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Annual report, 1971 TRIUMF; Brearley, N. May 31, 1972

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T R I U M FANNUAL REPORT 1971MESON FACILITY OF:UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAT R I U M FANNUAL REPORT1971N. Brearley Ed i torPostal Address:TRIUMF,University of British Columbia,Vancouver 8 , B.C., Canada May 1972FOREWORDDuring the period covered by this report construction of the TRIUMF facility has shown significant progress. Erection crews moved into the main building in June. By the end of the year five of the lower halves of the magnet sectors had been placed, and work on the vacuum chamber was well advanced. In addition, work was in hand on a host of other, less spectacular, items.Dr. J.B. Warren resigned as Director during the year, and I should like to pay tribute to his leadership during the critical first few years of TRIUMF. We are fortunate in that he will be returning to his post at the University of British Columbia, and hence will remain available for consultation. Dr. J.R. Richardson, whose "baby" TRIUMF is, has taken a leave of absence from the University of California in order to serve as Director in succession to Dr. Warren.There was one change in the membership of the Board of Management:Dr. B.L. Funt of Simon Fraser University stepped down and his place was taken by Dean S. Aronoff.As the scheduled completion date approaches, potential users are sub­mitting proposals for use of the facility. Undoubtedly, TRIUMF promises an exciting future for science and technology in Western Canada.\hj f \  •Chairman of the Board of ManagemenCONTENTSPreface1 . Cyclotron Erection 11.1 Magnet cores and main coils 11.2 Vacuum chamber 12 . Construct ion 53- Cyclotron Design and Engineering 73.1 Magnet 83.2 Ion Source and Injection System 93-3 Beam Dynamics 103.A RF System 153.5 Vacuum System 193.6 Controls and Instrumentation 203.7 Thermal Neutron Facility 203-8 Beam Lines and Targets 21it. Safety, Shielding and Activation 29A . 1 Safety 29A.2 Shielding and Activation 303. Central Region Cyclotron Model 336 . Project Management and Scheduling 366.1 Project Management 366 .2 Schedu1i ng 366 . 3 Manpower 367. Experimental Program AO8 . Reports from Users Groups Al8.1 Meson Users Group Al8.2 Radiochemistry Users Group Al8.3 Slow Neutron Users Group A28 .A Proton Users Group A28.5 Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Users Group AA9. Organization and Committees A59.1 Board of Management A59.2 Operating Committee A59.3 Building Committee A69-A Safety Advisory Committee A69-5 Experimental Instrumentation Committee A69.6 Experiments Evaluation Committee A61 0 . Conferences A71 1 . Reports and Publications A81 2 . Staff A913. Financial Statement 5AAppendix Users Groups 56ivLIST OF FIGURES Frontispiece: Model of the TRIUMF cyclotron1.1 The cyclotron vault -- five lower magnet sectors in place 21.2 The bottom of the vacuum tank 42.1 The main building from the south 63 . 1 Ion source —  beam emittance 103 . 2  Ion source -- horizontal beam emittance 113.3 Central region geometry 143.4 Static phase space plot 163.5 Block diagram of 23 MHz amplifier 173.6 Beam line 1 layout 223-7 Schematic diagram of target T1 243.8 Medium energy pion channel 233.9 Stopped pion-muon channel 273.10 Pion channel to the Radiobio1ogica1-Radiotherapy Annex 285.1 Inflector electrodes 356.1 Condensed schedule (cyclotron) 376.2 Condensed schedule (building and beam transport) 386.3 TRIUMF manpower 398.1 Initial experimental area layout 43vPREFACEIn the year 1971, the emphasis has been on the construction of both building and cyclotron components by various companies and, consequently, our rate of spending has been at its peak. The main building was com­pleted by June to the stage where areas could be used for fabrication and erection and, as the year ends, is getting its interior finishing touches. The magnet sectors have been made and five of the lower yokes are erected in position on the vault floor and make a very impressive sight. The energizing coils too have been delivered as well as many units of the mechanical and electrical services. The huge vacuum tank, welded together in the meson floor area and now largely completed, has demonstrated the capacity of Vancouver industry to fabricate such an unusual, huge and difficult item with great skill and speed.The central region cyclotron model has been used mainly for radio fre­quency testing of the accelerating structure; the prototype resonators have indeed been run successfully at 110 kV for many hours. The conver­sion of this model to accelerate an ion beam is well advanced and will soon enable the predictions of the beam dynamics in this central region to be checked.The resonator structure as originally designed was found to be difficult to construct and subject to warping as a result of temperature change.An improved design was evolved and some complexity