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Annual report, 1970 TRIUMF; Brearley, N. Apr 30, 1971

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T R IUMFANNUAL REPORT 1970MESON FACILITY OF:UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAANNUAL REPORT1970N. Brearley Ed i torPostal Address:TRIUMFUniversity of British Columbia Vancouver 8 , B.C.CanadaF O R E W O R DThe year under review has seen the transition of TRIUMF from an organization largely concerned with gaper plans to one actively engaged in building construction, equip­ment development, and the running of experiments. The laboratory buildings, barely occupied at this time last year, are new filled to capacity with people and machines.TRIUMF continues to attract interest from around Hie world, as evidenced by the distinguished scientists that make a point of visiting the project. As the completion date of 1973 gets closer, faculty members at the four universi­ties are preparing plans to make use of the facility.We were saddened by the death of Mark Collins in April. He had made invaluable contributions to the work of the Board during his tenure. The Hon. Mr. Justice J.G. Ruttan and Dean R.T.D. Wallace, representatives of the University of Victoria, retired from the Board during the year.The progress chronicled in this report shows that the proj­ect has achieved a momentum -that will now carry it through to successful completion.C h a ir iH u n  u j  ^ri.& uuu,.i u .  w j  C 'D i t ' f 1i iC O N T E N T SPreface1 . Construction 12. The TRIUMF Experimental Facility 52.1 Meson Users 52.2 Proton Users 82.3 Radiochemistry and Slow Neutron Users 92.h Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Users 163. Cyclotron Design and Engineering 173.1 Magnet 183.2 Ion Source and Injection System 203.3 Inflector and Central Region Geometry 2k3.4 Beam Dynamics 263.5 Diagnostics 273.6 RF System 293.7 Vacuum System 323.8 Control and Instrumentation 334. Safety 3&5. Central Region Cyclotron Model 386. Project Management and Scheduling ^06.1 Project Management ^06.2 Scheduli ng ^06 . 3  Manpower ^17. Organization and Committees kS7.1 Board of Management ^57.2 Operating Committee ^57-3 Building Committee k67.k Safety Advisory Committee ^67.5 Experimental Instrumentation Committee A67.6 Experiments Evaluation Committee kj8. Conferences ^89. Reports and Publications ^910. Staff 5011. Financial Statement 53Appendix A Users Groups 55i i iPage2361113151921232528303**3942^344LIST OF FIGURESThe main building excavation at the start of construction (July 1970)Reinforcing steel for the cyclotron foundationLayout of beams and experimental areasNeutron target and beam dump - plan viewNeutron target and beam dump - sectionEnergy group neutron flux as a function of radiusThe 1:10 model magnet showing the bolted-on shimsThe ion source for the central region modelLayout of the ion beam transport for the central region modelCentral region geometryRadial and axial oscillation frequency ratiosv and v as a function of radius r zRF amplifier and transmission line Schematic of control systemPrototype resonators mounted in the vacuum tank for the central region modelCondensed schedule (cyclotron)Condensed schedule (building and beam transport) TRIUMF manpoweri vPREFACEThis year has seen a major change at TRIUMF - from a team mostly involved in planning and paper design to one very actively working with hardware in the laboratory. The highlight of the year has been the progress made on construct ion. The huge hole, excavated and dewatered by the end of June, was by year's end filled with a massive and intricate concrete substructure - this in spite of a two-and-one-half-month work shutdown in the summer. Our engineers and construction crew have done wonderfully well in getting our building on schedule again.Over the year several important technical decisions have been made, for instance, to return to a sixfold symmetric magnetic field at the centre of the cyclotron and to adopt the CAMAC specifications for the controls system. The experimental facilities too have largely been finalized and reference designs for beam lines estab- 1i shed.Much progress has been made with the central region model, which has demonstrated that local Vancouver industry can indeed produce difficult components on time and skilfully made. At 5:00 a.m., December 2, a 2.3 mA beam of H" ions was obtained from the proto­type ion source for this model - our first beam at TRIUMF.Wh i le the deta i 1 ed civi 1 eng i neer i ng is a 1 most f i n i shed at the year's end, and the mechanical engineering rapidly tapering off as the major cyclotron component contracts are placed, much thinking is now going into the initial experimental program. An Experiments Evaluation Committee has been set up to receive proposals from in­terested groups and to establish their relative priority. We look forward to an equally successful 1971 which should see us active1y engaged in erecting the cyclotron in the main building.J.B. Warren Di rectorvCONSTRUCTIONA contract for excavation and dewatering of the hole for the main build­ing was awarded to F.W. Monssen Construction Ltd. on February 5, 1970. Installation of the dewatering system started in mid-February, and by mid-April the groundwater level had been lowered sufficiently to allow excavation to proceed. Approximately 80,000 cubic yards of glacial till was excavated in six weeks, the excavated material being stockpiled ad­jacent to the site. Figure 1.1 shows the excavation shortly after the next stage - construction of the substructure - commenced.Commonwealth Construction Co. Ltd. was awarded a contract for the con­crete substructure on May 5, 1970. A province-wide construction trades lock-out in effect at that time prevented the contractor from making an immediate start on the site. The lock-out ended on July 27, 1970, and the 80-day delay incurred resulted in the previously scheduled completion date being extended to May 7, 1971. A unit-price contract was adopted for this phase of the work as there was not sufficient time in which to produce the detailed drawings necessary for a 1ump-sum contract. Our consultants, G.E. Crippen & Associates, generated detailed drawings as the work proceeded sufficiently ahead of construction as not to delay progress.Construction of the substructure is well over 50 per cent complete, with 17,000 cubic yards (of an estimated total of 25,500 cubic yards) of con­crete placed by the end of December 1970. Figure 1.2 shows the place­ment of reinforcing steel for the cyclotron foundation slab.The superstructure contract was awarded to Commonwealth Construction Co. Ltd. on November 13, 1970. The Main Hall is scheduled to be substan­tially complete by June 16, 1971. This contract includes the supply and erection of structural steel frames for the Main Hall and service annex, installation of metal cladding, exterior concrete block walls and roof­ing to the stage that the Main Hall is suitable to allow fabrication of the vacuum chamber in Experimental Area 1 to start.- 2 -Fig. 1.1 The main building excavation at the start of construction (July 1970)Reinforcing steel for the cyclotron foundation (Photo: Vancouver Sun)The two Main Hail 50-ton cranes are being fabricated by Heede Interna­tional in Vancouver. There will be two bridge cranes, each bridge carry­ing two separate 25-ton hoists,all provided with stepless speed control.- it -- 5 -2. THE TRIUMF EXPERIMENTAL FACILITYThe experimental facilities, external to the cyclotron itse1f , are being planned by the Users Groups and are being designed by specialist teams at the four universities, together with engineers from TRIUMF and its consultants. The five Users Groups currently constituted are: the Meson Users Group, Proton Users Group, Radiochemistry Users Group, Slow Neu­tron Users Group, and Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Users Group.Much work has already been put into building design, and the layout of the areas and beams expected to be operational shortly after the first beam is obtained is shown in Figure 2.1. This is a plan view at the ex­perimental floor level, 25 ft below grade.Two beam 1ines a re proposed initially. One feeds the full intensity pro­ton beam to two meson targets and finally to a neutron target and beam dump. Secondary mesons produced in the two targets will be used for ex­periments, as will the neutrons generated in the neutron target. A second beam, restricted to less than 10 pA, feeds a proton area in which ex­periments using the primary protons will be performed.At the end of the year an Experiments Evaluation Committee was established. This Committee is charged with receiving proposals for experiments and with recommending those that are to go forward.2.1 Meson U se r s2.1.1 Faci1i t iesThis year saw significant design development of the meson channels associated with the two meson production target con­cepts described in last year's