TRIUMF: Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics

Annual report, 1975 TRIUMF May 31, 1976

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


51833-TRI-Annual Report-1975.pdf [ 45.52MB ]
JSON: 51833-1.0107768.json
JSON-LD: 51833-1.0107768-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 51833-1.0107768-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 51833-1.0107768-rdf.json
Turtle: 51833-1.0107768-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 51833-1.0107768-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 51833-1.0107768-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

TR I UMFANNUAL REPORT 1975MESON FACILITY OF:UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIATRIUMFANNUAL REPORT 1975TRIUMFUNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER, B.C. .CANADA V6T 1W5A Cyc1otron vau11 B Beam line 1 C Beam ]i ne 4A D Beam 1ine 4B E Meson ha 11 F Proton ha 1 1 G Biomedical annex H Remote hand 1i ng laboratory and hot cel 1 I 'Chemistry' annex: design office and probes laboratory J Cyclotron service bridge (retracted) Service annex:K Control room 289 ft level L RF generator 276 ft level M Cooling S electrical serv i ces 276 ft level1 Pion spectrometer (Exp. 10) 62 Meson production target 1T23 Meson beam line M9 7 8 9(Exps. 9,23,41,42,52,53,57) ’ 104 Muon beam line M20(Exps. 35,73) 115 Biomedical pion beam line M8 12(Exps. 1,54,61)Future location thermal neutron fac i1 i tyMeson experimental local control rooms 60-in. (152-cm) scattering chamber (Exps. 3,6)Superconducting solenoid (Exp. 40) Liquid deuterium neutron production target (Exp. 40)13 Neutron collimator (Exp. 40) 20 Elastic and quasi-elastic proton14 Neutron (proton) detector (Exp. 40) scattering and pion production15 Experiment 40 trailer measurements (Exps. 12,14,15,16,24,58,16 Moderator tank (Exp. 48) 59,66,79)17 Gas-jet system (Exp. 11) 21 Medium resolution proton spectrometer18 Trailers for Experiments 3,6,11,48 22 Trailers for experiments on beam line 4B19 Cs target assembly for 123l 23 Trailer for Experiments 1,10,54production (Exp. 77) 24 Trailer for biomedical experimentsFOREWORDA fully operating meson factory is much more than an extracted beam from an accelerator— even when the accelerator is the large, complex cyclotron of TRIUMF which reached its major milestone of a first extracted beam in late 1974. In addition one needs beam lines, targets, major experimental facilities, shielding, remote handling and still much more— above all a cyclotron whose efficiency and reliability allows high intensity beams to be ex­tracted into a complete system of beam lines plus shielding and remote handling. In 1975 TRIUMF made many of the major steps toward becoming a fully operating meson factory.Visitors during 1975 will have noticed the massive shielding en­veloping the various beam lines and experiments. They may have detected the excitement about initial experiments or appreciated the satisfaction emanating from the achievement of many of TRIUMF's unique capabilities— such as variable energy and simultaneous beams. Perhaps less manifest was the steady progress in cyclo­tron performance after some initial teething problems with vacu­um and RF systems. Overall, it was a year of very satisfactory achievement.This report records, in some detail, much of the splendid effort of TRIUMF's Director, J.R. Richardson, and his team of scientists and engineers during 1975, and of the experimentalists embarking cm the initial research program. The most important scientific rewards should lie just ahead.E.W. VogtChairman of the Board of ManagementvHISTORYTRIUMF was established in 1968 as a laboratory operated and to be used jointly by the University of A1berta, Simon Fraser Uni­versity, the University of Victoria and the University of British Columbia. The facility is also open to other Canadian as well as foreign users.The experimental program is based on a cyclotron capable of ac­celerating two simultaneous beams of protons, individually vari­able in energy, from 180-520 MeV. The potential for high beam currents— 100 pA at 500 MeV to 300 pA at 400 MeV— qualified this machine as a 'meson factory'.Fields of research include basic science, such as medium-energy nuclear physics and chemistry, as wel 1 as applied research, such as nuclear fuel research and isotope research and production. There is also a biomedical research faci1ity which wi 11 use mesons in cancer research and treatment.The ground for the main facility, located on the UBC campus, was broken in 1970. Assembly of the cyclotron started in 1971. The machine produced its first ful1-energy beam in 1974.The laboratory employs approximately 135 staff on the main site. The number of university scientists associated with the initial scientific program is about 100.CONTENTSPageINTRODUCTION 1A. OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FACILITIES 31 . Cyclotron 32. Beam Development 73. Beam Line Development 19A. 100-yA Task Force 225. Ion Source and Injection System 236 . RF System 277. Cyclotron Magnet Elevating System 288 . Magnet Power Supplies 299. Vacuum System 3010. Beam Probes 3111. Control System 3212. Safety 3413* Beam Lines and Experimental Facilities 36General 361T2 Production Target 37Liquid Hydrogen Targets 38Meson Hal 1 39M9 Channel 39M20 Channel 41M8 Channel and Biomedical Facility 42Thermal Neutron Facility 43Proton Hall 44Scattering Chamber 44Time-of-Flight Mass Identification Facility 44FERFI CON Faci1ity 45Experimental Facilities on Beam Line 4B 46MRS Proton Spectrometer 4614. Remote Handling 4715• Sh ield ing 4816. Site, Buildings and Services 4917• New Fac i1i t i es 5018. Instrumentation 51B. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL PROGRAM 531 . Introduct ion 532. Beam Line 1 Experiments 543. Beam Line 4A Experiments 614. Beam Line 4B Experiments 665. Theoretical Program 76v i  iC. ORGANIZATIOND. FINANCIAL STATEMENTPage7880APPENDICES1. Conferences 822. Publicat ions 833- Staff 85Users Group 895. List of Experiment Proposals 91v i  i iINTRODUCTIONAs reported last year, the first acceleration of H“ beam to the design energy of 500 MeV was accomplished on December 15, 197^. The first fewmonths of 1975, therefore, were an exciting time as several of the remain­ing goals were realized quite quickly. After insta1lation of the stripper foil mechanism in early January, a unique advantage of the TRIUMF cyclo­tron— the extraction of a variable energy proton beam— was demonstrated and beams of energies from 183 to 520 MeV were transported to the beamline AB dump in the proton hall. In February, as soon as the beam line 1components in the meson hall became operational, a second beam was ex­tracted down this line from a fixed foil. Simultaneous extraction of beams of differing energies was then achieved, with a portion of the cir­culating beam extracted at several different energies along beam line A and the remaining beam extracted at a fixed energy along beam line 1 . Subsequently, energy variation in both lines was achieved routinely.The remainder of the year 1975 at TRIUMF has been devoted to three main objectives:1) Investigating and improving the properties of the cyclotron beam in the energy range 180-525 MeV and the performance of the three external beam lines2) Improving the reliability of the major componentsof the facility3) Starting some research programs in intermediate-energy nuclear scienceBecause of lack of shielding, the proton beam intensities have been held down to 0.5 pA with 100% duty factor, although 50 pA at 1% duty factor has been accelerated as a test. This is to be compared with the design current for the proton beam of 100 pA. The energy resolution of the proton beams, FWHM, is less than 1 MeV in the energy range from 200 to 525 MeV. This will be improved further by improving the radial emittance of the cyclotron.A polarized H“ beam of 250 nA intensity has been passed through the injec­tion system of the cyclotron. In accordance with the previous experience with our unpolarized source, we will expect at least 20 nA of 80% polarized H" ions to be accelerated to 500 MeV. Here also the energy will be variable from 180-525 MeV. (This milestone was actually achieved in March 1976.)The following facilities are in operating condition:1) Variable energy neutron beam from p + d (200-500 MeV)2) Gas jet system for spectroscopy studies of short-lived spallation product nuclei3) Scattering chamber for study of heavy fragments from fission and spallation reactionsA) Large scattering stand for study of light nucleus reaction products5) Stopping ir and p channel6) Special channel for studies with muon spin precession in chemistry and solid-state physics7) Two large Nal crystals for study of rare processes involving the emission of high-energy gamma rays or electrons or neutral pions8) Biomedical channel for development of radiotherapy with negative pionsThus we see that during 1975 the main features of TRIUMF which make it a meson factory of outstanding flexibility have been proven. It remains now to complete the development and make use of these features.During 1975 some 16 experiments were started (nine on beam line 1, fouron beam line t^A and three on beam line 4B) . However, becauseof the heavy emphasis on facility development and improvement of reliability, only two of these experiments were completed in 1975.I would like to express the thanks of TRIUMF to several members of theTRIUMF Board of Management who left the Board during 1975 after a numberof years of valuable service. They are Dr. J.T. Sample of the University of Alberta and Dr. H.W. Dosso and Dr. S.A. Jennings of the University of Victoria.J. Reginald Richardson Di rector2A. OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF FACILITIESDuring most of 1975 the available cyclotron beam time was divided between beam dynamics studies inside the cyclotron, commissioning the external beam lines, and delivering first beam to experimenters' targets. Formal scheduling of beam time started on April 9, in meetings of experiment representatives presided over by the Director.The highlights of the operation of the facility are indicated in Fig. 1. More detail of the achievements will be found in the reports on beam development and on the beam lines and experimental facilities. Details of the problems encountered during the year will also be found in various group reports, notably the RF system which was responsible for most of the downtime throughout the year.1 .CYCLOTRONOperationThe operation of the cyclotron during the commissioning period was on the basis of two 8-hour shifts per day, l^t shifts per week, with three oper­ators and a safety officer on each shift assisted by one or more machine physicists. As many new systems were being brought into operation during this period and the working systems were continuously being improved, the assistance of many of the support groups was also required for successful machine operation. For this reason, round-the-clock operation was not possible until May when system reliability reached a level where the operators could handle most problems and support group intervention could be on an on-call basis.The control system proved to be extremely flexible and was responsible for much of the improved machine performance and reliability. Initially, considerable downtime was caused by problems with the many magnet trim coil power supplies. The implementation of software to scan the many machine parameters, and indicate when faults occurred, eliminated most of the delays caused by this and similar problems. Considerable machine set­up time has been saved by the capability of storing the values of most of the machine parameters on request and re-establishing these values when required. This is especially useful for setting up the beam lines, as tapes of the required settings of beam line components exist for most of the desired energies. These tapes are updated as improved beam line tunes are found.In May the machine operating cycle was changed to 2^-hour operation start­ing on Tuesdays at 0700 and terminating on Saturdays at 1100. Maintenance is carried out by the support groups on Mondays. Beam time is presently scheduled in 1 2-hour shifts.3INSTALLATION OF BL4 STRIPPEREXTRACTION 183-520 MeV FIRST BEAM TO BL4B DUMPCOMBINATION MAGNET 4 DAMAGEDPROBES INSTALLATIONLN2 SPILL ON SUPPORT STRUCTURESIMULTANEOUS BEAMS AT DIFFERING ENERGIESSUPPORT STRUCTURE REPAIRS INSTALLATION OF BL1 STRIPPERRF AND PROBES PROBLEMSBEAM TIME SCHEDULE IN EFFECTBEAM TO 1T2 IN BL1SIMULTANEOUS BEAMS TO EXPERIMENTSSHUTDOWN FOR RESONATOR REALIGNMENT AND LEAKAGE MEASUREMENTSFIRST MESONS IN BIOMEDICAL CHANNEL 48 uA PEAK CURRENT ACCELERATEDFIRST MESONS DOWN M9 AND M20BL1 INTENSITY TO 300 nA BL4A INTENSITY TO 60 nASHUTDOWN FOR RF LEAKAGE  S T U D I E SWATER LEAKS IN CENTRE RESONATORSCYCLOTRONOPERATIONALSCHEDULEDSHUTDOWNUNSCHEDULEDSHUTDOWNWATER LEAK IN CENTRE RESONATOR DAMAGE TO RESONATOR SKIRTSSHUTDOWN FOR MAJOR MODIFICATIONS TO CENTRE RESONATORSFig. 1. Cyclotron performance 1975.PerformanceThe performance of the cyclotron is summarized in Fig. 2 and Table I. In spite of the many problems encountered during the first year of operation, machine availability, as defined by the ratio of hours of cyclotron opera­tion to scheduled operating time, is quite creditable. What was not as successful, from the experimentalists' viewpoint, was the number of hours delivering a beamon target which satisfied their particular requirements. Although there were long periods of very stable operation with good qual­ity beams extracted along both beam lines, indicating the capability of the machine, there were also periods of unstable operation, or operation with beams of poor quality. The solutions to the problems of beam quality, ease of simultaneous extraction and beam intensity splitting (from the beam dynamics point of view) are well in hand. Indeed the understanding of the beam dynamics inside the cyclotron was one of the successes of operation during the year. The achievements are listed in Table II (p.8), and are described in detail in the section on beam development.The proton beam intensity has been intentionally kept low during normal operation to minimize machine activation. Intensity limits have been set on the beam loss inside the cyclotron and on the spill along the beam lines as measured on spill monitors connected to the safety system. As5the transmission through the cyclotron improved by better tuning and a better vacuum, the spill along the beam lines became the limiting factor in determining the beam intensity on target. However, increased effort by the Beam Development group in understanding the beam line transport and improvements in the extracted beam emittance have resulted in 300-nA operation along beam line 1 and 50-nA operation along beam line 4A with greatly reduced spills.Early in 1976, the current along beam line 1 will be increased to 1 yA, the limit determined by the present beam line shielding. A task force on 100-yA operation is scheduling the necessary beam measurements and hard­ware improvements to achieve this goal, with 10 yA operation an interme­diate objective for later in the year.Table I. Summary of Machine Performance Apri1-December 1975Scheduled operating time (hours) 2368Cyclotron Start-up and shutdown 155Tune-up and development 392Beam 1i ne 1 Extracted beam 578Beam 1i ne k Extracted beam 676Total hours of operation 1226Downtime - System failures 987RF system 306Resonator water leaks 367ISIS 130Vacuum 62Magnet 23D iagnost i cs 17Beam 1i nes 36Controls 28Safety system 9Services 9Machine availability (average) 5 1 .8%6DowntimeThe problems of downtime or unstable operation due to hardware faults are still with us and will require considerable effort to solve in the coming year. The distribution of downtime by subsystem indicates that the major source of problems has been in the RF system, and in particular with the resonators inside the vacuum tank. As might be expected, the task of con­taining 1.4 MW of RF power in a large cavity is not trivial. Initially, problems showed up as burnt contacts between resonator sections, RF leak­age outside the resonator cavity which damaged and restricted the use of the diagnostic probes, and unexplained frequency shifts of the resonators. Just when it appeared that some understanding of the problems was being gained, a series of water leaks occurred in the centre resonators due to RF damage. During conditioning after one of these water leaks was repaired, some melting of the resonator tip skirts occurred in the central region.As most of the difficulties were associated with the centre resonators, it was decided toeliminate a possible source of the problems, the special root elements installed to improve the third harmonic quality factor. This removal may delay implementation of third harmonic operation but will, it is hoped, improve reliability at present for fundamental operation.The ion sourceand injection system performed well. The major reason for downtime here was the filament power supply inside the ion source. The vacuum pressure inside the cyclotron is typically 5 x 10-8 Torr with the RF off and 1.5 x 10- 7  Torr with the RF on. The major component of the residual gas with the RF on is hydrogen. An improvement in the speed of hydrogen pumping is planned using cryogenic pumping at 3 .5°K.Other sources of downtime were the many power supplies for the magnet trim and harmonic coils and the beam line components. As the settings of these power supplies stabilized, these delays have substantially reduced.2. BEAM DEVELOPMENTThe first year of cyclotron operation has seen a considerable diversifi­cation in the activities of the group concerned with beam behaviour in the cyclotron, reflected in the change in title from 'Beam Dynamics' to 'Beam Development'. In the first place, beam behaviour can now be studied by experiment, as well as by calculation. [Here it is a pleasure to acknowledge the work of the Probes and Controls groups which has made possible the measurements described below.] Secondly, the group's members have provided the core of 'beam physicists' on duty during day and even­ing shifts, responsible for tuning up and maintaining the beam properties. Thirdly, as the beam lines have become commissioned, responsibility for beam studies and diagnostic equipment has devolved onto the group. In addition, individual members have assumed responsibility for the co­ordination of activities on the primary beam lines and for the newly set­up 100-yA and Separated Turn task forces.7In the twelve months since ions were first accelerated to 500 MeV, considerable progress has been made towards meeting the beam design speci­fications. Table II gives a description of the best beam performance achieved— though not yet always available on a regular basis— and a compar­ison with the original specifications.Table II. Beam PerformancePropertyAch ieved Design AimInitial Best to 31/12/75 1972 1966Energy range 183-520 MeV 165-500 MeV 200-500 MeVCurrent 0.1 nA 0.3 yA 48 yA pulsed100 yA (500 MeV) 300 yA (450 MeV)100 yA (500 MeV) 350 yA (450 MeV)Microscopic duty factor maximum mini mum11% 11% (5 nsec) 4% (chopped)20% (3rd harmc) 1% (siits)25%Transmission (5 -*■ 520 MeV) 70% 86% 80%Split ratio (Line 4/Line 1) 5 ± 1 x 10-“ 5± 5 x 10_l+Isochronism (sin <(0 ±0.9 ±0.6 ±0.1Vertical centring ±1 in. (25 mm)±0.15 in. (4 mm)±0.25 in. (7 mm)Energy spread (10% peak) restricted phase spread (10% peak)3 MeV 2.0 MeV 1.5 MeV<1.8 MeV0 .5 (slits)0.1 (3rd harmc)1.5 MeVRadial emittance external (90%) 20 n mm-mrad M ES mm-mrad O SN mm-mrad 2 ir mm-mradVertical emittance external (90%) internal20 ir mm-mrad 3 ir mm-mrad 1 ir mm-mrad2.4 ir mm-mrad 1 .2 ES mm-mrad 1 .6 ir mm-mradBeam spot size at 1T2 40 x 40 mm 3 x 14 mm 2 x 10 mmTransmissionFollowing successful acceleration of the first ions to 500 MeV in December 197^, the first task in the new year was to improve the beam transmission through the cyclotron. Under optimum conditions 8% of the dc beam from ISIS has now been accelerated to 500 MeV— the injection efficiency being 11% and the transmission through the cyclotron 70%. These figures are close to the theoretical maxima for the present RF voltage and residual vacuum, in the absence of third harmonic RF.The beam loss at injection is entirely attributable to the 40° limitation to the phase acceptance. With a dee voltage of 85 kV, only those ions within ±A5° of the RF voltage peak-phase gain enough energy to clear the centre post on their first turn, and only those within ±^0° are expected to have good enough radial centring to remain in the beam. Furthermore, ions with negative (leading) phases suffer vertical defocusing on their first few crossings of the dee gap and are also lost. This process can be followed in Fig. 3, where the total current measured on probe LEI at various radii has been plotted against injection phase for a beam restricted to 15° width by means of the ISIS chopper. This figure also illustrates the importance of the electrostatic vertical steering plates in retaining ions with phases close to zero over the central region; these ions are potentially the most valuable since they can yield the finest beam quality and energy resolution.The transmission of beam through the cyclotron is illustrated in Figs. ^a (LEI probe, 1-60 MeV) and Fig. 5 (HE1 probe, 80-500 MeV). It is clear that after selection of the phase acceptance on the first few turns, the beam continues to the full energy of 500 MeV with no significant localized losses. (The small irregular current variations in Fig. Aa are caused by part of the probe head being inoperative, and in Fig. 5 by variations in distribution of the beam across the probe fingers, which have different detection efficiencies.) Confirmation that there are no significant phase losses due to beam dynamic effects is provided by obser­vations that the time spectrum of the external beam consists of 5~nsec pulses every RF period of kb nsec— i.e. a microstructure duty factor of 1 1%, consistent with the 40° phase acceptance at injection.9RAD IUS (in)Fig. 4. (a) Total current on the 2.0-in.-wide x 2.2-in.-high probe LEI as a function of radius;(b) current on the 0.2-in.-wide differential section of probe LEI, with the beam steered off centre to display radial precession patterns and turn structure at large radii. Both traces were taken with unrestricted phase acceptance.Fig. 5 shows a gradual loss of beam with radius consistent with that ex­pected for stripping of the H” ions by the residual gas molecules in the vacuum tank (as shown by the smooth curve). Direct measurements of the loss of beam caused by the deliberate injection of hydrogen and air into the tankare shown in Fig. 6. The loss observed for air is in good agree­ment with that predicted from a relativistic extrapolation of B.T. Wright's formula1 fortheair stripping cross-section. For hydrogen, allowing for the reduced sensitivity of the ion gauge, the stripping cross-section appears to be a factor 4 or 5 smaller. For the present residual vacuum of 10- 7 Torr of air and 2 x 10- 7 Torr of hydrogen, the total loss of beam is about 20%; however, because most of the loss occurs at low energies the 'power-equivalent' loss of 500-MeV protons is only 4%.H“ ions can also be torn apart by the oppositely directed forces experi­enced by the proton and two electrons as the ion orbits in the magnetic field of the cyclotron. The total loss due to this electromagnetic strip­ping is predicted to be 1% at 450 MeV, 7% at 500 MeV and 17% at 530 MeV. Measurements of beam transmission near 500 MeV are consistent with a lossFig. 5. Total current on probe HE1 as a function of radius. The smooth curve illustrates the theoretical fall-off due to gas stripping. No electric stripping is discernible.1 B.T. Wright, Arch. Math. Naturvidenskab 54.