was eliminated by dispensing with the requirement for a 3% frequency shift. The design was also made more compatible with the safety requirement of remote re­moval and handling of the resonators.The 1:10 scale model of the magnet was used to determine the effect of circular and harmonic trim coils on the magnetic field and the flip-coil technique of field measurement received major development. In this technique 104 coils spread over a radial distance of 26 feet will be simultaneously flipped to measure the field of the 4,000 ton magnet.During the year the beam line designs have been re-examined to achieve a smaller variety of lens types and a prototype quadrupole has beenreceived. Progress too has been made in the design of the meson produc­ing targets, and useful data obtained on meson yields from a joint experiment conducted at the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory, Newport News, V i rg i n i a .Overall TRIUMF is keeping close to the construction schedule and being well served by its contractors.J.B. WarrenJ.R. Richardson (since September 1)D i rectorCYCLOTRON ERECTION1971 saw the start of assembly of components of the TRIUMF cyclotron in the machine vault. The erection of the cyclotron is being handled by Cana Industrial Contractors Ltd. of Edmonton, Alberta under a $350,000 target price contract. This contract involves the installation of the magnet cores, main coils, vacuum chamber and support structure. Con­tracts for all of these items were placed in 1 9 7 0.1.1 Magnet cores and main coilsThe first of six sectors was received from Davie Shipbuilding Ltd. at the end of July. By the end of 1971 all six sectors have been received, and the lower halves of five sectors have been installed in the machine vault on supports fabricated by Canron Ltd. of Vancouver. Figure 1.1 shows the vault as it appeared at the end of December, 1971.Delivery of coil segments from National Electric Coil commenced in November and by the end of the year the lower coil was on site.1.2 Vacuum chamberThe authorization to proceed with the construction of the vacuum chamber was issued to Deas Construction Ltd. on December 22, 1970. Preassembly of the stainless-steel plates into manageable sub-assemblies, laying-out and machining of flange openings, and rough contouring of the periphery was done at the manufacturer's plant prior to shipment to the site for final assembly, which took place in the meson area of the main building. All butt welds for joining the individual plates and sub-assemblies to­gether were made by the use of a submerged arc process which resulted in excellent seams, free of porosities and inclusions, as verified by radiographic examination. By balancing the heat input, using multiple passes alternately on top and bottom of a plate, thermal distortion was kept to a minimum. Residual distortion was removed by use of a flame straightening technique.Stainless steel pipes, used as heating coils during bake-out and as cooling coils during normal operation, were attached to the outside of the chamber bottom and lid. Trim and harmonic coils were also attached- 2 -Figure 1.1 The cyclotron vault -- five lower magnet sectors in place- 3 -to these surfaces. The chamber side walls were made up from four pre­assembled sections, bent to the appropriate radii by use of the flame heating and shrinking method and submerged arc welded to the chamber bot tom.All components that could be pretested for vacuum tightness were sub­jected to helium leak tests. The vacuum chamber itself is virtually ready for leak-testing, following which it will be installed on the magnet. Figure 1.2 shows the bottom of the vacuum chamber being turned over prior to assembly of the side walls. The trim, harmonic and cool­ing coils can be seen.-  b -Figure 1.2 The bottom of the vacuum tank- 5 -2. CONSTRUCT I ON1971 was the peak year for construction at the TRIUMF main site, and saw completion of both the deep-founded substructure and the superstructure of the main building, the various annexes, the installation of the two bridge cranes, and a start on the installation of electrical and mech­anical services.Work on the main building, construction of which was delayed two and one half months during 1970 by labour problems in the construction industry, was accelerated during the early part of 1971 to meet the originally scheduled date of occupancy by the vacuum tank contractor (June 1971)• Commonwealth Construction Company Ltd. was awarded three further contracts during the year for the construction of the Medical and Chemistry Annexes, and installation of the mechanical and electrical services for the cyclotron. Work on the two Annexes is essentially com­plete and they are occupied temporarily by the TRIUMF magnet and vacuum groups.Although the installation of services is running somewhat late, critical items that affect the schedule are being expedited so as not to delay the overal 1 program.Four