting this development. A further broadening of the scope of the project into applied science areas will likely result from isotope production us­ing the main proton beam with subsequent processing in the radiochemistry area.In conclusion, I should like to pay tribute to my predeces­sor as Chai rman , the Honourable Mr. Justice Angelo E. Branca, who guided TRIUMF through its formative period.C O N T E N T SPagePreface1. Organi zation 12. Plans for the TRIUMF Facility 32.1 Meson Users Group 32.2 Radiochemistry Users Group 32.3 Slow Neutron Users Group 42.4 Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Users Group 52.5 Proton Users Group 53. Construction 74. Cyclotron and Ancillary Equipment 1°b .1 Magnet 12b.2 Ion Source and Injection System 164.3 Beam Dynamics 17b.b RF System 214.5 Vacuum System 224.6 Extraction 234.7 Beam Transport 244.8 P Area Beam Dumps 254.9 Neutron Facility 264.10 Control and Instrumentation 315. Safety 336 . Central Region Cyclotron Model 347. Project Management and Engineering 377.1 Engineering 377.2 Schedule 387.3 Manpower 388. Conferences ^9. Reports ^10. Staff k211. Financial Statement ^5Appendix A Users Groups and Committees 47B TRIUMF Specifications 51i i iPage891 113151827293539LIST OF FIGURESPlan view showing site developmentSouth elevation of the main buildingVertical section through the cyclotron showing the maintenance bridgePlan of the cyclotron in the vault. The dotted outline of the centre indicates the area of the Central Region Model.A photograph of the Mark VI-I (scale = 20:1) magnet modelOrbits in the central region of the cyclotronConstruction and location of 10 yA P-area beam dumpVertical section through the neutron targetAssembly of the Central Region Model. The top of the model can be raised to permit access.Manpower resourcesSYNOPSIS OF THE YEARPage1. Requirements of Users Groups were defined, and planningof experimental areas is in progress. 3-62. The office and laboratory block was completed, and plansfor the main building are well in hand. 73. Cyclotron conceptual design studies are now almost com­pleted, and detailed planning is in progress. 104. Magnet model studies produced an isochronous field for500 MeV, and the magnet tenders were called on schedule. 125. The feasibility of adding a third harmonic component tothe RF was demonstrated. 226 . The TRIUMF safety program has been given approval in principle by the Accelerator Safety Advisory Committee ofAECB. 337. The major components for the first stage of construction of the Central Region Cyclotron Model have been designed and ordered, and experimental work should commence next year. 3^vPREFACESeveral major events took place in this our second year since the funding of our project. On May 5th, in perfect weather, we were honoured by the presence of the Honourable Jean-Luc Pepin, Minister of Industry, Trade and Commerce, at a tree-planting ceremony at TRIUMF Circle. The ceremony coincided with our Annual Meeting at which invited papers were given by K.M. Crowe (Lawrence Radiation Laboratory), E. Zavattini (CERN and Brookhaven National Laboratory),A.M. Poskanzer (Lawrence Radiation Laboratory), and S. Devons (Col - umb i a Un i vers ity).Not many months later, in October, we moved into the TRIUMF Office and Laboratory Building. We are grateful indeed to the Physics Department of the University of British Columbia for generously pro­viding the space to build up our group and for making us feel at home. Our new quarters have given the project a greater coherence and a centre for all participants. The sylvan surroundings of our site are much appreciated, though next year the relative quiet will be disturbed when excavation of the hole for the accelerator com­mences .The magnet design has been completed and contract negotiations are now under way; it is gratifying that there will be a very high Canadian content in the contract. The design of all aspects of the cyclotron, beam lines and overall facility has progressed most sat­isfactorily and on schedule. During the year the decision was taken to build a full-scale model of the central region of the cyclotron. It is expected that this will result in a considerable saving of time during the commissioning phase of the cyclotron. The work of our Engineers reached its peak towards the end of the year; con­ceptual studies are increasingly being replaced by detailed draw­ing assignments.Studies directed towards the establishment of tolerances in the various machine parameters have led to a better realization of the full potential of TRIUMF in energy resolution and in maximum beam current possible at various energies. These possibi1ities are most exciting and no doubt our Users will make full use of them in the course of time.J.B. Warren Di rectorORGANIZATIONDuring the year there have been a number of changes on both theBoard of Management and the Operating Committee.1.1 Board of ManagementThe Honourable Mr. Justice Angelo E. Branca resigned as Chair­man and member of the Board following his retirement from the Board of Governors of Simon Fraser University. Mr. Allan M. McGavin resigned from the Board on being elected Chancellor of the University of British Columbia. Their services and advice during the critical organizational period were most valuable and were much appreciated. The vacancies on the Board were filled by Mr. Cyrus H. McLean and Mr. R.M. Bibbs as repre­sentatives of Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia, respectively.Deputy President W.M. Armstrong of the University of British Columbia was elected Chairman of the Board.The constitution of the Board is now as follows:University of Alberta: Dean Kenneth B. NewboundDr. J.T. Sample President Max WymanSimon Fraser University: Mr. Mark CollinsDean Lionel Funt Mr. Cyrus H. McLeanUniversity of Victoria: Dean J.L. ClimenhagaThe Hon. Mr. Justice J.G. Ruttan Dean R.T.D. WallaceUn i vers i ty of Br i tish Columbia : Prof. W.M. Armstrong (Chairman)Mr. R.M. BibbsDr. G.M. Volkoff (Secretary)1.2 Operating CommitteeDr. B.D. Pate of Simon Fraser University went on sabbatical leave to Orsay and his place was taken by Dr. R.G. Korteling.- 2 -The Committee (alternate members in parentheses) posed of:Dr. J.B. Warren ChairmanDr. R.G. Korteling Simon Fraser University (Dr.Dr. G.C. Neilson University of Alberta (Dr.Dr. R.M. Pearce University of Victoria (Dr.Dr. E.W. Vogt University of B.C. (Dr.Mr. J.J. Burgerjon Chief EngineerMr. J.E.D. Pearson of the UBC Department of Physics resigned as Interim Secretary to the Committee after having served dur­ing the first eighteen months of operation. Mr. N. Brearley has taken his place as Secretary.i s now com-A.S. Arrott) W.K. Dawson) L . Robertson) K.L. Erdman)- 3 -2. PLANS FOR THE TRIUMF FACILITYThe five Users Groups have spent the year in formulating their re­quirements as far as experimental facilities are concerned and in particular in discussing with the Building Committee the sizes, shapes and services of their respective areas. In consultation with the Operating Committee, they are now engaged in determining a schedule for the availabi1 ity of the various proposed beams from the cyclotron and for i nstal 1 at ion of the var ious experimental facil- ties. Members of the groups are listed in Appendix A.2.1 Meson Users Group(G. Jones, University of British Columbia, Chairman)A conceptual layout for the meson area involving the use of two meson production targets in the proton beam has been de­veloped .From the first target two beam lines are envisaged. One will be used for transmitting to the experimental area pions in the energy range 100-250 MeV, and the other for pions of energy below 100 MeV. Since these channels will represent the high resolution pion facilities in the project,they will be asso­ciated with the first pion production target along the proton beam line, a target of thickness corresponding to k g/cm2 of carbon. In order to maximize the positive pion flux available from this target, it is intended to have the ability to use water as a target material. In such a target the primary pro­duction mechanism is the well-known p + p -*■ d + tt+ reaction.The second meson production target will be thicker (about 20 g/ cm2 of carbon, equivalent) and utilized, in conjunction with appropriate transport systems, for the product ion of "stopped" pions and muons in addition to providing a high intensity lower energy pion beam for bio-medical use.2.2 Radiochemistry Users Group(D.C. Walker, University of British Columbia, Chairman)During the year plans for the Chemistry Annex building were developed. An area of ^000 sq ft is devoted solely to radio-chemical laboratories together with two hot cel 1s for handling very active materials. The laboratories are designed in such a way that future expansion can be readily accommodated.The neutron target will include the main proton irradiation facility. However, for more controlled studies of reactions under proton bombardment a facility will be provided adjacent to the neutron beam dump in the P Area. Meson irradiation will be carried out at suitable places on the meson secondary beams.2.3 Slow Neutron Users Group(D.W. Hone, Royal Roads Mi 1itary College, Chairman)The requirements of the group were outlined in a report issued at the beginning of the year. The minimum thermal neutron flux expected is about (I0 1 2/^fr)n cm - 2  sec - 1  sr ’ 1 which, fora 2 deg cone, is equivalent to about 7-6 x 107 n cm - 2  sec-1. Thermal energies will be required in all beam ports. In addition, there will be one port having a flux peaked at 0.125 eV (ap­proximately 1500°K) rather than at the normal thermal energy of about 0.025 eV. No provision is being made for purifica­tion of the beams; experimenters are expected to make their own arrangements for taking cadmium-difference measurements, for example.Five beam ports are planned. Two ports corresponding to the two different energy peaks (thermal and 1500°K) will be used for neutron diffraction studies of magnetic structure. These ports will have openings of sizes up to about 2 in. by 6 in. and may be as much as 20 ft in length, thus giving a cone of one-half degree,assuming uniform cross-section along the length. A third port similar to the preceding will be used for neutron diffraction studies of crystal structures. One port is re­quired for neutron capture y-ray spectroscopy,and a fifth port will be used for neutron scattering spectroscopy.- 5 -2 .4 Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Users Group(j.M.W. Gibson, B.C. Cancer Institute, Chai rman)Grant funds of $20,000 were sought to carry out an "Engineer­ing Design and Cost Study for a Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Facility Using a Negative Pi-Meson Beam from TRIUMF". The National Cancer Institute approved a grant of $16,000, plus additional funds for travel as required, with the recommenda­tion that Dr. G.F. Whitmore be called in as a consultant on the radiobiological aspects of the project.A preliminary application was made to the Health Resources Fund for a grant to cover half the total cost of the proposed Radiobiology-Radiotherapy Laboratory. This grantwas approved in principle in April 1969- Further funds will be made avail­able by the B.C. Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation.In consultation with Dr. Whitmore the 1aboratory was increased from two to three storeys and, to fit in with the overall TRIUMF plans, the upper floor was enlarged. The increase in size plus an increase in the shielding required has increased the estimated cost from $488,000 to approximately $70 0,000. The Health Resources Fund have indicated that they will be pre­pared to increase their grant accordingly.Part of the grant from the National Cancer Institute has been used to cover the cost of the basic design of the beam trans­port system required to deliver a suitable beam of negative pions to the proposed laboratory. This design is now well advanced.2.5 Proton Users Group(W.C. Olsen, University of Alberta, Chairman)Discussions were held concerning the general plan for the pro­ton area and the shielding problems that will exist there, with particular emphasis on costs and priorities. Attention was also devoted to major facilities for the proton area, such as the beam lines into the area, beam dumps and computers.- 6 -Proposed experimental faci1ities for the proton area include: a scattering chamber with time-of-f1 ight extension arms for heavy-particle identification and the study of high isobaric spin states in fission fragments and other charged particle reactions; liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets for the pro­duction of secondary beams of unpolarized and polarized neut­rons and of polarized protons; a pion spectrometer for the study of pion production by neutrons and protons; a medium resolution, large solid angle, magnetic system for the study of elastic, inelastic and quasi-elastic proton scattering; a high resolution proton spectrometer to exploit the extremely good energy resolution (ultimately expected to be ±25 keV) of the primary proton beam and an irradiat ion facility for acti­vation studies.The proton area will be divided into two regions: the 10 yAregion into which proton beams of up to 10 yA may be directed, and the 1 yA region, which will accommodate beams limited to a maximum intensity of 1 yA. Each of these beams will be stopped in external beam dumps.- 7 -3. CONSTRUCTIONThe Office and Laboratory Building was essentially completed in October. The contract for construction was awarded to Stevenson Construction Co. Ltd. in the amount of $521,000, and work on the building commenced in February. Supervision of construction was provided by G.E. Crippen 6 Associates, assisted by the Department of Physical Plant, University of British Columbia.The major effort on the main building during the year has been directed towards defining the requirements for the cyclotron and primary beam lines, the service annex, the chemistry annex, and the medical facility. The gross area of the building was reduced some 20 per cent, and a number of features were deferred, to meet budgetary requirements. The building was moved 10 ft to the west to make room for a possible on-site electrical sub-station at the east end of the high bay. The goal is to present a final archi­tectural scheme early in 1970 and work on the selection of mater­ials, and the preparation of drawings is now in hand.Figure 3 - 1 shows the relationship of the mai n bui 1d i ng to the exist- ing buildings, and indicates the disposition of its component parts. An elevation of the building is shown in Figure 3-2.Early in 1970 the contract for excavation work related to the mach­ine vault and main building will be let, following which tenders for the building shel1 , in which the assembly of the cyclotron w i 11 take place, will be called.- 8 -If is hmm  °a?Figure 3-1 Plan view showing site development- 9 -Figure 3-2 South elevation of the main building-  10 -A. CYCLOTRON AND ANCILLARY EQUIPMENTThe magnet design work was completed on schedule in preparation for the calling of magnet tenders. Applying the results of the H“ dissociation experiment [Nucl . I nst r. and Meth. ~]k , 333 (1969)] to further magnetic field measurements, indications are that beam power loss due to that cause will now be reduced to 6%. With gas-strip­ping beam loss still , the total beam power loss in the machinewill be 10%, as compared with the original design value of 20%.Model studies have shown that it will be possible to excite the res­onators in the third harmonic mode of the fundamental RF waveform. This adds a unique feature to the TRIUMF design , as adding the third harmonic results in a flat-topped waveform with increased phase acceptance and subsequent improvement in properties such as energy spread and duty factor. Modifications have been made to the mach­ine design so as to accommodate the third harmonic component.It has been necessary to increase the machine diameter to 31^ in. in order both to improve focusing and to decrease the average mag­netic field and thereby reduce electric stripping of the H" ions. As a result, a heavier support structure will be required in order to accommodate the increased atmospheric load, now about 2700 tons. At the same time, the magnet levelling jack system was replaced by a less costly static system which is capable of absorbing moderate earthquake shocks without damage to the machine components.Allowance has been made for the incorporation of a maintenance bridge which can be withdrawn from a pocket in the vault wall and which will bridge the machine from centre post to return yokes in the jacked-up condition (Figure *t.l). This allows a man to do maintenance operations swiftly and, if necessary, with his body protected by 2 in. of lead.The optimum orientation of the resonators in relation to the mag­net, and of the magnet in relation to the vault, have been fixed,El— 308 FT.