report. At Users meetings held this year experimental interests, and thus priorities, for the various channels were discussed and recommendations regarding the development of such channels proposed.At least three general purpose meson channels will be avail­able for physics research following operation of the cyclo­tron at full beam intensity. These are: a forward angle- 6 -1/303<D03C<1)Ei—<DQ.X<1)TDC03S)E03a)_Q■M13o03CMCD- 7 -channel for applications requiring high energy pions (100 - 300 MeV) with moderate energy resolution initially (600 keV at 200 MeV pion energy); a backward channel for experiments with low energy pions with good energy resol ution (ul timate- ly < 100 keV at 50 MeV pion energy) ; and a low energy chan­nel for stopped pion and muon work.2.1.2 Primary Proton and Secondary Meson ChannelsDetailed optical design of the beam line to the meson pro­duction targets and the neutron target has been undertaken. The first part of the transport system is designed to pro­duce ei ther a vert i cal spot 1 mm wi de by 1 cm h i gh or a hor i- zontal beam spot at the first target.Theoretical analysis has been made of the effects of element misalignment on a beam transport system and has been applied to the critical first section of the beam line. Alignment tolerances are quite tight but can be satisfied by the stan­dard survey techniques being considered.A survey has been made of possible materials for pion pro­duction targets. Criteria for the first target (containing both water and beryllium targets of approximately k g cm-2), the second target (containing beryllium and copper targets of approximately 20 g cm-2), and of the target change mech­anism are complete. A study of the heating of target windows has begun, using a small electron gun to simulate the energy deposited by the proton beam.Criteria have been developed for two types of meson channel: one medium energy pion channel using the small image size of the pion source at the first target position and the other a stopped pion-muon channel using the larger pion source at the thicker second target position.In order to achieve a small source size and to make optimum use of the characteristic of the p + p -> MME + d production- 8 -reaction, a number of transport systems are being studied which use zero degree or smal 1 angle production for the medium- energy secondary pion beam.The specifications chosen for the channel design include a pion energy range of 50 to 300 MeV with a momentum resolu­tion of 0.0*1 per cent, a solid angular acceptance of 5 msr, and a momentum acceptance of 2 per cent. One such reference design for a channel based on a zero degree takeoff system used six quadrupoles and two 60 deg bending magnets. The second magnet in this channel can be operated such that the emerging beam is either achromatic and goes to a scattering chamber or is dispersed so that, in conjunction with a mag­netic spectrometer, the energy loss mode can be used. The channel is both flexible and reasonably short (10 m).A dual-purpose,short, 1ow-cost quadrupole channel for stopped pions and muons has been designed. The channel, which ac­cepts low energy pions from the second target at back angles (135 deg or more), cons i sts of two *»5 deg rectangular bend­ing magnets and five quadrupoles. A dispersed focus in the centre of the channel will permit momentum selectionof the beam for thin target stopped pion experiments. The pion acceptance solid angle is 12.5 msr with a ±10 per cent mo­mentum acceptance. With 100 pA of protons on a beryllium target, the yield at 30 MeV pion energy is expected to be 10® SMO per g cm-2 and the muon yield one-tenth of this.2.2 Proton UsersBasic plans for development of the proton area remain unchanged from the last annual report. A conceptual design study of the 10 yA beam dump indicated the necessity of placing this outside the building for optimum use of the available floor area.Emphasis is being placed on using the initial beam line to the pro­ton area for the first range of experiments, and developing a high- 9 -resolution beam and spectrometer system on a second beam line when the extracted beam characteristics of the accelerator are known.First-order designs of experimental equipment for the proton area are being developed. These include: a thin target scattering cham­ber, a medium resolution magnetic spectrometer, and a cryogenic tar­get to produce secondary beams of high energy neutrons and polarized protons and neutrons.A conceptual design of the transport system for the beam 1 ine to the proton area has been produced which accommodates the beam require­ments fora thin target scattering chamber and a liquid hydrogen or deuterium target for the product ion of secondary beams of polarized protons and neutrons. A preliminary design for the proposed high resolution beam line has been made.2.3 Radiochemistry and Slow Neutron Users2.3-1 Radiochemistry UsersThe Group's requirements are primarily for proton and neutron activations together with chemical facilities for process­ing and tracer work. Gross proton irradiations will be poss­ible in the proton flux immediately in front of the neutron target, and in the proton flux in the proton area, the only restrictions imposed being those necessary for cooling of the sample.In the neutron dump several thermal neutron and cascade neu­tron irradiation ports will be available, some connected by a "rabbit" system and others of the "thimble" variety. One straight-through rabbit wi11 be avai1able for very short ir­radiations. Isotope product ion athigh activity levels will be possible via the "swimming pool" and its storage well ad­jacent to the hot cell area.In the proton area an i rrad i at i on s i te will be avai1 able for those studies needing a cl ean, we 11 -def i ned, essen t i a 1 1 y va ri- able energy proton beam for studies of short-1ived products.- 10 -All rabbit systems will be connected directly with the Chem­istry Annex. In addition, a neutron-activat ion laboratory will be set up in the Chemistry Annex for automatic sample analysis. Isotope production and the auxiliary chemical separation procedures for tracer work in chemistry, medicine and pharmacy wi11 be located in the Chemistry Annex, as well as space for research in these fields and in nuclear chemis­try, hot atom and recoil studies, radiation damage effects, and others.2.3.2 Slow Neutron UsersProvision is being made in the design of the neutron target for neutron diffraction studies, neutron capture x-ray spec­troscopy, and neutron scattering spectroscopy. One meeting was held during the year to acquaint members with the latest design of the facility. Some rearrangement has occurred but this will not adversely affect either the expected neutron flux levels or the expected number and size of beam tubes. One earlier requirement of the group, provision for very hot and very cold neutrons, has been discarded.2.3-3 The Neutron Target and Beam DumpThe conceptual design study and cost estimate of the thermal neutron facility have been essentially completed. During the year several modifications and improvements were made to this design. The experimental wells into the bulk shield­ing that were to have been used for beam experiments have been expanded to become experimental working areas, as shown in a plan view in Figure 2.2. These areas will be accessible during operation of the facility for making adjustments to experimental apparatus. This modification required an in­crease in distance from the facility core to the outside of the shield to 18 ft (from 15 ft) for neutron beam tubes at 60 deg to the incident proton beam direction. The source- to-outside shield distance for neutron beam tubes at 120 degBEAM- 11 -Fig. 2.2 Plan view of the neutron target and beam dump- 12 -remains at 15 ft because of anisotropy in the cascade neu­tron component. The working distance will be reduced by re­cessing the bulk shielding around the beam tubes.A second modification was made in the core of the facility, which now consists of a single moderator-reflector assembly with the inner moderator compartment containing heavy water and graphite surrounded by a separate light water reflector compartment, as shown in Figure 2.3* Heat is removed from the assembly by circulating the reflector water only, thus minimizing the heavy water requirement. The lead-bismuth target and the chamber for proton irradiations, which are water-cooled, fit into a re-entrant cavity in the moderator tank. The incident protons pass through an internal beam tube in the moderator tank to the target cavity without tra­versing the moderator tank wall.Access from the "swimming pool" to the target and proton ir­radiation facilityisprovided b y a n l 8 in. diamwater col umn normal to the incident beam direction and inclined upwards at 30 deg to the horizontal. The "swimming pool" is now ad­jacent to the hot cell charging area and at the same eleva­tion. Other tubes