contracts, amounting to over $^00,000, were awarded in the fall for the construction and installation of equipment for the main 60kV sub­station. This will be located on a site to the south of the main build­ing. Power at 12.5kV is scheduled to be supplied to the building by January, 1972.Figure 2.1 is a photograph of the accelerator building, taken from the south, as it appeared in November, 1971-- 6 -Figure 2.1 The main building from the south- 7 -3. CYCLOTRON DESIGN AND ENGINEERINGIn March the contract for the main magnet power supply was awarded to Alpha Division of Systron-Donner, Oakland, California, and in May a contract was awarded to Continental Electronics Manufacturing Co. of Dallas, Texas for the development and construction of the RF amplifiers for both the central region cyclotron and for the main cyclotron. This contract is being executed partly in their own plant and partly on site, in close co-operation with TRIUMF staff.In April a contract for the copper-clad inflated aluminum rollbond panels to be used in the construction of the resonators was placed with Vereinigte Deutsche MetalIwerke, Werdohl, West Germany. This company had to overcome substantial technical problems in the manufacturing of these panels and deserves our gratitude for their co-operation and per­sistence in completing the order. In November the contract for the fabrication of the 80 resonator units and 8 flux guides went to Ebco Industries Ltd. of Richmond, B.C.A multitude of smaller contracts was distributed amongst a number of local electronics firms for the manufacturing of CAMAC compatible com­ponents for the control system. These firms include: Techcal ElectronicServices, Canadian Dynamics Ltd., Research Industries Ltd., and Glenayre Electronics Ltd. Local industry thus benefits by gaining experience with advanced electronics equipment, while TRIUMF's electronics shop force can be kept small during the construction phase.While the supervision of the various construction contracts took an increasingly larger share of the engineering staff's time, design work continued on equipment still to be contracted. This included the res­onators and associated handling equipment as well as a large number of smaller, yet essential, items such as the inflector and central region geometry, special tooling, and vault floors and shielding around the cyclotron. The detailed design of extraction probes was started on a modest scale.- 8 -Early this year a new central region geometry has been adopted, featuring injection of the 300 keV particles in the accelerating gap rather than 36 deg upstream, as in earlier designs. This design requires a dual inflector and is technically more difficult to construct. Its adoption delayed the development work on the central region cyclotron, but pro­vides a substantially increased phase acceptance of ~5 deg to +32 deg with an energy spread of AE = ±0.6 MeV at E = 500 MeV.3.1 MagnetThe Magnet Group has shifted its main effort from the design of the magnet to supervising its construction and erection, and the prepara­tion of the procedures and techniques for measuring and tailoring the magnetic field.3.1.1 Model MeasurementsThe 1:10 scale model magnet has been used as a test bed for deter­mining an efficient shimming procedure for the commissioning of the cyclotron magnet. These tests also allowed a good prediction to be made of the operating characteristics of the cyclotron, including the frequency of the RF supply ,■23.100 MHz.The designs of the trim and harmonic coils were confirmed. Scaled- down models of representative coils were attached to an aluminum plate and placed inside the model magnet gap. The magnetic field changes effected by these coils are as expected.3.1.2 Central Region CyclotronThe central region cyclotron magnet has been commissioned. The magnetic field is now tailored to the required tolerance on iso- chron i sm.3.1.3 Magnet CommissioningThe design of the magnetic measurement system is complete. It con­sists of a wound coil which flips through 180 deg in the magnetic field. The resulting signal is integrated, measured, and trans­ferred to the computer-controlled data acquisition system. The- 9 -whole system will provide the necessary precision required to tailor and commission the magnetic field.To test and calibrate these probes a calibration magnet has been built that will provide a field of 0-13 kG in a 3 in. gap, with a uniformity of 1*10 4 over a region 3 in. by 4 in. The data acquisition system for the control of the survey work has been assembled, tested, and inter­faced with the control computer.3•2 Ion Source and Injection SystemThis section reports on the central region cyclotron ion source and injection system. The engineering design resulting from this work will be the basis for the TRIUMF ion source and injection system.The Ehlers ion source produces 1.0 mA of H” beam at 300 keV at the exitof the accelerator tube. The measured emittance of the