- 11 -h 1IL UJni QIS <01 trJ o111 10 fILUI IL IL0 nto to in01.i 1  96 IL  9 U0 n tUI A U lO  •, ' ' • v*~ IK1^3 • ^ .20hto□a(32auia□2□t 2to uiaouiu2<2uit-2<Figure 4.1 Vertical section through the cyclotron showing the maintenance bridge- 12 -as well as the pos11 ion of the combination magnet for Beam Line 1. The machine and vault layout is shown in Figure k.2. Appendix B lists the principal machine specifications.k .1 Magnet*1.1.1 Model StudiesOn April 1, 1969 the Mk VI-1 (scale = 20:1) model was finally shaped in such a way as to achieve a magnetic field that was isochronous to ±100 G and that focused the H" beam to 505 MeV with a total beam loss of 12%magnet was started on the basis of these results.Further adjustments to the Mk VI-1 pole piece have made possible the beam characteristics in the following table:In order to obtain this variabi1ity of energy the field gradient produced by the trim coils must increase with increasing radius.In October a six-sector model based on the detailed de­sign of Dilworth, Secord, Meagher and Associates (DSM) was assembled and its field measured. The dimensions of the cyclotron magnet had been adjusted to take into account the extra perforations due to the tie rods and bolts that were not included in the Mk VI-1 model. The magnetic field of the new model reproduced the fielddue to H- dissociation. The detailed design of theBeam Loss at 500 MeV Maximum Beam Loss at kinetic maximum energy kinetic energyRadius due to electric 500 MeV dissociation312.5 in. 306.0 in.6%20%500 MeV 5b0 MeV- 13 -Figure 4.2 Plan of the cyclotron in the vault. The dotted outline of the centre indicates the area of the Central Region Model.- 14 -of the Mk VI-1 model to better than ±1%. A photograph of the model is shown in Figure 4.3.The magnetic field in the 8:1 central region magnet model has been tailored to a satisfactory shape by us­ing wedges which project into the ma i n magnet gap. These wedges are compatible with the RF cavity design, al­though their use implies a special design for the four central sections of the cavity.4.1.2 Magnet ConstructionTo make possible an increase in the Canadian content of magnet fabrication and atthesame time reduce cost, the return yoke was redesigned for 3 in. and 5 in. plate. Each sector of the magnet is made up of ten pre-assembled blocks, each of which weighs less than 100 tons, as dictated by the maximum crane capacity. The pole pieces are made from 10 in. plate which willbe flame cut to the required shape.The support structure will be made of mild steel which affects the magnetic field of the magnet. These ef­fects have been measured on the 2 0 : 1 model, and it hasbeen determined that they can be corrected during theshimming of the cyclotron magnet.The main coil detailed design has been started by DSM following the conceptual design established by Wi11iam M. Brobeck & Associates (WMB). There is an economic advantage in using welded rather than bolted connec­tions, and it appears that the number of turns should be made as small as possible consistent with other 1 i m- i tat ions.Trim and harmonic coils were modelled on the 20:1 mag­net and their design requirements were reappraised. TheFigure k.3 A photograph of the Mark VI-1 (scale = 20:1) magnet model- 16 -results showed that fewer ampere-turns would be needed, so that the power consumption has been substantially reduced and direct water cooling is no longer required.The combination magnet will be designed as an H-frame, uniform field, rectangular magnet which will be ope­rated at 0.7 kG for 500 MeV and at 10 kG for 150 MeV. The H-frame was chosen as it appeared from model tests to affect the main field less when energized than the C-frame design.4.2 Ion Source and Injection SystemDesign studies, scheduling and procurement for the ion source and injection system of the Central Region Model are now in progress. Similar studies for the main accelerator have also commenced.WMB completed a conceptual design study of the ion source and injection system. The result of this study is being used as a first-order solution of the design problem. Cost, schedul ing and technical support estimates made in this study are being used as first-order quantitative estimates of those aspectsof the work.During the year it was decided to increase the injection energy from 150 keV to 300 keV in order to reduce beam blow-up due to space-charge effects and to obtain a smaller emittance. The beam transport line requires multiple focusing elements; e 1ec- trostatic lenses rather than quadrupoles will be used in order to keep costs down.Plans are being made to include a facility for chopping and bunching the beam in the injection line. This will result in an increase of average current and meet the requirements for separated orbit operation. In addition, a fast deflector may be included in order to permit pulsed beam operation.- 17 -Negotiations were started with the Cyclotron Corporation, Berkeley, California, with a view to purchasing a version of their design of an Ehlers-type H" source, guaranteed to de­liver 2 mA of H" at 12 keV with an emittance of approximate­ly 2.1 cm rad (eV)^.4.3 Beam Dynamics4.3.1 Central RegionAs mentioned above, a major design change this year was the increase in injection energy to 300 keV in order to improve cyclotron performance. The higher energy should permit a 40% increase in the RF microstructure duty factor, through better orbit centring and reduced transverse electric forces at the dee gaps. It should also reduce space charge effects and ease injection through the strong fringe field of the magnet. The 1 arger rad i us of the in i t ia 1 orb i t also a 1 lows the hol­low centre post to be replaced by a solid one (Figure 4.4), giving a stronger though asymmetric central sup­port. The equipotential lines shown in the figure, representing the accelerating field between the dees, were computed using a three-dimens ional relaxation code [D. Nelson, H. Kim and M. Reiser, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-16 (3), 766 (1969)]. This method gives the values both off and on the median plane, and it is not only capable of greater accuracy than electrolytic tank measurements but enables the effects of modifications to be more quickly determined. The first orbit calcu­lations with this field, recently made, confirm the correct positioning of the first accelerating gaps and the centring of ions at the peak of the RF voltage wave.The vertical forces at the dee gaps are an important factor in the central region because of their strength and phase dependence. A computer code was developed- 18 -Figure k.h Orbits in the central region of the cyclotron- 1 9 -to track beams from injection through these gaps, us­ing the standard thick lens approximations [M.E. Rose, Phys. Rev. 53,392 (1938); B.L. Cohen, Rev. Sci. Inst. 24, 589 (1953)], and to match them to the constant fo­cusing in the cyclotron (v - 0 .3) to produce a constant envelope beam there. The injection admittance thus de­termined varied very little in shape over a phase range +60 deg to -15 deg (-5 deg for 150 keV) or to -45 deg with 20% third harmonic (180 deg out of phase)added to the RF. A preliminary study of the vertical ion motion through the dee gaps using fields calculated by the re­laxation code has since shown certain deviations from the thick lens formulae; these studies continue.The relaxation code is also being used to determine the field in the spiral electrostatic inflector-a problem not readily amenable to model measurement. A prelim­inary insight into its optical focusing properties has been obtained by tracking the beam emittance (a six­dimensional hyperellipsoid in phase space) through a field obtained by analytical expansion about the cen­tral spi ral .Measurements of the magnetic field around the axis show that it is significantly non-uniform over the height of the inflector. Also the off-axis injection of the beam leads to its spiralling inwards by about 20% as it approaches the median