of various sizes (from 6 in. to 14 in. diam) provide access from the "swimming pool" to neutron irradi­ation thimbles extending into other re-entrant cavities in the heavy water-graphite moderator assembly. Table 2.1 lists the irradiation thimbles and beam tubes row incorporated in­to the thermal neutron facility.Figure 2.4 shows the neutron flux for four energy groups as a function of radial distance from the centre of the assem­bly. The calculation includes an estimate of the effects on the flux components of neutron absorption in the basic assem­bly structure, but does not take account of the effects of neutron leakage from beam tubes and access ports to iTradi­tion positions.Section through the neutron target and beam dump- 14 -Table 2.1 BEAM TUBES AND IRRADIATION POSITIONS IN THE NEUTRON TARGETApprox1 Rad i a 1Tube or Thimble SizeFlux at 100 yA Beam 1012 cm-2 sec-1Component D i stance cmi nside d i mension cm Thermal Fast2 Cascade3Beam Tubes:Horizontal at1*01 = 60 deg and 120 deg 205 x 20 9.0 3.5 0.00350.006Horizontal at 0 ; =135 deg 29 5 x 20 6 .0 1.0 0.007Slanted -45 deg 0 ; = 90 deg 23 5 x 20 8 .0 2 .2 0.01 1Horizontal Through Tubes:Thermal 23 5 (diam) 7.5 2.2 0.007Cascade 56 5 (diam) 0-0 .2 0 .02 0.03Vertical Access Tubes:Radi al-Target 12 5 (diam) 10.0 10.0 0.24Tangent ial-D20 29 10 (diam) 6.5 1.0 0.007Tangential-Graphite 54 20 (diam) 2 .0 0 .12 0.003Slanted Access Tubes:Target Column-A -B -C1418215 (diam) 7.5 (diam) 10 (diam) Column I-A-B513635 (diam) 10 (diam) 2 .05.0 0.150 .60.0020.004Moderator Column II 58 20 (diam) 2 .0 0.12 0.002Moderator Column III 53 20 (diam) 2 .0 0.15 0.016Cascade Column 56 15 (diam) 0-0 .2 0.02 0.031) From centre of neutron production in Pb-Bi target (at ^8 cm down beam from front face) .2) Fast flux quoted here is estimated from evaporation neutron component still having energies greater than 1.46 eV.3) Cascade flux is at energies £>10 MeV.4) 0] is angle between incident beam and beam tube direction; all beam tubes except Radial-Target are tangential.5) Lower value applies to 120 deg tubes, higher one to 60 deg tubes. Cascade flux for beam tubes is effective flux at source viewed through beam tube, i.e. beam current = c{> c/4ttR2 .NEUTRON GROUP FLUX cm'* PER INCIDENT 500 MeV PROTON- 15 -r cmFig. 2.4 Energy group neutron flux as a function of radiusGROUP FLUX AT 100 PROTON BEAM CURRENT- 16 -2 .A Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Users GroupFinal approval of a grant of $382,021 to cover half the estimated cost of the Radiobiology-Radiotherapy Laboratory at TRIUMF has now been received from the Health Resources Fund,Department of National Health and Welfare, subject to submission of the contract drawings as they become available. A condition of this grant is that it be matched from local sources. The Board ofDirectors of the British Columbia Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation has accepted the responsibility for obtaining the matching funds. The assurance of funding will allow the construction of the laboratory to proceed on a schedule which best fits into the overall TRIUMF construction schedule.The B.C. Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation, as the most im­mediate prospective user of the Radiobiology-Radiotherapy Laboratory, is establishing a Radiobiology Department at the B.C. Cancer Insti­tute as part of an overall project to carry out a programme of dosi­metric and radiobiological investigation leading to the use of a beam of negative pions for radiotherapy. Staff are now being recruited for this programme.The first-order design of a beam transport system to conduct neg­ative pions from the second target to the radiotherapy facility is now essentially complete. The system consists of two kS deg wedge bending magnets with gap heights of 6 in., three 10 in. bore quad­ruple magnets, and two quadrupoles of smaller aperture. The sys­tem has an acceptance of 12 ms r at 100 MeV and will transmit a momen­tum range of ±10 per cent with a first-order resolution of 0 .2 per cent. The total system length is 6.5 m so that 57 per cent of the pions at 100 MeV will reach the irradiation location before decay­ing. The system provides a horizontal achromatic pion beam that is va r i ab 1 e in s i ze between 4 cm and 10 cm in d i amete rat the irrad iation location.- 17 -3. CYCLOTRON DESIGN AND ENGINEERINGThis year marked the start of cyclotron construction, with the award of the magnet contract to Davie Shipbuilding Limi ted of Lauzon, Quebec, in February. At this time most of the steel has been rolled by Stelco of Hamilton, Ontario, and Lukens Steel Company of Coatesvil le, Pennsyl vania, and the first blocks have been assembled. In November two further major components for the cyclotron were ordered: the support structure andlevelling jacks from Canron Limited, Vancouver; and the coils from Na­tional Electric Coil, Columbus, Ohio. In December the contract for the vacuum chamber was awarded to Ebco Industries, Vancouver. Tests on the prototype resonators have shown that the mechanical design is basically sound, and RF tests are still in progress. The final design will be based on the results of this test programme.Tenders have been called for the magnet and RF power supplies, and for an erection contract. Computer equipment for the control system, ini­tially to be developed for the ion source and injection system and thecentral region model , has been delivered. The CAMAC specifications have been adopted for this system.Engineering of the major cyclotron components was by Dilworth, Secord, Meagher and Associates Limited (DSMA) , in close collaboration with theTRIUMF design groups. William M. Brobeck £ Associates of Berkeley re­viewed the support and elevating jack system, and confirmed DSMA's de­sign. Earthquake res i s tance of the cyclot ron and bui 1 d i ng was al so studied thoroughly. A preliminary design for the internal cyclotron diagnostics probes and extract ion probe mechanisms was completed to enable detailing of the vacuum chamber.TRIUMF design groups developed an improved inflector design and, in order to overcome problems created by a gap-crossing resonance, reverted to a sixfold magnet centre geometry. The final trim and harmonic coils spe­cifications were completed. A 1:10 scale model magnet was built, and shimming experiments were started. Activation levels in various areas of the vault and cyclotron were re-calculated with better accuracy. An ion source, supplied by Cyclotron Corporation, Berkeley, California, was- 18 -assembled and a 2.3 mA beam of negative hydrogen ions was produced. An order has been placed with Philips fora cryogenerator for the cryopump- ing arrays in the vacuum chamber.3.1 Magnet3.1.1 Model StudiesFinal adjustments were made to the pole piece dimensions of the 1:20 model to correct an isochronism error in the cen­tral region of the magnet and to maintain the necessary six­fold symmetry right down to the injection radius. These changes were made before the pole pieces for the main magnet were fabricated.There will be errors in the magnet i c field of the ful1-s i zed magnet. To correct these errors, the pole pieces will beshimmed. The detailed information required to perform such a shimming programme cannot be obtained from a 1:20 scale model, however, and a 1:10 scale model of the magnet was bui 11 for this purpose.The 1:10 model of the magnet was completed in September. Its construction was based on the scaled fabrication drawings that were prepared byDSMA, thus providing an overall check on their correctness. The first field survey indicated that the scaling was linear to within two per cent. Since then the model has been used to determine the detailed magnetic effects of the pole piece shims. A photograph of the 1:10 model is shown in Figure 3.1.The 1:6.67 central region test magnet has confirmed the de­sign of the magnet for the central region model. It has also been used to test the design of the magnet wedges used to in­crease the magnetic focusing during the first few turns of acceleration.3.1.2 Magnet CommissioningThe conceptual design for the techniques to be used in surveying- 19 -The 1:10 model magnet, showing the bolted-on shims- 20 -and correcting the magnetic field of the cyclotron has beencompleted. The survey can be separated into four sub-tasks:1) The Z-component of the main magnetic field will be measured using flip coils.2) The position of the magnetic median plane will be determined using a series of triple Hall probe de- vi ces.3) The magnetic field in the extraction region of the cyclotron will be measured using Hall probes. The characteristics of this field must be well under­stood, as the design of the beam transport system will be partly determined by this field.4) The magnetic field in the injection region will be measured by a special 3-axis Hall probe. This field partly determines the design of the inf lector electrode3.2 Ion Source and Injection