(2) , 9 (1957)RADIUS in)ENERGY (MeV)_1$Q_____________2pQ_________ ,------------- 2PQ---------j--------------------T------5S»10arcsin 0Fig. 6. Beam survival as a function of radius for pressure increase of 5xl0~7 Torr. Note log scale of ordinate.of this magnitude (Fig. 7); however, variations in probe efficiency of the same order of magnitude make it impossible to say that the effect has been identified unequivocally so far.IntensityIn view of the installation work still to be completed in the vacuum tank it has been necessary to restrict the beam intensity in the cyclotron; with the present beam transmission of 70%, the limit set permits accelera­tion of 300 nA on average to 500 MeV. 300 nA beams have in fact been delivered to the pion production target 1T2 in beam line 1 for extended periods. Beam line AA, with less shielding, has been limited to 50 nA. The independence of the two beams is such that it has been possible to raise their intensity ratio to 2000:1 without the fluctuations in the less intense beam exceeding 25%.To investigate whether higher currents could cause beam dynamic problems, a beam of A8 pA was accelerated to 500 MeV during one 10-psec pulse everyDATA FROM JULY 22/75 18:50 hrs. SCAN f = 23.055 MHZTOTAL BEAM  CURRENT  R E L A T IV E  TO BEAM  IN JECTED5% 4 % - -  3 % - -  2%-- I %■■ E (M eV ) 450 /—46 0 47 0 48 0 4 9 0  —\— 5 00  — \ -  310510 520 — U- — I-315RADIUS (In) He 2 300 305Fig. 7. Beam vs. radius at high energy. Predicted EM stripping normalised at 450 MeV.1 1millisecond. These pulses are long enough to fill 46 consecutive turns in the cyclotron and reveal any inter-turn effects on the beam. No change in behaviour was observed, as expected, since a beam of 100 yA (time average intensity— not pulsed) has previously been accelerated in the central region cyclotron through the region where any intensity effects should be most significant. Further work towards increasing the beam intensity is described in the report of the 100-yA task force.SteeringThe absence of transmission losses due to beam dynamic effects indicates that the beam is being steered at least within the transmission window defined by the 3“ in. (7 .6-cm) vertical gap between the upper and lower resonators and the l80°-wide accelerating half of the RF cycle. In order to obtain good beam quality and reduce the sensitivity of the tune to drifts or changes in field, finer steering is necessary to bring the beam as close as possible to the ideal orbit, centred radially, vertically and in phase. Good vertical centring has in practice also proved vital in extracting simultaneous beams at different energies; vertical excursions combined with extraction probe travel limitations can make it impossible to strip only part of the beam on an inner stripping foil (with the rest continuing on to an outer one), and can also complicate stripped beam trajectories. As will be described below, considerable success has been achieved in bringing the beam level close to the median plane, and a start has been made in reducing the radial and phase excursions.Phase historyThe phase history has been investigated by two methods. Over the range of extraction energies (183-520 MeV) the time of arrival of protons scattered from an external beam monitor (4VM2) can be measured relative to an RF signal. Correction must be made for differences in flight path at different energies, but these do not exceed one RF period (43 nsec). With a chopped beam the timing peak had a 2.5_nsec FWHM, making possible a time resolution of 0.25 nsec or 2° in phase. The ease of varying the extraction energy enables the phase history to be measured relatively quickly— a measurement at every 10 MeV from 183 to 520 MeV can be completed in just over an hour.At energies below 183 MeV [R < 220 in. (559 cm)] the phase history <j>(r) was also probed by means of the trim coils, using a special control mode in which any two or three coils could be run together, the ratio of their currents being chosen to give a localized phase change. Fig. 8 shows the changes in sin <|> which were sufficient to remove 50% of the beam, as observed at 500 MeV, for various trim coil pairs and triplets. The phase history curve for the median phase should touch each of these curves at the radius of loss. The value of sin <j> at the loss radius can also be inferred from the rate of beam loss with change in trim coil current (diamonds). Though this method offers far less precision than timing the external beam, the figure shows that it is capable of determining the broad outlines of the phase history; indeed there is good agreement12Fig. 8. Phase history sin <j> as a function of radius (heavy curves). The light curves shew the local changes in sin <(> needed to remove 50% of the beam at 500 MeV.between the two methods in the region of overlap from 220- to 260-in. (559- to 660-cm) radius. From 260 in. (660 cm) outwards, the oscillations in phase agree in position with those predicted from the magnetic field sur­vey, although their amplitude is somewhat larger. The large oscillations at smaller radii may be attributed to installation of equipment including steel parts (e.g. probe drive motors) after the end of the field survey. The trim coil current changes needed to reduce the oscillations between 90 and 210 in. (229 and 533 cm) have been computed and implemented (dashed curve). Spot checks with two triplets (dotted curve) confirmed the improvement. The oscillation between 200 and 260 in. (508 and 660 cm) remains to be corrected.Time of flightThe flight time of the ions between the ion source and an external target has been measured for a 480-MeV extracted beam. 10-ysec-long beam pulses 1 msec apart were produced by means of a square wave pulse generator. The signal produced in a scinti1 lator by protons scattered from the target were compared on an oscilloscope with the trailing edge of the square wave, delayed by a known amount. The flight time in the cyclotron was found to be 310 ysec, indicating that 1^30 turns were taken in reaching ^80 MeV, and that the average value AN U cos (j> = 8k kV. If the dee voltage A N U is assumed to be 90 kV, as indicated by the most recent central region orbit measurements, and uniform with radius (see below), then cos <J> = cos 2 1 °.In a separate experiment, the time of flight between the ion source and one of the high-energy probes was measured between 150 and 500 MeV. The time was found to increase linearly with energy, within 2 or 3 ysec, indicating that the dee voltage does not vary significantly along the dee gap. However, small oscillations were observed around linearity and13these showed interesting correlations with the oscillations in phase illustrated in Fig. 8. It is hoped to improve the resolution and accuracy of measurement (at present 1-2 psec) by an order of magnitude in order to explore the possibilities of using the method for tuning and measuring the phase history.Vertical steeringVertical displacements of the beam outside the central results of vertical asymmetries in the magnetic field, field component Br will displace the equilibrium orbit vert ically by _RBrF EACIL Tvz“zwhere Bz is the average vertical component of the magnetic field and vz is the vertical tune (number of betatron oscillations per turn). Thus the TRIUMF cyclotron, which is designed with relatively large R and low Bz (to avoid electromagnetic stripping of the H“ ions) and also low , is particularly sensitive to Br components. Because of the scalloping of the orbits, harmonic components of Br and Bq can also contribute to the vertical displacement, effectively altering ETr. At the radius of greatest sensitivity to this effect, where v| has its minimum value of 0.02, an effective Br of only 0.3 G causes an excursionof 1 in. (2.5 cm). In spite of this sensitivity, it has been possible to reduce the verti­cal excursions to within ±0.15 in. (k mm) everywhere from 65 to 520 MeV. Fig. 9 illustrates three successive stages in the adjustment of the kb asymmetrically powered trim coils. These results were achieved with the aid of an interactive computer code which predicts the adjustments in current needed to correct the beam level; the mean beam level is it­self computed on-line from the currents on the five fingers of the HE probe. Beam level measurements have also provided the clearest evidence yet of the stability level of the undisturbed magnetic field: over aFig. 9. Mean vertical displacement of the beam from the median plane between ISO in. (381 cm - 70 MeV) and 310 in. (787 cm - 500 MeV) radius for three successive stages of computer tuning the 44 asymmetrically powered trim coils.region are the A mean radial of mean radius R]k.150-.125. 100 -.0 7 5 -.050.025Fig. 10. v |  as a function of radius.The points were obtained from measure­ments with the beam, the curve from calculations based on a magnetic field survey."''150 175 200  225 250  275 300RADIUS (inch)period of three weeks running without the upper magnet being raised, the beam level was observed to be reproducible to within ±0.1 in. (2.5 mm).The equation above suggests a direct method of measuring the axial tune vz by observing the change in mean height of the beam for a given change in Br, obtained by adjusting the trim coil currents. In practice, the currents were adjusted in a group of neighbouring coils so as to give a uniform change in Br over a range of radii. The observed change in mean height at the probe azimuth was corrected for the sector-modulation of the envelope, to give the true change in the azimuthally averaged height. Fig. 10 illustrates the results of the measurement, compared with a curve derived from orbit calculations based on the magnetic field survey. The agreement appears to be reasonably good. The accuracy of the measure­ments was chiefly limited by the requirement that no beam should be driven off the probe head; as a result the permissible displacements were only of the order of the finger width, and sometimes smaller.Radial steeringThe radial centring of the beam at high energies is an essential factor in determining the precise energy of a beam extracted from a particular radius. The radial deviations from the ideal centred orbit are a conse­quence of the imperfection (non 6-fold) harmonics of the magnetic field. The radial centring was investigated experimentally above 70 MeV by means of shadow measurements of the beam radii on the two HE probes, 180° apart. The difference between these two radii exhibited radial varia­tions of ±0.3 in. (8 mm) amplitude, in reasonable agreement [<0.05 in. (1 . 3 mm)] with the variations predicted from the odd harmonics of the magnetic field.15In order to check the energy calibration of an extracted beam, the Experiment 10 group determined the energy of an extracted beam to be 348.3 ± 1.7 MeV by momentum analysis of pions from the (pp -> dir) reaction. The energy expected from the stripping foil location, corrected for errors in radial centring, was 348.6 ± 0.8 MeV.Radial beam qualityThe energy resolution and radial emittance of the external beams are determined by the radial quality of the internal beam. This depends on a number of factors, firstly beam emittance at the ion source, secondly steering and emittance-matching at injection, thirdly radial-longitudinal coupling, and finally resonances between the beam and magnetic field im­perfections, principally the first harmonic imperfection. The emittance of the col 1 imated beam leaving the ion source at 12 keV is 30 it mm-mrad, corresponding to 0.13  ^mm-mrad at 500 MeV, or an incoherent radial betatron amplitude A r = 0.03 in. (0.8 mm).At injection the beam must be steered into the cyclotron with the correct direction, radius and energy. If it is not, the ions will develop oscil­lations about the ideal orbit which are coherent for individual phases, but which effectively increase the incoherent amplitude of the whole beam. The resulting radial precession patterns are i11ustrated in Fig. 4b where the beam was deliberately steered off-centre to enable the radial betatron oscillation frequency v r to be estimated from the number of turns between peaks ( = (vr-l)_1).To determine the quality of centring immediately after injection requires measurements at several azimuths. Unfortunately damage by RF currents has severely curtailed use of the low-energy (LE) probes and completely prevented operation of the centring probes. Consequently our experimental knowledge of the beam behaviour from injection to 70 MeV is very limited. On one occasion, however, observations were made on the first few turns using both LE probes, 180° apart. The orbit centres appeared to be dis­placed 0.4 in. (10 mm) southwards, while the average radii were larger than expected, indicating too high an injection energy. The energy was lowered by 10 keV, resulting in the radial emittance of the external beam being halved, the energy resolution improved, and the tune of the magnetic field becoming less sensitive. In the absence of further direct measure­ments on the central orbits, the initial steering and focusing provided by ISIS and the inflector and deflector have been adjusted empirically to optimize the overall transmission and the beam energy resolution after extraction.On the final two factors affecting radial beam qua 1ity,(radial-longitudina1 (r-<j>) coupling and imperfection harmonics in the magnetic field), no direct measurements from the orbits are available. The effect of coupling between the radial and phase motions over the initial orbits is to in­crease the effective oscillation amplitude A r, but this increase can be minimized by a suitable choice of phase history. A first harmonic compon­ent of magnetic field produces a resonance near the centre, where v r = 1 ,16and drives the orbits off-centre, again increasing the effective A r. In the absence of orbit measurements, the phase history and first harmonic near the centre have been adjusted empirically by means of the circular and harmonic trim coils to optimize the transmission and energy resolut ion.The amplitude A r of the radial betatron oscillations can be estimated from measurements of the width of the shadow cast by one HE probe on the other, diametrically opposite. Such measurements have been made at 80-MeV [ 160-in. (^06-011) radius], a sufficiently large radius that the chief factors responsible for worsening the radial beam quality, as described above, should have completed their work. At higher energies, as vr deviates from unity and the radius gain per turn falls relative to A r, the measurement becomes less sensitive and more difficult to interpret. The shadow width found at 80 MeV indicated Ar = 0.25 ± 0.05 in. (7 mm ± 1.3 mm). Such an oscillation amplitude would be expected to yield a 500-MeV external beam with radial emittance 6 ± 1 tt mm-mrad (twice the design aim) and total energy spread 1.6 ± 0.2 MeV.Energy resolutionThe energy spread of the external beam has been obtained from measure­ment of the beam profile at a dispersed focus on beam line 4B. Since this method depends on separating the contribution of energy spread and emit­tance to the profile width, an experimental technique has been developed to check the beam line transfer matrix elements. This uses a combina­tion of stripper foil movement with harmonic and trim coil changes to alter any one of the energy, position and direction of the extracted beam independently of the others. By this means, the dispersed focus in beam line ^B has been checked at kOO MeV, and the magnification and dis­persion found to be 0.86 ± 0.16 and —11.0 ± 1.5 cm/% Ap/p, respectively, compared to calculated values of 0.75 and -12.6 cm/% Ap/p.Fig. 11 shows the horizontal profiles measured at three energies about 1 MeV apart near 500 MeV, using a gas- filled multi-wire propor­tional chamber. The wire spacing was 2 mm, so that the dispersion amounted to about 0.2 MeV/wire. The full curves, taken with the unrestricted phase accept­ance at k0°, show a FWHM of 0.9 MeV and a width at 10% of the peak height of 2 ± 0.2 MeV, after correc­tion for the finite image size. The dashed profile (normalized to the sameH.C. » I 2 ; OFFCHO PPER : C A LC U LA T E D :OFF ENERGY T * 400 .5  MeVFig. 11. Beam profiles at a momentum dispersed focus.17area) was measured for a chopped beam of 15° phase width; the FWHM is 1i ttle changed but the width at 10% peak height is reduced to 1.5 ± 0.2 MeV.External beam emittanceThe emittance of the external beam has been estimated using three methods. In the first, the beam width is measured at a waist and at the exit of the preceding quadrupole. In the second method, beam profiles are measured at three locations separated by drift spaces; the emittance is taken to be the largest ellipse in phase space consistent with these profiles. In the third method, profiles are measured downstream of a quadrupole for a number of different quadrupole current levels. Theo­retically the beam width should vary hyperbolically with quadrupole strength for an elliptical emittance; a least-squares fit to the data gives the shape and area of the emittance. For optimum results, the line upstream is tuned to bring the beam close to a waist at the entrance to the quadrupole used.The radial emittance for 90% of the beam, immediately downstream of the stripping foil, was found to be 5 ± 2 tr mm-mrad. This is consistent with the measurement of radial oscillation amplitude at 80 MeV, and indicates that the radial beam quality is not significantly worsened by resonances at higher energies in the cyclotron.The vertical emittance for 90% of the external beam immediately down­stream of the stripping foil was found to be 3 ± 1 it mm-mrad. After passing through the *tVMl monitor [0.005-in. (0.13 mm) Al] the emittanceincreased to 6 ± 2 it mm-mrad, in good agreement with the expected effectof multiple Coulomb scattering. The aluminum stripping foil is itself expected to have contributed 2 ir mm-mrad to the external beam emittance, which is thus consistent with the internal beam value of 0.9 ES mm-mrad,obtained from measurements of the vertical beam width on the HE probe.The internal beam vertical emittance is thus seven times larger than that of the beam leaving the ion source. The HE probe measurements indi­cate that the emittance rises from 0.A5 it mm-mrad to 0.9 tt mm-mrad between l80- and 210-in. (A57— and 533-cm) radius. A possible explana­tion for this doubling may lie in the v r-vz = 1 resonance, which is crossed at 19^ and 212 in. (^93 and 538 cm).Tasks remainingThe outstanding problem remaining in meeting the beam design specifica­tions is the tuning of the low-energy region (up to 60 MeV) where the beam quality is chiefly determined. When more extensive measurements can be made on the beam in this region, it will become possible to reduce the radial emittance by fine control of the central orbits and careful compensation of the first harmonic component of the magnetic field. A reduced radial emittance will not only lead to reduced spot sizes for the external beams— a particularly important factor in meeting the18intensity specifications for the pion and muon beams— but should also bring the energy spread down to the design aim of ±0.6 MeV. It will also become possible to set up the internal slits to select a beam of better quality. In addition it should become possible to identify and remove the cause of a loss of beam, which occurs somewhere in the inner region and reduces the optimum observed transmission of 8% between ISIS and 500 MeV to a more usual 5%.3. BEAM LINE DEVELOPMENTDetailed descriptions of the proton beam lines have been given in the two previous annual reports. The layout is reproduced in the frontispiece. In December \3~Jh beam had been run only in the vault section of beam line 4; by February 1975 it had been delivered along lines hA and 4B to serve five experimental areas, and it was brought along beam line 1 to serve four more experimental areas by July. This was achieved with a great deal of assistance from experimenters from many groups. During the rest of the year, effort has been expended in improving the reliability of components and the general level of engineering on the lines, and in improving the beam quality and in reducing spill to enable larger beam currents to be run.In the last eight months the beam lines caused 36 h of downtime, compared with about 1000 h of extracted beam time; the total scheduled operating time was 2368 h. The maximum current delivered to the meson production target, 1T2 on beam line 1, on a regular basis was about 300 nA. During operation, the radiation levels in the experimental shacks on the meson floor were less than 0.25 mR/h and the maximum radiation level inside the tunnel close to the beam line shortly after shutdown was 20 mR/h, the average along the line being 6 mR/h. These levels provide an acceptable working environment for the work still to be done on the lines and should permit operation at 1 yA, the limit of our present licence, during the coming year.The spill levels have been reduced by improving the steering in the beam lines, plus improving the beam emittance emerging from the cyclotron and maintaining it during transmission down the lines. The cyclotron emittance was initially two or three times larger than the value adopted for beam line design; the emittance is now within the design limits, but not as good as had been hoped at this stage of development. As noted above, at ^00 MeV the vertical emittance inside the cyclotron has been measured as 1 ES mm-mrad. Multiple scattering in the 0.001-in. (0.025-mm) aluminum stripping foil is calculated to increase this to 2 ir mm-mrad for 90% of the beam, and a value of (3 ± 1) SS mm-mrad has been measured in the beam line. Fig. 12 shows the calculated effect on the vertical emittance (for 90% of the beam) of scattering introduced by the foil; it is planned to use lighter foils in the near future. Fig. 13 shows a comparison of the expected and measured vertical emittance in the vault section of line AB. The horizontal emittance after the extraction foil19Fig. 12. Calculated vertical emittance of extracted beam at the stripping foil for 90% of the beam showing the effect of multiple about 5 SS mm-mrad and the energy spread has been measured as ±1 MeVfor 30% of the beam.The emittances in the lines were further worsened by more than a factor of two due to multiple scattering in 0.001-in. (0.025-mm) havar vacuum foils or windows. Some of these were installed in the urgency to get the firstbeam to experimental targets, in order to separate regions of good(10—6 Torr) vacuum from regions of poor vacuum; others are necessary to protect the cyclotron from possible rupture of gas or liquid targets. It was not always possible to put these windows at double waists in the beam envelope, and it is estimated that one window in beam line 1 caused 2% of the beam to strike the beam pipe downstream. The combination of initial­ly poor emittance and windows required running beam line 1 in two differ­ent modes, one to deliver high current to 1T2 with little spill, and a second to produce a small waist at the (p,ir) experiment, rather thanFig. 13. Vertical emittance measured at the entrance to quadrupole 4VQ2 with and without a monitor inserted upstream.20running it in the original universal mode. A program is being imple­mented to improve the vacuum and remove some windows, to reduce the thick ness of others, and to insert thick windows only when needed for machine protection in the case of certain experiments.With the present extraction foils, the smallest fraction of the cyclo­tron beam that can be delivered in a stable fashion to a given area is 1/2000. At this level, the fluctuations in real beam current, measured by counting scattering protons over one-second intervals, were about ±25% after discounting statistical variations. This corresponds to a relative stability of cyclotron beam height vs extraction foil height of a few thousandths of an inch.Initially it was difficult to extract certain energies; radial and azi­muthal variations in the height of the beam 'plane' at the corresponding radii did not permit the extracted beam to be centred in the geometric mid-plane at the foil position, without the loss of some of the circulat ing beam elsewhere on the resonators or other obstructions. This was especially true in cases where the foil was dipped into the beam from above to provide partial extraction. This situation has been alleviated by cyclotron tuning, which reduced the size of the beam plane excursions and reduced the vertical width of the beam, by including a choice of smaller foils in the stripping foil cartridge, and by asymmetrically ex­citing the first quadrupole, by up to 5%, to provide vertical steering at the entrance to the beam line.The vertical component of the cyclotron fringe field, which is of the order of 100 G, affects the horizontal steering in the vault section of the beam line. If the stripping foil and combination magnet are adjusted to centre the beam at one particular location, it may be dis­placed by 1 - 2  cm elsewhere; the quadrupoles then steer the beam and at lower energies the edge of the beam comes to within 1 cm of the beam pipe. This makes set-up tedious, and efforts are under way to shield and/or compensate for this fringe field.A fast valve system has been installed that is triggered by a spark plug firing when the local pressure rises above 100 y; the valve closes in 17 msec and protects the cyclotron from ruptures further away than 6 m.The beam line diagnostic system consists of ZnS and AI2O3 scintillating screens, secondary emission centroid monitors, and gas-filled multi-wire ion chambers for profile monitoring. The individual wire currents in the ion chambers are integrated for a time variable from 1 to 500 msec, and the resulting voltages transmitted sequentially to the control room. There they can be displayed in analog fashion, or converted to digital form for computer processing. This system has worked well, giving use­ful signals for beam currents as low as 1 nA. The gas-filled chamber signals begin to saturate at beam currents above 100 nA; multi-wire secondary emission devices have been tested at currents above this level and should be adequate for the next stage of development to currents of a few microamperes. At the moment all monitors intercept the beam.The Controls group have assisted the beam line commissioning by providing convenient multiplexing of monitor signals, together with computer analy­sis of the signals to display position and width of the beam. The beam line focusing and steering elements are controlled from two sub-consoles, one for each line. Because of scattering-induced spill from the gas- filled monitors, the beam lines are usually tuned with currents of about 5 nA; the monitors are then withdrawn and, if necessary, minor corrections are made at higher currents while observing spill monitors. The multi­wire secondary emission devices to be used in future at higher currents will produce less spill and simplify the procedure. A beam of an energy that has previously been well tuned can presently be re-established in about 30 min. Sources of irreproducibi1ity of beam element settings are being investigated, as an aid in speeding up this process.LR EPPOT1 9 7 5 I  UM N F VIn June a task force was set up to plan, oversee and implement the achievement of the design goal of 100 pA of protons in the cyclotron and beam line 1. The goal for beam line 4A is 10 pA. The task force includes representatives from ISIS, Beam Development, Beam Lines, Beam Diagnostics, Vacuum, RF, Remote Handling, Safety, Controls and