plane. These effects will be dealt with by modifications to the inflector design, and possibly by special deflectors as well.4.3*2 Orbit Dynamics in the CyclotronThe results obtained from the model magnet studies are described in Sec. 4.1. These rely on certain improve­ments in interpolat ion, smoothing and isochronism which- 20 -have been made in the magnetic field analysis and orb- i t codes.Anomalous orbit properties at the field measurement radii (e.g. spikes in of ±0 .1 ) were traced to in­accuracies in the radial field gradients produced by the single four-point interpolation technique. They were found to be best removed by evaluating the gradi­ents half-way between the grid radii and making a sec­ond four-point interpolation in that array.Because the field measurements are Fourier analyzed independently at each radius, some noise appears in the radial variation of the Fourier amplitudes and phases. This is removed by a technique similar to Verster's [N.V. Vers ter and H.L. Hagedoorn, Nucl . Inst, and Meth.,1 8 , 1 9 > 327 (1962)] except that the phase changes are required to be approximately the same for all harmonics at each radius to make the corrections physically reas­onable.The original field correction procedure to give iso­chronous equi 1 ibrium orbits [M.M. Gordon and T.A. Welton, 0RNL-2765], dealing with only one measurement radius at a time, was found inadequate for TRIUMF, where the deeply scalloped orbits cross several such radii. In­stead, the effect of changing the average field at one radius on the periods of neighbouring equilibrium orb­its is computed; this is repeated for other radii and the resulting system of 1 inear equations is solved for the required field changes. A hundredfold improvement has been obtained - the integrated phase-slip from 0 to 500 MeV being now better than 5 deg.A program has also been written to calculate the trim coil currents required to isochronize a given measured field using measured trim coil fields. A least squares- 21 -method is used, similar to Berg's [R.E. Berg,H.G. Biosser and M.M. Gordon, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-13 (4) , 394 (1966)], except that a small fraction of the sum of the squares of the currents inthe minimization is in­cluded as a much faster method ofawiding high current solutions, yet with negligible effect on the isochron- ism obtainable. In a test case with 5** trim coils the error bumps remaining did not exceed 3 G-in.4.3.3 High Energy Resolution BeamsWhen higher resolution is required,s1its w i 11 be piaced at low energy to limit the radial emittance, enabling 6 yA to be extracted with ±150 keV resolution. With the planned addition ofthird harmonic to the RF cavity separated-turn acceleration will be possible out to maximum energy with the magnet and RF control technol­ogy available today; 30 yA should be obtainable with ±25 keV total energy spread and a ±7 deg phase spread. A third scheme, using slits at the final radius, can give two high current, low resolution beams and a si­multaneous low current beam with ±60 keV total spread. These performance figures assume that space charge ef­fects are negligible - a matter at present under study.4.4 RF SystemDuring the course of the year the RF group constructed six different half-scale models of the resonator sections from i in. plywood coated on the active cavity surfaces with 0.005 in. of soft copper sheet having a measured conductivi ty equal to that of electrolytic copper. The models varied from a full half resonator section (one side of the accelerating structure) to resonators only sufficiently large to allow measurements to be made of the voltage gradients at the centre post in the proposed central region geometry.- 22 _Mechanical design of the resonators has been undertaken by DSM, with the assistance of WMB. They will be fabricated from si 1ver-aluminum roll-bond sheet in which cooling water channels are formed. No insulators are used, the resonators being cantilevered from supports at the tie rod locations. Tuning is done by means of adjustable flaps on the ground plane at the high voltage end. In order to reduce the physi­cal size of the resonators they are operated at 23 MHz, the fifth harmonic of the ion rotation frequency, so that \/h is about 9 ft.The allowable mechanical deflections required to maintain the specified voltage tolerances have been determined from tests on models, and have been found to be within the capability of the design. It was also shown that a single coupling loop feeding one resonator will be sufficient because of the high hot arm-hot arm capacitance and the tight coupling of the res­onator system.Further tests have shown that it is possible to couple both the fundamental and the third harmonic into the cavity, thus achieving a flat-top waveform. In order to maintain a high Q for the third harmonic the shape of the resonator at the ma­chine perimeter will be rectangular rather than tapered as was originally proposed.Eight ful1-size prototype resonator sections have been ordered, and a 200 kW amplifier is under construction. These will be used for tests in the Central Region Model.h . 5 Vacuum SystemA 20:1 scale model of the TRIUMF vacuum chamber was built and used for tests of chamber pump-down performance with two dif­ferent pumping system designs. Large liquid nitrogen trapped oil diffusion pumps, and a 20°K cryopumping system having aux­iliary means for pumping hydrogen, were compared for their- 23 -ability to achieve the design criterion of an equivalent nit­rogen stripping cross-section pressure of 7 x 10- 8  Torrafter 15 hours of pumping.Measurements have been made of the outgassing rates of stain­less steel and of the gas loads from various radiation-resistant elastomers, in particular polyurethane. The predicted pump- down performance based on measured outgassing rate data, has been compared with the observed performance of the model cham­ber and its system. The effect of different chamber exposure conditions on pump-down time has also been measured. The re­sults of these investigat ions are discussed in Report TRI-69-7-A conceptual design study of the vacuum pumping system by Wright Engineers Limited of Vancouver, Arthur D. Little, Inc. of Cambridge, Mass., and TRIUMF was issued as Report TRI-69“9- Estimates of capital and annual operating costs were made for two systems, 20°K cryopumps with auxiliary trapped diffusion pumps and large liquid nitrogen trapped oil diffusion pumps. The study recommended that the cryoline concept using a tur­bine cryogenerator capable of supply ing both the 20°Kand 80°K load should be adopted. The use of auxiliary liquid nitrogen trapped oil diffusion pumps has been studied for pumping hyd­rogen and helium both during normal operation and resonator bakeout. The traps located behind valves are to be used for pumping water vapour during the defrost cycle of the cryoline. Although the need for this type of pumping system has been es­tablished, there is still interest in using an oil-free meth­od of pumping hydrogen, such as titanium sublimation pumping, during normal operation inorder to eliminate any possibility of contamination of the chamber in the event of a catastrophic accident.4.6 Extract ionField measurements on the Mk VI 20:1 scale model accelerator magnet have been used to determine the optical properties of- 2k -the extracted beams passing through the fringe field for ex­tracted beam energies from 150 to 500 MeV. Stripping foil positions as a function of energy and transfer matrices for these trajectories have been calculated for a numberof posi­tions of the cross-over point for the two directions of motion of the ions in the accelerator. The components of the transfer matrix vary little with position of the cross-over point. For the case where the direction of the orbits in the accelerator is opposite to the pole spiral, there is a smaller variation in the matrix elements with extracted beam energy. However, the direction of the orbits has been chosen to be the same as the pole spiral because this requires a smaller angleof bend in the combi nation magnet to make the 150 MeV and 500 MeV tra­jectories col inear, and thus enables a narrow extraction horn to be fitted to the accelerator vacuum tank. Of the six pos­sible beams, the orbit direction chosen will