SystemAn Ehlers-type H" ion source consisting of a magnetica11y confinedarc and electrostatic extraction electrodes, together with asso­ciated power supplies, was purchased from Cyclotron Corporation, Berkeley, California, and was delivered on site in early October. It was equipped on site with the vacuum, cooling, control and diag­nostic systems required to produce H" beams at about 12 keV, as shown in Figure 3-2, and has produced on site beams of 2.1 mAatl2 keV and2.3 mA at 13 keV, having slit-defined (rectangular) emittances of 200 mm mrad in both x and y phase space planes. This performance satisfied the specificat ions for this part of the injection system.The ion source system is being installed in the injection accelei ator to produce H" beams at 300 keV for the central region model. It has been mounted in the 300 kV Faraday enclosure, raised on in­sulating supports, coupled to the 300 kV accelerator tube, and has been provided with AC power, refrigerated cooling, and controls, all isolated to operate between ground and 300 kV. A high-voltage- 21 -- 22 -power supply of 150 kV, loaned by the U.B.C. Physics Department, is being used temporarily to make tests on the system until delivery of the 300 kV power supply, whose construction and commissioning is presently being completed by the manufacturer, Kilovolt Corpora­tion. The 300 kV power supply specifications are fora voltage ad­justable from 275 to 305 kV with a stability of 1 part in lO4 for load currents between 0 and 10 mA. The 300 kV source/accelerator system is enclosed in a shielded and air-conditioned room, both to provide personnel protection and to permit high field gradients to be maintained on the accelerator tube. The hydrogen gas supply and vacuum exhaust system are designed to prevent accidents associated with possible non-scheduled releases of hydrogen gas from the stor­age cylinder, supply lines or vacuum exhaust system.The injection 1ine,originally proposed by William M. Brobeck & As­sociates (TRI-70-3), wil1 consist of a beam transport system - four straight sections containing electrostatic quadrupoles, steering elements, vacuum stations and diagnostic equipment separated by three 90 deg non-dispersive and isochronous bends - to transport the beam from the exit of the 300 kV pre-accelerator to the inflector. Fig­ure 3 .3 shows the layout of the beam transport for the central region model. A prototype beam line, built of b in. diam commercial com­ponents, is being used for vacuum system tests. A pressure of 1 x 10-6 Torr has been achieved at the centre of a 21 ft line pumped at both ends. Calculations using the TRANSPORT computer program are be i ng made to de te rmi ne the optics required in the straight sections and the bends , in order to transport beams of the required intensity, emittance, andtime structure. The effects of space charge in high­ly bunched intense beams are under study.The injection beam transport system for the central region model has been made of sufficient length to allow full-scale model tests of the chopper-buncher system to be used on TRIUMF.The component layout for the ion source room in the main accelerator building has been fixed in order to finalize the building structure- 23 -V-ov^ A A A A / t W \ A A AFig. 3-3 Layout of the ion beam transport for the central region model- 24 -and to determine the location of al1 services. The ion source, pre­accelerators and injector transport systems for TRIUMF will be re­fined developments of those used on the central region model.3.3 Inflector and Central Region GeometryA preliminary design of the inflector and central region geometry for the central region model has been completed. As this design has to tie together input from at least four design groups, a se­quence of operations has been used which after a number of iterations has converged on a result. Magnetic field profiles along the mag­net axis and in the median plane have been measured on the central region model test magnet by the magnet group. These results are used as input by the beam dynamics group to determine the trajec­tories of a centred orbit in the median plane.The inflector design has evolved by taking th is central orbit before the first accelerating gap and requiring that it be bent so that its final trajectory (working backwards) is vertical along the mag­net axis. A spiral inflector shape has been used and its azimuthal position, vertical height and electric field have been optimized to produce the desired result. The inflection system consists of an off-axis electrostatic deflector positioned approximately 40 in. above the median plane, a drift space inwhich the particles spiral in the fringe magnetic field, and the inflector. Transfer matrices for these three sections have been calculated, and calculations have been made using the computer program TRANSPORT to match the system at the input end to the injection line and to provide the required beam ellipse for acceleration at the output.The azimuthal pos i t ion of the inflectorhas been changed from earlier designs, and the modified central region geometry is shown in Fig­ure 3.4. The centre post shape and the contours of the resonator cut-outs at the centre have been s1ightly modified, producing a more symmetric design. One-half scale model tests using copper-clad wooden resonator sections are now under way to check this central- 25 -Fig. 3.A Central region geometry- 26 -region geometry for both the fundamental and third harmonic frequen­cies. Previous tests using an ear1ier design for the resonator cut­outs were satisfactory although the third harmonic Q. was low.A set of prototype inflector electrodes has been constructed, us­ing the numerically-controlled milling machine in the Departmentof Mechanical Engineering at the University of British Columbia, to produce the spiral electrode faces. High-voltage tests are now under way to check the insulator mounts and surface finish.3.4 Beam DynamicsTo obtain realistic estimates of the beam quality produced by the present cyclotron design and the effects of possible modifications, studies have been continued with the aim of reproducing the ion orbit behaviour as accurately as possible. This means testing approxi­mations and,when necessary, replacing them by exact numerical data; incorporating effects that had previously been neglected; and in­vestigating the effects of imperfections in the actual cyclotron.In the central region the relaxation calculation of the electric field in the dee gap has been extended from 30 in. to 60 in. radius, allowing accurate tracking of the ion orbits over 24 instead of 6 turns. This has enabled the injection gap to be positioned more precisely, resulting in optimum orbit centring. Knowledge of the electric field in three dimensions has also permitted a detailed study of the electric focusing at the dee gaps; thus it has been shown that the "grid" posts on the first turn reduce the vertical focal power - an undes i rable factor because of its phase dependence - by a factor ten.Radial motion studies have also ledtoa return to a six-sector mag­net geometry near the centre. The use of three magnet sectors, which had been proposed as a means of increasing the phase acceptance, in conjunction with two dee gaps 180 deg apart is known to excite the gap-crossing resonance. This is a beat effect similar in action to a first harmonic magnetic field error, but its effect was expected- 27 -to be small if the dee gap were aligned along a sector edge. Numeri­cal orbit tracking conf i rmed thi s but revealed a new effect, a ±10deg phase oscillation at the dee gaps. This is caused by the orbit scalloping and is much larger for TRIUMF than for other cyclotrons because of the use of fifth harmonic acceleration - indeed, it is unacceptably large since it destroys the extra phase acceptance aimed for. An alternative is to align the dee gap along a sector centre line and to attempt to compensate the gap-crossing resonance with a first harmonic field component. This must be done precisely at each radius, however, and the compensation is only complete for ions at one RF phase, so that the phase acceptance set by centring requirements would be significantly worsened. However, studies have shown that it will be possible to increase the phase acceptance by adding a third harmonic component to the fundamental RF waveform. This could shift the vertical focusing phase limit back to -35 deg, and so it was decided to retain the six-sector design everywhere.Numerical orbit studies have confirmed the tolerance predicted ana­lytical ly for a uniform first harmonic magnetic field imperfection; more complicated cases have been examined in detail , and second and third harmonic imperfections have been shown to be relatively harm­less near the centre. The tolerances set on field imperfections by betatron oscillation resonances at larger radii are under study. Values of the radial and vertical oscillation frequency ratios (vf and v ) computed by our equilibrium orbit code have now been repro­duced analyt i cally out to ful 1 rad i us, and are plotted in Figure 3-5- The sources of variation can thus be identified, allowing the mag­net to be shimmed so as to produce the des i red path in v r - space. The magnetic field data handling system has been examined, and means of inspecting values for consistency with their neighbours and cor­recting for missing or rejected values have been tested successfully.3.5 Pi agnosti csThe number, location and function of al1 the diagnostic probes, ex­traction probes and defining slits have been determined. A mech­anical design study for the probes has been completed by DSMA. A- 28 -If) TDD 0)•— 10~o 0303 _Ql_a)M—o 03c ino (1)•— >4—»o Dc ODM - 03 •_C ✓—-»05 h -  CXDCT\CO LA05 • OOa) 1N  XJ _ J;> o Cdo o“O ZDc CO "0J Q_o ci-  _ l d)c_> L_> - L .if) o 03o CD•— a)4—• 19 •05 4-J <L- •> - <> -  -QO "ac > - ca) t— 03D »—c r 03 JZa) O 4-»•— •—*4— v_ Ea) COC EO 3 ••— c —J4—105 T3 > -i— d) J3.