beam at an inten­sity of 0.5 mA is MME0.22 in. mrad in the horizontal plane and MMS 0.7 in. mrad in the vertical plane, as shown in Figure 3.1. At 1 mA, the horizon­tal emittance is ir*0.45 in. mrad, illustrated in Figure 3.2.Operating experience has shown that the maximum 1ife of the ion source filament is about 50 hours when 1 mA is being extracted. The relation­ships between beam emittance and time structure and the properties of the ion source power supplies are being investigated in order to generate therequired engineering data for the main cyclotron source.The optical design of the injection line was carried out using the TRANSPORT program (a zero space charge calculation) with some additional constraints on apertures, lens strengths and element spacings based on approximate analytic and computer-derived estimates of the effects of space charge. Theoretical calculations related to space charge effects on radial blowup, longitudinal debunching and velocity modulation are in progress, in order to establish design criteria for optimum high- current bunching.Beam optical and electrical design studies of pulse programming are under way. Pulse programming, which will be used in time-of-f1ight experiments, gives the possibility of accelerating only one out ofCurrent- 10 -Figure 3-1 Beam emittances 26 in. downstream of accelerator tube exitCurrent- 1 1 -X<]Figure 3-2 Horizontal beam emittance- 12 -several pulses (1 in 5 ) and permits the production of pulse bursts.The maximum amount of bunching is determined by the tolerable energy spread of ±0.2% at injection. Bunching factors of 2-3 are expected, depending on the beam intensity. The chopper, operating at 11.55 MHz will produce pulses with RF phase-width lying between 10 deg and 80 deg, again depending on the beam current.The beam line has largely been assembled and is in the process of being commissioned. The prototype buncher is installed in the beam line, and the chopper is in the final stages of bench commissioning. The beam line consists of a 6 in. diameter vacuum line, with electrostatic quad- rupoles and electrostatic cylindrical condenser bends. Each 90 deg bend is split into two ^5 deg bends with intermediate quadrupoles to make the bends nondispersive. Correcting deflector plates allow re­centring of the phase space ellipsoid should it become displaced due to m i sali gnments.Layouts of the ion source equipment in the main building have been done, to allow an immediate start on the main accelerator ion source and injection system once the design parameters have been confirmed.3-3 Beam DynamicsStudies have continued with the aim of obtaining real istic estimates of the beam quality achievable with the present cyclotron design, and im­proving it where possible. To this end the ion orbits are accurately similated numerically, using electric and magnetic fields derived from detailed models of the electrodes and magnet. In addition, the perturb­ing effects of initial beam size and energy spread, and of imperfections in the fields, have to be included.In the central region the extension of the electric field calculations to larger radii enabled calculations of realistic orbits to be made over many more turns than the six possible before, and revealed a much clearer and more pessimistic picture of the asymptotic beam properties to be expected at higher energies. The radial centring of the beam was found to be unacceptably dependent on the RF phase of the ions and there were also strongly phase dependent effects distorting the radial emittance.- 13 -These effects would have led to increased beam emittance and energy spread, or to a reduction in duty factor; however, it has been possible to eliminate most of them by suitable modifications to the dee geometry.As shown in Figure 3-3, the injection gap has been rotated so that it is now in line with the dee gap making possible near perfect centring for all phases (the geometrical restriction on the duty factor which can be accelerated around the centre post is much tighter, but acceptable).The grid posts have been removed from the first two accelerating gaps, and the electrodes redesigned there, so as to reduce the strong horizon­tal focusing effects while retaining a short transit time. For the moment, some phase dependent distortion of the radial emittance remains as a consequence of radia 1 -1ongitudina1 coupling. Briefly, the finite width and divergence of the beam result in the ions acquiring a spread in path lengths between dee gap crossings. This leads to a phase spread, thence to an energy spread, thence to a spread in equilibrium reference orbits, and finally to a further spread in betatron oscillation ampli­tude. Various methods of eliminating this effect are under study, including the possibility of introducing a suitable amount of radial defocusing by shaping the dee gap. This has the added virtue that it would be accompanied by extra vertical focusing.Outside the