Users groups. The approach toward 100 pA will be a step-by-step one in two main phases. During phase 1 the residual activation in the cyclotron vacuum tank and along most of beam line 1 will be kept at a level which will allow major modifications or improvements to be made without the need for sophisticated remote-handling equipment. The current will gradually be raised, while the beam spills in the cyclotron or along the beam line will be reduced or localized and taken care of by adequate shielding structures. It is expected that the beam level corresponding to this situation will be somewhere between 2 pA and 10 pA.Phase 2 wi11 start when the resonators, the probes and the vacuum systems inside the vacuum tank operate reliably and when all improvements planned for these systems and beam line 1 have been completed. The emphasis then will be on remote handling. For currents higher than 10 pA the present 1T2 target will no longer be adequate, and the beam line 1 extension and the thermal neutron facility will have to be ready to accept the beam.The first step in this program occurred shortly after the August shut­down, the maximum current normally delivered to the users being increased from 100 nA to 300 nA in beam line 1 and from a few nanoamperes to ^50 nA in beam line *tA. This was possible since the Vacuum and Beam Development groups had improved the transmission of the beam in the cyclotron in the region between 130 and 500 MeV. Along beam line 1 the spill was substan­tially reduced by the Beam Lines and Beam Development groups by adjusting the beam line tune and reducing the cyclotron emittance. As a result of these improvements, residual activities were found to be decreasing on average, even though the beam current had been raised.22Before the end of 1975 a vacuum protection window in beam line 1 was removed from its original location and brought substantially closer to the 1T2 target. The spill reduction which resulted, together with the completion of the commissioning of the 1T2 target and other progress by the Remote Handling group, has made the beam line compatible with 1 yA. It is expected to deliver this current normally to the experimenters during the first months of 1976.In an advanced stage of design are special liquid helium cryopumps which should furnish an additional 50,000-£/sec pumping speed for hydrogen and a special system of graphite blocks and graphite-containing cans which will be used to protect the surfaces of the magnet yokes and of the vacuum tank from the primary protons or hydrogen atoms produced by elec­tric stripping of the H" beam during acceleration. These devices will allow further important steps towards the completion of phase 1.A special transmission sensor is being designed for ISIS to avoid damage to the electrostatic 300-keV injection line, which could result from un­controlled beam losses. Transmission sensors in the low-energy region and spill sensors for higher energies will be interlocked to the ion source beam stop to avoid thermal problems or excessive activation.5. ION SOURCE AND INJECTION SYSTEM (ISIS)The construction of the polarized ion source injection line and comple­tion and commissioning of the polarized source have absorbed a major part of the Ion Source group's efforts during 1975* By January 1976 55 nA of polarized beam had been transmitted to the 'fast' target. (This is the last target at 300 keV before injection into the cyclotron.) Also 2 nA of unpolarized beam from the polarized ion source had been observed at 500 MeV within the cyclotron.The unpolarized source has operated satisfactorily as the cyclotron injector with transmissions of typically 60-90% to the fast target for currents of 5“100 yA. Chopped and bunched beams were injected into the cyclotron for the first time during this year, and a 500-yA pulsed beam was injected to yield an instantaneous peak extracted current of *t8 yA.Unpolarized source and injection systemDue to the workload represented by the polarized source little was done to improve the hardware of the existing source and injection system. However, some effort was dedicated to the improvement of the safety interlock system.The unpolarized source with emittance-reducing slits in the 12-keV region has produced beams between 50 nA and 5 VA routinely, with 60-90% trans­mission through the 0.050-in. (l.3”mm) chopper slits located immediately above the fast target and about 3 m above the median plane of the23cyclotron. At these low currents and with some slight filament modifica­tions, the filament lifetime has increased dramatically to an average of 280 h. The source and injection system is stable and reproducible in day-to-day operation but requires extensive optimization after a long shutdown period. This could be attributed to alignment changes in the injection line, minor changes in the stray magnetic field or its compen­sation, or changes in the initial alignment within the source.Beams of intensities greater than 5 yA have been transmitted through the injection system but usually in pulsed mode to prevent the accidental loss of large average currents. In the 1% pulsed mode 500 yA of a 1-mA source beam was transmitted to the fast target. This beam, when accelerated, gave 48 pA (peak) of extracted beam at 500 MeV with a 10% duty factor. The low (50%) transmission of this beam to the fast target was attributed to plasma oscillations within the source which gave rise to 50% current oscillations in the 100— 200-kHz region. Such current oscillations are incompatible with the space charge dependent injection line optics encountered at these current levels.Chopped and bunched beams were injected into the cyclotron for the first time this year. The 23_MHz double gap sinusoidal buncher is very effec­tive in increasing transmission from the ion source to the machine, as is seen in Fig. 14, where the bunching factor is shown as a function of buncher voltage and phase acceptance. It can be seen that for beams of small phase width the transmission can be increased by as much as a factor 10. More normally, when the cyclotron phase acceptance is opti­mized (^45°), bunching factors of about 3 are observed.The 11.5_MHz sinusoidal chopper has been used successfully to inject beams of 10-15° of phase into the cyclotron for diagnostic and experi­mental purposes. For long-term operation of the chopper a means of con­tinuous monitoring of the beam phase width is required to maintainBUNCHER VOLTAGE (KV) voltage as parameter.24necessary beam centring on the chopper slits. The non-intercepting probe is expected to give this information at high current levels; how­ever, since chopped beams may be required from the polarized source, and for other low-intensity beams, alternative means of maintaining beam centring are being investigated.A 100-yA dc beam has been transported to the fast target with a trans­mission of 90%. This is sufficient to produce 10 yA of extracted beam, provided transmission through the cyclotron is good and the buncher is operating. The transportation of such a beam in a routine operational sense is not yet feasible. A satisfactory method of detecting beam losses within the injection system, and the interlocking of the source to this detection system to protect the injection line against damage due to accidental beam loss, will be required before this is possible.To proceed to currents above 100 yA, work will have to be done on both the ion source and injection line. The major source problems will be the reduction of plasma oscillations, source conditioning at high currents, and filament lifetime. To transport high beam currents from the source with a reasonable transmission the beam must be more closely aligned to the optical elements in the injection line than is presently the case. This alignment will require not only time but better beam diagnostic devices than those available and may also require further fringe field shielding.Polarized source and injection systemIntensive work on the construction of the section of injection line con­necting the polarized source to the existing injection system and on the completion of the source itself began in late January. Construction proceeded relatively smoothly, with the result that by late July the in­jection line was complete and the source room ready to receive the 300-kV power supply. The 300-kV power supply was late in delivery from Delta Ray Corporation due to a materials availability problem. A further delay was incurred by damage to the supply in transit. The sup­ply finally became operational in late August and the first 300-keV beam was produced by the source at this time.The first months of commissioning the source and injection line were made extremely difficult by frequent 300-kV sparks. These unfortunately were transferred to the primary of the 300-kV isolation transformer, with disastrous effects on the fuses and circuit breakers in the k80-\l power line. In spite of these difficulties 2 nA of unpolarized direct H" beam was accelerated to 500 MeV in October. At this point the trans­mission to the fast target was only 10%, although transmission through the polarized source section of injection beam line was ^80%. The problem of matching the two sections of injection line could have been caused by the two-component nature of the direct H" beam formed in the cesium region, i.e.1) p -*■ H~ 500 eV2) Ht -* 2H~ 250 eV25Fig. 15. High voltage generator and the Faraday cage housing the Lamb shift polarized ion source.For this reason further beam studies were always conducted with polarized and unpolarized H“ beams from charge exchange in argon. By late October a small, well-centred beam was obtained in the Wien filter region, and a non-dispersive solution very close to the theoretical solution was found through the first 90° electrostatic bend. Transmission through the POL ISIS injection line was 80-90%; however, problems were still encoun­tered in matching to the existing injection line, and a transmission of only k0% to the fast target was the best achieved.In November and December problems were encountered with the duoplasmatron magnet coil, one of the solenoid coils, and with all of the magnet power supplies within the source. Minor modifications were made to these elements to enable the source to operate; however, a more serious effort at redesign and reconstruction will be necessary at a future date. In this period the 300-kV isolation transformer was dismantled. No defects were found except for an obvious arcing in the connector to the primary winding of the transformer. This was repaired and spark arresters installed in the primary supply line. The 300-kV supply has operated well since this time and sparks have not caused the interruption of the 480-V power experienced previously.It is hoped in the first few months of the new year that emittance measure­ments will be carried out in the Wien filter region and that, subject to satisfactory results, the Wien filter will be installed in preparation for the injection of polarized beam into the cyclotron early in 1976.2 66. RF SYSTEMSince the cyclotron became operational, in December 197^, the RF system has had its share of problems and has undergone major changes.RF amplifiersLn order to improve the reliability of the amplifiers the following major modifications were made:1) Water cooling was added to the PA cathode drive dc blocking capaci­tors and air cooling was added to the PA output vacuum capacitors.2) The crowbar circuit was modified to prevent false triggering caused by the self-inductance spikes of the sensing resistors.Some downtime was caused by failure of surge-limiting resistors in the main 20-kV 130-A dc power supply and failure of SCRs in the PA filament power supplies. However, the major downtime caused by the amplifiers was due to the failure of three cathode metering shunts followed by thefailure of three ACW250000A tetrode tubes.RF resonatorsExtensive tests were carried out to determine the source of RF leakage in the beam gap which caused serious RF pick-up on the beam probes and damage to the probe tracks and cabling.The greatest reduction in RF leakage was obtained by adjusting the ground arm trips in such a manner as to change the relative voltage on the north resonators with respect to the south resonators and the voltage on the upper resonators with respect to that on the lower resonators. Un­fortunately, ground arm tip adjustments are required to maintain the proper frequency, and so some other means (not yet established) will have to be used to adjust relative voltages on the resonators.The failure rate of the fine-tuning foils and their associated driving bellows necessitated operation without the fine-tuning system. This was surprisingly stable, depending only on the control of the cooling water temperature and pressure to maintain the proper frequency.The RF system was plagued with three major water leaks. The first leak was in the hot arm extrusion cooling lines and beam stop of the north­east segment #1 . The other two leaks were in the same segment but on the RF surface of the resonator, due to arcing from the water channels on the panel to the third harmonic non-contacting shorts at the root of the segments. Attempts were made to reduce the voltage at the non-contacting short but meanwhile another major failure was experienced in the resonator tip of the #1 segments in the west side. Although the cause was not established immediately, the effect was to melt large holes in27the aluminum resonator tip extrusion and part of the vertical wall facing the centre post. In order to repair the damage, a major shutdown was inevitable; thus it was decided to include the replacement of the non­contacting shorts with standard root shorting pieces and the replacement of the movable tuning foils in all segments with fixed copper foils. The above modifications were completed just prior to the Christmas holidays ready for tests in the new year.7. CYCLOTRON MAGNET ELEVATING SYSTEMA liquid nitrogen spill onto the top of the primary beams in the cyclo­tron support structure caused extensive brittle fracture cracking early in February. The cracks radiated out from the ISIS vertical access hole; the top flange and part of the web of beam #10 was cracked right through. The cracking occurred during the night, and the cyclotron tank was still under vacuum when the spill was discovered.The tank was vented, strain gauges were applied at the end of each crack and the vacuum chamber re-evacuated. The gauges established that the cracks were not propagating over a twenty-four hour period. Also, switch­ing the magnet on and off had no effect, as was expected.The cyclotron was operated and one gauge was monitored for a two-week period. The machine was then shut down and the accessible cracks were gouged out and repaired by Ebco Industries, working two and three shifts a day. The welds were inspected ultrasonically before, during and after the repair.Following the repair, new gauges were installed to measure the beam oper­ating stresses and as crack propagation monitors on an unrepaired portion of the vertical central tube where access made welding impractical with­out removing the ISIS vertical line. These gauges revealed that measured primary beam bending stresses were less than those calculated in the original design when the chamber was under vacuum, and 9k% of the calcu­lated value when the lid raised. The central tube crack was stable during elevation and vacuum loading. Subsequent monitoring of the gauges on the central tube crack revealed no change throughout the year. The welding of the cracks caused a slight upward distortion of beam #10. The difference of 0.11 in. (2.8 mm) at the elevating column was shimmed out, and the reference of the elevating jack was readjusted so that thesupport structure is free of differential stresses, both under vacuumload and during elevation.During the repair of the damage, the elevating system was thoroughly in­spected. Two elevating jacks with problems in their operating historywere taken apart. The examination showed a negligible wear of frictionsurfaces. All moving parts were re-lubricated; the main elevating screws were lubricated with molybdenum disulfide compound.28The cyclotron 2200-ton upper half has been lifted A9 times during 1975, bringing the total to 360 lifting cycles. The only significant problem encountered with the elevating system has been excessive grease leakage from the elevating jacks.8. MAGNET POWER SUPPLIESCyclotron magnetThe main magnet power supply performed successfully for 2691 h, bringing the total to 5630 h of operation.Breakdown of the reference unit in the summer caused one shift of accel­erator downtime. The reference unit has been replaced after approximate­ly 20,000 h of reliable service at 37°C ambient temperature. Stability tests with the new reference unit showed that the main magnet power supply performs within specifications: 5 parts in 106 over 15 min,1 part in 105 over 8 h.Numerous minor failures, mostly of power transistors, during July and August were due to high ambient temperature; these caused very little if any delay and were repaired during the next maintenance period.Trim and harmonic coilsPower supplies for the trim and harmonic coil system were rearranged several times to match coils ranging from 0.16 ft to 1.6 ft in resistance and from ^0 A to 90 A in current rating. Power supply diagnostics have been developed so that the potential failures are identified during weekly maintenance periods, and the power supplies concerned replaced with standbys. Approximately ]% of the power supplies develop minor problems per week. 17% of the power supplies had a major failure by year-end, caused in most cases by a thermal deterioration of components.In the second half of 1975 the trim coil system has not caused any down­time. Trim coil zero (which provides Br correction for the effects of the upper centre support structure) ran without any breakdowns throughout the year.Combination magnetsA failure of water flow interlocks when temperature interlocks were temporarily shorted caused extensive damage to the combination magnet on beam line k. The coils were removed and repaired. The power supply was also damaged by the short-circuit to which it was subjected, and power fuses, transistors and degaussing transistors needed to be replaced.The power transistors originally specified are now no longer available29Fig. 16. Combination magnet coils being repaired following damage by overheating.and, without spares, it was necessary to reduce the output current rating to 75% of its design value. The pass bank has been redesigned and the new unit is ready for installation.Beam line magnetsThe beginning of the year was spent in instal 1 at ion and commissioning. Many of the 36 quadrupole power supplies were damaged by vibration prior to arrival. A problem with inefficiency of heat sinks was also encountered and is being rectified. 10%of the bending magnet power supplies exhibited initial transient-response problems, but now give reliable service.The cyclotron chamber vacuum system has operated satisfactorily during the past year, apart from the problem of a high H2 partial pressure (^2 x 10“7 Torr) when the RF is on.The indicated vacuum chamber pressure, read on a Bayard-Alpert ionizationcomposition with RF off is about 90% mass 18. When the RF is on, it is about 95% mass 2. (This latter measurement was taken before the RF was conditioned. Due to interference by the cyclotron's magnetic field, no measurements have been taken following RF conditioning.) A liquid helium cryopump,to run at 3.5°K, is being designed to pump hydrogen with a speed of 5 x lO4 £/sec.The 20°K and 80°K cryopanels are normally defrosted once a week but on one occasion they were run two weeks with no difficulty. Following defrosting, the RF has been brought back on and conditioned down to an indicated9. VACUUM SYSTEM30pressure of 3 x 10-7 Torr in as short a time as 2 - 3 A  h. Following a tank opening period, the RF conditioning takes about two days. A dry air venting system for the vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the RF conditioning time on those occasions when the tank is vented but the lid is not raised.10. BEAM PROBESThe initial operating experience with the diagnostic probes in the cyclo­tron median plane is described in the 197^ annual report. In spite of some problems which have limited their use, the diagnostic probes have been successful in providing the necessary beam information (vertical height, position and intensity) to enable the cyclotron to be tuned to near optimum, and simultaneous extract ion of two good-quality beams to be ach i eved.Most of the problems associated with the use of the probes have been due to the RF leakage fields, which cause serious pick-up on the probe heads and in some cases damage to the probe cables or mechanisms as a result of RF arcing. These problems have been tackled in two ways, with some success. Modifications have been made to the probe mechanisms to pro­vide good RF contacts between sliding surfaces to minimize damage due to arcing, and better shielding has been installed around the heads to minimize pick-up. On a longer time scale it is hoped that a better understanding of the mechanisms causing the RF leakage fields will result in their suppression.At present the two high-energy probes, which cover the radial range from 1^2 to 315 in. (361 to 800 cm), 65 to 520 MeV, provide most of the beam information for tuning. Use of the low-energy probes, which cover the region inside l M  in. (366 cm) between the upper and lower resonator arrays, has been restricted by excessive sparking, and a proper optimiza­tion of the central region has therefore not been possible.After some operating experience in setting up and maintaining the desired conditions for simultaneous extraction of two external beams, it was felt that a quick method of checking the beam transmission at several points in the cyclotron would be useful. Four pneumatically actuated pop-in probes have been designed and installed at radii between 180 and 300 in. (^57 and 762 cm) to provide this information. They have pick-up heads similar to those for the high-energy probes. One head consists of five fingers, each 0.25 in. (7 mm) in vertical height, and enables the vertical size of the beam to be measured and minimized.Both extraction probe mechanisms have operated reliably since they were installed. Some changes have been made to the stripper foil cartridge to enable a variety of foil shapes to be deployed. For simultaneous ex­traction of two beams, the technique used at present inserts the stripper foil extracting the lower-energy beam from above to pick up the desired31portion of the circulating beam. The remaining beam spirals out to the second extraction foil which is positioned on the median plane. To improve the radial emittance of the lower-energy beam, and to improve the intensity stability when a small fraction of the beam is extracted, the inner foil width has been reduced to less than 0.100 in. (2.5 mm). In the next period of cyclotron operation, pyrolytic graphite foils will be used to permit higher intensity operation down beam line 1 and reduced emittance due to reduced multiple scattering in the foil.The vertical flag, which is installed at a radius corresponding to k MeV, is used diagnostically to improve the vertical beam emittance, while the movable radial slits have not been used during normal operation. The centring probes have also not been used successfully. A new design has been made for a centring probe covering a limited radial range of 60 in. (152 cm), and this will be installed during 1976.Several techniques have been developed to provide information about the beam phase as a function of radius. By timing the arrival of protons scattered from a monitor in the external beam relative to the RF signal, the phase history can be measured over the range of extraction energies relatively quickly to an accuracy of about 2° in phase. Using a beam pulser in the ion source, beam pulses 10 usee long and 1 msec apart can be produced. Such pulses can be detected on a high-energy probe and the time of flight from the ion source to the high-energy probe measured to an accuracy of 1 ysec. This measurement provides information about the combination of the accelerating voltage and the average phase of the beam as a function of radius. At lower energies the phase history of the beam has been determined by a third technique in which a magnetic field bump is produced by a combination of several trim coils and the beam trans­mission measured as a function of the magnitude of the field bump.Further details of these techniques are described in the section on beam development.11. CONTROL SYSTEMIn late 197** the TRIUMF control system was ready to participate in cyclo­tron commissioning, providing accessibility to all essential parameters from the central control room. The full potential of the computer-based system was largely unused, however, and the emphasis in 1975 has been to exploit it to assist in routine operation as well as in internal and external beam development.Operational aidsThe major operational improvement since commissioning has been the imple­mentation of automatic save and restore operations which allow cyclotron parameters to be reset to previously determined values in a few minutes. One year of experience has allowed 'master' magnet and injection line32parameter value sets to be determined, and deviations from the master sets may be logged on request.A scan has been implemented to detect and annunciate spontaneous changes in over 250 power supplies. This is occasionally helpful in determining the source of an operational problem, but its usefulness has been impaired by the large number of spurious messages which still occur. These should be reduced by improvements planned in the measuring system.Several CRT displays of the status of machine parameters have been made available. In particular, graphic displays of the external beam lines indicating the status of beam monitors and tabular displays of probe position and interlock status have proved convenient. Several operations previously not available on the cyclotron console, such as video multi­plexing and changing of amplifier gain ranges, have been implemented using the console CRT and keyboard.Beam development aidsIn 1975 a substantial effort was made to assist beam physicists in their studies of internal beam properties. The patch panels originally used to route probe output signals to the chart recorder and moving coil meters were replaced by a CAMAC-addressable multiplexer. This change not only eliminated a major source of human error; it also expanded the input capability to include a number of computer-generated signals, among which an analogue signal proportional to the vertical centroid of the beam was provided. Other analogue signals proportional to calculated machine parameters have been used to produce hard copy x-y plots. Histogram dis­plays of the vertical beam profile, as seen by the four current probes, are provided on a storage display and are helpful in beam optimization.A series of algorithms have been implemented which allow trim coils to be run together as pairs or triplets, changes in their currents being kept at a constant ratio. Magnetic effects are thereby localized, and this technique has proved most useful in practical beam optimization as well as in studies of beam phase history and vertical excursions. Programming support for a time-of-f1ight phase history study was also provided.A link between the TRIUMF control system and the UBC Computing Centre, using an intermediate computer, has been established. This permits data on machine parameters— generally the magnet or beam line power supply settings— to be transmitted to the UBC Computing Centre for analysis.Most recently the ability has been added to transmit to the Computing Centre the digitized results of a radial scan of beam characteristics as it takes place.System reconfigurationA major development in 1975 has been the consolidation of the three control system computers and a back-up computer, which is used when33IN T ER  PRO CESSO R  COMMUNICATIONSFig. 