— 4->cO Q . d)</> E >o O •—o CDf—03 d) d)•— i - 03X 0) .—03 DE“O CD L_C 4-J o05 C u -* o d)03 Q - J=+J"O d)05 J= cCd h - omprototype sensor probe for the beam phase measuring system is near complet i on.RF SystemThe activities of the RF group shifted in 1970 from the small-model low-power level tohigh-power full-scale systems development using prototype machine hardware.Major components acquired by the group in 1970 were:8 full-scale resonator segments (4 upper and 4 lower)Flux guides for resonator endsRF power supplies (i) 250 kW regulated to 1 :1014, 20 kV(ii) 175 kW unregulated to 18 kV(iii) 14 kW regulated to 7 kV variable(2 supplies for testing)Prototype RF amplifier of 400 kW capability Full-scale RF transmission line and coupling loop Brown-Boveri 2 MW dummy loadThe work can be divided into the areas of: radio-frequency powergeneration, power amp 1itude and phase control,and resonator design.3.6.1 RF Ampli fierA 200 kW, 23 MHz amplifier was constructed and finished on schedule according to the reference design by William M. Brobeck & Associates. The amplifier and transmission line are shown in Figure 3-6. This unit has a type 7510 triode as its final power amplifier stage. To date the amplifier has delivered over 100 kW in a resistive dummy 1oad and produced 72 kV on a single set of resonators at atmospheric pressure. Considerable difficulty was experienced with parasitics in this stage; furthermore the frequency sensitivity of the neu­tralizing circuit and shifts in the resonant frequencyof the resonators made stabilization at full power difficult. Con­sequently the decision was made to change the design and sub­stitute a type 4CW250000 tetrode for the triode.- 30 -Fig. 3-6 RF amplifier and transmission line- 31 -3.6.2 Amplitude and Phase ControlThe severe amp 1 i tude and phase stab i li ty requ i rements of single turn extraction for the machine pose rather difficult con­trol requirements. These requirements are made more diffi­cult by the addition of the third harmonic of the RFfrequency in order to achieve "f1at-topping" of the accelerating vol­tage waveform.Design of a phase detection and feedback control system was begun, and a novel phase control system employing the reduc­tion of the 23 MHz waveform to 18 MHz by use of a beat fre­quency technique has enabled the determination of phase diff­erences of the order of 0.02 deg between the fundamental and third harmonic. Control circuits using electronic phase shifters to achieve phase control to this order of accuracy are under development.The change in the reference design from triodesto tetrodes allows more flexibility in amplitude control, which should eventual ly be 1 :105 if s i ngle turn ext ract i on is to be ach i eved. Design work in conjunction with Continental Electroni cs Manu­facturing Co. of Dallas has been initiated on this problem.3 . 6 . 3  R e s o n a t o r  D e s i g nPreliminary measurements on the resonators and transmission line indicated good agreement with all model measurements and Q. calculations. The basic mechanical design appears sound. Changes required to facilitate quick remote removal of res­onators and water lines are being studied.Dampers for mechanical vibrat ions of the resonator structure were tested and have been shown to be feasible for resonator stabilization. Certain changes in the resonator mounting procedures and in the design aspects of the flux guides at the resonator cavity ends are being incorporated in the final design of the system. Current and voltage probe prototypes- 32 -have been checked at resonator voltages of 72 kV at atmos­pheric pressure.The shape of the resonators in the neighbourhood of the cen­tre post is being checked by use of half-scale models. A design has resulted which gives optimum particle accelera­tion and which is acceptable at the fundamental frequency. It is now being finalized for the third harmonic.3.7 Vacuum SystemThe vacuum tank for the central region model was delivered to the site in April. The tank has a volume of 300 cu ft and is fabri­cated of type 316 stainless steel. The roughing system comprises a Leybol d-Heraeus Rootes blower (type WS 350) backed by a type DK 180 mechanical pump. The roughing line is trapped with liquid nitrogen. The high vacuum system consists of two 10 in. Leybold-Heraeus diffu­sion pump stacks.The roughing system has proven extremely satisfactory, enabl i ng evacu­ation to 10-3 mm Hg in 30 min and 5 x 10-1+ mm Hg in one hour. With the two diffusion pumps operating the pressure can be reduced to 8 x 10“6 mm inone day. By using a liquid nitrogen cold finger in the tank the pressure can be reduced to 2 x 10-7 mm Hg in the order of 2k hours. This total pressure of 2 x 10"7 mm Hg is approximate­ly equal to the equivalent nitrogen stripping cross-section pressure of 8 x 10-8 mm Hg called for in the conceptual design.The problem of the seal design for the main vacuum tank was con­sidered solved when work at CERN indicated that an elastomer seal could be guaranteed for one year in a radiation field of 109 rad/ year. As the expected radiation dose at the seal is expected to be of the order of 108 rad/year, a fair safety factor is in hand. The design of the main vacuum tank was completed by DSMA and it is now being fabricated.A Philips B-20 refrigerator capable of producing 320 W at 20°K has- 33 -been o rde red  fo r  the  c r y o g e n i c  vacuum s y s tem  for the main tank .  De­l i v e r y  o f  t h i s  machine is e xpec ted  in 1971. The e a r l y  d e l i v e r y  o f  t h i s  machine is  r e q u i r e d  in o r d e r  to  g a i n  o p e r a t i n g  e x p e r i e n c e  and a l s o  to  t e s t  the c r y o p a n e l s  and t r a n s f e r  l i n e s  p r i o r  t o  i n s t a l l a ­t i o n .  D e t a i l e d  d e s i g n  o f  the se  two components  and a s s o c i a t e d  t e s t ­in g  f a c i l i t i e s  i s  now in  p r o g r e s s .3 .8  Con t ro l  and I n s t r um e n t a t i o nC o n t r o l s  da ta  t r a n sm i s s i o n  and h a n d l i n g  c oncep t s  have been f ro z e n .  CAMAC data  s t a n d a r d s  and e l e c t r o n i c  components  c o n fo rm in g  to CAMAC e n g i n e e r i n g  s t a n d a r d s  w i l l  be used .  C o n t r o l s  da ta  t h e re fo re  w i 11 be t r a n sm i t t e d  in a d i g i t a l  form t h r ou ghou t  the s i t e .  I n f o rm a t i o n  w i l l  be encoded o r  decoded at e i t h e r  end o f  the da ta  t r a n sm i s s i o n  l i n k .One of the p r i n c i p a l  re a son s  f o r  s e l e c t i n g  CAMAC is t h a t  the s p e c i ­f i c a t i o n  has a we 1 1 - d e f i n e d  m e a n s o f a d d r e s s i n g  dev i ce s  wh i ch a l l  ows manual c o n t r o l  of the s i t e  d e v i c e s .  CAMAC has two b a s i c  a dvan ta ge s :  Fo r  ma in tenance ,  manual c o n t r o l  can be imposed on a dev ice -b y -dev ice  b a s i s ,  on a CAMAC c r a t e  b a s i s ,  o r  at  any p o i n t  in the CAMAC communi­c a t i o n  c h a i n .  Fo r  o p e r a t i o n  o f  the f a c i 1 i t y , e i t h e r  manual o r  com­pu te r  c o n t r o l  o f  the  s i t e  can be used .  F i g u r e  3 -7  shows schemat ­i c a l l y  th ree  l e v e l s  o f  manual c o n t r o l .  D e v ic e  manual c o n t r o l  i s  a c comp l i sh ed  by removing the d e v i c e  from the  CAMAC c h a in  and exei c i s i n g  i t  w i t h  a c o n t r o l  box.  C r a t e  manual c o n t r o l  is a c comp l i sh ed  by commercia 11y - a v a i 1a b 1e c o n t r o l l e r s  (N u c l e a r  E n t e r p r i s e s ) .  S y s ­tem manual c o n t r o l  r e q u i r e s  that manual c o n t r o l  s i g n a l s  be presented to  the b ranch  h ighway  in the same format  as  t ho se  gene ra ted  by a computer.  T h i s  approach  a l s o  a f f o r d s  a t im e - s h a r i n g  p o s s i b i l i t y .  