central region the chief dangers to good beam quality lie in the betatron oscillation resonances. One of the more serious for this cyclotron is the v r = 1 resonance, which is driven by a first harmonic imperfection (Bj in the magnetic field and results in a horizontal dis­placement of the orbits. The most sensitive region is around 60 in. radius, where the error tolerance of 0.2 G is too small to be checked by measurement of the magnetic field, but rather must be inferred from the beam behaviour. There are not sufficient sets of harmonic coils to per­mit perfect elimination of B} at all radii. However, studies have shown that it is possible to power the coils in such a way that the orbits for a wide spread of RF phases are brought back close to centre after traversal of the resonance.The vr - vz = 1 resonance, which occurs at higher energies and is driven by a first harmonic tilt in the median surface, can exchange energy between25° Orbit- 14 -Figure 3-3 A median plane cross-section at the centre of the cyclotron, showing the equipotentia 1s between the dees, and orbits computed for ions of different RF phases.- 15 -the radial and vertical betatron oscillations. A quite reasonable toler­ance on the tilt is sufficient to make the effects of this resonance negligible, provided the magnet design allows it to be crossed quickly. The other major resonance, = 1.5, turns out to require a fairly close tolerance (0.1 G/in.) on the third harmonic gradient, as illustrated in Figure 3-^, and correction coils may be needed. Such coils could also be used to drive the resonance so as to produce either a slightly narrower spot on the stripping foil for better energy resolution, or a slightly wider one for higher currents.3.** RF SystemAs a result of tests with the central region cyclotron, the reference designs for the resonators and power amplifiers were changed during the year. The new designs were tested and found satisfactory, and contracts were let for the manufacture of the following major components: RF poweramplifier and associated DC power supply, resonator flux guides, and resonator sections. The TRIUMF RF group designed and fabricated the third harmonic amplifier, and designed and tested the feedback and stabilizing circuitry.3-4.1 RF Ampli f ierA 200 kW, 23 MHz amplifier utilizing the 4CW250,000 tetrode was constructed for TRIUMF by Continental Electronics Manufacturing Co., Dallas, Texas (CEMCO) , and was installed in the Model Shop utilizing the driving and control circuitry previously developed by TRIUMF.This amplifier delivered sufficient power to drive the resonators to the design value of 100 kV, and the stability of the system under load was determined for periods of up to six hours. This unit will now remain in service as the driver amplifier for the central region cyclotron.The main amplifier now consists of eight of the 4CW250,000 tetrodes connected as push-pull pairs in a grounded-grid configuration. In order to minimize circuit noise problems they are driven from a 4CW100,000E low-noise tetrode, and are connected to the resonators through quarter-wave combiners and a resonant line impedance trans­former, as shown in Figure 3-5- A schematic representation of a- 16 -~  v - i n i t i a l  beam \  emi ttance '(425 MeV)Px (in)10••8V. ' 'e f fe c t  i ve f i nal emi ttance• • //>— )V \  :-4 . . -2 . • I■ 1 ** • • A - i :^ • si/ •• ;• •• t ;• •• /-2■■ »4.. - 8.. -102 • 3430 MeV v r = 1.492573 = °-5 G/in.x(in)VJS Unstable fixed points.Figure 3-^ Static phase space plot near the v f = 1.5 resonance. Inset (5x larger scale): stretching of the beam emittance duringpassage of the resonance for a 0.2 G/in. third harmonic gradient.1A* 1AX- 17 -Figure 3-5 Block diagram of 23 MHz amplifier- 18 -quarter-wave combiner is shown in the inset to Figure 3-5. The trans­mitter system utilizes lumped constant elements (ceramic vacuum capacitors and inductors formed from 2 in. copper pipe) to constitute the quarter-wave lines due to the 23 MHz frequency. Power is de­livered to the output terminal when the system is driven in phase by the power amplifiers, and no power flows into the 50 ohm waster load. The output from the combiners is fed by means of a non-resonant coaxial transmission line of 50 ohm impedance to a tuned line which is loop-coupled into the resonator structure. The coupling to the tuned line is made at the 50 ohm point.3 . k . 2  Phase and Amplitude Stabilizing CircuitryThese systems have been tested on the central region cyclotron. An automatic driving and phasing circuit has been developed to punch through the multipactoring region. In the tuned condition this circuit was found capable of driving 150 kV pulses of RF on the resonators for a period of 1 msec. In the CW mode of operation the feedback circuitry was capable of reducing the circuit noise fluctuations by 50 db, and gave a voltage stability which was de­termined by the stability of the RF level reference supply voltage. This indicates that the design goal of RF voltage level stability (2 parts in 105) is attainable in the RF accelerating structure.3.