17. Fully rmltisouroed system eon figuration.available for beam diagnostics, into one large CAMAC system (see Fig. 17). This configuration is extremely versatile, and results in a degree of re­dundancy which has on occasion permitted cyclotron operation to continue in spite of the failure of one or more computers. Our experience with a large (35-crate) multi-sourced parallel CAMAC system is unique in the world, and has enabled TRIUMF to make useful suggestions to the interna­tional CAMAC committee formulating specifications for similar systems.ReliabilityCyclotron performance records indicate that, since October 197A, failure of control system components has accounted for about 30 h, or <21, of cyclotron downtime. There have been three computer failures in this time. Two occurred during operation, but only one of these resulted in a (two-hour) machine shutdown. CAMAC system failures, primarily power supplies, account for most of the downtime. Program failures, which occur on an average of once daily and typically require 1-5 min to diag­nose and remedy, account for the remainder.12. SAFETYThe TRIUMF Safety Group has been extensively involved in cyclotron opera­tion as well as having the responsibility for continuing the installation of the safety interlock system, development of radiation monitoring sys­tems, and assay of radioactivity levels in cooling water, air filters and soi1 samples.The TRIUMF Safety Executive Committee met every two weeks and reviewed submissions for 37 experimental proposals. Major effort was put into*remote console computerfinalizing the liquid hydrogen target safety regulations, with consider­able help from the hydrogen target designers. Routine items of business included a review of shielding installations and radiation levels, the safety interlock system commissioning, and industrial safety.Safety interlock systemThe interlock system for personnel safety and machine protection was operating for the cyclotron vault in January. By August the system was commissioned to include three proton beam lines and three meson beam lines. The system functions such that access is allowed in one beam line area, essentially independent of operation of other beam line areas. The system is now about 30% complete and can be readily expanded to include one more meson beam line. The only major subsystem that remains to be commissioned is the beam line vacuum interlock system, which will be completed by the Beam Lines group and interfaced to the central machine protection system.Radiation protectionFor most of the year there were 12 beam-spill monitors and neutron monitors, some of which were used to assist operators in optimizing beam line tunes. Others were set to trip the cyclotron when radiation levels exceeded 50 mR/h in experimental areas that were not locked. By the end of the year there were 10 additional beam-spill monitors installed and operating.Limits were placed on extracted beam currents in order to restrict acti­vation of components; the radiation levels in accessed experimental areas must be less than 0.25 mR/h and the radiation at the site boundary must not exceed 3 x background. The limited inventory of shielding blocks and the need for improved tuning have been the primary impediments to operation at higher current levels.The residual activity has not yet approached a level where remote hand­ling techniques are required. For example, the typical dose rates in the beam line 1 tunnel, one hour after shutdown, were only 2 to 10 mR/h at 1 m from the beam line. The maximum permitted current levels were gradu­ally raised during the year following reduced beam losses. Further increases in current may still be possible without a need for further shielding through improved tuning. The maximum currents permitted at the end of the year were 300 nA in beam line 1, 50 nA in beam line 4A and 20 nA in beam 1ine 4B.Of the approximately 300 persons on the film badge service at TRIUMF there were 17 individuals who received 20 mrem and all other readings were zero, according to the Radiation Protection Bureau. Individuals who enter the cyclotron vault wear pencil chambers, and a few of these were returned with readings of 5 to 10 mrem, which are consistent with null readings on film badges since the latter are not as sensitive as the pencil chambers.35Accident recordThere were about 5 man-weeks lost due to accidents at TRIUMF in 1975.The majority of the accidents were minor in nature, but a rash of mishaps during a shutdown in August resulted in the formation of the TRIUMF Accident Prevention Committee (TAPC). This committee of professional and technical staff meets biweekly to discuss and resolve site deficiencies and general industrial safety matters. Site inspections are carried out routinely by members of TAPC and safety deficiencies found have been corrected.13. BEAM LINES AND EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIESGeneralDuring this year, the primary and secondary beam lines, described in detail in previous annual reports, were completed and commissioned in co­ordination with cyclotron operation, and generally with considerable volunteer assistance from visiting experimentalists and TRIUMF scientists. For much of the year, two proton beams were delivered simultaneously; one was directed down beam line 1, to serve the p,ir experiment and the 1T2 target which fed mesons to M9, M20 and M8 (the biomedical channel); the second ran down either beam line bA, serving the 60-in. scattering chamber, the BASQUE experiment, theFERFICON apparatus, the gas-jet target chamber, and 123i production, or beam line 1»B, for the elastic and quasi­elastic scattering experiments, the pion production experiment, and the cyclotron beam development program.The year's stepping stones were:January Beam line AB commissioned from 183“500 MeVFebruary 20 Simultaneous extraction into both beam lines 1and bApril 10 Beam transmitted to target 1T2 on beam line 1June l*t First meson beam in M8 biomedical channelJuly First pions, muons and electrons in M9 and M20Also this year, the BASQUE liquid hydrogen/deuterium target system was installed and commissioned on beam line bA, while the liquid hydrogen target originally intended for the BASQUE group has been installed on the M9 channel and will be commissioned early in 1976. The MRS spectrometer dipole has been surveyed and prepared for installation; its support structure and superstructure were installed in the proton hall.Early in the year, the coils for combination magnet b were repaired and extra cooling arrays were added, following damage caused when an inter­lock system failed. The beam blockers were redesigned and rebuilt to36Fig. 18. The liquid deuterium flask, and dummy flask (for background measurements), used to produce the neutron beam for the BASQUE experiment. The targets are 20 cm long and 2.5 am diam. They can be used vertically by remote control.overcome mechanical problems. The fast vacuum valve system was commis­sioned to protect the cyclotron from damage due to beam line window break­age. A continuing program is under way to upgrade the diagnostic system and its readout. The beam line vacuum system is also being upgraded, but its interlock system is still in the design stage. The service connec­tions for vault magnets are being modified for quick disconnection, to facilitate remote handling and servicing in the future when the radiation levels rise, following increased beam currents.1T2 meson production targetThe 1T2 meson production target was placed in position in beam line l early in 1975- By Hay the target assembly was connected to the beam 1ine pipe, leak checked and ready to produce the first mesons for the three secondary channels. The local control system was installed on the south mezzanine of the meson hall, from which position any one of six targets can be inserted into the proton beam. The water-cooling package was installed during the summer months, and by the end of the November- December shutdown the commissioning of the target was essentially com­plete, with remote operation of the target possible from the main control room.The monitoring system for the target and cooling package was also com­pleted by the end of the year. Twenty-one parameters are monitored and available in the main control room, including target ladder position, cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures, water flow rate, purity and pressure.37Targets available on the 1T2 ladder during 1975 were (sequentially): notarget, lA-cm beryllium, 1-cm polyethylene, 3_cm beryllium, 1 -cm copper, and 10-cm beryllium. For checking the location and shape of the proton beam on the target, a ZnS scintillator was located in front of the 3”cm beryllium target for checks at low proton currents, and an AI2O3 scin­tillator in front of the 1-cm copper target for higher proton currents.All of the metal targets present an area 5 mm wide by 15 mm high to the proton beam, which was designed to be 2 mm wide by 8 mm high at the posi­tion of 1T2. However, the yield of pions down the secondary channels is a factor of three lower than anticipated, thought to be due to a larger beam spot than expected. Consequently, in December it was decided at a meeting of 1T2 users to replace the 3-cm beryllium target by a fat 15~mm- wide by 20-mm-high aluminum target, 10 cm long. Such a target is pre­sumed to be large enough to intercept all of the proton beam. In addi­tion, the 14-cm beryllium and 1-cm polyethylene targets are to be replaced by 1 -cm tungsten and 1 -cm water, respectively, early in 1976.Liquid hydrogen targetsDevelopment has continued this year on two similar liquid hydrogen targets for use by experimental groups, to a design initiated by Mr. R. Wimblett (Rutherford Laboratory). Both targets use a CT1 'Cryodyne' refrigeration system with a capacity of 10 W at 20°K.The first target system, developed mainly for neutron scattering experi­ments, has a refrigeration system loaned by the nuclear physics group at AERE Harwell, and an eight-litre condensing vessel. Special low- temperature couplings have been developed to facilitate the quick change of the three mylar target flasks, which have been made for this target: an 1 1-cm-diameter by 50-cm-long flask for the neutron scattering experi­ments, a second 5-cm-diameter by 1 2 .5-cm-long for the proton-proton scattering experiments, and a third 1 1 -cm-diameter by 1 2 .5-cm-long for pion capture experiments. This target is first being set up in the meson hall and will be used to produce monoenergetic gamma rays from stopped negative pions via the ir"p -* ny reaction, in order to measure the line shape of a large sodium iodide crystal. The target will then be moved to the proton hall, for the neutron scattering experiments.The second target, which is being assembled with a five-litre condensing vessel and a stainless steel flask 3 cm diameter by 8 cm high, will be ready early in 1976. This target will be installed in the meson hall and used on a time-shared basis for pion capture and pion production experiments.The cool-down time from room temperature plus liquefaction has been found for the first target to be of the order of 18 h. Approximately 8 h is required to change the target flasks when the assembly is at room temperature.38Meson hall Fig. 19. View of 1T2 meson production target and the three meson channels, showing beam line 1 entering from the left and (clockwise) M9, M20 and M8.M9 channelIn July 1975 the first it's and y's were observed in the M9 channel (see Fig. 20), which is now capable of producing pion and muon beams in the momentum range 80 to 150 MeV/c. Table III gives characteristics of some beams obtained so far at the primary tt  focus compared with the design values (in parentheses). Figs. 21 and 22 show a range curve at pion energy = 27 MeV and an RF-referenced time-of-f1ight spectrum at pionenergy = 21 MeV. Experiments using tt and y" beams have begun.Table III. M9 Beam CharacteristicsQuant i ty V a 1 ue SS Energy (MeV)Product ion TargetMaximum flux SSY 1 .5 x 103/sec/nA (4.5 x 1 0 3)30 10 cm BeESL 0.3 x 103/sec/nA 30 10 cm Bey" 0.3 x 102/sec/nA 30 10 cm BeMomentum resolution k% (FWHM)arc30 1 cm CuMomentum acceptance 2h% (FWHM) (2 8 %)30 1 cm Cuir Spot size (2nd focus) 4 cm diam (FWHM) midplane (2.5 cm) slits < 10 cm 1 cm CuES Beam contamination e 501 30 1 cm Cue 10% 30 10 cm Bev 101 30 all targets39Fig. 20. Layout of M9 channel. The B3 dipole is a 12-in. gap cyclotron magnet obtained from Oregon State University.for 2V =  27 ± 1.5 MeV. The a 0.3-g/cm2-thick scintillator, closed to 1 cm and the production1 2  3 4 5Absorber Th ickness(g/cm 2 CH2)Fig. 22. RF-referenced time-of-flight spectrum for TTy =  21 MeVinM9. The production target was 1-cm Cu and the mid-plane slits were open.ChannelAOM20 channelThe 'muon spin research' (ySR) beam line accepts pions emitted at 55° from the 1T2 production target, and can provide both 'conventional' and 'Arizona' muons. For details see the 197^ annual report and TRIUMF report TRI-75"2 (Experimental Facilities at TRIUMF).The final assembly of the beam line (including power supply hook-ups for operation as a conventional muon line) and installation of indium seals in the radiation-hard flanges adjacent to 1T2, was completed by June 1.A beam development program was begun shortly thereafter, for a range of pion momenta from M O O  MeV/c to M 7 0  MeV/c. There are presently no si its in the beam line, and the pion momentum bite, measured by a range curve, was found to be about 5%. From time-of-f1ight spectra, the ir+-to-e+ ratio was found to be MO/l with a 1T2 target of 10-cm Be but only M / 1  with 1-cm Cu; moreover, the total n+ yield from a Cu target is onlyabout 1/5 that from the Be target.Operating in a conventional mode, the channel was tuned for forward y+ and the first y+SR spectrum was obtained from a carbon target in mid- July; this was repeated in August and is shown in Fig. 23- The channel is now capable of producing M 0 * y + stops/nA/sec in a thick 25-cm2 target. Presently, there is a large 'cloud muon' flux coming directly from the 1T2 target, and this results in a low measured polarization of the stopped y+— about 50%!In the very near future, it is planned to tune the channel for negative muons and measure the flux and polarization so that y“SR experiments can begin. It is hoped also to improve the polarization of the muon beam by a more careful tuning and range selection for high momentum muons. The power supplies for operation of the ySR channel in the Arizona mode (MO-MeV/c stopping y+) are now installed, and tuning the channel in this mode should begin early in 1976. The big advantage for y+SR studies ofthese very low momentum muons, which come directly from ir+ decay in theskin of the product ion target, is that they are monochromatic and very nearly 100% polarized. Much of the y+SR and associated muonium chemistry studies at TRIUMF will be accomplished with Arizona muons.Fig. 23. Time spectrum showing positive muon precession in carbon in transverse applied field of 157 G. Data from a run of ^1 h with 100-nA proton beam on 10-cm Be target. Fitted asymmetry = 15.8 ± 0.4%.2500  i— — i------ 1---------1--------1--------1------- 1--------1--------2000  *£2 1500 2 .'O . . . ..S  YMMM O500  - “  ... -0 i____ i____ i____ i--------1--------1--------1-------0 .0  0 .5  1.0 1.5 2 .0  2.5 3 .0  3 .5  4 .0TIME< /*SEC»(50 N SEC/BIN)k]M8 channel and biomedical facilityThe M8 channel and the biomedical facility, funded jointly by the British Columbia Cancer Foundation and the Health Resources Fund of Health and Welfare Canada, has been constructed to investigate the potentially favourable properties of pions in treatment of cancer. The design of the M8 channel was discussed in last year's report and is shown in Fig. 24.The last of the magnets for this channel was received early in 1975. All magnets were assembled, tested, surveyed and installed, with the vacuum system and shielding, by the scientific staff of the biomedical group, including biologist volunteers. The dipole magnets were surveyed and shimmed to bring them close to the shape of true sector magnets, a com­plete field survey of the final shimming being recorded via flip coils. The central five magnets were prealigned in a horizontal position and moved to the 30° slope as a single unit. The magnets were positioned to within 0.025 in. (7 mm) in spite of the difficult surveying in the 30° plane. The complete vacuum system with its peripheral equipment was in­stalled by June 1. In spite of its late start, the biomedical channel was the first secondary channel to deliver pions— on June 14.The biomedical laboratory facilities were also completed during the year, and the physics group has taken occupancy of the lower two floors. The biology laboratories are ready for occupancy as soon as the cyclotron gives sufficient beam to begin biological studies. The medical building42Fig. 25. View of biomedical channel.has been named the Batho Biomedical Facility in memory of Dr. H.F. Batho without whose initial enthusiasm and planning the facility would never have been started.Thermal neutron facilityThe conceptual design of the final beam target to be used as a thermal neutron facility has been modified from the original conceptual design study reported in TRI-71-3 with emphasis on simplicity. Use was made of two-dimensional reactor code calculations to optimize flux while mini­mizing volume. The decrease in volume results in a saving in shielding costs and in D2O inventory. Heat transfer studies have demonstrated the feasibility of a natural convection system of water in contact with Pb or Pb-Bi.A TNF task force was formed this year to complete conceptual design of, and develop budgets for, the TNF, the associated extension to beam line 1, radioisotope production facilities, and related installations at the east end of the accelerator building. Various schemes for beam optics of the BL1 extension were considered, and the spill resulting from scat­tering in the 1T2 target upstream studied via several calculation approaches. A preliminary schedule was developed for detai1ed design and construction of the TNF and its environs.^3Fig. 26. View of proton hall, showing beam line 4A shielding in foreground, 1heBASQUE polarimeter, beam line 4B shielding, and the MRS superstructure in background.Proton hallScattering chamberDuring 1975 the 60-in.-diam (152-cm) scattering chamber in beam line AA was fully operational and used by Experiment 3- Work on the chamber system ac- complished early in the year included upgrading and modifying the control systems. All six remotely positionable elements (four detector arms, target ladder e 1evation, and target angle) are now interfaced via CAMAC to the com­puter system used for data collection by the experimental groups using the chamber, allowing computer interrogation and control of these elements.Time-of-flight mass identification facilityThe time-of-flight mass spectrometer (for measurements on nuclei recoil­ing from beta decay at the end of the radionuclide gas-jet transport system on beam line h/\) was described in the 197^ annual report.In 1975 the last of the system components were delivered, and assembly of the apparatus was completed. A number of frustrating delays were experi­enced with vacuum problems (necessitating refabrication of some compon­ents) and insulating feed-through failures in the 20-kV system. In addition the chevron detector, employed in detection of heavy ions at the end of the flight path, proved to have characteristics not described properly in the manufacturer's literature; these included sensitivity to ionization from various sources, including vacuum gauges.By year's end, however, all such problems were overcome, and the detector properties better understood, to the point that the first time-of-f1ight spectra could be recorded.FERFICON facilityIn July 197^, a contract was concluded with the concurrence of TRIUMF between SFU and Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. for a series of experiments to study ferti1e-to-fissi1e conversion of nuclear fuel material by proton bombardment. The experiments are described on p. 65.In 1975, the necessary apparatus was installed in beam line AA. This consists of a 6-ft-diam (1.8-m) stainless-steel tank to hold water moderator, surrounding a target can (in which are mounted arrays of Pb,Th or U rods) and neutron-detection systems. The proton beam is carried to the targets by an evacuated beam pipe section.For irradiations in this program, a section of the normal BL4A pipe is removed, and the tank assembly is motor-driven into the irradiation pos i t ion.Irradiation of 10 yA • h have been normal; 'retraction' of the tank, re­covery of neutron-detection foils, and re-establishing the normal beam- line 4A pipe configuration is achieved in 20 min.In 1975, the FERFICON target was also used as a localized radiation source in measurements of the radiation fluxes penetrating the BLAA shielding. Such tests of the TRIUMF shielding calculations will continue as shielding configurations and beam spill distributions stabilize.Fig. 27. 