The o n l y  b a s i c  c o n s t r a i n t  on equipment  a c q u i s i t i o n  a t  t h i s  t ime i s  th a t  s i g n a l  l e v e l s  must be s p e c i f i e d  so  as to  conform w i t h  s t a n d a rd  c o n t r o l s  l e v e l s .The ion source and injection system (ISIS) for the central region model is being used as a test bed for the controls engineering ap­proach. Prototype models of CAMAC digital control modules, digital/ analogue converter modules, multiplex analogue/digital modules and- 3^ -CAMAC CRATE BRANCH HIGHWAYFig. 3-7 Schematic of control system- 35 -an optical branch highway have been produced. Commercial CAMAC crates and power supplies, crate controllers and branch highway terminators (Jorway) are on site. Operation of controls modules on a crate level is used to test the modules. A branch highway driver has been designed and a prototype has been manufactured. This proto­type has been used to operate all modules under program control.Three Supernova computers have been delivered. At present one is used for program development, one is used for manufacturing check­out tests, and one is dedicated to ISIS controls. The operating system NATS ('Nova Asynchronous Task Supervisor1 supplied by Mac­Donald, Dettwiler and Associates) is used for data handling tasks. Diagnostic programs for checkout of all CAMAC controls modules are in regular use. In addition, the first version of an operator- oriented CAMAC data scanning routine has been installed.- 36 -k. SAFETYMany of the details of permanent radiation shielding, drainage and venti­lation have of necessity been frozen during the past year to meet the requirements of the TRiUMF building schedule. The overall philosophy has been to provide whatever clearly had to be included in the initial construction program, but to maintain as much flexibility as possible in order to allow such later modifications as may be required or advis­able on the basis of actual operating experience.Ground water will be drained from the site to the area storm sewer, but a layer of several feet of gravel , treated to be impervious to water, has been placed under the floor slabs and around the walls of the accel­erator vault and the proton beam tunnel to exclude the ground water from the most heavily irradiated areas. Run-off from the roof of the labora­tory will be treated like ground water. The water will be monitored for both radioactive and chemica1 contamination before discharge to the sewer.Within the building, drainage from areas where contamination is not an­ti ci pated wi11 go d i rect1y to the san i tary sewer. All water for cooli ng the main magnets and resonators in the accelerator vault, and for cool­ing magnets in the primary and secondary beam lines, will be contained in closed systems. Normally there will be no drainage from the acceler­ator vault or proton beam tunnel. In case of leakage or of deliberate use of water for wash-down of walls and floors, the water will be re­tained within the area with the options, after testing, of discharging it to the sanitary sewer, to an on-site holding tank to await radioactive decay or, in extreme cases, of transporting it to an off-site disposal area. In some areas of the chemistry laboratory discharge of corrosive chemicals may be an additional problem. This requires the provision of three options: discharge to the sanitary sewer, discharge to a chemical holding tank where it will be diluted to a safe level before discharge, or discharge to the radioactive holding tank to allow radioactive decay.The safety problems in ventilation are expected to arise from activation of normal constituents of the air, presence of radioactive particulates- 37 -from dust, etc., and production of chemically corrosive gaseous compounds such as nitrous oxide and ozone. Absolute filters will be provided in the ventilation system to remove particulate material where it may arise. Production of argon Al (half-life = 1.8 hours) in the accelerator vault and proton beam tunnel will be the main problem from irradiation of the air. Since these areas will not be occupied during operation of the ac­celerator, it is pianned to maintain them at a slightly negature pressure and to reduce ventilation to a minimum to allow for maximum radioactive decay before discharge of the air to the atmosphere.The Occupational Health Service of the British Columbia Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance has arranged, in collaboration with the Atomic Energy Control Board and the Radiation Protection Divi­sion of the Department of National Health and Wei fare, to provide a radio­active disposal area under their jurisdiction at a distance of about 125 miles from Vancouver. This should be a satisfactory answer to the dis­posal problem for TRIUMF.A representative of the Occupational Health Service who is a member of the TRIUMF Safety Advisory Commi ttee is ma i nta i n i ng contact w i th the Brit­ish Columbia Pollution Board to assure that TRIUMF satisfies all the re­quirements of that Board.The TRIUMF Safety Advisory Committee is now giving its attention, in co­operation with the design engineers, to accelerator design and operation as they affect the radiation exposures and other safety hazards to be expected from maintenance and service, repair and emergency breakdowns of the accelerator. This has led to a preliminary study of remote hand­ling methods to carry out some of the operations. The Safety Advisory Committee is also reviewing the communicat ions system and the TRIUMF con­trols system in so far as they affect safety.During the year a representative of the Radiation Protection Division, Department of National Health and Welfare, has attended meetings of the TRIUMF Safety Advisory Committee as an observer and consultant.- 38 -5. CENTRAL REGION CYCLOTRON MODELMost of the effort on the central region model during 1970 was directedtowards vacuum studies and prototype resonator testing. Work on the vacuum system, the RF power supply and resonators, and the ion source is reported in Section 3.The stainless steel vacuum tank and its support structure were erected in the model shop during the 1atter part of April, and the first extendedpumpdown was made during the first week in May. The main seal, consist­ing of two rectangular viton gaskets with differential pumping, has proven sati sfactory.The prototype resonators, shown mounted in the vacuum tank in Figure 5.1, were delivered about three months late, so that testing did not begin until the end of June. The fine and coarse tuning mechanisms were in- stalled and tested.The 1:6.67 central region test magnet was used tomeasure field profiles along the magnet axis, so that the design of the inflector and central region electrodes could proceed. The construction of the full-scale mag­net and coils is now complete, and erection will begin as soon as the high power resonator tests are finished. During this erection period the resonator sections will be modified for the instal lation of the centre post.- 39 -Prototype resonators mounted in the vacuum tank for the central region model- 40 -6. PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULING6.1 Project ManagementTRIUMF's Project Management Office is staffed by engineers on de­tached assignment from two consu11ing engineering firms: ShawiniganEngineering Co. Ltd. and Montreal Engineering Co. Ltd. These engi­neers are responsible for overal1 project planning and supervision, contract management, accounting, purchasing, expediting and schedul­ing.1970 has been a critical and busy year for the group, involving the award of the following major building and accelerator component con­tracts, which total $8,000 ,000, of which about 30% went to Canadian cont ractors:Excavation Sdewateri ng $ 195,558 F.W. Monssen ConstructionSubstructure (main building) 2,171 ,881 Commonwealth ConstructionMain magnet steel, 1 444,597 Steel Co. of CanadaMain magnet fabrication 1 ,953,958 Davie Sh i pbu i 1 d i ng LimitedMain magnet steel, 2 555,397 Lukens Steel Co.Support structure 644,249 Canron LimitedSuperstructure (main building) 845,507 Commonwealth ConstructionMain magnet coiIs 592,640 National Electric CoilVacuum chamber 550,000 Ebco Industries Ltd.6’. 