^.3 Resonator DesignThe structural stability of the resonator hot arms was insufficient for stable operation. Fluctuations in pressure and temperature in­duced warpage and the resultant mistuning was beyond the capability of the servo feedback system. A floating skin design was investi­gated and, following satisfactory tests on a prototype, has been adopted.The silver-clad aluminum rollbond panel material originally specified for the resonators is no longer available. A copper-clad aluminum rollbond material has been substituted, and the water cooling chan­nels have been relocated in the middle of the metal sandwich to reduce pressure-induced distortions. The flux guides use double- 19 -copper-surfaced aluminum roll bond material, and they have been suc­cessfully tested in the central region cyclotron.The resonator mounting procedure has been refined and now uses "plug-in" sections, incorporating phosphor-bronze contacts and uniblock water and air connections to simplify remote handling. Earlier provision for a three percent variation in the resonator frequency was dropped as mechanical design problems became too complicated, jeopardizing reliable operation. The redesigned resonators are now in process of manufacture.3•5 Vacuum SystemThe central region cyclotron has provided an opportunity to prove the design of the pumping system to be used on the main machine. The main seal has been tested for a period of one year and has shown no defects.A liquid nitrogen tank has been installed adjacent to the model shop and a transfer line is now being tested. The performance of the system has been improved by adding two more 10 in. diffusion pumps. With reson­ators that have been cleaned u 1 trasonica1 1 y the system can be evacuated to 10  ^ Torr in one hour. The tank can be evacuated to 7 x 10”  ^ Torr in 12 hours, and this pressure can be maintained with 100 kV on the reson­ators .The pumping system for the main tank is currently being assembled and consists of a roughing system for initial evacuation, a cryogenic pump­ing system operating at 20°K, and an as yet unspecified auxiliary pumping system to evacuate hydrogen and helium which will not condense on the 20°K panels. The roughing system consists of two 2000 cu ft min 1 Rootes type blowers in series with a 1000 cu ft min - 1  Rootes type blower. This blower system is evacuated by four mechanical pumps each having a speed of 260 cu ft min *. Two B-20 cryogenerators, each cap­able of producing 320 W of refrigeration at 20°K, have been purchased from Philips for the cryogenic system. The first unit was delivered in July and performed according to specifications. The second unit was delivered to the University of Victoria in November, where it will be used for development work on hydrogen targets until required for the cyclotron. A 20 ft section of transfer line and a 6 ft cryopanel section- 20 -have been tested in a small untreated aluminum tank. A pressure of 8 x 10~ 8 Torr was attained in four hours.3• 6 Controls and InstrumentationEfforts are concentrating on the realisation of a manual control system for use during commissioning of the cyclotron and the initial operating phase. Interfacing of cyclotron components to CAMAC controls is under­way. Six Supernova computers are now on site. One is used for program development and another for controls development. Central region cyclo­tron control applications and cyclotron installation are each supported by a computer. Beam transport development and quality acceptance programs are supported by the remaining computers. As installation proceeds, com­puters used for development will be reassigned to cyclotron control tasks.Over 90 percent of the control tasks are handled by two types of control module, a digita1 -to~ana1ogue converter module and a digital status reader and relay driver. About 400 devices use these modules, accepting and delivering TRIUMF standardized signals, for their control. Prototype modules were subjected to reliability tests. The principal failure mech­anisms resulted from inadequate component specification. Consequently, production runs of the modules incorporate "quality assured" components, resulting in a 20x calculated reliability improvement factor.A commissioning console has been specified and designed, and is now being manufactured. The more important cyclotron operating parameters will be shown on dedicated numerical displays, while power supplies will be set via shaft encoders. Cathode ray tube presentation of digital cyclotron data will be used only for auxiliary information.3•7 Thermal Neutron FacilityThe conceptual design of the thermal neutron facility, outlined in last year's Annual Report, has been fully described in a TRIUMF report (TR1-71-3)- The only significant addition to the previous proposal is that of an alternate primary proton target. A natural uranium metal target in the form of aluminum clad discs, 0 . 