60-in. (152-om) scatteringchamber for measurement of fragments from spallation and fission reactions.45Experimental facilities on beam line 4BThe 197^ annual report described installation at ABT1 of four detector telescope supports, remotely controlled and with digital encoding of angular position. This year, two target chambers, one rectangular and one cylindrical, have been provided.The rectangular chamber measures 31 in. x 23 in. x 17 in. (79 * 58 *1*3 cm) and couples to A-in. (10-cm) beam pipe on its entrance and exit sides. Kapton foil windows cover angles from 37° to 102° and lA6° to 170°. A 6-ft- (1.8-m) long extension piece (the 'horn') can be attached to the downstream side of the box, enabling detection of charged particles at angles between 3° and 14°.The cylindrical chamber couples to ^~in. (1.8-m) beam pipe but reduced to 1.5 in. (3-8 cm) i.d. at its entrance and exit ports. Kapton windows permit detection of charged particles on both left and right sides over the range 10° to 170°. Support posts are set in bal1-bearing-mounted rings and may be repositioned while the chamber is under vacuum. A ladder with positions for four solid targets permits remote selection of the target.These facilities have been used in experiments to measure pion production cross-sections, proton elastic scattering at small angles, and quasi­elastic processes such as (p,2p) and (p,pd). In addition, beam develop­ment work has been carried out using a beam profile monitor which can be mounted in the rectangular chamber.MRS proton spectrometerNearing completion at TRIUMF is a proton medium resolution magnetic spectrometer (MRS). This instrument, capableof a resolution of the order of 500 keV FWHM at 500 MeV, is the initial step in the construction of a high resolution proton spectrometer (HRS), the design of which calls for a quadrupole and two 60° dipoles; the MRS consists of the quadrupole and first dipole of the HRS system.The dipole arrived on site in early April, six months late due to cutting errors by the steel supplier. The magnet was disassembled, and trim windings and the main coils installed, followed by water and power con­nections. First field maps were obtained in August, which indicated that a change in the geometry of the pole ends should be made. Modified pole ends were received in December.In August also, the superstructure of the spectrometer support arm was received and installed, to await installation of the dipole. The quadru­pole arrived in mid-summer and field measurements were made during the fall. A power supply for the quadrupole is under construction. The vacuum box for the dipole arrived in the last quarter of the year. This item is fabricated from 310 stainless steel and is the second suchA6Fig. 28. Assembled dipole for the MRS proton spectrometer.vessel to be manufactured. The original item was made from 316 stainless steel and was found to be magnetic after fabrication.At the present time the dipole has been taken apart to allow installation of both the new pole ends and the vacuum box prior to installation of the dipole in the support structure.14. REMOTE HANDLINGDuring 1975, final plans for remote handling during ful1-power operation were formalized. The major developments in the three areas of activity are:Cyclotron serviceA fully powered trolley for the cyclotron service bridge was commissioned. It was designed as a personnel carrier for manual surveillance, and as a work platform in the tank. It is considered as an interim or prototype trolley for evaluating electric and pneumatic power distribution, personnel communication, and electro-mechanical remote-positioning con­cepts. The specifications called for minimizing personnel time in the tank, giving personnel better access and services at discrete tank locations.In addition to 'local' (on-trolley) controls, a fully remote control mode was established. The remote mode has been successfully used for radiation surveys (usually conducted when the lid first goes up after ah iperiod of cyclotron operation) and for a variety of closed circuit TV lighting tests that have led to the development of a remote-handling sys­tem utilizing TV alignment. This latter allows us to pick up or place any object (radiation monitor, pick-up tool, nut-runner, resonator, etc.) at any predetermined location to ±0.010 in. (0.25 mm). Consequently the 1° peripheral indexing (now supplemented by 0.5 in. (13 mm) radial indexing) need not be developed further.As the resonator removal trolley is considered the most complicated of TRIUMF's remote handling tasks, a design has been completed that will remotely give all the mot ions/movements required and utilizes the TV locating system for final positioning and alignment.The arrangement of bridge-trolley services has been modified to allow a 360° bridge sweep for radiation surveys that are in turn strip-chart recorded. Such surveys can be run at any desired tank radius. Remote TV surveys have also successfully been run for such tasks as checking the tank seal insertion prior to lowering the lid.Beam line serviceThe radiation-hard indium seals have proved successful under both the expected thermal cycling and the unexpected gross misalignments. Tem­porary rubber seals were left in M9 and the LD2 target and will have to be replaced next year.The target-handling flask and locating bridge were completed (without all the Pb shielding) and commissioned over all five stations where tar­gets and beam blockers must be handled (see below). Design modifications were made and installation started for remote handling all components in the shielded sections of the vault beam lines.Hot cell serviceA temporary hot cell installation (with three water windows and two manipulators) was completed, and the procedures were commissioned for loading into the hot cell of target 1T2, monitor 9 and the M9, M20 and biomedical blockers. Experience so obtained has been used in developing the design for second generation cells.15. SHIELDINGThe fabrication of the regular and special shaped iron and concrete shielding blocks currently intended for the experimental areas was com­pleted during the year, and essentially all have been installed. The inventory of concrete blocks should, according to preliminary measure­ments of the operating external dose-equivalent rates, allow operating currents approaching 1 yA in beam lines 1 and 4A. Each decade increase in the beam current requires the addition of approximately k ft (1.2 m) of concrete around the experimental beam lines.k8The fixed cyclotron vault shielding was essentially completed during the year, by pouring the outside 8 ft (2.4 m) of the wall between the cyclo­tron vault and the service annex. The concrete vault wall thickness now is 16 ft (5 m) everywhere.16. SITE, BUILDINGS AND SERVICESBudgetary restraints did not allow any major new construction or expan­sion of buildings during 1975-The largest construction work during the year was the completion of the cyclotron vault south shielding wall mentioned above. The work involved the placing of 680 cubic yards (517 cubic metres) of concrete [1360 tons (1234 metric tons)] between the service annex and the cyclotron vault.The entire operation took six weeks to complete, and construction work was carefully engineered so as not to interrupt or hinder-operation of the cyclotron. An access opening was broken through the exterior build­ing wall to pump the concrete into the confined space between the control room, RF room and cyclotron vault. Despite difficult conditions, the work was completed by Mutual Construction on schedule.1975 was also the year when the area around the TRIUMF buildings and part of the parking lot was finally paved, reducing dust and mud, and facili­tating the operation of fork lifts and other vehicles around the site.A 30 x 40-ft (9 x 12-m) extension to the existing stores building was erected to provide urgently needed fabrication and storage space for the TRIUMF machine shop. Prefabricated metal construction on a reinforced concrete slab was again chosen for economy and speed of erection.Other minor building improvements in 1975 included:A portable steel stair tower to provide access from the meson hallto the power supply gallery and the top of the vault shielding- An access gallery on top of the east vault shielding wallOne flight of stairs on the east side and two flights of steel stairs on the west side of the vault to provide access to the vault roof- Completion of the mezzanine in the proton hall Electrical servicesThe electrical systems operated well throughout the year. The highest demand was recorded in August at 5896 kW. On two occasions it was neces­sary to shut down the site for repairs to the Hydro 64 kV line. There were three unscheduled power failures during the year without any serious problems. B.C. Hydro has increased TRIUMF1s power costs by about 35%49and their demand charge is now made on a kVA demand rather than a kW demand. This necessitated the purchase and installation of an addition­al capacitor bank to increase the power factor from 0.93 to unity.Electrical work was completed along beam line 1 and experimental channels 4B, M8, M9 and M20.Mechanical servicesAll cooling systems functioned well over the year, with some cooling capacity adjustments to individual units, and improved heat transfer from heat sinks to cooling water in many power supplies. However, most sys­tems a re operat ing well beyond design capacity, and major additions will require new cooling systems.The heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems also operated well throughout the year. The duct work on the power supply floor was revised to re-distribute the air, and the air flow increased generally by 20%. This all helped to relieve high-temperature problems in this area, but it seems the only real solution will be future installation of air-condi­tioning.The active cooling system was extended to cool the power supplies on the secondary lines along beam line 1 on a temporary basis. Work has begun on a more permanent installation using the cooling system from the central region cyclotron.Two hydrogen gas exhaust systems were installed, one in the meson hall and one in the proton hall.CranesAgain this year many tons of shielding blocks and magnets have been moved. There have been no equipment failures; however, due to the con­stant use of the overhead cranes, continued maintenance is required. A thorough mechanical inspection was performed on the cranes by the manu­facturer. This was the first such inspection on the cranes since they were installed, and no deficiencies were found.17. NEW FACILITIESThe New Facilities group was formed in August 1975, and is somewhat un- usal in that it is not oriented toward accomplishing a particular mission; rather the members of the group are involved in a number of diverse projects. The function of the group is to assist in the planning and development of new facilities which are of general importance to TRIUMF, and to work closely with task forces engaged in execution of large proj­ects, especially in the planning stages of such projects.50Beam Line Faraday Cup. A Faraday cup has been designed to directly measure the proton beam current with an accuracy of ]%. Fabrication is under way in the TRIUMF machine shop.New Beam Line Proposal. A cost estimate and technical critique was performed on a proposal for a new beam line in the proton hall. An alternative means of performing the proposed experiments was suggested.M9 Commissioning. The group is assisting with the tuning and optimiza­tion of the backward scattered pion channel at 1T2 on beam line 1.Beam Spill Monitors. An inexpensive gas-filled ionization chamber hasbeen designed and tested. A large number of the chambers will be used to measure beam spill as a function of position along beam line 1 andaround the cyclotron. The chambers are in the final stages of fabrica­tion in the TRIUMF machine shop.Beam Spill for the Thermal Neutron Facility. A calculation has been per­formed on the beam spill to be expected downstream of 1T2. The calcula­tion is important in designing the shielding and beam line between 1T2and the TNF. Details of the calculation are in TRIUMF design noteTRI—DN—75-l0.Production of Radiopharmaceuticals by Proton Bombardment. A collabora­tion between TRIUMF and Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) has been formed to study the feasibility of large-scale production of iodine-123 through its xenon precursor. VGH has applied for and received licence to manu­facture labelled radiopharmaceuticals for distribution in Canada. The reactions 127I(p,5n)123Xe and 133Cs(p,2p9n)123Xe are being studied by activation, to permit choice of the most promising target material and beam energy. The dynamics of a generator-type target for continuous rather than batch production have been examined, and the thermodynamics of a molten cesium system have been studied. A model target has been fabricated for testing near the beam dump on beam line 4A.18. INSTRUMENTATIONThe TRIUMF Instrumentation Advisory Committee continued to hold monthly meetings during 1975-The TRIUMF Instrumentation Pool was able to provide a new service in 1975, the rental of instrumentation to experimental groups working on ap­proved experiments. In addition, the Pool has continued to evaluate new instrumentation and update its list of TRIUMF standard instrumentation. Faci1ities for evaluating and testing CAMAC instrumentation were greatly improved with the acquisition of a small NOVA computer. The full listing of TRIUMF nucleonic instrumentation was committed tocomputer storage (on the UBC IBM 370/168). By this means, day-to-day editing, including record­ing of the fault history of individual items, is greatly facilitated.The present list of TRIUMF standard instrumentation is shown in Table IV.5152Table IV. TRIUMF Standard Instrumentation1. RACKS Type 000003070 4. NIM MODULES (cont'd)Premier Metal Housings (Montreal) Variable attenuators (50«) LRS A101 LFast pulse generator: (Berkeley) BNC 80102. POWER SUPPLIES, BINS AND CRATES High resolution ADC:10-bit amplitude encoder (requires NIM bms scaler for read-out) EGG EA 101/NBin and power supply: B.L. Packer Bin NB10 High reso)ution TDC.power supp y 3 10-bit time encoder (requiresCAMAC crate scaler for read-out): EGG EA 102/NCrate: GEC Elliott VC0011/CP1 Spark chamber TDC (routing unit):Power supply: B.L. Packer 1031 BC (300W) Clock generator (up to 200 MHz) andnu . ].■ i * i • i ic7n scaler required. Dual unit: TRIUMF B0 0100Photomultiplier high voltage: Power Designs 1570 ^High voltage distribution: TRIUMF THV100 S1°* Nl* , .... nDTC....3 3 Gate biased amplifier 0RTEC 4443. PHOTOMULTIPLIERS AND HOUSINGS Research amp 1ifler 4502 in. 12-stage, bi-alkali Timing f,1 ter ampl,fier 454photomultipliers: RCA 8575R or RCA 8850R e ay line amplifier 460 Housings: N.P.W. England Ltd. “?1a* amplifier 427A3 Linear gate 426: UEU Mnnm FS Linear gate and stretcher 4424. NIM MODULES Fast coincidence 4,4*Fast NIM Universal coincidence 418ADiscriminators, quad updating: LRS 621 L Time-to-pu1se-height converter 467bridged input version: LRS 621L/4 Gate and delay generator 416Aquad zero-cross: EGG T140 NL Precision pulse generator 419constant fraction: 0RTEC 473 (requested for 5 kV power supply 459AND (coincidence) gates: evaluation) Constant fraction timing SCA 455 Triple 4-fold logic: LRS 465 Digital current integrator 439[Dual 4-fold majority logic LRS 364 and 365 accepted Biased amplifier 408Abut not recommended for new purchases]Dual 4-fold overlap: TRIUMF B024 5. CAMAC MODULESQuad 2-foid overlap: TRIUMF B042 .... , < . «n j o r u auiw / j .• \ 1 dc in Coincidence buffer (pattern unit):Quad 2-fold AND/or (updating): LRS 622 'f„in Frr r?i9[LRS 322A accepted but not recommended] .j , • r . Multi-ADC: Octal 8-bit units LRS 2248 OR gates and logic fan-out: .Logic 8-fold fan-out TRIUMF 14X2951] . „c loq m i„- rnr n a o u-*dd d 1 1l o ij TDinur u,v5nni ( LRS Multi-TDC: Quad 9-bit LRS 2226AOR gate: Dual 4-fold TRIUMF 14X3001/ Octal 10-bit LRS 2228Linear Fan-1n/Fan-out LRS 428 Scalers: Hex 24-bit, 100 MHz: Kinetics 3615 *[LRS 127 and 128 accepted but not recommended for Crate A contro]ler; Kinetics 3900new pure asesj d.... [GEC Elliott accepted but not recommended for new Linear gate: Borer 330 , , KLinear gate and TTytchases]stretcher (integrator): EGG LG 105/N ?u J , . ... . . ,n.Legal converter (NIM Fast - - TTL) : LRS 688 AL and EGG LI38O/NL £® aY'type) output register: GEC 0D 1606 Gate pulse and delay generator: EGG GG202 24-b,t TTL) output register: ™612, 1. ,  ^... uu q ll 24-bit in/out (TTL) register: NE 9017Scaler (visual display): 100 MHz, 6 digit: 24_bit ggte SEC pQ arua • A A"i nRTrr7^79 16-fold fast NIM out: SEN[accepted but not recommended] 0RTEC 772 & ( Mwpc) GECVariable delay units (cable-switched): r, ■   ■■_ ■ ■ K 3 . . j u . . jjrPassive ‘64 nsec1: TRIUMF B0 07 *[LRS - 2550 quad units accepted but not recommended fornew purchasesB. EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL PROGRAM1. INTRODUCTIONThis year has been an exhilarating experience for the experimental groups, as they have had the first opportunities to attempt research with the TRIUMF facilities. At times the beam has been quite spasmodic, and significant advances in reliability will be required before the more difficult experiments can be contemplated. Nevertheless, a lot has been accomplished; several experiments are now set up and taking data, and Experiment 79 on pion production and Experiment lA on smal1-angle proton scattering from ^He have been completed.The proton area was operating soon after the first full-energy beam was extracted. In beam line AB the Experiment 79 group has completed their survey of tt+ production, and the energy of the beam being stable but ad­justable proved very useful in showing beyond doubt that pion production increases monotonically with proton energy. In proton scattering experi ments, the polarized beam is eagerly awaited. The quasi-scattering experiments are under way and preliminary data have shown that the equip ment works well. In beam line k/\ the BASQUE group has tested the deuterium target with liquid hydrogen, has commissioned their complete array of wire chambers, and is now ready to take data on the triple scat tering parameters in proton-proton scattering (Experiment 7*0* The scattering chamber is working and preliminary data on Experiment 3 have been taken; similarly, the gas-jet facility has been commissioned and y-ray spectra have been obtained for the radioactive products from reactions produced by high-energy protons.Progress in the meson area was delayed because of the time needed to complete the meson production target 1T2 and the meson channels. The initial tests were started in June, and within a month all three meson channels were operational. There followed several months of commission­ing in which the characteristics of the three meson channels were studied, and extensive data now exist (for beams at various energies) on y-e contamination, momentum resolution, etc. In the last few months of the year, preliminary work started on various experiments, but problems with the cyclotron seriously delayed the experimental program. However, the ySR group has taken spin precession data and there are indications that Experiment 73 has observed interesting effects. The other groups (TINA and University of Victoria) have tested their equipment and are ready to take data.A full list of the experimental proposals is given in Appendix 5* Pro­posal summaries may be obtained from the Secretary of the Experiments Evaluation Committee (J.E.D. Pearson, Physics Department, University of Brit ish Columbia).2. BEAM LINE 1 EXPERIMENTSExperiments 1, 54Pi scattering and total cross-section measurementsA continuing collaborative beam development program by all M8 users has resulted in a wel1-understood channel. Fig. 29 gives a preliminary 30-MeV SSY time-of-f 1 ight spectrum. The pion production target at 1T2 was copper, and thechannel tune agrees well with optics calculations via the TRACTUS program.1 These indicate that the dispersion plane slit axes intercept some beam and account for most of the discrepancy between design specification and performance. With 300-nA proton beam on 1T2, the channel delivers 3-2 x 105 7r+/sec to the experimental area.Three M8 channel shifts have been devoted to experimental development. Plastic stopping counters are used with the SSY beam, since their resolu­tion is adequate for initial experiments, and Fig. 30 shows a pulse height spectrum from 30-MeV SSY in the stopping counter. The FWHM resolu­tion (about 1 MeV) was obtained with a 1-in. (2.5-mm) slit and a ir+ flux of about 7 x 104 7r+/sec, whi 1 e the target beam spot was constrained to a 1-cm by 1-cm area. After installation of electronics for rejection of muons produced by decay in flight, data-taking will begin. A slow CAMAC data link between the biomedical area and the pion scattering trailer has been installed, allowing static scaler readout but no interrupt handling.A CAMAC-FORTRAN interface program was developed as a summer student project. The computer is presently shared with the pion production group (Experiment 10). A series of subroutines are available to allow CAMAC<SFWHM = 1 MeVArrival Time (nsec)Fig. 29. Time-of-flight spectrum with bio­medical channel set to accept 30-MeV pions.EnergyFig. 30. Pion energy distribution with the channel set for a nominal 30 MeV.■^ K.R. Kendall, B.C. Cancer Foundation5bFig. 31. The pulse height spectrum of the large Nal scintillator from a 144-MeV beam of positrons in the M9 channel. The spread of 4.4% in pulse height is primarily due to the energy spread of the positrons.[ ■•■■■■ — 1 ----- i_ TINA electron spectrum Ee = 144 MeVr •••FWHM = 4 .4 %••x 10 ?•••• •CHANNEL NUMBERsequences to be defined while writing a FORTRAN program. Interrupts from CAMAC may be serviced and data channel transfers performed. The program­ming technique is moderately fast, allowing a nuclear event rate of about 103 per second, and makes available all real-time FORTRAN programming options. The pion production experiment uses the CAMAC-FORTRAN inter­face extensively. The pi scattering experiment uses the computer for small angle event-by-event analysis and data reduction.Experiment 9tt~ + p y + n at pion kinetic energies from 20-200 MeV (TINA)The past year has seen the installation and commissioning of a lot of com­plex experimental equipment. The counting room has been fitted out and is now a satisfactory centre for the control of the experiment. The PDP-11/40 from the Universite de Montreal has been working for several months now, and has been successfully used during several experimental runs. In the M9 area, a hydrogen target has been installed downstream of the Corvallis magnet, and should be operational in January 1976. It will be used with a stopping SSV beam to make a new determination of the Panofsky ratio in hydrogen and to search for the allowed reaction RSSB + d ES0 + n + n)which has never been observed.The RF structure of the beam from the TRIUMF cyclotron has proved ideal for time-of-f1ight studies with the pion beam. It has been possible to determine both the energy and composition of the beam by measuring the time difference between the RF and the pulses in a single counter. Thebest results have been obtained with a chopped beam, for which thetiming resolution is about 1.5 nsec.The TINA crystal [a Nal detector measuring 18 in. (46 cm) in diameter and 20 in. (51 cm) long] has been tested using the electron component of the M9 beam; the timing resolution is about 2 nsec, and the energy resolution was about 5% at 100 MeV and 4.4% at 144 MeV (see Fig. 31). This was dominated, however, by the energy spread in the electron beam. In the spectral response of the crystal, it has been confirmed that the low- energy tail is very small, and that almost all the pulses are in the55full-energy peak. To obtain better spectra, it will be necessary to stop a ir-beam in the liquid hydrogen target, but our tests to date indicate that the characteristics of the Nal detector are as good as, and maybe even better than, we had anticipated.Experiments 23, 57Search for decay modes n° —* 3-y and y + -+ e+ + y  ■ and investigationof the decay mode tt+ ->e+ + ue + y  (MINA)In 1975, a PDP-11 A O  computer was transferred from Montreal (where it had been used for program development) to the TRIUMF site, together with CAMAC crates and various modules. The second large Nal (MINA) was received inApril from Bicron Corporation (Newbury, Ohio) and was subjected to aseries of acceptance tests. It is a 14-in. diam by 14-in. long (36 x 36 cm) crystal, equipped with 4 RCA 4522 tubes.Preliminary tests in the M20 channel at TRIUMF, using electrons producedat the 1T2 target, indicated upper limits on the resolution consistent with those expected from such detectors, (the momentum acceptance of the channel, ^6%, being of the same order as the resolution measured).Timing resolution was determined with cosmic rays as being 3.2 nsec FWHM for a dynamic range 1:20 using constant fraction discriminators, and 2.8 nsec for a restricted range of 1:4 (50 to 200 MeV). These numbers compare very well with those obtained for TINA, although better energy resolution was obtained with the latter (4.4% at 144 MeV).Computer simulation of the group's first experiment (23a, measurement of branching ratio Tr+->evy) showed that, using realistic (measured) response functions from the two Nal detectors and approximate stopping distribu­tions for the ir+ , and by calculating energy-dependent efficiencies, it should be possible to get an accurate prediction of the axial form factor for SSY with 1000 events. This experiment requires 'vlO6 stopped SSY and a good beam spot, conditions which will be met by the M9 channel as soon as 1 yA of protons are available onto 1T2.Experiment 41 a, bRadiative pion captureThis experiment will study the radiative capture and charge exchange of pions in nuclei using the two large Nal detectors at TRIUMF (TINA and MINA).Most of the group's efforts during the past year have been on channel development and measurement of detector properties, although preliminary gamma-ray spectra were obtained during one 6-hour period, by stopping tt" mesons in CH2 and LiH targets. In this way an energy resolution of 5% FWHM was obtained for the 129-MeV y-ray from tt" + p -> y + n, but unfor­tunately the statistics were rather poor. A study of a pulse-shape discrimination system to reject neutron events is currently under way as an alternative to the time-of-f1ight method.56Fig. 32. The coincidence rate of pions from pp -*■ as a function of the magnetic field in the Browne-Buechner spectrograph. The energy of the pions gives a good check on the proton energy.Fig. 33. The parameter Ain da/dsi = A + c o s 2B for the reaction pp ■* d ir. The curves are the results of phenomenological calculations due to Measday (solid curve) and Crawford and Stevenson (broken curve).Experiment 10 Pion productionInstrumentation associated with the 50-cm Browne-Buechner magnetic spec­trograph, including its 2A-element scintillation counter hodoscope and additional coincidence counters, was completed prior to receiving first beam in April 1975. Pions produced by the pp dir reaction in a thin CH2 target were readily detected. Following the addition of local shielding to improve the background level, the pp ->■ dir reaction was observed at proton energies of 395, 375, 350 and 325 MeV.The spectrograph, which subtends a solid angle of 2 msr at the target, can be rotated over the angular range 35-1^5° with respect to the beam direction. The energy resolution of the spectrograph, determined by thesize of the hodoscope counters, is 2% of the central energy (e.g. 1 MeVfor 50-MeV pions), a value comparable with