2 Schedul i ngThroughout the year engineering,manufacturing, and construction wsre maintained essentially on schedule. The delay caused by the 2-1/2 month dispute in the construction industry has been largely over­come, and the contract date for completion of the building is now only two weeks behind schedule. Commissioning of the RF amplifier for the central region model took longer than anticipated, as the anode power supply was delivered from the manufacturer 4-1/2 months late. These problems will not be permitted to affect the schedule,however, and the scheduled date for delivery of an external beam remains November 1973-Figures 6.1 and 6.2 show condensed schedules to completion of the project.ManpowerFigure 6.3 charts the design manpower allocated to the project at the four universities and at the various consulting firms._ Z|2 -Condensed schedule (cyclotron)- i»3 -Fig. 6.2 Condensed schedule (building and beam transport)GRAD STUDENTS Construction Inspection TOTAL MANPOWER- 44 -QLl_70C<(f) _J<CD zZ 0h- (/)cn </>0 70QQ_ U_Q_ OD a:(/) a.5NFACD<Z<2Fig. 6.3 TRIUMF manpower-  15 97. ORGANIZATION AND COMMITTEES7.1 Board of ManagementIt is with deep regret that we record the death of Mr. Mark Collins during the year. He had been a member of the TRIUMF Board since its inception, being nominated by Simon Fraser University. The vacancy on the Board was filled by Mr. Jack Diamond, who is a member of the Board of Governors of Simon Fraser University. Dean R.T.D. Wallace and the Hon. Mr. Justice J.G. Ruttan,both representatives of the University of Victoria, resigned during the year. Their places have been taken by Dr. H.W. Dosso and Mr. J.T. Kyle.The Board now comprises:University of Alberta: Dean Kenneth B. NewboundDr. J.T. Sample President Max WymanSimon Fraser University: Mr. Jack DiamondDean Lionel Funt Mr. Cyrus H. McLeanUniversity of Victoria: Dean J.L. ClimenhagaDr. H.W. Dosso Mr. J.T. KyleUniversity of British Columbia: Prof. W.M. Armstrong (Chairman)Mr. R.M. BibbsDr. G.M. Volkoff (Secretary)7.2 Operating CommitteeDr. B.D. Pate of Simon Fraser University returned from sabbatical leave, which he spent at Orsay, and resumed his place on the Com­mittee. Dr. R.G. Kortelingis again acting as alternate member for Simon Fraser University. Dr. R.M. Pearceof the Un i vers i ty of V i c- toria is on sabbatical leave with the Darmstadt group at CERN for 1970/71. In his absence Dr. L.P. Robertson and Dr. G.R. Mason are the regular and alternate members for the University of Victoria.The Committee (alternate members in parentheses) is now composed of:-  70 9Dr. J.B. Warren ChairmanDr. G.C. Neilson University of AlbertaDr. B.D. Pate Simon Fraser UniversityDr. L.P. Robertson University of VictoriaDr. E.W. Vogt University of B.C.Mr. J.J. Burgerjon Chief EngineerMr. N. Brearley acts as Secretary to the Committee.(Dr. W.K.(Dr. R.G.(Dr. G.R.(Dr. K.L.Dawson) Korteli ng) Mason) Erdman)7.3 Bui 1d i ng Commi tteeThis Committee was reconstituted during the year and now comprisesE.B. Cai rns)I.M. Thorson) D.E. Lobb)D.A. Axen)R.O. Kornelsen) T.A. Creaney)(al ternate members in parentheses):Dr. J.B. Warren Chai rman(Mr.Mr. J.B. El 1i ott University of AlbertaDr. J.M. D'Auria Simon Fraser University (Mr.Dr. G.A. Beer University of Victoria (Dr.Dr. E.G. Aul d University of B.C. (Dr.Dr. H.F. Batho B.C. Cancer Institute (Dr.Mr. J.J. Burgerjon TRIUMF Engineering (Mr.Mr. D.A. Calder Secretary7.b Safety Advisory CommitteeDr. H.F. Batho Dr. J.H. SmithDr. R.R. Johnson Mr. H.E. Rankin Mr. W. RachukDr. R. Morrison Dr. B.D. Pate Mr. T.A. Creaney7.5 Experimental InstrumentationDr. W.K. Dawson (Chairman)Dr. D.A. AxenDr. G.A. MossDr. G.R. MasonDr. G. JonesDr. J.M. D'AuriaChai rmanB.C. Dept, of Health Services and Hospital Insurance University of B.C.Royal Roads Military College Radiation Protection Officer, University of B.C.Vancouver General Hospital Simon Fraser University Secreta ryCommi tteeUniversity of Alberta Universi ty of B.C. University of Alberta University of Victoria Uni vers i ty of B.C.Simon Fraser UniversityExper i merits Eva 1 uat i on CommitteeDr. J.T. Sample (Chairman)Dr. J.M.W. GibsonDr. D.W. HoneDr. G. JonesDr. R.G. KortelingDr. A.E. LitherlandDr. L.P. RobertsonDr. J.E. RothbergDr. D.C. WalkerMr. N. Brearley (Secretary)University of Alberta B.C. Cancer Institute Royal Roads Military College University of B.C.Simon Fraser University University of Toronto University of Victoria University of Washington University of B.C.- 48 -8. CONFERENCESOn particular interest to TRIUMF was a highly successful Summer School in Medium Energy Nuclear Physics held at Banff, Alberta from August 16 to 28, 1970. The School was organized by the Nuclear Research Centre of the University of Alberta under the sponsorship of the Canadian As- siciation of Physicists, and with support from NATO, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., and the University of Alberta. The TRIUMF Annual Meeting was also held in Banff, immediately following the Summer School.Canadian Association of Physicists , Western Regional NuclearPhysics Conference, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan FebruaryInternational Conference on Magnet Technology, Hamburg, West Germany MayA.J. Otter, E.G. Auld, U. Kiesners and O.K. Fredriksson:"The TRIUMF Cyclotron Magnet"Canadian Association of Physicists/American Physical Society/Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica, Winnipeg, Manitoba JuneL.P. Robertson: "Extraction of Protons and Extraction ofSecondary Beams for TRIUMF"S.R. Oraas, E.G. Auld and A.J. Otter: "The TRIUMF Cyclotron Magnet: Predicted Performance"Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Boulder, Colorado June1970 Nuclear Science Symposium, New York, N.Y. November- 49 -9. REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONSTRI-70-1 William M. Brobeck & Associates, "Conceptual Design of theBeam Transport Magnets for Beam Line 1"TRI-70-2 Dilworth, Secord, Meagher and Associates Limited andWilliam M. Brobeck S Associates, "Conceptual Design of RF Resonators for a 500 MeV H- Cyclotron"TRI-70-3 William M. Brobeck & Associates, "Conceptual Design of theInjection System for a 500 MeV H” Cyclotron"TRI-70-4 S. Oraas, "Techniques Applied to the Design of the TRIUMFMagnet Pole Tips"D.E. Lobb, "The Beam Envelope of an Initially Uncorrelated Ellipsoidal Beam", Nucl . Instr. Meth. 82_, 331 -333 (1970)D.E. Lobb, "The Effects on Charged Particle Trajectories of HigherMultipolarity Components in a Magnetic Quadrupole Field",Nucl. Instr. Meth. 86_, 177“ 187 (1970)D.E. Lobb, "An Analysis of First-order Effects of Misalignments in aBeam Transport System", Nucl. Instr. Meth. 87_, 59—72 (1970)G.H. Mackenzie and J.R. Richardson, "A Method for Locating the MedianSurface of an AVF Cyclotron Magnet", Nucl. Instr. Meth. 87, 319-322 (1970)R.M. Pearce, "Strong Focusing in a Magnetic Helical Quadrupole", Nucl. Instr. Meth. 83_, 101-108 (1970)M.F. Tautz, "Third Order Aberrations for Ion Orbits in Static Magnetic Fields with Mid-plane Symmetry", Nucl. Instr. Meth. 84, 29-36 (1970)- 50 -10. STAFFUBC3TRIUMFFacultyPay roJ.B. Warren P rofessor D i rector 100G. Jones Professor (Control) 0D.L. Livesey Professor (Field Measurements) 0B.L. White P rofessor (ion Source) 0E.W. Vogt Professor Assoc. Director 0K.L. Erdman P rofessor (RF) 0M.K. Craddock Assoc. Professor (Beam Dynamics) 0E.G. Auld Asst. Professor (Magnet 0R.R. Johnson Asst. Professor (Control) 0D.A. Axen Asst. Professor (Vacuum) 0J.R. Richardson Visiting Professor (Consultant 100F romApr 1Graduate StudentsS. Oraas (Magnet) 100R.J. Louis (Beam Dynamics) 100L. Friesen (Magnet) 100A. Prochazka (RF) 100L.W. Root (Beam Dynamics) 100J. Bolduc (Beam Dynamics) 100K. Brackhaus (RF) 0 JunP. Robinson (Magnet) 100 SepR. Gibb (Magnet) 100 SeplIUMF (Vancouver)J.J. Burgerjon Chief Engineer 100M. Linton Research Assoc. (Comput i ng) 100G.H. Mackenzie Research Assoc. (Beam Dynamics) 100R. Gummer Research Assoc. (RF) 100A.J. Otter Research Engr. (Magnet) 100D. Sloan Research Assoc. (Control) 100M. Zach Research Engr. (CRM) 100R. Poi rier Research Engr. (RF) 100N. Brear ley Documentation £ Pub lie Relat ions 100E.W. Blackmore Research Assoc. (CRM) 100P. Faulconer Consulting Architect 80J .W. Carey Plant Engineer 100J .V . Cresswe11 Research Engineer (Control) 100O.K. Fredriksson Cyclotron Engineer 100D . Heywood Research Engineer (Control) 100 NovG. Dutto PDF (Beam Dynamics) 100 DecJ.C. Yandon Research Asst. (Vacuum) 100N. Rehli nger Research Asst. (Magnet) 100K. Poon Research Asst. (Magnet) 100D.A. Beale Research Asst. (RF) 100J. Fawley Research Asst. (RF) 100B. Ozzard Research Asst. (Control) 100 MarM. Hone Research Asst. (ion Source) 100 MayR. Wise Research Asst. (Vacuum) 100 JunE. Page Research Asst. (Ion Source) 100 AugW.J. Lester Research Asst. (ion Source) 100 AugH.H. Simmonds Research Asst. (RF) 100 AugA. Clark Research Asst. (Control) 100 DecJun 30 Aug 31Unti 1Aug 31Aug 31 Nov 9Jan 30- 51 -TRIUMF (Vancouver) cont'dTRIUMF Payrol1 F rom Unt i 1P. van Rook Research Asst. (Chief Draftsman) 100L.A. Udy Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100H. Hansen Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100A.T. Bowyer Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100J . Hal low Research Asst. (Checker) 100 Dec 1D.C. Smith Research Asst. (Workshop Supervisor) 100K. Dusbaba Research Asst. (Mach in i s t) 100S. Olsen Research Asst. (Mach i n i st) 100A. Amstutz Research Asst. (Woodworker) 100 MarW. Bryson Research Asst. (Woodworker) 100 Apr 20W. Frey Research Asst. (Machi nist) 100 Feb 16M. Larnder Research Asst. (Machi nist) 100 Jun 29Colleen Meade Asst. Programmer (Comput i ng) 100 Jan 7D. Marquardt Asst. Programmer (Control) 100 May 1Ada Strathdee