5 cm thick, stacked along the beam axis and having interstitial water-cooling channels would have a mean density approximately equal to that of the lead-bismuth eutectic.- 21 -The advantage of such a target would be an increase in neutron source strength by a factor of b and an increase in thermal neutron flux level at points in the moderator removed from the targets by a factor of about 2.5, compared to those from the lead-bismuth target. The price of this improved neutron source strength is an increase in heat production in the target by a factor of 6 and a more stringent requirement on the lateral distribution of the proton beam at the target. The total resid­ual activity in the target also increases by a factor probably somewhat larger than the increase in the neutron source strength. The assessment of ultimate safety differences between the two targets depends on the distribution of residual species. Studies of this are in progress.There is no criticality safety problem with the natural uranium target (around 50 kg) and the proposed moderator system. The design is such that the main target assembly can be replaced anytime during the life of the facility with one containing a different target material.3 .8 Beam Lines and Targets3.8.1 Beam Line I and Meson AreaThe latest layout of the beam line elements is shown schematically in Figure 3.6. The following meson channels are in the conceptual design state: at target location T 1 , a low to medium energy pionchannel with moderate resolution; at target location T3, a stopped pion and muon meson channel and a medical pion channel.Modifications to the previous system have been made reflecting some changes in requirements and data available. These include newly calculated characteristics of beams expected from the stripping foils, changes in location of pion production targets to provide more room and flexibility for the secondary channels, and a desire to use only b in. aperture quadrupoles on the first part of the system.Four inch quadrupoles with 16 in. effective lengths have been speci­fied for most locations except where strong focusing requirements would result in poletip fields in excess of 7-5 kG. For these locations a 21 in. effective length quadrupole has been specified. The prototype for the latter has been acquired for testing.2 2 -U i2 h -3XZ e ? Q .< 3 <c c 3 X3 (/> Ootro>-oZJO>-05Eru0CDvDr^y0L-=3cn- 23 ~Tolerances for elements in this critical part of the line up to T1 have been calculated. It is concluded that a current stability of 5 * 10“ 5 is required for the combination magnet, of l*1 0-l+ for the 1 9 - 8 deg bending magnet, and of 1 -1 0 - 3 for each of the eight quad­ruples in this part of the beam transport system. The design of the transport system for the remaining distance to the thermal neutron facility is in progress.3.8.2 Meson Production TargetsWork on the meson production targets has now entered the detailed design stage; a target system is shown schematically in Figure 3.7- Techniques for fabricating the thin (0.005 in. - 0.010 in.) walled stainless steel target cassettes are being investigated to arrive at a satisfactory all-welded structure. High speed photographs of the flow of cooling water through transparent (acrylic) cassettes have been used to optimize the coolant flow pattern.Targets in the first system (T1) are specified as water and beryl­lium approximately b g cm” 2 thick and in the second system (T3) as_ r\beryllium, copper and carbon with approximate thickness 20 g cm . In both systems no target, a very thin test target, and possibly a small proton beam profile monitor will be available in addition to the specified targets.Metal foil windows capable of transmitting the proton beam will be required to isolate the target chambers from the beam line vacuum. Tests indicate that windows of 0.001 in. molybdenum should be sui table.3.8.3 Meson ChannelsIt has been decided that the medium energy pion channel located at target position T1 should be of the quad-before-septum design rather than the zero-degree or the simple septum designs. The pions are separated from the proton beam by using the differential deflection produced in a skew quadrupole followed by a septum mag­net combination (Figure 3-8). The rest of the channel consists of two quad-quad-dipole magnet sections in series. The system has a- 2k -Figure 3-7 Schematic diagram of target T1- 25 -PRODUCTIONTARGETMIDPLANEPROTON BEAMEXPERIMENTAL ' , TARGET ACHROMATIC I BEAMFigure 3.8 Medium energy pion channel- 26 -dispersed image at the midplane between the two sections for momentum analysis, and a double achromatic focus-at the end at the location of the scattering target. Up to three experiments can be set up on the channel by using the last dipole magnet as a switch­ing magnet.The stopped pion-muon channel design is shown in Figure 3-9- The addition of a third dipole magnet and quadrupoles will permit momentum analysis of the beam and give higher purity muon beams at the end of the channel.A satisfactory first-order design of a beam transport system for the pion channel to the Radiobiologica1-Radiotherapy Annex has been developed (Figure 3-10). Second-order calculations show that the momentum focal plane is tilted at an angle of 6 3 . 