the energy spread of the proton beam and the spot size at the target. As the spectrograph is intended for measurements of low-energy pions (15“ 100 MeV kinetic energy), a momentum calibration of the system was readily accomplished with an 2l+1Am alpha-particle source (equivalent to 32.7_MeV pions).To date, measurements of the pp -> dn reaction have employed a CH2 targetof 1/16-in. (1.7-mm) thickness. A typical measurement of the pp -*■ dTr pion line is shown in Fig. 32, where the coincidence event rate (involv­ing hodoscope 10) is plotted as a function of magnetic field. The position of the line affords a convenient determination of the incident proton energy, which can be obtained by this means to an accuracy of ±0.5 MeV.57Preliminary angular distribution measurements have now been made at proton energies of 375 and 325 MeV, by recording such pion lines at a number of angular positions. The results are normalized to the counting rate obtained in a scintillation counter telescope fixed at 90° to the beam. The results were fitted to a distribution of the form: da/dft = A + cos20 (in the centre-of-mass system). The value of A obtained from these measurements is shown in Fig. 33. The curves shown illustrate the expected dependence according to the phenomenological theory of Gell- Mann and Watson, fitted to total pp dTr cross-section data. The two curves refer to different assumptions regarding the momentum dependence of the total cross-sections. More measurements are planned in the 310-MeV region, as well as measurements of the azimuthal asymmetry of pion production, when the TRIUMF polarized proton beam becomes available.Experiments 35, 60, 71, 73, 78The muon spin research (nSR) experimental programFrom the group's preliminary experiments at the 184-inch synchrocyclotron in Berkeley in the past few years, as well as experiments by others at the SREL machine in Virginia and at the JINR synchrocyclotron at Dubna in the USSR, it has become abundantly evident that the muon is an exciting new tool for a whole range of interdisciplinary research in chemistry and solid-state physics. The unique utility of the muon probe is evi­denced by the extensive research programs now (or soon to be) under way at SIN and at TRIUMF; five separate proposals for muon experiments have been approved by TRIUMF's Experiments Evaluation Committee.The ySR channel (M20) was originally expected to produce experimentally useful muon fluxes when TRIUMF reached intensities of £l yA. Fortunate­ly, there is a large flux of 'cloud muons' (see p.4l) which, though poorly polarized, make experimental work feasible at present intensities (300 nA on 1T2). Results should accumulate quickly, as soon as the beam current on the 1T2 target begins to improve.In the meantime, a great deal of tuning and development of experimental hardware has taken place; preliminary experiments have demonstrated the power and flexibility of the ySR data acquisition and analysis system, which is based on a PDP-11/40 computer with a Bi-Ra MBD-11 pre-processor interface between CAMAC and the PDP-11. The MBD is a fast minicomputer (3 nsec) which handles all CAMAC operations and transmits 'partially digested' data directly into the memory of the PDP-11. The entire sys­tem is supported by the versatile RSX 11-D software. An effective experimental control program, based on a graphical display with light- pen commands, is now in use. S im u ltaneous access to the entire system, including CAMAC, can be made available to 'parasitic' experiments and other users; a data link from the University de Montreal computer has recently been implemented in a preliminary configuration.Three separate arrangements of ySR apparatus have been completed and tested under data-taking conditions: A Varian magnet from the Universityof Tokyo, with associated counters, provides a very uniform field up to5810 kG; it was used to obtain the carbon y+SR spectrum shown in Fig. 23 (p.41). A Helmholtz coil, obtained from the University of Arizona, pro­vides fields up to 150 G with complete freedom of access to the target; in October it was used in the successful observation of MSR (muoniurn spin rotation) in quartz at a field of 3 G. An air-cooled magnet from AECL Chalk River (the 'Chalk River magnet') has been modified for use in Experiment 73, where it provides fields up to 7 kG in an inter-pole spac­ing of 5-5 in. (14 cm), large enough to accommodate the counters and a sophisticated cryostat containing the target. Preliminary results are highly encouraging and suggest, as hoped, that the large hyperfine field in an erbium target will re-polarize a y" in its Is orbit. More beam time is, however, needed to definitely establish the effect. In addition, a superconducting magnet (recently shipped from Tokyo) will be used to produce magnetizing fields up to 50 kG for use in Experiment 73 and in various longitudinal-field studies.The Tokyo contingent has made available to the ySR group an impressive array of high- and low-temperature apparatus for solid-state ySR studies. This includes a 20°K mechanical refrigerator, and a helium dilution refrigerator which can routinely operate at 0.1°K and is capable of reaching 0.02°K. A target oven has also been prepared, such that con­trolled temperatures from0.1°K to several hundred degrees centigrade are available. These will be used initially to study internal hyperfine fields in a variety of precious ferromagnetic targets which are now on hand. They include large single crystals of pure Fe, Ni and various Ni alloys, as well as other ferromagnetic materials, such as Co, Gd and various Hensler alloys.A complete apparatus for gas-phase muonium chemistry studies is ready for use as soon as the ySR channel has been tuned for selection of Arizona muons, for which it is now equipped. An apparatus for investigating muonium diffusion in powdered insulators (Experiment 60) is also being readied for use with such muons.In summary, a large collection of experimental apparatus has been prepared for ySR research, and waits only for a consistent and substantial beam to begin producing results.Experiment 61Biomedical experimental programAs noted above, under Experiments 1 and 54, much initial effort has gone into optimizing the beam flux from the channel. The flux now agrees with that theoretically predicted, to within the uncertainty of the SSL production cross-section from 500-MeV protons. The upstream half of the beam line was tuned to give a good dispersion and a focus at the beam- line mid-plane. This was established by placing a narrow aperture at the mid-plane and investigating the variance of the pion range in water as a function of various magnet settings. The minimum variance was found and the resulting range curve is shown (Fig. 34). This range curve cor­responds to Ap/p of approx 2%, after the width due to the counter59RELATIVE PARTICLE STOPPING RATEPH YS IC A L  M EASUR EM EN T : Counter ArrangementU 1> 4» % .**•» A *J  I______ L10 14 18 22  26DEPTH IN WATER  [ CM ]Fig. 34. Differential range curve.3 0 34oo>H<20 30 40 50 6 0 70 8 0TIME - OF - FL IGHT INTERVAL (N SE C )Fig. 35. Time-of-flight spectrum at 148 MeV/c from a Be target.thickness and range straggling have been corrected for. The dispersion was measured to be 0.6 cm/Ap/p %.The particle composition of the beam was found to be best determined by time of flight. Typical results from a Be target at 1T2 show an electron contamination of approx b6% (Fig. 35). Whether this can be improved with other targets has not yet been determined. Only preliminary studies of the beam size and shape at the end of the beam line have been made. It is, however, possible to vary the size of the irradiation field over a large range. Detailed calculations of the beam characteristics have been carried out during the shutdown of the cyclotron at the end of 1975-During the year no biological irradiations were made at TRIUMF, as the flux of pions remains too low. However, control studies using cobalt-60 y-rays were carried out at the B.C. Cancer Foundation to establish base­lines for the effects of radiation on mouse skin, spinal cord and lens of the eye and on the lower abdominal region of pigs. Such studies are sufficiently advanced to allow comparison with pion irradiation as soon as a sufficiently intense beam becomes available.603. BEAM LINE 4A EXPERIMENTSExperiment 3The production of light nuclear fragmentsDuring 1975, the fragment measurement equipment has grown to a configura­tion with a 3“detector 'monitor telescope' at a fixed position and a movable 5-detector 'fragment telescope1. The monitor telescope collects data in a AE-E-Ereject mode; it also monitors the product of the beam intensity and effective target thickness by measurement of he1iurn isotopes in a fixed-energy range, determined by single-channel analysers on the E and Ereject detectors. The fragment telescope is a set of silicon de­tectors of increasing thicknesses, designed to collect information over a wide range of fragment energies, that allows optimum identification of fragment type.Initial studies demonstrated isotopic resolution for fragments up to Be or B, and elemental resolution through oxygen or fluorine, both from a Ag target. The first collection of experimental data stimulated work on improved algorithms for fragment identification, which now yield good fragment identification over larger ranges of fragment type and energy than in previous studies.1’2 Fig. 36 shows a histogram of the particleo«]P I  U 1 0Fig. 36. Fragment speotnm from Ag at 900 with incident 480-MeV protons.1E. Volnin, A. Vorobejov, V. Grachow, D. Sleverstor and E. Spiridenkov, Publication #101, June 197^, Leningrad Institute of Nuclear Physics.2A. Poskanzer, G. Butler, E. Hyde, Phys. Rev. £3, 882 (1971);E. Hyde, G. Butler, A. Poskanzer, Phys. Rev. ££, 1759 (1971);R. Korteling, C. Toren, E. Hyde, Phys. Rev. £7, 1611 (1973).61identification values (PI) generated by the analysis program for events of all energies observed in one experiment. Signals from all hydrogen isotopes and from most of the energy range of the helium isotopes were eliminated in the electronics to conserve analysis time. The identifica­tion is quite good considering that a 16.6-y-thick AE detector was used, in order that low-energy fragments could be observed.Fig. 37 shows differential cross-section data for 7Be emission from Ag, which display the general qualitative features expected from higher- energy work and from cascade-evaporation calculations; they also indicate an unexpected excess cross-section on the low-energy side of the cross- section. Possible instrumental or analysis difficulties which might be responsible are being checked, but so far none has been found.Close examination of the energy loss distribution of 4He and 7Be in 16- and 34-y totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors, used in AE-E measurements, has shown that the FWHM in energy does not decrease smoothly with increasing particle energy, as would be expected from previous results.3 The variation in width, as illustrated in Fig. 38, is beyond statistical deviation, and is reproducible. A closer inspec­tion of the data suggests correlation with the velocity of the K-shell electrons in the silicon, as large variations in the resolution are found consistently at those particle velocities that coincide with that of the silicon K-shell electrons. A similar effect might be expected to occur at particle velocities equivalent to that of the silicon L-shell elec­trons. These observed variations are similar to those found in x-ray absorption fine structure.4L.U)I®  -r,2Z S'-Q “O -o o°  °Oooo0o0 0 °cO O O q O  0  ° ° o O  (o ° o  o  °°o  Oo° o^*° 00 00°°° °o °ao OOOo000o o 0c °  480 MeV0 V  x 100'»« A 400 MeV x  10bCM-o 7Be at 90° from protons on 1 mg/cm2 Ag target,00o000 300 MeVx 110 zo *5 50 60Energy (MeV)Fig. 37. Double differential cross- 10 sections at 90° for 7Be from Ag with 300-, 400- and 480-MeV protons.3V. Avdeichikov, E. Ganz and 0. Lozhkin,Nucl. Instr. £ Meth. 118, 274 (1974).E. Stern, Phys. Rev. B10, 3027 (1974);F. Lytle, D. Sayers and E. Stern, Phys. Rev. B11, 4825 (1975);E. Stern, D. Sayers and F. Lytle, Phys. Rev. B11, 4836 (1975).62.57-Fig. 38. FWHM distributions for energy loss by hHe and 7Be as a function of particle velocity incident on 16- p silicon surface barrier detectors.Experiment 11 Gas je tExperimental work was begun in 1975, initially with beam line kl\ currents of a few nanoamperes, rising to 50 nA near the end of the year. First efforts have been directed towards evaluating performance of the gas-jet radioactivity transport system, and taking the first nuclear spectro­scopic data on short-lived nuclides.The transport efficiency of the gas-jet system for fission fragments from a uranium foil target has been investigated, with 500-MeV protons as projectiles. With the first large-volume target chamber employed, yields were good with ethylene gas, nitrogen plus ethylene, and also nitrogen plus methanol or benzene injected as an aerosol, although average trans­port times (due to gas residence in the chamber) were found to be uncomfortably long at a few seconds.Transport efficiency in the same chamber for products of spallation of Ag at 500 MeV was close to zero. This was thought due to the short range of such products, and the existence of a dead layer near the target surface not effectively flushed by the gas stream. A redesigned chamber, with this feature corrected and with a smaller total volume to reduce gas residence time, is installed ready for testing. It should provide access to nuclides of half-life of less than one second.Transport efficiency was found to be good for spallation products from an argon gaseous target (mixed with ethylene for transport), and from iodine63bombarded as an aerosol of methyl iodide dissolved in methanol injected into nitrogen carrier gas. Identification of the spallation product nuclides collected at the end of the transport system was effected by gamma-spectrum analysis. Tests are planned of other aerosol systems, as this seems to be a useful general technique.The time-of-f1ight mass spectrometer for nuclei recoiling from beta-decay processes (which was described in last year's annual report) has been assembled and leak checked. Problems with the chevron ion-detector and ion-acceleration high voltage system have been overcome and the first ion time-of-f1ight spectra obtained. In addition, a beta-scinti1lation spec­trometer system has been built for application in beta-gamma coincidence measurements on short-lived nuclei. The objective is decay energy measurement, and hence mass measurement, on nuclei remote from stability.Measurement of x-gamma and gamma-gamma coincidence spectra plus spectrum peak decay half-lives has permitted identification of a large number of fission products of U + 500-MeV protons (in comparison with products from U + 14-MeV neutrons) and acquisition of nuclear spectroscopic data. Data analysis is proceeding.Experiment 40 BASQUEThe objective of this group is a precise determination of the pp and np elastic scattering amplitudes in the energy range 200-520 MeV, by means of measurements of Wolfenstein parameters, polarization, and da/dft. The first two will be measured by scattering of polarized beams of protons or neutrons from liquid hydrogen, and analysis of the polarization of scattered protons in a polarimeter.The unpolarized extracted proton beam, electronics and polarimeter were set up between February and June, and test data were taken in August with a hydrogen gas target. The first liquid hydrogen target was com­missioned during September and October.The polarimeter consists of a carbon plate (3 or 6 cm thick, according to proton energy) sandwiched centrally in an array of 12 multi-wire propor­tional chambers. The front 6 chambers, defining the proton incident on the polarimeter, have active areas of 50 cm2 ; the back 6, defining the scattered proton, have active areas of 100 cm2 . The measurement effici­ency for a useful scattering event in 6 cm of carbon is 5%, with an analyzing power which varies with energy and scattering angle, but is typically 35%. The array has an overall efficiency better than 99%, and is capable of recording 250 events/sec.The first stage of the experiment consists of calibrating this polarimeter using protons of known polarization from pp elastic scattering. The spin of the proton is precessed alternately ±90° using a superconducting sole­noid, as a check against instrumental asymmetries. The calibration has been completed at two energies with statistics of 5 x 105 scatters64Fig. 39. Preliminary results on the analyzing power of carbon at a proton energy of 380 MeV. The values given in Ref. 1 are shown for comparison.60 -UJotrUJQ.o ooa: 40h  <u_oa:UJ£oQ_jq2C* >- _ l <Z  <UJ>+  +  +T BASQUE * "T  380 MeV]  AEBISCHER et si. f  397 MeV+ f t \ + +f t, f t + ++10LAB ANGLE15(DEGREES)20 25at each energy. The preliminary result, shown on Fig. 39, at 380 MeV gives an analyzing power somewhat higher than that observed by Aebischer e t aZ.,1 but in close agreement with the older results of Birge and Fowler.2 This calibration will be repeated at kO-Me\l steps.Experiment 48 FERFICONAn experimental program has been undertaken by Simon Fraser University under a contract from Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. to measure the neutron yield and consequent ferti1e-to-fissi1e conversion reaction rates in high mass, thick targets bombarded by high-energy protons. The particu­lar conversion reactions of interest are radiative neutron capture in 238U and 232Th leadi ng through two 3-decay steps to the production of 239Pu and 233U, respectively.The apparatus and equipment have been commissioned for measuring the neutron yield from proton stopping targets, via the thermal neutron flux in a 6-ft-diam (1.8-m) water tank surrounding the targets. Two methods have been used to measure the neutron flux: one is gold foil activationand the other is measurement of the 3 current through a thin MgO insula­tion layer surrounding a thin vanadium wire. Data have been obtained by both methods for a 10-cm-diam, 30-cm-long lead target with 500-MeV protons incident. Future measurements will be made on natural uranium and thorium targets, of various sizes and at two proton energies.■^ D. Aebischer, B. Favier, G. Greeniaus, R. Hess, H. Junod, C. Lechanoine, J.C. Nickles, D. Rapin and D. Werren, Nucl . Instr. & Meth. 12k , kS (1975)2R.W. Birge and W.B. Fowler, Phys. Rev. Letters 5., 25k (1960l654. BEAM LINE 4B EXPERIMENTSExperiment 14Elastic scattering of protons from 4HeDuring the past year, calibration has which are used in most current invest tion at TRIUMF. The results have bee for protons undergoing reactions in b< increases, corrections for scattering become progressively more important, plateau in the efficiency-versus-posi can be seen by comparing data for 252 A detailed account of these calibrate others working in this energy range,Extensive data have been taken on sma ^He through the TRIUMF energy range u recoiling ^He nuclei are detected in i rotons in a low-pressure gas target. He particles is made via data taken , Graaff (NRC Progress Report 197*0, whINCIDENT PROTON EN ERGY  (MeV)Fig. 40. Detector efficiency vs. Fig. 41 proton energy. centre iproceeded of the range telescopes gations at the 4BT1 target posi- i analyzed and are shown in Fig. 40 >th copper and Nal. As the energy of particles out of the detectors ind at about 450 MeV there is no ion curve for this geometry. This MeV and 466 MeV, shown in Fig. 41. ms, which may be very useful to s being prepared.1 angle scattering of protons from ing a new technique. Low-energy oincidence with forward-going Corrections for energy loss of the t the University of Alberta Van de le an alpha-energy window togethert -------------------- 1-------------------- 1-------------------- rRADIUS-SQUARED (arbitrary units)Detector efficiency vs. square of distance from crystal.665 0 0 -4 0 0 -3 0 0 -200 -w 100' ^  9 0 -f  8 0 -  7 0 -  ■§ 6 0 -  5 0 -bCSSycB1 4 0 -3020-I0LELASTIC SCATTERING 4He(p,p)4HeTRIUMF-500 MeV- ** i REL DATA -  587 MeV’*{*1TRIUMF-350 MeV- , OppOerv2 0  2 0[  (Lab)10° 12° 13° 14° 15°Fig. 42. Preliminary results on the angular distribution of the elastic scattering cross- section for p - 4He in the laboratory system. Recent normalization requires the values in the graphs to be divided by the factor 1.03 at 500 MeV and 0.875 at 350 MeV.with the alpha detector geometry is used to define the target volume and detection solid angle. The proton-coincidence requirement allows easy separation of elastic scattering events.Analysis of the data at 200 MeV is not yet complete. The data at 350 and 500 MeV are shown in Fig. 42 and compared to measurements at nearby energies. Some uncertainty still exists as to absolute normalization and it is planned to check this with the Faraday cup being installed by the New Facilities group, as soon as equipment can be installed again for this experiment.Experiment 15Nucleon-nuclear quasi-free scatteringThe medium resolution spectrometer facility (MRS) will detect protons up to 500 MeV with a resolution of 500 keV (FWHM) at laboratory angles of 10° or greater. Experiments will also use a neutron time-of-flight counter array in the case of (p,pn) measurements and a multi-wire Nal detecting system for (p,2p). For such apparatus, the maximum energy of67the detected particle is 1imited to about 150 MeV in order to achieve rea­sonable resolution. Thus most measurements will use a nonsymmetric geo­metry, with the MRS at a forward angle detecting a relatively high energy proton. A number of interesting cases can be studied, with the MRS fixed at a laboratory angle of 21° while the low-energy detector is moved both in and out of the reaction plane. The object in these first measurements will be to test understanding of the quasi-free scattering process and to observe neutron hole states in nuclei.Among the equipment developed, a prototype phototube housing for 5-in.