Secretary 100Darlene Anderson Secretary 100 MarLynne Bass Accountant 100Nancy Palmer Secretary 100Else Elden Secretary 100Barbara Bailey Secretary 100 Jun 15Marge Williams Secretary 100 part-timeAttached staffT.A. Creaney Project Manager (SECo)A. D . G . Rob in son Contracts Manager (MECo)J . Ki1patrick Scheduling Engineer (SECo)D.A. Calder Civil Engineer (SECo)UVicFacultyR.M. L.P. G.R. D.E.G . A.PearceRobertsonMasonLobbBeerProfessor (on leave, 1970/71) Assoc. Professor (Extraction) Assoc. Professor Asst. Professor Asst. Professor(Secondary Beams) (Beam Transport) (Experimental Area)022000Graduate StudentsN. Al-Qazzaz P.W. James R.W. Harrison S.T. LimTRIUMF (Victoria)T.A. Hodges M.F. Tautz P.A. Reeve R.W. CobbResearch Assoc. Research Assoc. Research Assoc. PDF(Secondary Beams) 0(Beam Diagnostics) 0(Beam Transport) 50(Secondary Beams) 0(Targets) 100(Beam Optics) 100(Beam Optics) 100(Magnet Measurements) 80Aug 31 Aug 31- 52 - %TRIUMITRIUMF (Victoria) cont1d Pay roW. Sperry PDF (Secondary Beams) 100T.R. Witten PDF (Secondary Beams) 80C. Glavina PDF (Beam Diagnostics) 100D.W. Hunt Prog rammer-Analyst 100J. Nelson Techn i ci an 100P.G.Verstaaten Techn i ci an 100Julia Hunt Secretary 100J.H. Alexander Student Assistant 100JoAnne Sperry Secretary 100SFUFacultyB.D. Pate Professor (Chem. Exp. Fac.) 0A.S. Arrott Professor (Neutron Target) 0R.G. Korteling Assoc. Professor (Chem. Exp. Fac.) 0J.M. D'Auria Asst. Professor (Nucl. Equip. Dev.) 0C.H.W. Jones Asst. Professor (Chem. Exp. Fac.) 0Graduate StudentsC.D. Griggs H. BlokTRIUMF (Burnaby)I.M. Thorson R. Green S. Gujrathi R. Toren Rosemary Hotel 1Research Assoc. PDFResearch Asst.ProgrammerSecretary1000(ShieldingS Activation)l00 (Chem. Exp. Fac.) 100(Nucl.Equip. Dev.) 100(Neutron Target) 10066FromNov 1Jul 1Unti 1(part-t i me) (part-t i me)Jun 1 Jun 1Oct 1 Jan 1 Apr 1 Feb 1Aug 31Aug 31UA1bertaG.C. Neilson W.K. Dawson J.T. Sample W.C. Olsen G . RoyW.J. McDonald G.A. Moss D.M. Sheppard J. Cameron W. SimonProfessor Professor Professor Assoc. Professor Assoc. Professor Asst. Professor Asst. Professor Asst. Professor Asst. Professor Vi s i ti ng Professor(P Area)(Controls)(Board of Management) (on leave, 1970/71)TRIUMF (Edmonton)G.M. Stinson B.L. Duel 1i P. KitchingD.P. Gurd K. BrayE.B. Cairns J . B. El 1iott R. PopikL. Holm E. Pearce Greta Tratt Elsie Hawi rko Audrey FormanResearchResearchResearchPDFPDFResearchResearchResearchResearchResearchSecretarySecretarySecretaryAssoc. Assoc. Assoc.Asst. Asst. Asst. Asst. Asst.Area) Area) Area; Area; Area) Area ;Eqpt.Eqpt.Dev.Dev.Eqpt. Dev.)Dev.)(P Area; Eqpt. Diagnostics) Equipment Dev.) Control)P Area; Eqpt. Dev. [P Area; Eqpt. Dev.000000000100100100010010000100010000100Sep 1May 1- 53 -11 . FINANCIAL STATEMENTA. Statement of revenue and expenditures, April 1, 1969-March 31, 1970:RevenueAtomic Energy Control Board Grant $2,900,000University Contributions:University of Alberta $250,000Simon Fraser University 150,000University of Victoria 10,000University of B.C. 280,000 690,000National Cancer Institute Grant 16,000Interest ^5,5^6Total 3,671 ,5^6Add: Balance carried forwardfrom previous year 2A6,170$3,917,716Expendi turesSalaries $ A69.846Engineering contracts 1,160,210Construction contracts 517,708Experimental equipment 1+79,877Project Management Office 168,759Expendable supplies 68,556Travel 63,535Printing and copying 12,701Telephone 7 ,787Other 30,921Total 2,979,900Add: Reserve against commitments 937,816$3,917,716- 54 -B. Expenditures by major and minor codes, 9-month period April 1, 1970- December 31, 1970Major code breakdown:Administration $ 181,957Technical services 79,538Bui 1 dings 1 ,851 ,551Cyclotron 2,221,316Medical facility 1,424Experimental facilities 161,479$4,497,265Minor code breakdown:Pay rol1Construction payments Capital equipment Engineering contracts Development equipment Project management office T ravelComputer charges Printing and copying TelephonePrivate consultants M i s c e l l a n e o u s  and m inor  expen se s$ 521 ,806  1,351,587 1,276,841 727,956 417,006 77,068 46,138 27,243 11 ,204 8,801 6,603 25 , 0 1 2$4,497,265- 55 -Appendix A USERS GROUPSMeson Users GroupW.J. McDonald G.C. Neilson W.C. Olsen D. SheppardR.G. KortelingN. Al-Qazzaz G.A. Beer D.E. LobbG.R. Mason R.M. PearceC.E. Picciotto L.P. RobertsonW. Sperry T.R. Wi ttenD.W. HoneH.F. BathoE.P. Hincks D.O. WellsJ. Jovanovich R.W. Cobb H.B. Knowles J.E. Rothberg V . Cook R.R. McLeod R. Atneosen C. Schultz M. Krell N. TannerUAlberta PhysicsSFUUVicChemi stry Phys i csTRIUMF VictoriaG. Jones (Chm) UBC E.G. Auld D.A. Axen D.S. BederCraddock Erdman R.R. Johnson D.L. Livesey Mann Mart i n J.M. McMi1lanD. MeasdayE.W. Vogt J.B. Warren D.C. WalkerM.K.K.L.K.C.P.W.E.W.G.H.B1ackmore Mackenz i eTRIUMFRoyal Roads Military College British Columbia Cancer Institute Carleton University University of Manitoba University of Manitoba Cariboo Col lege Washington State University University of Washington University of Washington Western Washington State College Western Washington State College University of Massachusetts University of Sherbrooke Nuclear Laboratory, OxfordRadiochemistry Users GroupG.R. FreemanH.E. GunningA.A. NoujaimJ.M. D 1Auria R.G. Korteling C.H.W. JonesB.D. Pate A.S. ArrottI.M. ThorsonUAlberta ChemistrySFUD.C. Walker (Chm) UBC L.G. Harrison Physiology C.A. McDowell S. ZbarskyChemi st ryPhys i csG . Bushnel1 S.A. RyceUVicPhys i csChemi stry VancouverPhys i csPhys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys i csChemi st ryB iochemi stry Chemi stryR.T. Morrison D.W. HoneVancouver General Hospital Royal Roads Military College Phys i cs- 56 -Slow Neutron Users GroupD.W. Hone (Chai rman)Royal Roads Mi 1i tary Col legeJ. Trotter D.C. Walker A.V. BreeC.A. McDowell L.W. ReevesUBC Chemi stryL.P. Robertson UVic Physics S.A. Ryce ChemistryB.D. PateC.H.W. Jones A.S. Arrott R.R. Haering I.M. ThorsonG.R. FreemanR.R. McLeodSFU Chemi stry Phys i csUAlberta ChemistryWestern Washington State Col legeRadiobiology and Radiotherapy Users GroupJ.M.W. Gibson B.C. Cancer Institute D.M. Ross UAlberta Science Fac.(Chai rman) G.R. Freeman ChemistryA.M. Evans J . We i j e r Genet i csD.M. White law W.C. Mackenzie Med i ci neR.O. Kornelsen E.E. Daniel PharmacologyM.E.J. Young A.A. Noujaim PhysiologyH.F. Batho L.G.S. Newsham Phys iologyT.R. Overton Biomedical Eng.N. Auersperg UBC Cancer Research J.R. Nursall ZoologyR.L. Noble 1 nst i tute R.F. Ruth ZoologyH. StichD.C. Walker Chemi stry J.W. Scrimger Dr. W.W. Cross Cancer1. McTaggart-Cowan Grad. Studies S .R. Us i ski n Institute, EdmontonJ.F. McCreary Medi cineUn i vers i ty Hospi tal,J.B. Warren Phys i cs D. L . We i j e rD.H. Copp Phys i ology EdmontonV. J . Okuli tch Science Fac.W.S. Hoar Zoology B.G. Wilson R. ChurchUCalgary ArtsSSciences BiologyR. Morrison Vancouver General J.B. Cragg BiologyHospi tal W.A. Cochrane Med i ci neS. Rowlands Med i ci neB.L. Funt SFU Science Fac. C.E. Chai1i ce Phys i csB.D. Pate ChemistryFoothills Hospital ,T.D. CradduckW.G. Fields UVic Biology H.E. Duggan CalgaryR.M. Pearce Phys i csL.P. RobertsonD.E. LobbG.B. FriedmannD.W. Hone Royal Roads MilitaryCol lege- 57 -Proton Users GroupJ.TW.J W.C G.C G . AD.M G. W.K G.M P. J.BE.B W. J. K. C.RF.EG.R T.RSample McDona1d 01 sen Ne i1 son Moss . Sheppard Roy Dawson St inson Ki tch i ng E11i ott Cai rns S i mon Cameron Bray James Vermeulen F reeman OvertonUAlberta PhysicsNuclear Research CentreElec. Eng.Elec. Eng.Chemi stry Biomedical Eng.E.G. Auld D.A. Axen M.K. Craddock G.M. Griffiths R.R. Johnson G. Jones K.C. Mann P.W. MartinD. MeasdayE.W. Vogt J.B. Warren B.L. White D.C. WalkerUBCE.W.G.H.B1ackmore Mackenz i eTRIUMFB.D. Pate J .M. D 1Auri a R.G. Korteling A.S. ArrottI.M. Thorson R. GreenSFU Chemi stryPhys i csTRIUMF BurnabyG.R. L.P. R.M. D.E. G . A. C.E. S.A.MasonRobertsonPearceLobbBeerP i cciotto RyceUV i cT.A. Hodges P. ReeveTRIUMFD.W. Hone H.F. BathoD.O. Wells J.V. Jovanovich K.G. Standing W. FalkW.T.H. van OersR.R. McLeod R. AtneosenH.B. KnowlesJ.R. RichardsonRoyal Roads Military College British Columbia Cancer InstituteUniversity of ManitobaWestern Washington State CollegeWashington State University UCLAPhys i csVancouverPhys i csChemi st ry Vi ctori aPhys i cs Phys i csPhys i csPhys i cs Phys i csISPI' v ft, . f t -i-ft ft — ft,;.; Jfftftftft -SC,;i'„'. •' •’■-.. ■ ’ ; ft,. ft "■ ft: :■ —ft/; ■ ,i  . . < <■■ - . 7 -  ■'.■■>., . ; ■ ■ ■ ■'ft '•; •>-■’. j , —  • • -■:. - *- .ft . '-ft *. • ft / .ft-S/ftft:Sftft'-ft'#, ft -ft.-ft ft/ft/ft ft :ftftft'ftrA .ft-ft-'ftft- -ftftVC-ft^ t',,. ■/' Xftftft-ftftft ..-ft.; ft'.—  ft/—  ft-:'ftftftft- ■/./;/'. ■■; . c ftftftftfc-ft ft:7 ’ . ' '  ' -  - - •*m  ■ m m- , —  ' ; . w ,;7 f t , : , f t  7 f t < : f t ' S 7  c - s . f t  • v . - v ^  /Cftft— f t - V : ' f t  _ . 7 f t  - / — —  .mm^  mm.^ :: . / ' - / f t-• ■ . ' ‘‘ ft 7-. Cha i ''' / v  F O RE - :. ■m m m h M i:mim : / ■," , / --c:; - - ./ft--— ■— ft,:;,,ft;,-,: — 7','= :. a,.


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