permit four to be extracted over the full energy range and two, in the region of the resonator gap, with a reduced energy range. Studies of the optical properties of these orbits show that second- order effects are small for the beam emittances expected from the accelerator.b .7 Beam TransportThe preliminary design (TRI-68-8) of the transport system for proton beam line 1 was reviewed by WMB who recommended that quadrupoles be of 21 in. effective length with 6 in. or 8 in. apertures, that the extraction section of the system should consist of a single 30 deg bending magnet rather than two 15 deg bending magnets, and that to avoid edge focusing rectang­ular rather than wedge bending magnets should be used.These recommendations have been investigated using updated fringe field data and a system geometry compatible with the present layout of the vault and experimental areas. The 30 deg bending magnet has been replaced by a 19 .8 deg bending magnet- 25 “and the location of the first pion production target has been displaced downstream by approximately 26 ft. Conceptual design studies are now in progress for the Beam Line 1 tunnel.Extraction systems which use a single bending magnet to com­pensate for d i spers ion introduced by the fringe field, followed by achromatic bending sections for momentum analysis, have been considered for the 1 yA and 10 yA beams to the P Area.A system has been designed to transport a pion beam into the medical area,and conceptual design studies are under way for the proton targets, for target shields and for various chan­nels to provide high resolution tt beams and beams of stopped TT and y .  A long helical quadrupole has been studied (TRI -69-10) as a potential component of a y channel. The system was found to have stronger focusing qualities than a comparable alternating gradient system, particularly at large displace­ments, and to have a large acceptance. However, the shape of the acceptance volume in phase space was found to be unsuitab 1e and the system was discarded.A general first-order beam transport program (TRANS)has been written following the pattern of the program TRANSPORT; and ACCEPTANCE,a program which calculates the phase space accep­tance of a beam transport system,was written and issued as a TRIUMF Report (TRI-68-7 ) .A three-dimensional magnetic field surveying system has now been completed and tested. The important effect of probe mo­tion on field readings has been studied and a method of treat­ing the resulting errors found. A computer program to edit and convert the recorded data has been written.1+ .8 P Area Beam DumpsThere are three 'levels' of dump required: 10 yA, 1 yA and1 nA. The first two need spheres of the order of 30 ft in- 26 -diameter, and attention has been directed mainly to them since they are large enough to affect the building plans.A 500 MeV proton can be stopped in less than a foot of iron by a combination of nuclear and ionizing interaction. However, the nuclear interactions give rise to neutrons having energies up to that of the original proton. These lack the ionizing property of the protons and,in a sense,are never stopped but can only be disposed of exponentially. The nuclear interac­tion cross-sections for these highenergy neutrons in all mater­ials are relatively low, so that a relatively large thickness of shielding material is required for any given reduction in intensity. Further, the neutrons are not confined to a beam but are emitted in all directions; thus a large volume of material is needed. The neutrons from a 10 yA 500 MeV proton beam, stopped in just about any material, require an attenu­ation factor of the order of 10"13 to 10"ll+. This would re­quire a sphere of concrete about 53 to 59 ft in diameter; denser material such as iron or iron ore can be used alone or mixed in with concrete for a reduction in size and cost.There have been several concepts explored, the latestof which is shown in Figure 4.5* It is basically a pot of iron ore, of density 4 g cm"1 , with a copper target inside a concrete en­closure near the bottom. The pot is roughly cylindrical with a diameter of 22 ft and a depth of 22 ft. The inset shows a possible location for the 10 yA dump, outside the north wall of the P Area. This concept and others are now under review by the Proton Users Group.4.9 Neutron Faci1i tyA concept has been evolved for the final target facility. The primary functions of the final target are: to stop the proton beam,to dissipate the heat generated, and to contain the radi­ations produced. The principal radiations arise from the very- 27 -ZDO<h 1 Itr<<oh 1 IO E10O(oFigure k.5 Construction and location of 10 yA P-area beam dump- 28 -fast neutrons whose penetrating power is greater than radiation encountered in reactors. The secondary function of the final target is to utilize the proton beam,the various parts of the neutron spectrum from very high to thermal energies, and the substantial y-ray and meson fluxes. A section through the neutron target is shown in Figure 4.6.In general terms the design features the final target buried at a depth of 25 ft near the bottom of and centred in a large (approximately 55 ft x 55 ft) concrete-walled pool. The prin­cipal shielding materials are concentric regions of iron, mag­netite and dirt. The magnetite and dirt are saturated with water. There is a central vertical column (approximately 13 ft in diameter) which is made of iron around the target, and of concrete up to the general set-up area at ground level.The final target itself is liquid metal (isotopic lead or a lead-bismuth alloy) contained in an oxidized zircalloy can (length approximately 20 cm,radius approximately 7 cm). The can is cooled by circulating D20 and is surrounded by a mod­erating assembly of D20 with a ref 1ector of graphite and water. Beam tubes through the vertical column prov i de access to va rious radiations. An experimental room on top of the vertical col­umn has thick walls and stops for the beams. The target and moderating assembly a re at the bottom of a 2j ft diameter tube which is perpendicular to the proton beam and inclined at an angle of about 45 deg to the vertical. The upper end of this tube terminates in the side of a vertical swimming pool which is adjacent to the hot cells. The slanted tube is water filled to within about a foot of the target. This tube permits main­tenance of the target, modification of the geometry of the moderator, and provides the versatility of a swimming pool reactor. A chamber for production of proton-rich isotopes is provided immediately in front of the target can. An addi­tional proton irradiation facility is being considered for a- 29 -Figure .^6 Vertical section through the neutron target- 30 -position closer to the meson target. A beam tube with a maxi­mum flux of cascade neutrons is in line with the proton beam line on the downstream side of the target can. This tube terminates in a vertical well for the introduction of coll­imators, samples and detectors. Rabbit tubes enter the moderator assembly, some coming down the slanted water tube into the D20, others entering the graphite reflector, and one being a very fast through-tube in the horizontal plane. Additional beam tubes for thermal neutron experiments are either hori­zontal or at 45 deg to the vertical. The horizontal beams are directed tangential to the target can,pass through vert­ical experimental wells, and are caught in the main shielding. Diffraction experiments will use horizontal axes and the ex­perimental plane will be vertical. The experimental wells are 8 ft in diameter and are centred about 19 ft from the target.The flux levels depend upon the proton energy and current, but approximately 1 kW of protons produces 1011+fast neutrons sec-1 and 1013 very fast (cascade) neutrons sec-1. The thermal flux for a D20-graphite system is between 1 and 2 neutrons cm-2 sec-1 for every 103 fast source neutrons sec-1. Thus with a beam power of 200 kW unperturbed thermal fluxes of 2to 4 x 1013 neutrons cm-2 sec-1 are obtained. At the D 0-2graphite boundary (30 cm outside the target can) where there is 1 neutron cm-2 sec-1 for every 103 fast source neutrons sec-1 the epithermal flux group has 1 neutron cm-2 sec-1 for every 105 fast source neutrons sec-1, and the fast group has 3 neutrons cm-2 sec-1 for every 105 fast source neutrons sec-1. At this same point the cascade flux (at 90 deg) is 1/3 neutron cm-2 sec-1 for every 105 fast source neutrons sec-1. In the graphite ref lector the epithermal neutron flux decreases with respect to the thermal flux by a factor of five more but the ratios of thermal neutrons to fast neutrons to cascade neutrons remain about the same.