- diam (I2.7~cm) RCA 4522 tubes has been constructed and tested. It is a de­coupled device similar to the RL/Daresbury standard base for 2-in. (5-cm) tubes. Enough 5~in. and 2-in. tubes have been obtained to make up two modules of eight detectors each. In addition, 16 constant fraction trig­gers have been constructed and tested. The low-energy arm for (p,2p) experiments is essentially the same as has been used at 4BT1 , so that the equipment is already available.The main task remaining is to complete the MRS. Results of the prelim­inary field survey are encouraging. Squared-off pole tips have beenordered and the vacuum tank has been delivered. Detector wire plane con­struction is well advanced, and it is expected that a usable MRS facility will be set up at a fixed angle and ready for initial experimental runs in the spring of 1976.Experiment 16Proton-deuteron quasi-elastic scatteringThe first stage of this experiment was set up during the past year (Fig. 43). Sodium iodide detectors measure the energies, plastic scintil­lation counters measure the dE/dx values and times of flight, while multi­wire proportional chambers measure the angles of both outgoing particles.An ionization chamber monitors the number of incident protons. All of the equipment is working satisfactorily, and this experiment is now taking data.The mass of a detected particle is calculated by means of an empiricalformula from dE/dx and total energy, and protons and deuterons are clear­ly separated. The mass can also be calculated from the particle time of flight and energy; in this way, events in which the outgoing particles are protons in coincidence with deuterons can be unambiguously identified.From conservation of energyE0 = Ei + E2 + Em |sswhere E0 = kinetic energy of incident protonEi = kinetic energy of outgoing protonE2 = kinetic energy of outgoing deuteronEm iss = separation energy required to remove a deuteron from the target plus excitation energy of residual recoil nucleus.68Fig. 43. Experimental arrangement, with P = plastic scintillation counter, M  = multi-wire proportional chamber, C = copper absorber, and N = sodium iodide crystal (12.5 x 7.5 cm).Since E0 is known and Ej and E2 are measured in the sodium iodide detec­tor, Em iss can be calculated for each event. For elastic scattering, Emiss should clearly be zero. The distribution of events as a function °f Em ;ss f°r a CD2 target, with the detectors at angles appropriate for elastic p-d scattering, is shown in Fig. kk . The distribution is centred around zero, with a FWHM of 8 MeV, which indicates an overall energy resolution of 'v2%. The measured energy resolution of the sodium iodide detectors and straggling in the copper absorber satisfactorily account for this.A typical missing energy spectrum with a carbon target is shown in Fig. A5. The prominent peak corresponds to population of the ground state and691 . E, (POLARIZED PROTONS)Fig. 46. Experimental arrangement, with P  = plastic scintillation counter, M  = multi-wire proportional chamber, and N = sodium iodide crystal (12.5 x 7.5 cm).low-lying levelsof10B, and its position at Em jss 25 MeV is in agreement with the known separation energy of deuterons from carbon of 25.01 MeV.Several thousand events have been accumulated for the reaction 12C(p,pd)10B, and these are currently being analyzed. A few more shifts of data taking would serve to complete this experiment and to obtain some data on the reaction 160(p,pa)12C.Experiment 58Polarization effects of the spin-orbit coupling of nuclear protonsThe experimental layout is shown in Fig. *»6. All the equipment has been tested and performs as expected, but no data have been taken. As soon as polarized beam is available this experiment will be the highest priority for the quasi-elastic scattering group. If the initial experiment on 160 is successful, the MRS will be employed to make similar measurements on other nuclei, where this technique should prove a powerful method of investigating spin-orbit splitting.Experiment 66A survey of p-p bremsstrahiungA survey of proton-proton bremsstrahiung (p + p - > p  + p + y) is being undertaken, to investigate the sensitivity of the ppy cross-section to off-shell features of the nucleon-nucleon force. Previous ppy experiments revealed no new features of the NN interaction; however, these experiments were performed at energies well below 200 MeV and for proton angles greater than 15°. Off-shell effects are generally expected to influence the cross-section more at smaller angles and high bombarding energies.For these reasons, it is proposed to begin by measuring the ppy cross- section at symmetric proton angles of 10°, and over a range of bombarding energies above 200 MeV.The apparatus necessary to do the proposed smal1-angle experiment has been constructed, including two large solid-angle proton telescopes, a70gas-handling system for the hydrogen target, and a special thin wire chamber which will allow measurements at very small angles.A prototype of the proton telescope was successfully tested with 50-MeV protons at the University of Manitoba. The final version of one of the telescopes has been assembled and successfully tested at the University of Alberta. Installation of the telescopes at TRIUMF is now well under way.The design of the hydrogen gas-handling system has been approved by the TRIUMF Safety Executive Committee. The control system to ensure safe filling and emptying of the target has been built and tested. A hydrogen vent line has been installed from the target area to the roof of the proton hal1.The TRIUMF Theory group has developed a computer program to calculate approximate ppy cross-sections, as the first two terms in the Low expan­sion. These terms contain all the information on the pp interaction which is unambiguously determined from elastic scattering (see p.36 for further details of the calculation). To improve the measurements' sensitivity to the desired off-shell parts of the amplitude, attention will be concentrated on kinematic regions where the calculation shows that the contributions from the on-shell parts are small.Work on a complete relativistic model calculation has also been progress­ing. The first phase of the calculation (the computation of cross-sect ions from boson exchanges with nucleons radiating) is complete.Work is also well under way on a Monte Carlo computer program to simulate the experiment, to determine the effects of kinematics and experimental resolutions in distorting the measured bremsstrahlung spectra. The pro­gram is being written in such a way that it should be useful for any scattering experiment involving the coincidence detection of two charged particles.Experiment 79 Low-energy n productionSummaryThe data acquisition runs on this experiment were completed during the owl shift of October 2, 1975. Data analysis is almost complete. Prelim­inary results are presented here.The cross-sections for production of low-energy positive pions from tar­gets of C and Cu were measured at three angles, 60°, 100° and 150°, for pion energies of 23, 32, 53, 76 and 102 MeV, for proton-bombarding energies of 400, 450 and 500 MeV. At an angle of 100°, an excitation function for production of 32- and 53”MeV positive pions from carbon was measured at six proton energies between 400 and 500 MeV.71Experimental ProcedurePositive pions produced in targets located at the 4BT1 target position were detected in a pion range telescope. The procedure was similar tothat used in a measurement of a proton energy of 590 MeV by members of thegroup at the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory, Newport News, Virginia. Particles stopping in the fourth counter of the five-counter telescope shown in Fig. 47 are indicated by the five-fold coincidence 1234fT. The stopping pions were separated from muons by requiring the detection of a subsequent pulse from the decay y in counter 4, during a period between 20 and 100 nsec after the stop signal. Background from protons and electrons was reduced by recording time of flight between counter 1 and 2and dE/dx from counter 3 in a two-dimensional pulse height analyzer foreach 'pion' event signal. The initial energy of pions accepted by the telescope was changed by placing various thicknesses of copper degrader between counters 2 and 3. Five pion energies were measured, 23, 32, 53, 76 and 102 MeV, using this telescope.The relative proton beam intensity was monitored using a three-element scintillation counter telescope to detect particles scattered from the aluminum windows of the beam line monitor 4BM6, located 3 m downstream of the target location. This was calibrated absolutely in terms of the activation of a carbon foil using the known 12C(p,pn)11C reaction cross- section, by measuring the B+ activity from 11C normalized to a calibrated 22Na source.Measurements were also made of the pp -> ir+D cross-sections using a CH2 target, for three proton bombarding energies, 400, 450 and 500, at pion~  20  cmS T O P  S I G N A L  I • 2 • 3  • 4  ■ 57 T +  E V E N T  (  I- 2  • 3 • 4 - 5  )d • (  3 ■ 4  • 5  )Fig. 47. tt+ telescope.72energies available within the restricted angular ranges permitted by the scattering chamber. This provided a check on the beam normalization and telescope efficiency calculations, by enabling a comparison to be made between the measured yields and the known cross-section for this reac­tion. The results confirm the calculations of the telescope efficiencies for 53-, 76- and 102-MeV pions and beam monitor calibrations at 400, 450 and 500 MeV.ResultsThe differential cross-sections measured at production angles of 60°,100° and 150° for carbon at 400-, 450- and 500-MeV proton bombardment energy are shown in Fig. 48, and those for copper at 450 and 500 MeV are shown in Fig. 49.An excitation function for the production of 32- and 53-MeV pions at 100° was measured at six proton energies between 400 and 500 MeV. The results are shown in Fig. 50. This excitation function varies monotonically with energy, and extrapolates smoothly to the SREL results at 590.Fig. 48. i\+ production cross-sections for carbon.Curves drawn through the experimental points are only to guide the eye.Fig. 49. ful production cross-sections for copper.Curves drawn through the experimental points are only to guide the eye.C A R B O NT-77- MeVC A R B O NC O P P E R  T p 5 0 0  M e VTw  M e VC A R B O N_J_________L6 0  8 0T V  MeV73_l__________ I_450 500Tp MeV_J__550Fig. 50. Excitation function between 400 and 500 MeV for 32- and 53-MeV it11 production from carbon at 100°.The 450-MeV, 60° production cross-sections from carbon reported here do not show the large values previously reported by Lillethun.1 The 60° yields from carbon measured at 450,1 at 590,2 and at 740 MeV,3 together with the TRIUMF results reported here, are shown in Fig. 51.ConclusionsThe results from this experiment indicate that, unfortunately, a magic energy for low-energy positive-pion production does not appear to exist in the region of 450 MeV, as previously reported work would indicate.The yields vary monotonical1y with energy, but at a slow enough rate that for TRIUMF it will be advantageous to operate with primary beams of 400 yA at 450 MeV, as against 100 yA at 500 MeV. Comparison of these measurements with the theoretical predictions of Beder and Bendix1* show general agreement, except that the theoretical results predict too large production cross-sections for the higher-energy pions at 60° and 100°.1E. Lillethun, Phys. Rev. 125, 665 (1962)2P.W. James, Ph.D. thesis, University of Victoria (1975)3D.R.F. Cochran, P.N. Dean, P.A.M. Gram, E.A. Knapp, E.R. Martin,D.E. Nagle, R.B. Perkins, W.J. Schlaer, H.A. Thiessen and E.D. Theriot, Phys. Rev. D6, 3085 (1972)4D.S. Beder and P. Bendix, private communication (1975)cr/dfldTTr /i b/sr-MeVT ir MeVFig. 51. 60° it production cross-section from carbon at variousenergies. Chicago: Lillethun (1962); Berkeley: Cochran et al. (1972); SREL: James (1975); TRIUMF: present experiment.5. THEORETICAL PROGRAMDuring the past year the first step was taken toward the formation of a medium-energy theory group at the main site. One staff member was hired in July, a second is expected in the fall of 1976, and there are current­ly two associated graduate students. It is hoped eventua11y to have enough theorists to make a viable theoretical group, possessing some expertise in each of the major areas of interest at TRIUMF. It is intended that the theoretical group will both a) be a service group to provide consulta­tion and theoretical support for experimental groups working at TRIUMF, and b) carry out an independent research program in medium-energy physics, which may generate new ideas for experiments which might utilize the capabilities of TRIUMF.Specific research areas which have been of interest in the past year include the following:1) Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahiungIn principle, nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahiung provides a way of obtain­ing information about off-mass-shel1 aspects of the nucleon-nucleon force. Most previous calculations of the process have been based on low-energy potential approaches, which are of limited applicability at TRIUMF energies. In anticipation of TRIUMF bremsstrahiung experi­ments, a program of relativistic calculations based on a soft-photon model has been started. Such an approach does not give a specific prediction for the off-mass-shel1 terms. It is, however, completely relativistic and gauge invariant, and allows one to easily explore the kinematic region, to find those areas where on-mass-shel1 terms are small and thus where a search for off-mass-shel1 information might be most fruitful. Similar techniques will also be used to see what additional information might be obtained using polarized protons.2) (p,iO reactionsOne of the areas of recent excitement in medium-energy pnysics, an area under active experimental investigation at TRIUMF, is that of Ro tESr reactions in nuclei. Such processes should give information about high momentum components of nuclear wave functions and about basic aspects of the SSnn interaction. Several calculations have been made using a distorted wave impulse approximation model in which the nuclear Ro tSSr reaction is assumed to be dominated by pp -> ird. So far pd -> tir, pd -*■ 3Heir, and p3He -> H^eir have been investigated, but the formalism is available for reactions on an arbitrary nucleus. Similar techniques have been applied with some success to the analogous (p,y) reactions. Again, investigation of possible new in­formation obtainable using polarized protons will be the next step.763) Photon asymmetry in radiative muon captureThe asymmetry of photons emitted following capture by polarized muons in a nucleus is very sensitive to certain of the weak inter­action couplings, particularly the induced pseudoscalar. The single currently available experiment disagrees drastically with theory, and a second experiment is planned for TRIUMF. Calculations have been made, which indicate that certain previously neglected terms may affect the theoretical result, and a calculation of these terms is in progress.Other general areas of interest for the present staff member and students include muon capture and reactions, general weak interactions, radiative processes, and particle decays. The staff member coming in the fall has done extensive calculations on ird elastic scattering using a Faddeev approach, and will thus add expertise in that and related areas to the group.77G. ORGANIZATIONBoard of ManagementThe Board of Management of TRIUMF manages the business of the project and has equal representation from each of the four universities. It reports to the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia which has legal and financial responsibility for TRIUMF. At the end of 1975 the Board comprised:University of Alberta Simon Fraser University University of Victoria University of British ColumbiaPresident H.E. GunningDean Kenneth B. NewboundMr. W.A.B. Saunders (Jan. 9, 1975)Dean S. Aronoff Mr. G. Suart Dr. B.G. WilsonDr. J.M. Dewey Dr. R.M. Pearce President H.E. PetchDr. R.R. HaeringDr. E.W. Vogt (Chairman)Dean G.M. Volkoff (Secretary)E x - o f f io io  Dr. J.R. Richardson, Director, TRIUMFUntil mid-year Dr. H.W. Dosso and Dr. S.A. Jennings of the University of Victoria served on the Board in places now occupied by President Petch and Dr. Pearce. The vacancy in University of Alberta Board membership, following the resignation of Dr. J.T. Sample, was filled just after the year-end when Mr. Saunders joined the Board. The Board met three times in 1975.Operating CommitteeThe Operating Committee of TRIUMF is responsible for the operation of the project. It reports to the Board of Management through its chairman, Dr. J.R. Richardson. It has four voting members, one from each of the four universities. The members of the committee (alternate members in parentheses) at the end of 1975 were:Dr.Dr.J.R.B.D.Dr. W.K. Dr. R.G.Dr.Dr.L.P.Richardson Pate Dawson Korteli ng RobertsonJ.B. WarrenDirector (Chairman)Associate Director (Secretary) University of Alberta (Dr.Simon Fraser University (Dr.University of Victoria (Dr.University of B.C. (Dr.W.C. Olsen) A.S. Arrott) G.R. Mason) D.A. Axen)In July R.M. Pearce returned to University of Victoria after serving as Associate Director during a year on leave at main site and was succeeded78by B.D. Pate, on leave from Simon Fraser University for the 1975/76 aca­demic year. The Committee met nine times during the year.TRIUMF Safety Executive CommitteeDr. B.D. Pate (Chairman) Dr. E.W. Blackmore Mr. J.W. Carey Mr. A.J. Otter Mr. P.C. Taylor Mr. I.M. Thorson Dr. J.R. Richardson Mr. M. ZachDr. G.D. Wait (Secretary)Experiments Evaluation Committee(Cha i rman)Dr. G.T. Ewan Dr. D.G. Fleming Dr. E.M. Henley Dr. E.P. Hincks Dr. W.J. McDonald Dr. B . Margoli s Dr. D.F. Measday Dr. B.D. Pate Mr. J.E.D. Pearson Dr. H. Primakoff Dr. J.R. Richardson Dr. J.T. Sample Dr. L.D. Skarsgard Dr. E.W. Vogt Prof. Sir Denys Wilkinson(unt i1 Dec 31) (Scientific Secretary) (Secretary)Dr. M.W. Greene, B.C. Dept, of Health Services and Hospital Insurance Dr. W. Rachuk, Radiation Protection and Pollution Control Officer, UBC Dr. L.D. Skarsgard, B.C. Cancer Foundat ionMr. S.C. Frazer of the Workers Compen­sation Board attends meetings as an observer.Queens University University of British Columbia University of Washington Carleton University University of Alberta McGi11 Un ivers i ty University of British Columbia Simon Fraser University University of British Columbia University of Pennsylvania TRIUMFUniversity of AlbertaB.C. Cancer Foundation University of British Columbia Oxford UniversityUntil July E.W. Vogt served as Chairman of the Committee.Biomedical Experiments Evaluation CommitteeDr. L.D. Skarsgard (Chairman)Dean S. AronoffDr. M.J. Ashwood-SmithDr. J.M.W. GibsonDr. H.C. JohnsDr. R.R. JohnsonDr. T.R. OvertonDr. J.T. SampleDr. D.C. WalkerDr. G.F. WhitmoreB.C. Cancer Foundation Simon Fraser University University of VictoriaB.C. Cancer Foundation Ontario Cancer Institute University of British Columbia University of Alberta University of Alberta University of British Columbia University of Toronto79D. FINANCIAL STATEMENTStatement of revenue and expenditures, April 1, 197^-March 31, 1975:RevenueAtomic Energy Control Board $7,650,000Interest and cash receipts 193,17^B.C. Cancer Institute reimbursement A63,962Total 8,307,136Subtract: Balance carried forwardfrom previous year (1 ,A72,683)$6,834,453Expend i turesCap i tal $3,761,187Operating 2,591,898Experiments 947,611B.C. Cancer Institute A80,507Total 7,781,203Subtract: Overexpended funds atMarch 31, 1975 (9^6,750)$6 ,834 ,4 5380Expenditures for nine-month period to December 31, 1975:Major grouping:Administration $ 93,284General payroll 1,791,314Power & operations 190,652Cost centres and holding accounts 284,001Commissioned facilities 388,187Major facilities 995,875Experimental programs 576,494$4,319,807Summary:Contribution funds (operating) Grant funds Cost centresTotal operating expenditures Contribution funds (capital) Deferred income$2 , 166,761714,082138 ,006$3,018,849 1,154,963 145,995$4,319,80781Appendix 1CONFERENCESContinuing the tradition started by the Banff Summer School in l970, a NATO Summer School on Nuclear and Particle Physics at Intermediate Energies was held from June 23 to July 2 at Brentwood College School near Victoria. TRIUMF scientists at the University of Victoria and University of British Columbia organized the School, with financial support provided by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and National Research Council as well as NATO. The School's aim— to explore several of the research avenues possible at meson factories— was well met, and many useful contacts were made by TRIUMF scientists with participants from eastern Canada, Europe and the United States.During the year papers on TRIUMF were presented at the following conferences: [Details on those which have been, or are to be, publishedare given in Appendix 2.]Western Regional Nuclear Conference, Winnipeg, February 20-221975 Particle Accelerator Conference, Washington, March 12-14Fifth International Conference on Magnet Technology, Frascati,April H-18American Physical Society General Meeting, Washington, April 28- May 1Canadian Association of Physicists Congress 1975, Toronto,June 9-12Vlth International Conference on High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure, Santa Fe and Los Alamos, June 9-13Seventh International Cyclotron Conference, Zurich, August 19-22Fourth International Symposium on Polarization Phenomena in Nuclear Reactions, Zurich, August 25-29Vllth International Conference on Few Body Problems in Nuclear and Particle Physics, Delhi, December 29-January 382Appendix 2PUBLICATIONSConference proceedings:J.R. Richardson, E.W. Blackmore, G. Dutto, C.J. Kost, G.H. Mackenzie and M.K. Craddock, Product ion of simultaneous, variable energy beams from the TRIUMF cyclotron, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-22 (3), 1A02 (1975)R.L. Poirier and M. Zach, TRIUMF RF system, i b id . , 1253R.H.M. Gummer, Accelerating voltage control and stabilization in the TRIUMF cyclotron, i b id . ,  M S IJ. Beveridge, E.W. Blackmore, P.F. Bosman, G. Dutto, W. Joho, R. Riches, V. Rodel, L.W. Root and B.L. White, Initial operating experience with the TRIUMF 300 keV H" injection system, i b id . , 1707C.J. Kost and G.H. Mackenzie, COMA, a linear motion code for cyclotrons, i b id . , 1922E.G. Auld, R.E. Marek and A.J. Otter, The commissioning of the TRIUMF cyclotron magnet, Proc. of 5th Int. Conference on Magnet Technology (CNEN, Frascati, 1975), p.93J.R. Richardson, The status of TRIUMF, Proc. of 7th Int. Cyclotron Conference (BirkhMuser, Basel, 1975), p.*tlR.H.M. Gummer, R.L. Poirier and M. Zach, TRIUMF RF system - Initial operating problems and their solutions, i b id . , 167M.K. Craddock, E.W. Blackmore, G. Dutto, C.J. Kost, G.H. Mackenzie, J.R. Richardson, L.W. Root and P. Schmor, Properties of the TRIUMF cyclotron beam, ib id .  , 2^0G. Dutto and M.K. Craddock, Focusing in RF accelerating gaps with asym­metrically curved electric equipotentials, i b id . , 271D.P. Gurd, D.R. Heywood and R.R. Johnson, The use of CAMAC with small computers in the TRIUMF control system, i b id . , 561G. Roy, The TRIUMF polarized ion source, Proc. of Ath Int. Symposium on Polarization Phenomena in Nuclear Reactions, ZUrich (to be published)J.R. Richardson, Preliminary results of the research on few body problems at TRIUMF, Proc. of Vllth Int. Conference on Few Body Problems in Nuclear and Particle Physics, Delhi (to be published)Reports:TRI - 75“ 1 Studies a propos ii"p -> vny and ir -> evy experimentsD.S. BederTRI-75"2 Experimental facilities at TRIUMFR.M. Pearce, ed.83TR1-75-3 Measurements and calculations of reaction losses of medium-energy protons in Nal detectorsC.A. Goulding and J.G. RogersTRI-75-2* What pp parameters need measuring from 200 to 525 MeV?D.V. Bugg and C. OramTRI-75"5 What np elastic scattering data are needed from 200 to520 MeV?D.V. BuggJournal publications:H.W. Fearing, Theorem for the photon asymmetry in radiative muon capture, Phys. Rev. Letters 35., 79 (1975)H.W. Fearing, General formalism for pion production in nuclei: applica­tion to pd -> tir, Phys. Rev. Cl 1 , 1210 (1975)H.W. Fearing, Effect of the deuteron D state on distorted-wave impulse-approximation calculations of (p,ir) reactions, i b id . , 1493J. Spuller and D.F. Measday, On the s-wave production of pions inp + p vvi  + d, Phys. Rev. D12, 3550 (1975)8kAppendix 3STAFFBREAKDOWN OF TRIUMF STAFF TOTAL AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1975Ma i n S i te UBC UV i c SFU UAlta TotalSc ient i sts 26 4 21 5 21 39Faculty full-time main site 1975/762 (4) (1) (1) (2)Faculty part-time 13 6 3 11 33Engineers 12 1 13Operators 12 12Programmers 5 3 8Graduate students 14 7 5 2 28Techn icians 53 A 2 1 41 64Des i gner-draftsmen 5 1 6Workshop staff 8 1 1 10PI ant 6 6Admin i strat ion 3 3Office staff:Secretarial & clerical Library/Information Office1011 1 0.6 1 13.61Stores 3 31441 36 20 17.6 22 239.6^ain site total includes three additional scientists from University of Victoria and four from University of Alberta who are based at main site. Two technicians from University of Alberta also work full-time at main site.2Faculty members spending the 1975/76 academic year at main site have been included in appropriate category; during such leave faculty members are paid by TRIUMF rather than the respective university.85(1) I A  4Jcn c  c  c n  3  <o —CTl D. Q. 3  0) 0) C  co coO  03 —L- I/I CO  I■M 0) \• O  -Q  co E■ 4) O  -  (0I —  L. CO 0)■ LU Q_ —  CD—  —  0)E  to  o  0 3 — <U a) co —CO —  UJ- l  L. >  >* 20 1- E  ■u» —  +j  *P *P aE c o u c o c o o o O D0 3 — 0 ) --------------4 - 0 ) 0 3 00)  co .—  co co ra .—  —  tu CD —  L L l --------------CO LlI LU >E U C U IL L U IE L Lg  </)3 -M • 3  O  o  E03 0) ■>  CC I30oc/>a)oot/>r:o 00)0) — 4-0)0)— 0)0) 0) — — to 03 — — CO — — IC  03O  U  O)L- E  -M 4-» c4J 4J 3  0) 0) —O -C 3 C C —0 ) 0 ) 0  0 )  0 ) - Q  ■ —  — ■ 03 03 03 03 Li-i - z u i c c i i j z > r r u t t : > c c w f l '030) C- 0) C  3  C—  0) - C  +J 0J O  Oa i^ B a -  > YHC U C E 0 ) L U _ 1  —  03 3  0) 3  O  —C  (O 0) C  0) O  O )03 O  >  0) W in C> £ o ) - * i n i n i - c o o )  IL.J^ WC0303-C3«A : O  03 O  03 —  4-» O  03( O K Z X i ^ C O - 5  • o0)inL. 0) 03 V -  *- —oj y  o r  0) o r  l  n  o) a) w2  '— Q 4 - I  L. D )+ - »  o  0 )4 - )  —  E  £  —L. 0) 0) O  —  >* —  0) —  4 -  C  3 . C  3  —  503 a> -m r  r  e  o j . ^  E  o j —  03 o ) r  oj o)3 I > - C O C O C O C O L l _ ( / ) C O _ I ^ J —  C 3 C / ) Q . _ Io0) CL co i o oc- - C  -M _  _  3 0 « ) Q . C O w  — 3  03 4-» —  —  —  o  - C  03* P * H Y S * P I C A LQ - Z ) C > - ( / ) _ ) J 3 l O < ^ 3 - I ^ O | — Q C L U O Q J - ^ O O —5 Q Z Z O Q C Q ( _ > J Q _ - J i a : 2 : - 3 _ J t O < —)  O'  O'  o  Q-* 10) 0)0) 0)  x :  coi -  C. E  a) -M CO  c  > -  2  O )  inCC 0)  2  O  C  0)in O  -  4) yC C CD — U J_03 03 03 CL 0)>  x  . l e n tD-  I  <  “ )  I  X0) LT\ +Je n r ^  c  c  c n  3 )3 3 3 30) 0) E  E  a .  a .O  in —  o  0)  —0) O  0)c  \  2  o> W od) Q_• E  O  CO 3  —  E  cI 0) 0) —  O  03 03 O)» 0) —  CO 03 4. 0) 03I CD UJ  -  >  D C Q  I— o—  0) o —HY SI  S20 CCOcc  —CO CO3- —0) 4-> 0) zc  > \M EU R0 M  Min >»  E  Q  —  >~ > -  03 03 > -0) 4-» c co y  y  U- u_ 23- O 0 ) O ) E —  0 ) 0 )  O '0 4 - —  0 3 — 1 4 - 4 -  3  3  Q)i _ n j  —  a ) O 0 3 0 3 0 ) 0 ) r  2 M N T : o R 0 0 u n T U N T U t t e ra  g  R  0U R0 EUa  o) cn  -----------4 -HY S20 A  S20 HY A  LM H Y E> o C u j a : r < - i n i0) mu 0U 0U I■M Q  O— o o o03 in in inO  in in in— < < <I  I  IL. L. L.03 03 030) d) 0)*S *S *S0) 0) 0)CC CC cc0) 4-10)  0)c —0U 1  R  0  mP r  I0U r  r  0  0U 0U Ic 1S 1S in 0) c in— c c in c C, in1S 20  20  1  r  oc a> cN4  r  r  r  c Or: 0  0  0  mg g  I4_J 1_ L. 1_ 4 - 11 -0) 03 03 03 PY8 I  03C  0)  0)  0)  C  —  0)0U in in in 03 I  inYI IU IU IU r  : P  6Uz  cc CC CC Q_ O CC0)4-1 L.0) —  0)L- L- 4J _C 0) :) 4J 0) 0) 03 O  Ci in 0U 0U r  N u  r>* c  c  o  <  cn : —  —  —  O  c  •> 03 cn O )  in io l u  1i c  c  c  in. <  LU LU c  —  —  L0)  0) 4-1 4-1 03 033 .  r  *r 1  M1  L  4  I P 1  3 .  L . E E U E U E E E a  r  E  I I03 —  0) 4J *S r3  03 03 03 O  4-1 03a .  o) o) a) 3  o  <uE  in in in »_ 0) mO  a) a) o) y  —  o)I  6 .  65 *S  20  *0) 03IU 6U *S *S 0)  0) I .  6 .i n o r :  *S r  I0) C  L- C  03 03r  L  IU  *S I  *S 3  0) 0) m  r  a :) 0 > 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 4 - i  i 4 j y y y y y y * j  in >03 03 03 03 03 0) 03 03 —I O O O O O O O O C  I O O O O O O O O O )  iin in in in in in in in  —* * S * S * S * S * S * S * S * S I: < < < < < < < < o oL L L L L L L L  1S I I I I I I I I 1L.  L- L. L- —03 03 03 03 03 03 03 .0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 3  —  * S 1 S 7 * S * S * S * S * S * S 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 ) 0 3  —ccccccccccccccec>0) 0)  a .  c l  I  I86L *  r 0)i— 5  > .  i_ o  > 0) O  0) T3 2• —  0) L. 0) >■» n  i  -  m i  o)P HY S  HI C  A2  L03 O. rsj UR N N N NI 2 2 iCQ403 in 0) 03 0)-a ~  *S 1  P  3  c0 1 * S I U E a E + P ( a P 5 P • E U 0 ■ P c E U a E U ~ R 0 • ) N M :  J< —  0  :3  o x :2  u u O R\ O 0  O2  m - a  6U 0U NP >- x  o  co o  coN 0)  L.■M L) O— L. E03 X—  — 4 - 1 0 0 ) !2M r  r  1  1S *03 O  0) O  0) Q I  J  E 2  1S 6:T ) O J Q 4 < X Q 4 l | - 5 0 Q 0 Q C 0 - ? Q - Q L l . >  aa  - 5 Q C 0 3 — I Q Q . - O Q C S - J - J X S :—J  ID —  O l-C  —  O - C W C Nc r c > - —  c u E o c n L - o J O0 ) 3 0 0 0 ) 0 3 0 ) 0  —  3 4 - » L -  > - j Q 4 i : y m ^ l 3 i i n Q- ) iio - ) in L L - ) j:c ! )< cD - j1  r  :P: ■ P I  )  _  ~  I* 20U N  c  *S N  ~  Lr  I8 r  1 I : I U 6  >-  2  S  in 0U — U  o) |—  EX3 03 N  >  O  1- 3=)  U-  O  • LU >  >— • X_ n c Q X D J C Q < L L<D LT\ 4-J1S 3D  1 1  o-N ao  o  o  o  o  o  o<D ro E  -Q— X0 - 0  0 - 0 -0  0 ) 0 0O 0  O*lN *T* URUif) if) if)0)  0) 0)<  D - <  <  Q . O . O .2  —  2o  o  o— o — •—  i n —  •0)  (/I 0)U.  <  C  l L  Io o —I/) l/l r—t/) 1/1 0)<  <  C  lLIDr  x  -  57 I  I  I  1>-  >-  ID ID1 S L  P  18U 1S Nu  *M L  r  r C O O C C O J f D O O O— I- I_ L■ M C D C - M - M O C D C O C C  f 0 f 0 C + Jr  o\ L  r  r  ■P *P  1> L  L  6: I: L  r  c n c n U c n c n O U t n O U L L t n c n O c n•— <u d)  •— •— 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0 0 ) 0) 0)  —  >  oc: I—  >  >  w  w  o :  h  h  a .  oc oc (—  >1 I U  IU 6UID 4-J 4—» -4-JE  ID TO CO■ M O  o  ocm 0  o  o(D U )  in cnT  in cn cnT J  <  C  <  <0 0 0 0 (0 0 ) 0 0 0 010 ID C  —  0) 0) - C  J C1S H 4  I  0)  co- a r c o o a ^ H o z a ^ H  2 :^>1§NTN m  »E 0N  m12 >I a  O  m  r  c r  £ > 3 3o :  3  u .  ^  oq  _ icc  o  a .  o  u j  — > co( J\ mP a  00) i -  0) CD ->j0 a  •/P R\ »C  O  O  >  0)omP P( 0) (/>—  1  1S 2  iM N0)  CO -  CD 0)  O <  CO omP 0  r  R\ r+£  a: O  <C  CO o  —  —O  X  X  3  -*4-J Q  1/1 Q . 3  C  0) O  i -  • V ) N0) 0) CO (0 X  3^  _ J  X X  • - c oOC Ui£  u a: 0  n  -) 1— P-YM 1  r  Q0) CD E  ■M C7) CD—  O P r  c  )  O  O II u  —  -M •— J Q_ 1- CD CO1n cn 1  1 0U 6U>  >  co0) 0) M■M 4 J  >  R0 R0 P>I• • > o  ^6 .  o  P 8• IS : o_ j  a .  1E X  Q . 0 1 -M D I D  cn > - M Q . - O C C O  —  C l Q C O O ^ I D C O O J c m - I U ' -  C Q C J D X X J X 2  —  CC CC >  >>■ uEU EU P(>  —  cn <u - o  uo  I . o I 1 6 . o 8 r  < 0 0 1 0O H  X h — - ) o : - 5 —> < a _ —s o . - }■ —EU m-W P(cn r - .  cC  CT| ZD>~ U  X  > -  >»  UCO 0)  0)  co co co—  I  gM 2 .  — —0 0 0 0 0 0o  a) a) «uCD 4-1 C+- M  4-1. X  cn —  cn inl— — y o  — —O  C  CO c  c2- o  X  CD X  XO O Ml  O OO CO CO CO (013 X -I X XO O  —  —Q. Q. C4_ >. >.co P:  a) a) _a) a) a) —  co coO U O O  i n o O > ' L - c j < D U > ' < D ( D  + J C D - M + J  c n < D C D 3 3 < D —  0 3  —  ■—  co a :  co co < £ c o c o c o Q _ c / > o < £ c o o t _ > cO O O  cn cn inn) V) it)(U (D CDo_ o .  a .  o  o_ 2O  O  O  CD O  •0  0  0  (P  I  P(cn cn cn o  cn cnin in in t  in in< < < o. < <2  a) >~ x  oCD cn <D O  Oi— —• i_ o  C—CD O  U. ^  (_>>- C— CD CO —  NE  co—  X  —O  • CO o  u .cn id id cn Ol  Q . D  3  3  O  C  O  O CC — QQCD 4J —  CDE ID —  _  .... .J —  CO O  O  X:  O  CO O  Li- H.  ,, _  CTi: O c — L)  L  ID 10 IDu R0 R0 0  R0TO E  cn 2  >* cnL  4-1 X  L  m  ID X  X  1-  a)  —  O  CD —c n c D i D X  4 J ( D  —  j C i D c n i i i i D O — L F - 31) O  >• Ol C o E —  L . U 1 C C C C  —  —  CL-O2 ^ 2 —  l o c o  —  c i - i o o ) —  cocoCO C- ro L  + J C D " — Q . O C 0 C 0 3 - M 3 O - M C / 1Q £Q cn 3  co o .;2 co xH XH coaxcooo :(n33-IQ -_ IQ -30>Q :Q .U . O l/)( /)C L _ J< l3 3  □ 13 Q_ Q_ OZ OZ E3 O O LU <CZXO.O_X>>X — x o o3  X  M L.  —  •( 3  <  >Z _ l  o  U  Q  X  ^  Q  X8743 LT\ -M1S 1  1  1 S  3  oj —5U JU  n\ :  :  P0  ro (o -Q6U 6U YS1  o  1  1  Y I:■  *SS  M2M r  r  1S 4  6U uo  o  o  o  c  ro occ  io c  c  4->J= «U _£=_£= — o  cn a  u  in■ to  to 1  1S o o  1S 1S1  *S 11S *S r  0 T  MY R  r  0  R u M/+ N M r  1 r  R m u 5 + m u R<u • m -M —  c  cn m <u m cn •Nu  6U r  at  M1  r  o4 N P  6U r  5P* r0 Y S * S * S I I * S 7 I * S 7 * S * S 4) in « -  tn<ua)Q)a»(Uii)ina)w < c £ > r H Q a : i n a : Q < Q1S0  c  7 1S*S M1  5a 1  44  4  PI  r  6U)  5U m  c  Y 3  PICL "Dr  1  u 1  I  o4 O:O a  5U £  NPYS T N  : M  2  I8 6  +  MN  P  6U 1S 6  Oa  a  *S I  r  r0 o I I 4 P 4 u I 6 . P 8  1  *S M 8  )Z Z U 3 < Q . < Zr  o4 r: in o  OJ *S m  m  m Q o E u E E ug u N M m u N M m uO  O  CL. O  Q -  C*S *S *S*S *S O *S O5a 5a Iu I  4  5 P  r  I  5 PU * S I 0 * S * S I * S I I 7 I * S  P *S 4  4  Or  * S 4 * S 4 4 * S 4 7o —*S *S *S r  o  :1  4  I  0  1  1  1*S r  K a  r  I id —I O  LU*S Or  6U *S r  *S O  <U —r— Q_ — N CL Q. U 4-1c  6U 6U 6:ID . c  j z  ■CD 4-i Z  Z  Z  O  > - IO IO tO l/>R0 3  D  R0 Z Q U  o  4  4 .  _T: 3Q _ Q _ 3 C 3 ( J 3 C J - 3 Q 3 : <hi in  4j 1S 3PD 1 1  1 S  U NC  II1 YI  Xr  2un  Oi  Oi  nC  3■W CD =3 +->c o  -4I1 I1Ea Ea6: 6: 03:  :  +\Ea Ea P25» 5+ n\r  r  *S1  1  1Ea »E 4  4  1S 1SU C 4-» 4»E a  4K: »E  ■W o»a 4-11S 1C  6^ o4 6U—  E  E  I  r  Uo P 6  r  :• rr  g  c  r  g  5+ 4mM 6U 4  6^ 6U 6U 6UQC Q. 4) — CL <4- Q_liJ  X  £  X  X  41 XA2  AC uS  An AC Hn ACa  0  oE 0  4) -  U  4J Z  4-» C  n\ 5U 5» r  P 6  c  :  10 -Q — (0 c  0+ 4  6U 4  *S 5a rog Rm0  0  0  0*S *S *S *S*S *S *S *S5U 5U 5U 5U»5P»5P»/P  5 PO O O  O «■4  4  4  4  4  48 08 06R  A  DI  Ug  g  0  5U 0  5U O0  0  E  5 P  E  5 P5 P »*S *S *S I  *S I  7*S *S *S 4  *S 4  *So  o  o  6 u  o  6 u  o•w in 5U o 4->C O —  u 4  M2 I  g  0  5aoj u in nj u £15U 0  »E 5a r  0  aR0 M N  acJ 2M Rm 2R »Z..................... coo  mg 0R V .  mg Rm J0  2  R\ 2R 0  M+  0g u - a R + t J 2 u 0 .t M e r a g 2 0 mU g 202 R y u n T U E ) \ m g R m w U\  5U 5U 5a*S 4  4-1 5r*•— 10 <0 10R 0  0 05U E  0 0r  *S *S *S0  *S *S *Su Y I  o  4  o  o5UE  O  10 O  O  ID O• »E: -C -C ~ O Og R 5 U 3 E n E 5 U n E g n - + 6 ' P u x 4 o Ha i £ L ( U ( i ) L ( i ) n i 4 ) 4 ) o i 4 ) ( U0 0 0 * S 7 I * S I * S * S I * S 7g 5 U 5 U 5 U 2 U n \ 5 U g 5 U 5 U * M l N U 5 UR m A P N 0 0 R 2 R Y 0 2 R 2 M 2 R 2 R 0 M 2 R 0 R*SRm : ■ r  Z  0  5a r  0  RL .  P  P  4  4U*S 5  5U »E 5ar  0  a  4  4cn O  Q  CD CD>' U 1/1r  5U 4  5P»5U r  0  R  rR m r  R  Rm +t  5a »E OJ\ DR 4  c N P  g  D  ^5a a  5a II  • ^  I-  • |— •3 : P - 2 R * S m u o e  61 R\ 3*S *S *S *S 5a 5a 5 P  5P 0  0  4  4  4  O  CL Rm5P  E  E  5PO  in in o4  7 1S 4  Rm o  o  2ug  o  4  PH 1r  I  YI<  O  IscC O.Y I  “ .  R\ 2  o  -3  0R R05a *S I  5a R  0oc —  z+d 5a 5a *Sg  +  •+ 4  c*S I  a  3  10r  r  nE 0+ 5aR0 R0 )a 2  Y0R\ J  0  J  o88Appendix 4USERS GROUPUniversity of Alberta: J.M. Cameron, Chairman 1976University of Victoria: M.J. Ashwood-Smith D.E. LobbE.B. Cairns R.F. Ruth G.A. Beer J.A. MacdonaldW.K. Dawson J.T. Sample D.A. Bryman G.O. MackieJ.B. Elliott M. Schacter G. Bushnell G.R. MasonG.R. Freeman D.M. Sheppard T.W. Dingle A. OlinH.E. Gunning H. Sherif M. Dixit R.M. PearceD.A. Hutcheon L.G. Stephens-Newsham G.B. Friedmann C.E. PicciottoP. Kitching A.W. Stetz J . Haywood P.A. ReeveR.H. McCamis G.M. Stinson T.A. Hodges L.P. RobertsonW.J. McDonald R.C. Urtasun A.D. Kirk C.S. WuC .A. Miller G.A. Moss G.C. Neil sonJ. WeijerSimon Fraser University: A.S. Arrott M. KielyA .A . Nouj a i m J.M. D'Auria R.G. KortelingW.C. Olsen B.L. Funt B.D. PateT.R. Overton R. Green 1.M. ThorsonG. Roy C .H . W. Jones W. WiesehahnUniversity of British Columbia: TRIUMF Vancouver:G.H. MackenzieD.G. Fleming, Chairman 1975 J. BeveridgeN. Auersperg C.A. McDowell E.W. Blackmore J.R. RichardsonE.G. Auld J.M. McMillan J.H. Brewer J.G. RogersD.A. Axen D.F. Measday H. Fearing A.W. ThomasD.V. Bates R.L. Noble D.P. Gurd J.S. VincentD.S. Beder D.H. Copp M.K. Craddock K.L. Erdman R.R. Haering L.G. HarrisonJ . Phi 11ips M. Salomon H. Stich J. Trotter J. Va'vra E.W. Vogt B.C. Cancer Foundation:M.D. Hasinoff G.M. Volkoff B. Douglas B. PalcicR.R. Johnson P. Walden J.M.W. Gibson J. ProbertG. Jones D.C. Walker C.J. Gregory K.R. ShorttP. Larkin I.H. Warren R.W. Harrison L.D. SkarsgardK.C. Mann J.B. Warren R.M. Henkelman D.M. WhitelawP . W. Ma rt i n W. Westlund K. K e n d a 11 *M.E.J. YoungT. Masterson B.L . Wh i te *R.O. Kornelsen*B.C. Canaer Control AgencyVisiting experimentalists:R. Brown, D.V. Bugg, J.A. Edgington, C. Oram, K. Shakarchi, Queen Mary College, University of London N. Stewart, G. Ludgate, Bedford College, University of LondonA.S. Clough, University of SurreyS. Jaccard, University de NeuchatelG. Waters, Rutherford LaboratoryJ-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou, University de MontryalT. Yamazaki, K. Nagamine, R. Hayano, N. Nishida, University of TokyoA.N. James, University of LiverpoolJ.K.P. Lee, McGill UniversityC .A. Goulding, University of ManitobaG.E. Coote, INS, Dept, of Science & Industrial Research, New Zealand L. Church, Reed College89Other institutions:T. Matthews, S. Rowlands, University of CalgaryR. Cobb, T. Walton, Cariboo CollegeR.L. Clarke, E.P. Hincks, Carleton UniversityG.A. Bartholomew, E.D. Earle, J.S. Fraser,0. Hausser,F.C. Khanna.P. Lee,A. McDonald, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories W.W. Scrimger, S.R. Usiskin, Dr. W.W. Cross Cancer Institute, EdmontonB.S. Bhakar, N. Davidson, W. Falk,J. Jovanovich, B.T. Murdoch, K.G. Standing, W.T.H. van Oers, D.O. Wells, University of ManitobaB. Margolis, K. Scott, McGill University J. McAndrew, Memorial University of Newfoundland P. Depommier, B. Goulard, J-P Martin, Universite de MontrealG.T. Ewan, H.B. Mak, A.T. Stewart, Queens UniversityH.S. Caplan, University of Saskatchewan M. Krell, Universite de SherbookeJ.M. Daniels, T.E. Drake University of TorontoA. Cone, Vancouver City College Langara Campus R.T. Morrison, Vancouver General Hospital L.W. Reeves, University of Waterloo W.P. Alford, University of Western OntarioR. Eisberg, University of California,Los AngelesF.P. Brady, University of California, Davis L. Wolfenstein, Camegie-Mellon UniversityH. Plendl, Florida State University M. Rickey, G.T. Emery, Indiana University T.R. Witten, Kent State University K.M. Crowe, F.S. Goulding, R.H. Pehl , Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory L. Rosen, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory N.S. Wall, University of MarylandC. Schultz, University of Massachusetts M. Bardon, National Science Foundation L.M. Lederman, Nevis LaboratoriesJ.K. Chen, State University of N.Y. GeneseoD.K. McDaniels, University of Oregon K.A. Krane, S. Richert, L.W. Swenson,A. Smith, Oregon State University T.L. Houk, Pacific Lutheran UniversityH. Primakoff, University of Pennsylvania R.F. Carlson, A. Cox, University of RedlandsV.G. Lind, R.E. McAdams, O.H. Otteson,Utah State University K. Ziock, University of Virginia M. Blecher, K. Gotow, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityH. Bichsel, V. Cook, I. Halpern, E.M. Henley, J.E. Rothberg, K. Snover, P. Wooton, University of WashingtonH.B. Knowles, Washington State University W.C. Sperry, Central Washington State CollegeR.R. McLeod, Western Washington State CollegeC.F. Perdrisat, College of William and MaryD. Wilkinson, N. Tanner, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford UniversityI.M. Blair, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, HarwellCl. Perrin, Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, Universite de GrenobleJ.P. Blaser, Sckweizerisches Institut fur NuklearforschungM. Furic, Institute R. Boskovic, ZagrebI.R. Afnan, Flinders University of South AustraliaK. Sakamoto, S. Okada, N. Suzuki, T. Ono, University of Tokyo90Appendix 5EXPERIMENT PROPOSALSThe following lists experiment proposals received up to the end of 1975 (missing num­bers cover proposal sthat have been withdrawn, replaced by later versions, or combined with another proposal). Page numbers are given for those experiments which are included in this annual report.[Spokesman underlined] Page1. Low-energy pi nuclear scattering, E.G. Auld, D.A. Axen, R.R. Johnson. G. Jones, Sh{Univ. of British Columbia)2. Investigation of the D(p,2p)n reaction, J.M. Cameron, P. Kitching, W.J. McDonald,G.A. Moss, W.C. Olsen {Univ. of Alberta)3. The study of fragments emitted in nuclear reactions, J.M. D'Auria, R. Green, 61R.G. Kortelinq, B.D. Pate {Simon Fraser University)A study of the reaction p + p->-p + p + Tr° near threshold, D.F. Measday, J.E.Spuller {Univ. of British Columbia)6. Studies of the proton- and pion-induced fission of light to medium mass nuclides,D. Dautet, F.M. Kiely, B.D. Pate (Simon Fraser University)9. A study of the reaction of ESB + p -* y + n at pion kinetic energies from 20-200 MeV, 55M.D. Hasinoff, D.F. Measday, M. Salomon {Univ. of British Columbia), J-M Poutissou{Univ. de Montreal)10. Positive pion production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus reactions, D.A. Axen, 57 R.R. Johnson, G. Jones, M. Salomon, J.B. Warren {Univ. of British ColumbiaL.P. Robertson {Univ. of Victoria), P. Kitching, W.C. Olsen {Univ. of Alberta)11. A study of new, high neutron excess nuclides, G. Bischoff, J.M. D'Auria, H. Dautet, 63 R.G. Korteling, B.D. Pate, W. Wiesehahn {Simon Fraser University), G.E. Coote{INS, Dept, of Science & Industrial Research, New Zealand)12. An experiment to measure the mass of new elements with isospin Tz=-2 and Tz=-5/2 using (p,8He) and (p,9Li), J.M. Cameron, D.A. Hutcheon, G.C. Neilson {Univ. ofAIberta), D .R . Gill (TRIUMF)13- Measurement of the electromagnetic size of the nucleus with muonic x-rays, particu­larly the 2s-2p transition, G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason, R.M. Pearce. C.E. Picciotto,C.S. Wu {Univ. of Victoria), D.G. Fleming {Univ. of British Columbia), W.C. Sperry {Central Washington State College)lA. The interaction of protons with very light nuclei in the energy range 200-500 MeV, 66J.M. Cameron, R. McCamis, G.A. Moss, G. Roy, A.W. Stetz {Univ. of Alberta),B.S. Bhakar, C.A. Goulding, W.T.H. van Oers {Univ. of Manitoba) , J.G. Rogers{TRIUMF)15- A Proposal to study quasi-free scattering in nuclei, J.M. Cameron, P. Kitching, 67W.J. McDonald, C.A. Miller, G.C. Neilson, W.C. Olsen, J.T. Sample, A.W. Stetz,G.M. Stinson {Univ. of Alberta) , A.N. James {Univ. of Liverpool)16. Proton-deuteron quasi-elastic scattering, D.A. Hutcheon, P. Kitching, W.J. McDonald, 68C.A. Miller, G.A. Moss, W.C. Olsen, D.M. Sheppard, A.W. Stetz {Univ. of Alberta),A.N. James {Univ. of Liverpool), J.G. Rogers {TRIUMF)18. Influence of chemical environment on atomic muon capture rates, G.A. Beer, T.W.Dingle, D.E. Lobb, G.R. Mason, R.M. Pearce {Univ. of Victoria), D.G. Fleming {Univ. of British Columbia), W.C. Sperry {Central Washington State College)9119. Nuclear decays following muon capture, G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason, R.M. Pearce, C.E. Picciotto, C.S. Wu {Univ. of Victoria), G.A. Bartholomew, E.D. Earle, F.C. Khanna(Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories), D.G. Fleming (Univ. of British Columbia),W.C. Sperry (Central Washington State College)20. Isotope effect in y capture, G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason, R.M. Pearce, C.E. Picciotto,C.S. Wu (Univ. of Victoria), D.G. Fleming (Univ. of British Columbia), W.C. Sperry(Central Washington State College)21. Optical activity induced by polarized elementary particles, L.D. Hayward,D.C. Walker (Univ. of British Columbia)22. Fragmentation of light nuclei by low-cnergy pions, H.B. Knowles et at. (Washington State University). Now known as ‘Negative pion capture and absorption on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. [Passed to Biomedical Experiments Evaluation Committee]23a. Search for the decay mode ir° 3v t P. Depommier, J-P Martin, J-M Poutissou, 56R. Poutissou (Univ. de Montreal)23b. Investigation of the decay mode SSY -*■ e+ + ve + y, P. Depommier, J-P Martin, 56J-M Poutissou, R. Poutissou (Univ. de Montreal)■•— Elastic scattering of polarized protons on 12C, G.A. Moss, G. Roy, D.M. Sheppard,H. Sherif (Univ. of Alberta) [Combined with Exp. l*t]26. Measurement of the differential cross-section for free neutron-proton scattering and for the reaction of D(n,p)2n, L.P. Robertson (Univ. of Victoria), E.G. Auld,D.A. Axen, J. Va'vra (Univ. of British Columbia)27. Measurement of the polarization in free neutron-proton scattering, E.G. Auld,D.A. Axen, J. Va'vra (Univ. of British Columbia), L.P. Robertson (Univ. of Victoria), G. Roy (Univ. of Alberta)28. A programme of direct pickup reactions at intermediate energies, D.G. Fleming(Univ. of British Columbia)29. A study of the reactions ir + p->ir + p a t  pion kinetic energies from 10 to 90 MeV,D.A. Axen, R.R. Johnson (Univ. of British Columbia), E.W. Blackmore (TRIUMF)30. Scattering of pions from isotopes of hydrogen and helium, D.S. Bhakar, N. Davidson,W. Falk, W.T.H. van Oers (Univ. of Manitoba)31. p-n elas ti c scattering wi th polarized protons and polarized neutrons, J .M. Dan i e l s,P. Kirkby, R.S. Timsit (Univ. of Toronto), J. M c A n d r e w  (Memorial University)33. Basic radiobiological experiments with pions versus 260-280 kV x-rays,M.J. Ashwood-Smi th (Univ. of Victoria) [->-B iomed i ca 1 EEC]1•— Low-energy (ir+ ,ir-) differential and total cross-section measurements, R.R. Johnson(Univ. of British Columbia)35- A study of positive muon depolarization phenomena in chemical systems, J.H. Brewer, 58D.G. Fleming, D.C. Walker (Univ. of British Columbia), K.M. Crowe (Univ. of California), R.M. Pearce (Univ. of Victoria36. Neutron diffraction, J. Trotter (Univ. of British Columbia), M.J. Bennett (Univ. ofAlberta), G. Bushnel1 (Univ. of Victoria), F.W.B. Einstein (Simon Fraser Univ.)37- Search for y" + Cu -> e+ + Co, G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, L.P. Robertson (Univ. ofVictoria), M. Blecher, K. Gotow (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ.)38. Neutron scattering from fluids and amorphous solids, C.A. McDowell (Univ. of British Columbia), P.A. Egelstaff (Univ. of Guelph), I.M. Thorson (Simon Fraser University)39. S-wave pion-nuclear interactions, D.A. Axen, G. Jones (Univ. of British Columbia)• -— A proposal for neutron experiments at TRIUMF, D.A. Axen, M.K. Craddock, J. Va'vra i•(Univ. of British Columbia), D.V. Bugg, J.A. Edgington (Queen Mary College, London),N.M. Stewart (Bedford College, London), A.S. Clough (Univ. of Surrey), I.M. Blair (AERE, Harwell)Page924la. Radiative capture of pions in light nuclei, M.K. Craddock, M.D. Hasinoff, 56M. Salomon {Univ. of British Columbia)4lb. Charge exchange of stopped negative pions, D. Berghofer, M.K. Craddock, 56M.D. Hasinoff, R. MacDonald, M. Salomon {Univ. of British Columbia), J-M Poutissou {Univ. de MontreaI)42a. ESB - 3He: Strong interaction shift, G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, S.K. Kim, G.R. Mason,A. 01 in, R.M. Pearce, C.E. Picciotto, L.P. Robertson, C.S. Wu {Univ. of Victoria)M. Krel1 {Univ. de Sherbrooke), J.S. Vincent {TRIUMF)42b. ir~ - 3He: Neutron-neutron scattering length, G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, G.R. Mason,R.M. Pearce, C.E. Picciotto, L.P. Robertson, C.S. Wu {Univ. of Victoria), M. Krel1 {Univ. de Sherbrooke), J.S. Vincent {TRIUMF)46. Hyperfine splitting in polarized muonic 209Bi atoms, G.T. Ewan, B.C. Robertson {Queen's University), G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason, A. 01 in, R.M. Pearce {Univ. of Victoria), K. Nagamine, T. Yamazaki {Univ. of Tokyo), D.G. Fleming {Univ. of British Columbia)47. Photon asymmetry in radiative muon capture, J.H. Brewer, M. Hasinoff, R. MacDonald{Univ. of British Columbia), K.A. Krane {Oregon State Univ.), J-M Poutissou {Univ. de Montreal)48. Fertile-to-fissile conversion in electrical breeding (spallation) targets 65(FERFICON), F.M. Kiely, B.D. Pate, I.M. Thorson {Simon Fraser Univ.), J.S. Fraser{Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories49. A comparative study of the radiation effects of pions and electrons, D.C. Walker{Univ. of British Columbia) [Letter of intent]50. A measurement of the muon neutrino mass, G. Jones, P.W. Martin, M. Salomon (Univ. of British Columbia), D.A. Bryman {Univ. of Victoria)51. Search for transfer of p" from lithium lattice to heavy impurities, G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, A.D. Kirk, G.R. Mason, A. 01 in, R.M. Pearce, L.P. Robertson {Univ. of Victoria), K.R. Kendall {B.C. Cancer Foundation)52. A measurement of the SS •> ev branching ratio, G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, G.R. Mason,R.M. Pearce, C.E. Picciotto, L.P. Robertson {Univ. of Victoria)53. Emission of heavy fragments in pion absorption, G. Jones, P.W. Martin, M. Salomon,E.W. Vogt {Univ. of British Columbia), J.M. Cameron {Univ. of Alberta)54. 7T— reaction cross-section measurements on isotopes of calcium, K.L. Erdman, 54R.R. Johnson {Univ. of British Columbia), J. Beveridge {TRIUMF)55. p” capture in deuterium and the two-neutron interaction, J.M. Cameron, W.J.McDonald, G.C. Neilson {Univ. of Alberta), H. Fearing {TRIUMF) [Letter of intent]56. A study of the decay of the muon, D. Berghofer, M. Hasinoff, R. MacDonald,D.F. M e a s d a y , M. Salomon, J.E. Spuller {Univ. of British Columbia), P. Depommier,J-M Poutissou {Univ. de Montreal)57. Search for the p+ -> e+ + y decay mode, P. Depommier, J-P Martin, J-M Poutissou, 56R. Poutissou {Univ. de Montreal)58. Polarization effects of the spin-orbit coupling of nuclear protons, J.M. Cameron, 70W.K. Dawson, P. Kitching, W.J. McDonald, G.A. Moss, G.C. Neilson, W.C. Olsen,J.T. Sample, D.M. Sheppard, H.S. Sherif, G.M. Stinson {Univ. of Alberta)59- Investigation of the (p,2p) reactions on 3He, 3H and 4He, B.S. Bhakar,W.T.H. van Oers {Univ. of Manitoba), J.M. Cameron, G.A. Moss {Univ. of Alberta),J.G. Rogers {TRIUMF)60. Study of muonium formation in MgO and related insulators and its diffusion into avacuum, D.G. Fleming, G. Jones, J.B. Warren {Univ. of British Columbia)Page9361. Pre-clinical research on the ESB beam at TRIUMF (Biomedical), C.J. Gregory, R.W. 59 Harrison, R.M. Henkelman, K.R. Kendall, B. Palcic, K.R. Shortt, L.D. Skarsgard[B.C. Cancer Foundation), R.O. Kornelsen, M.E.J. Young (B.C. Cancer Control Agency)62. Measurement of the ir“ atomic cascade time in light elements, G.A. Beer, D.A.Bryman, G.R. Mason, A. 01 in, R.M. Pearce, L.P. Robertson (Univ. of Victoria)63 . Measurement of the ir- mass, G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, S.K. Kim, G.R. Mason, A. 01 in,R.M. Pearce, C.E. Picciotto (Univ. of Victoria)64. Total cross-section and total reaction cross-section measurements for the p-3He systems and n-3He systems, B.S. Bhakar, C.A. Goulding, M.S. de Jong, W.T.H. van Oers,A.M. Sourkes (Univ. of Manitoba), J.M. Cameron, G.A. Moss (Univ. of Alberta),R.F. Carlson and A.J. Cox (Univ. of Redlands)65 . Radiosensitivities of tumors in situ to ir-meson irradiation, S. Okada, T. Ono,K. Sakamoto, N. Suzuki (Univ. of Tokyo)66. Survey of p-p bremsstrahiung far off the energy shell, J.G. Rogers (TRIUMF), J.M. 70 Cameron, A.N. Kamal, A.W. Stetz, A. Szyjewicz (Univ. of Alberta), J.V. Jovanovich(Univ. of Manitoba)67. Two nucleon emission following reactions induced by stopped pions, J.M. Cameron,W.J. McDonald, G.C. Neilson (Univ. of Alberta), P.W. Martin (Univ. of British Columbia), G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason, A. Olin (Univ. of Victoria)68. Feasibility study of use of high purity germanium detectors for detection of high- energy charged particles, J.M. Cameron (Univ. of Alberta), D.R. Gill (TRIUMF),F.S. Goulding, R.H. Pehl (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory), P.W. Martin, M. Salomon (Univ. of British Columbia)69 . Pion double charge exchange on very light nuclei, J.M. Cameron, W.J. McDonald,A.W. Stetz (Univ. of Alberta), N.E. Davidson, B.T. Murdoch, W.T.H. van Oers (Univ.of Manitoba), V. Perez-Mendez (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory)70. Proton total cross-section and total reaction cross-section measurements for light nuclei, B.S. Bhakar, C.A. Goulding, B.T. Murdoch, A.M. Sourkes, W.T.H. van Oers(Univ. of Manitoba), R.F. Carlson, A.J. Cox (Univ. of Redlands), J.M. Cameron,G.A. Moss (Univ. of Alberta), H. Postma (Univ. of Groningen)71- Muon spin rotation project, R. Hayano, S. Kobayashi, K. Nagamine, S. Nagamiya, 58N. Nishida, T. Yamazaki (Univ. of Tokyo), J.H. Brewer, A. Duncan, D.G. Fleming(Univ. of British Columbia)72. Solid-state studies by muonic x-ray polarization, R. Hayano, K. Nagamine, N. Nishida,T. Yamazaki (Univ. of Tokyo), R.M. Pearce (Univ. of Victoria)73- Artificial muon polarization, R. Hayano, K. Nagamine, N. Nishida, T. Yamazaki 58(Univ. of Tokyo), J.H. Brewer, D.G. Fleming, M.D. Hasinoff (Univ. of British Columbia)74. Proposal to measure D, R and R' in pp scattering, 200 to 520 MeV, D.V. Bugg, J.A.Edgington, K. Shakarchi, C. Oram (Queen Mary College, London), D.A. Axen, J. Va'vra(Univ. of British Columbia), S. Jaccard (Univ. de Neuchatel), G. Ludgate, N.M.Stewart (Bedford College, London), A.S. Clough (Univ. of Surrey)75- The d(p,ir+ )t pion production reaction for high momentum transfer, P. Kitching,W.C. 01 sen (Univ. of Alberta), H. Fearing (TRIUMF), C.F. Perdrisat (College ofWilliam and Mary), G. Jones, T. Masterson, P. Walden (Univ. of British Columbia)76. A proposal to study elastic scattering on 160 and 40Ca, D.P. Gurd, D.A. Hutcheon,P. Kitching, W.J. McDonald, C.A. Miller, G.C. Neilson, W.C. Olsen, G. Roy,G.M. Stinson (Univ. of Alberta)11. Evaporation-cooled metallic cesium target assembly for production of 123I, J.W. Blue(NASA Cleveland), T.A. Hodges (Univ. of Victoria), J.S. Vincent (TRIUMF),R.T. Morrison (Vancouver General Hospital), J.B. Warren (UBC), W.J. Wiesehan (SFU)Page9478. Importance of defects in y+SR in metals, K. Nagamine, T. Yamazaki {Univ. of Tokyo), 58 A.T. Stewart (Queen's University), J.H. Brewer, D.G. Fleming (Univ. of British Columbia)79. Low-energy ir production as a function of energy at 500 MeV and below, G.A. Beer, 71D.A. Bryman, P.W. James, G.R. Mason, A. 01 in, R.M. Pearce, L.P. Robertson (Univ.of Victoria), J.S. Vincent (TRIUMF), J-M Poutissou (Univ. de Montreal), R.R. Johnson,J.B. Warren (Univ. of British Columbia)80. Measurements of pionic x-ray energies, widths and intensities, G.A. Beer, D.A.Bryman, G.R. Mason, A. 01 in, R.M. Pearce, L.P. Robertson (Univ. of Victoria)Page95. V- - ’ •%, - ‘ ’ -1‘"- /  • s'


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items