- 31 -The maximum fast flux is comparable to the maximum thermal flux reaching 2 x 1013 neutrons cm-2 sec-1 near the target can for a full power of 200 kW into the target. The cascade flux just beyond the target should reach about 1012 neutrons cm-2 sec-1 at full power.4.10 Control and InstrumentationA conceptual design study was completed and published in a report (TRI-69-8) which outlines the general philosophy for facility control. Enough detail has been included to indicate the feasibility of the approach. Detailed design has begun in order to implement the approach detailed in the report.Both personnel safety and machine safety systems will be hard­wired. The personnel safety system will be based on a system of controlled access areas,while radiation levels throughout the facility will be routed through area safety units to cen­tral control. Violation of a personnel interlock, or a change in radiation levels beyond prescribed limits, will result in interruption of beam delivery to the entire facility. The machine safety system will be based on beam characteristics. Both relative and absolute beam intensity 1imitsare proposed.A beam shut-off time of about 300 ysec is adequate for machine protection, but personnel protection requires the shortest possible beam shut-off time.A computer-based scanning and digitizing system is proposed for the ion source and injection system. Such a system will permit fast and flexible data processing, and equipment de­velopment will be simplified. The radio frequency will be a fixed reference to which the main magnetic field will be con­trolled. The main magnet will be regulated by either a current shunt, an NMR probe, or both. Trim and harmonic coils will be current regulated. A scanning system w i 11 monitor temp­eratures by measuring the coil voltages and currents and cal­culating thecoil resistance. Beam diagnostics probes will be- 32 -mounted at 90 deg intervals, two probes will measure beam cur­rent and two will be shadow probes. High energy beam transport optics will beset using one-word memories at power supplies. A slow scanning system will be used to log optics parameters. Diagnostic devices which are proposed include position, pro­file and intensity monitors.A completely manual central control system is not practical for this installation since it would involve unreasonable set­ting times and maintenance requirements for the 300 set points. Computer control which is redundant in CPU and I/O capability has been proposed. Operation communication with devices will proceed through the central control system using CRT-keyboard- shaft encoder stations. An integrated TV display system using standard TV monitors is proposed. TV camera output, computer graphics and analog signals from diagnostic devices all will be handled by the same system.Few if any control loops will be closed at commissioning. Data logging will be performed by a digital data acquisition system. Set points will be controlled by an operator using a digital link. As machine development progresses, control loops may be closed by computer.- 33 -5. SAFETYMembers of the Safety Advisory Committee met with the Accelerator Safety Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Control Board in Ottawa in April. A further joint meeting of the two committees was held in Vancouver in June at which all aspects of TRIUMF safety were reviewed. Following this meeting the Accelerator Safety Ad­visory Committee gave approval in principle to the TRIUMF safety program.During the latter part of the year the Safety Committee has been concerned with reviewing the building plans from the safety point of view. Close liaison is maintained with bodies such as the Work­men's Compensation Board, the University Fire Department, and the Provincial Fire Marshal's Office.During the year the Committee concentrated on those decisions, such as the location of emergency exits, required before the plans for the shell of the main building could be finalized. Decisions con­cerning arrangements within the building which will not be frozen by building design have been deferred for 1ater consideration. The Committee has attempted in all cases to arrive atdecisions in keep­ing wi th the safety design philosophy but at the same t i me has sought to reach conclusions which were not unnecessarily expensive or re­strictive.- 3** -6. CENTRAL REGION CYCLOTRON MODELEarly in the year it was decided to combine together the various full-scale prototype tests that had been proposed and to build a Central Region Model. The first stage of the model will consist of a vacuum tank with prototype resonators and will be used for studying the RF properties of the resonators under operating con­ditions. On conclusion of the resonator tests a magnet will be in­stalled and the centre region of the resonators w i 11 be modified to permit insertion of the centre post and inflector. It will then be possible to accelerate H" ions from an external ion source for ten orbits in order to study those beam properties near the centre, such as centring, focusing and stability, which largely determine beam quality throughout the acceleration and deflection process.At this time the major components for the first stage of the Central Region Model have been designed and ordered: the vacuum tank, the prototype resonators, the vacuum pumping system,the support struc­ture, and the anode power supply for the 200 kW RF power source,the latter to be built in-house. Figure 6.1 shows the detailed assem­bly of the model.Tests on the vacuum tank and system are scheduled to commence in February 1970,to be followed by installation of the prototype res­onators in May 1970. Tests on the resonators should be completed by October 1970, and the balance of the year's experimental pro­gram will be occupied in testing vacuum sealing methods and cryo- pumping systems. Installation of the magnet should commence in December 1970.In summary, the Central Region Model will provide a facility on which several cyclotron components, such as resonators, RF power source, vacuum equipment, ion source, injection beam transport com­ponents, inflector, resonator centre structure (beam slits) and beam diagnostic equipment, can be tested,and consequently valuable34'35 -2<ja1jui□o§2 Q(3uiLEUli-2uiu201IUjUI1JUIa□S2 □auiEEUI2 ui uCLc<u (/i- C  U lI- a) o ofDa)T3ocoEs_(UCLaia> *a oc ai ui<T3 to  1_  !_  4-1c  a> a) xi o ca> noJ Z  uOMS a)o -o o>- E-Q <D E x<u 4-1 UlUl >4-<  ov O<UL_3ai- 36 -time during commissioning of the machine can be saved, tion, it will provide a continuing facility for cyclotron ment studies after the machine becomes operational, thus interruption of the experimental program.In addi- i mprove- avoi d i ng- 37 '7. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERINGTRIUMF's Project Management Office is staffed by engineers on de­tached assignment from two consulting engineering firms: Shawinigan Engineering Company, Ltd. and Montreal Engineering Company, Ltd., both of Montreal, Quebec. These engineers are responsible for overall project supervision, contract management, accounting, pur­chasing and expediting,and scheduling. The group was instrumental in reducing delays in the construction of the Office, Laboratory and Workshop building to less than six weeks on a very tight con­struction schedule. An accounting system has been established which incorporates data from TRIUMF and the four co-operating univers­ities, and from which cash flow projections and reports on expen­ditures can be generated.7.1 Eng i neeri ngMost of the engineering contracts for the cyclotron during this year were placed with the prime engineering consultants, Dil- worth, Secord,Meagher and Associates Limited (DSM) of Toronto, in the form of conceptual, preliminary and detail design as­signments. William M. Brobeck 6 Associates (WMB) of Berkeley, California, have completed several conceptual design studies for special cyclotron and beam transport equipment; while Wright Engineers Limited of Vancouver, in co-operation with Arthur D. Little,Inc. of Cambridge,Mass. assisted in a study on various vacuum pumping concepts. The results of these as­signments were reported in Section h. Engineering for bui1dings and services is the responsibi1ity of G.E. Crippen & Associates Ltd. of North Vancouver.The consulting engineers' future effort will, in principle, be concerned with the detail design of the major cyclotron components - magnet cores, coils, support structure, vacuum chamber, resonators, etc., with conceptual design of special cyclotron equipment (e.g. beam probes and stripping foil mech­anisms) as required. As the TRIUMF group is built up to full- 38 -strength, the detail design (as well as some construction) of special cyclotron equipment will be undertaken in-house.7.2 ScheduleScheduling for the project is now being controlled by criti­cal path techniques, the amount of detail displayed on the schedule being varied in accordance with progress on the de­sign of the facility. During the year the computer program PROSE (Shawinigan Engineering Co.) was adapted to run on the IBM 360/67 computer installed at the Computing Centre of the University of British Columbia, and the updating calculations for the critical path network are now being done there.The following table indicates the target and actual dates for the major points on the schedule in 1969:ScheduleDateActualDateMagnet model performance tests complete Apr i 1 Apr i 1Resonator prototype spec i f i cat ions May JulyVacuum system concept June AugustCyclotron general design August AugustMagnet specifications August AugustBeam transport concept October OctoberMagnet contract awarded October Pend i ng (Dec.31)Construction - Office and Laboratory block September October7.3 ManpowerFigure 7.1 charts the manpower allocated to the project at the four universities and at the various consulting engineering fi rms.TOTAL MANPOWER- 39 "y-zh1 I5LUO<^ ± 3CO |—  1“cn o: coo<r CL3COQ<cr>cLUa>£oCL■ N3 ft —Figure 7-1 Manpower Resources-  8  -8. CONFERENCES ATTENDED AND PAPERS READCanadian Association of Physicists, Western Region Nuclear Physics Conference, Vancouver, B.C.Particle Accelerator Conference, Washington, D.C.M.K. Craddock and J.R. Richardson: "Magnetic fieldtolerances for the TRIUMF 500 MeV H“ cyclotron"Conference on High Energy Physics, Cambridge, U.K.Canadian Association of Physicists Congress, Waterloo, Ont.Canadian Nuclear Association Conference, Montreal, Que.J.J. Burgerjon and B.C. Stonehill: "TRIUMF ProgressReport"International Conference on High Energy Accelerators,Yerevan, Armenia, USSRInternational Conference on Nuclear Structure, Montreal, Que.Third International Conference on High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure, New YorkJ.B. Warren: "Tri-University Meson Facility"International Conference on Cyclotrons, Oxford, U.K.J.B. Warren: "The TRIUMF Project"M.K. Craddock, R.J. Louis and M. Reiser: "H" injectioninto the central region of the TRIUMF cyclotron"J.R. Richardson and M.K. Craddock: "Beam quality andexpected energy resolution from the TRIUMF cyclotron"L.P. Robertson, E.G. Auld, G.H. Mackenzie and A.J. Otter: "Extraction of multiple beams of various energies from the TRIUMF negative ion isochronous cyclotron"K.L. Erdman, A. Prochazka, O.K. Fredriksson, R.E. Thomas and W.A. Grundman: "A 'square-wave1 RF system design forthe TRIUMF isochronous cyclotron"E.G. Auld, S. Oraas, A.J. Otter, G.H. Mackenzie,J.R. Richardson and J.J. Burgerjon: "Design of theAOOO-ton magnet for the TRIUMF cyclotron"Engineering Institute of Canada, Vancouver, B.C.T.A. Creaney: "The TRIUMF Project"American Vacuum Society, Seattle, WashingtonAmerican Nuclear Society, San Francisco, CaliforniaFebruaryMarchMarchJuneJuneAugustSeptemberSeptemberSeptemberSeptemberOctoberNovember- 41 -9. REPORTS TRI-69-1TRI-69-2TRI-69-3TRI-69-4 TRI-69-5TRI-69-6 TRI-69-7TRI-69-8 TRI-69-9 TRI-69-10Electrical Dissociation of H" Ions by Magnetic F ieldsA Method of Locating the Magnetic Centre of a Quadrupole MagnetMagnetic Field Mapping System; An Operation S Service ManualPolarization Measurements for pp -*■ EENFMagnet Core Construction Concept for a 500 MeV H” CyclotronEnergy Resolution in a 500 MeV H“ CyclotronVacuum System Design Study for a 500 MeV H"Cyclotron Using a Scaled Model of the VacuumChamberConceptual Design Study for the TRIUMF Control SystemConceptual Design Study for the Vacuum Pumping System for a 500 MeV H” CyclotronPhase Space Acceptance of a Helical QuadrupoleChannel of Finite Length-  *42  -10. STAFFUBCFaculty:TRIUMF Payrol1 FromJ.B. Warren Professor Di rector 100G. Jones Professor (Control) 0D.L. Livesey Professor (Field Measurements) 0B.L . Wh i te Professor (Ion Source) 0E.W. Vogt Professor Assoc. D i rector 0K.L. Erdman Professor (RF) 0M.K. Craddock Assoc. Professor (Beam Dynamics) 100E.G. Auld Asst. Professor (Magnet) 0R.R. Johnson Asst. Professor (Control) 0D.A. Axen Asst. Professor (Vacuum) 0J.R. Richardson Visiting Professor (Consultant) 100 Apr 1Graduate StudentsS. Oraas (Magnet) 100R.J. Louis (Beam Dynamics) 100L. Friesen (Magnet) 100A. Prochazka (RF) 100L.W. Root (Beam Dynamics) 100tIUMF (Vancouver)J.J. Burgerjon Chief Engineer 100Vivienne Harwood Research Assoc. (Vacuum) 100M. Linton Research Assoc. (Comput i ng) 100G.H. Mackenzie Research Assoc. (Beam Dynamics) 100R. Gummer Research Assoc. (RF) 100A.J. Otter Research Engineer (Magnet) 100D. Sloan Research Assoc. (Control) 100 Apr 1M. Zach Research Engineer (CRM) 100 Jun 1R. Poi rier Research Engineer (RF) 100 Jul 1N. Brearley Reports and Documents 100 Aug 1E.W. Blackmore Research Assoc. (CRM) 100 Aug 15P. Faulconer Consulting Architect 80 . Sep 15J.W. Carey Plant Engineer 100 Oct 1*4M.R. Haines Research Asst. (Magnet) 100J.C. Yandon Research Asst. (Vacuum) 100N . Reh1i nger Research Asst. (Magnet) 100S. Scherrer Research Asst. (Magnet) 100M. Sanderson Research Asst. (Magnet) 100 Apr 8K. Poon Research Asst. (Magnet) 100 Jun 1D.A. Beale Research Asst. (RF) 100 Oct 1J. Fawley Research Asst. (RF) 100 Dec 1P. van Rook Research Asst. (Chief Draftsman) 100L.A. Udy Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100H. Hansen Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100A .T . Bowye r Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100Unt i 1Jun 30Nov 30Jun 30Nov 28 Nov 7- A3 " *TRIUMFIIUMF (Vancouver) cont1d . Payrol1 From Unt i 1D.C. Smith Research Asst. (Workshop Supervisor) 100M. Heinrich Research Asst. (Machinist) 100 Jan 29K. Dusbaba Research Asst. (Mach i n i st) 100S. Olsen Research Asst. (Machinist) 100 Mar 10A. Amstutz Research Asst. (Machi n i st) 100 Aug 1 1Ada Strathdee Secretary 100 -Beverly Little Secretary 100 Sep 30Darlene Anderson Secretary 100 Jan 22Irene Shepert Secretary 100 Jul 23Louise Guthrie Secretary 100 Aug 18 Nov 4Lynne Bass Accountant 100 Sep 8Nancy Palmer Secretary 100 Nov 17Else Elden Secretary 100 Dec 2Attached staff:T.A. Creaney Project Manager (SECo)D.L. Lancaster Contracts Manager (MECo) Apr 1A.D.G. Robinson Contracts Manager (MECo) Feb 10J . Ki1patrick Scheduling Engineer (SECo)D.A. Calder Civil Engineer (SECo) June 1UVicFaculty:R.M.L.P.D.E.G.R.G.A.C.S.C.E.PearceRobertsonLobbMasonBeerWuPicciottoProfessor (Beam Transport) 33-1/3Assoc. Professor (Extraction 33-1/3Asst. Professor (Beam Transport) 0Assoc. Professor 0Asst. Professor 0Asst. Professor 0Asst. Professor 0(till May) (from Sep)Aug 1Graduate Students:N. Al-Qazzaz P. James R. Harrison K. KongS.T. Lim D. Smith001001001000May 1 Sep 1TRIUMF (Victoria)T.A. Hodges M.F. Tautz P. Reeve R.W. Cobb W. Sperry T. WittenC. ChanD. Hunt J. Nelson Julia HuntResearch Engineer (Target) Research Assoc. (Beam Optics)Research Assoc. P.D.F.P.D.F.P.D.F.Senior Programmer Programmer-Analyst Technician Secretary(Beam Optics)(Magnet Measurements) (Secondary Beams) (Secondary Beams)100 100 100 80 100 100 33-1/3 100 100 100Jul 1Dec 1 (from Sep) Sep 1 Sep 1May 1SFUFacultyB.D. Pate R.G. Korteling J.M. D'Auria A.S. ArrottTRIUMF (Burnaby)S. Barken I.M. Thorson S. GujrathiProfessor (on leave, Asst. Professor Asst. Professor ProfessorResearch Assoc. Research Assoc. Research Asst.1969-70)(Nucl. Equip. Dev.) (Neutron Target)%TRIUMF Payrol10000(Nucl . Equip. Dev.) 100 (Shielding & Activation)l00100From UntilSep 1Nov 30UA1bertaFacultyG.C. Neil son Professor (Operating Committee) 0W.K. Dawson Professor (Control & Computing) 50J.T. Sample Professor (Board of Management) 0W.C. Olsen Assoc. Professor (Proton Users Group) 0G . Roy Asst. Professor (Vacuum) 0W.J. McDonald Asst. Professor 0G.A. Moss Asst. Professor (P Area Exp. Apparatus) 0D.M. SheppardrAsst. Professor (P Area) 0L1UMF (Edmonton)G. Stinson Research Assoc. 100B.L. Duel 1i Research Assoc. (Diagnostics) 100P. Kitching Research Assoc. 50E.B. Cairns Research Asst. 100J.B. Elliott Research Asst. 0R. Popik Research Asst. 0L. Holm Research Asst. 0Greta Tratt Secretary 0Elsie Hawi rko Secretary 0Audrey Forman Secretary 100- 45 -11. FINANCIAL STATEMENTStatement of revenue and expenditures April 1, 1968-March 31, 1969: RevenueAtomic Energy Control Board Grant $ 975,000Interest 27,760Total $1 ,002,760Add: Balance carried forwardfrom previous year" 29,**13$1 ,032,173Expend i turesSalaries $ 239,795Engineering contracts 245,795Construction contractsExperimental equipment 123,9^+7Consultants' fees 60,449Expendable supplies **7,315Travel 32,91**Telephone **,807Printing and copying 5,361Other 24,955Total $ 785,338Add: Balance on hand 246,835$1 ,032,173*This figure does not agree with the balance for 1967/68 shown in the last annual report. The financial statement in that reportwas a preliminary version.- A6 -Expenditures by major and minor codes, April 1, 1969"Dec. 31, 1969:A BPayments Commitments Totalat Dec. 31 at Dec. 31 (A + B)Major code breakdown:Project management $ 193,761 $ 78,837 $ 272,598Buildings 915,866 1*93,903 1,1+09,769Cyclotron 71*8,820 605,197 1 ,351*,017Experimental facilities 130,1*51 37,683 168,131*Technical services 108,266 19,873 128,139Experiments and equipment 15,97l< 10,393 26,367$2,113,138 $1,21*5,886 $3,359,021*Minor code breakdown:Pay rol 1 $ 3l*2 ,676Engineering services 865,1*17Construction payments 1*90,396Development equipment 69,266Capital equipment 176,571*Consultants' fees 79,081*Travel 53,112Telephone MACILTPrinting and copying 8,015Other 23,919$2,113,138-  hi -Appendix A USERS GROUPS AND COMMITTEES1. USERS GROUPS1 .1 Meson Users GroupW.J. McDonald UAlberta Physics G. Jones (Chm) UBC Phys i csG.C. NeiIson E.G. AuldW.C. Olsen D.A. AxenD. Sheppard D.S. BederM.K. CraddockR.G. Korteling SFU Chemi stry K.L. ErdmanR.R. JohnsonN. Al-Qazaz UVic Phys i cs D.L. LiveseyG.A. Beer K.C. MannD.E. Lobb P.W. MartinG.R. Mason J.M. McMillanR.M. Pearce E.W. VogtC.E. Picciotto B.L. WhiteL.P. Robertson J.B. WarrenD.C. Walker ChemistryR.W. Cobb TRIUMF Victoria E.W. Blackmore TRIUMF VancouverW. Sperry G.H. MackenzieD.W. Hone Royal Roads Military College Phys i csH.F. Batho Bri tish Columbia Cancer InstituteE.P. Hincks Carleton Un i vers i ty Phys i csD.O. Wells University of Manitoba Phys i csJ. Jovanovich University of Manitoba Phys i csD. Measday CERNN. Tanner Nuclear Laboratory, OxfordH.B. Knowles Washington State University Phys i csJ.E. Rothberg University of Washington Phys i csR.R. McLeod Western Washington State College Phys i csR. Atneosen Western Washington State Col lege Phys i cs1.2 Radiochemistry Users GroupG.R. FreemanH.E. GunningJ.M. D'Auria R.G. Korteling C.H.W. JonesG. Bushnel1 S.A. RyceUAlberta Chemistry SFU ChemistryUVic ChemistryD.C. Walker (Chm) UBC L.G. Harrison C.A. McDowell S. ZbarskyR. MorrisonChemistryBiochemi stryVancouver General Hospi tal-  k8  -1 .3 Slow Neutron Users GroupD.W. Hone (Chai rman)Royal Roads Mili tary Col legeB.D. PateC.H.W. Jones A . S . A r ro 11AJ. Trotter UBC Chemistry R.R. HaeringD.C. Walker A .V . Bree L.P. Robertson S.A. RyceK.B. HarveyC.A. McDowell G.R. FreemanL.W. Reeves R.R. McLeodRadiobioloqy and Radiotherapy Users GroupJ.M.W. Gibson B.C. Cancer Institute D.M. Ross(Cha i rman) G.R. FreemanA.M. Evans J . We i j e rD.M. White law W.C. MackenzieR.O. Kornelsen E.E. DanielM.E.J. Young A.A. NoujaimH.F. Batho L.G.S. Newsham T.R. OvertonN. Auersperg UBC Cancer Research J.R. NursallR.L. Noble 1 nst itute R.F. RuthH. StichD.C. Walker Chemi stry J.W. Scrimger1.McTaggart-Cowan Grad.Studies S .R. Us iskinJ.F. McCreary Med i ci neJ.B. Warren Phys i cs D.L. WeijerD.H. Copp PhysiologyV.J. Okuli tch Science Fac.W.S. Hoar Zoology B.G. Wi1 son R. ChurchR. Morrison Vancouver General J.B. CraggHosp i tal W.A. Cochrane S. Rowlands C .E . Chal1iceB.L. Funt B.D. PateSFU Science Fac. Chemi stry T.D. Cradduck H.E. DugganW.G. Fields UVic BiologyR.M. Pearce Phys i csL.P. RobertsonD.E. LobbG.B. FriedmannSFU ChemistryPhys i csUVic PhysicsChemi stryUA1 berta Chemi stryWestern Washington State Col 1egeUAlberta Science Fac. Chemistry Genet i cs Med i ci ne Pharmacology Phys iology Phys iology Rad iology Zoology ZoologyDr. W.W. Cross CancerInstitute, EdmontonUniversity Hospital,EdmontonUCalgary Arts&Sciences Biology Biology Medicine Medicine Phys i csFooth ills Hosp i tal ,CalgaryD.W. Hone Royal Roads MilitaryCol lege- i»9 -1.5 Proton Users GroupJ.T. Sample W.J. McDonald W.C. Olsen G.C. Neilson G.A. MossD.M. Sheppard G. RoyG.M. Stinson P. Kitching J.B. ElliottE .B . Ca i rns C.R. JamesF.E. VermeulenG.R. Freeman T.R. OvertonUAlberta Physics Nuclear Research CentreElec. Eng. Elec. Eng. Chemistry UAlberta Hospital - Clinical SciencesE.G. AuldD.A. Axen M.K. Craddock G.M. Griffiths R.R. Johnson G. JonesK.C. Mann P.W. MartinE.W. Vogt J.B. Warren B.L. White D.C. Wa1ke rUBCE.W.G.H.B1ackmore MackenzieTRIUMFB.D. Pate SFU Chemistry G.R. Mason UVicJ.M. D'Auria L.P. RobertsonR.G. Korteling R.M. PearceA.S. Arrott Physics D.E. LobbI.M. Thorson S.A. RyceR.R. McLeod R. AtneosenH.B. KnowlesD.O. Wells J.V. JovanovichH.F. BathoJ.R. RichardsonWestern Washington State College Western Washington State CollegeWashington State UniversityUniversity of Manitoba University of ManitobaBritish Columbia Cancer InstituteUCLAPhys i csChemi stry VancouverPhys i csChemi stryPhys i csPhys i cs Phys i csPhys i csCOMMITTEESBuilding CommitteeJ.B. Warren (Chairman)J.J. BurgerjonE.G. AuldJ.M. D'AuriaL.P. RobertsonW.J. McDonaldH.F. BathoT.A. Creaney (Secretary)TRIUMF Vancouver TRIUMF Vancouver UBC PhysicsSFU ChemistryUVic PhysicsUAlberta PhysicsB.C. Cancer Institute TRIUMF VancouverSafety CommitteeH.F. Batho (Acting Chairman) B.C. Cancer InstituteJ.H. SmithR.R. Johnson H.E. Rankin W. RachukR. Morrison T.A. Creaney (Secretary)B.C. Dept, of Health Services & Hosp. Ins.UBC PhysicsRoyal Roads, Physics UBC Radiation Pro­tection Officer Vancouver General Hospital TRIUMF VancouverExperimental Instrumentation CommitteeW.K. Dawson J.M. D'Auria D.A. Axen G. Jones W.C. Olsen G.R. Mason(Chai rman) UA1berta SFU UBC UBCUA1berta UVicPhys i cs Chemistry Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i csIAppend i x B TRIUMF SPECIFICATIONS- 51 -Extraction energy rangeMaximum beam current allowable (epoch D)Energy resolutionMaximum beam loss at 500 MeVMaximum operating pressureMaximum magnetic field500 MeV beam average radiusOrbit scalloping at 500 MeVOrbit separation (400 keV at 500 MeV)Injection energyH" ion source beam emittanceInternal beam emittance at T MeVVertical oscillation frequency ratio vzVertical oscillation amplitudeRadial oscillation frequency ratio v r - yRadial oscillation amplitudeAllowable phase excursionPhase acceptanceMAGNET:Number of sectorsWidth of sector at 311 in.Mean spiral angle at 311 in.Average magnetic field at 314 in.Average magnetic field at centreMagnet gapPole plate radiusMain coil radiusMain coil cross-sectionMain coil excitationMain coi1 powerMagnet weightCircular trim coils - number £ total power Harmonic coils - number & total powerRF:Ion rotation frequencyHarmon i cRadio-frequencyFrequency variationDee voltage peak to groundMaximum energy gain per turnRF power inputBeam apertureDimensions of each deeFraction of third harmonic (68 MHz)200 - 500 MeV200 yA at 500 MeV400 yA at 450 MeV750 yA at 300 MeV±600 keV (±50 keV sep. turns)4 yA by gas stripping 16 yA by electric stripping 7 x 10"° Torr ai r 5.76 kG 314 in.“3•1» +2.5 in.0.065 in.300 keVY:UEE in. mrad at 12 keV 0.1 6EE /50/T (1 - T/4000) in. mrad 0.35 ± 0.07 (0.25 ± 0.03)//f1.0 to 1.590.15/y* in. (0.03/y in. for sep. turns) ±5° (±1° for sep. turns)50° (14° for sep. turns)636.4°70°4.561 kG 2.977 kG20.8 in.338 in.348 in.20 x 20 in.720,000 ampere-turns 2500 kW 4000 tons 54 - 110 kW 72 - 110 kW4.53 VRB 5th22.66 MHz +3%100 kV 400 kV 1400 kW 4 in.122 in. x 636 i n .20% (1 1 .32% for sep. turns)

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