2 deg and the expected momentum resolution is 0.5%. Other second-order effects which may cause serious problems with the beam uniformity are being studied.- 27 -CO( TLULU<a :<CLLU<Xo>a>200IIUJ< o<ucoa<utooa>tof= t=oOCOCOCMEoCOO 00O t=CO CO N ' 1' 00< 2COa>a>k_CD 00 sz o • . Xxof-<XI-zEo>\iCDZXXoXXXME o t= o <2O_lX>0)f-OH-CO COoOCh-E 2 CO < 1— <XCD o oro H 3 .<XXHCO3Oa.oh-<oXXo<<Dcc(TJJZOo cUJX OZ 1< 1CI— oUJX CLX ~ o<1)Z CLCLo O4-»H CO<MX< cu_ lOL_cnX 1C<30° UPWARDS- 28 -- 29 -k. SAFETY, SHIELDING AND ACTIVATION4. 1 SafetyA full-time Safety Officer was appointed in July. The TRIUMF Safety Advisory Committee met monthly during the year. Supporting documents were prepared for each meeting of the Committee, a complete listing of these documents is available on request.The ion source for the central region cyclotron has been operational throughout the year, and individuals working regularly in the labora­tory have been placed on the film badge service. Two portable y-ray monitors and one fixed area monitor, and a portable neutron monitor, have been purchased. The fixed area monitor is to be interlocked to trip the high voltage power supply of the ion source, and audible and visual alarms are also being installed. Several other safety features have been installed in the laboratory, such as ultrasonic detectors to check for arcing in the high voltage transformers, hydrogen gas moni­tors, and safety interlocks.The radiation monitoring facilities for the accelerator building are being planned in detail. Valuable assistance was given by Allen Jones of Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, who visited TRIUMF early in the year. Serious consideration is also being given to the philosophy and design of the safety interlock system.The layout of a security fence has been decided upon. It will enclose the accelerator building, the cooling towers, and the laboratory and workshop building. The office building and parking lot will be outside the fence. There will be control stations in the office building lobby, staffed by a receptionist/switchboard operator, and at the main gate, controlled by a receiver/storekeeper. The gate could be monitored by a TV camera and remotely operated from the control room after regular office hours.A fire alarm system is installed in the accelerator building, and con­sists of ionization-type detectors, thermal detectors, air duct detectors, and manual alarm stations. If an alarm is activated, all bells in the facility ring for a predetermined time and an alarm rings- 30 -in the Fire Hall. The annunciator panels located in the main office building and in the service annex are activated, and indicate the zone from which the alarm was sent.Noxious gases (O3 and NO2 ) and radioactive gases and liquids will be produced at TRIUMF, and all effluents will be carefully controlled and monitored. Activity produced in the air will be retained as long as possible to achieve the maximum decay of activity. The air exhaust from the cyclotron vault will pass through filters and continuously- operated activity monitors. The capacity of the system will allow one air change per hour and thus the vault can be flushed before entry if necessary. All of the permanent cooling systems are closed circuit, and operate through intermediate heat exchangers to an air-dump heat exchanger. Accidentally-spilled effluents will be contained in sumps, and the manner of their disposal will be decided after the activity has been determined. Calculations show that the groundwater activity will be well below drinking water tolerances for the general public. The groundwater will be sampled periodically, and the activity levels and species identified.Hell's Gate Tunnel is being considered as a location for a radioactive storage facility for the Province of British Columbia. This tunnel is located 140 miles from Vancouver, and would not be used as a disposal area, but rather as a storage area for low-level wastes. Arrangements for the disposal of high 1y-radioactive wastes will be made through Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.4.2 Shielding and Activation4.2.1 Computer CodesTo improve the accuracy and reliability of radiation transport and activity production estimates at TRIUMF, some effort has been put into acquiring computer codes from other establishments and sup­plementing these with locally written subroutines. The most important such code is NMTC, the Monte-Carlo nucleon-meson transport code from Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has been run on the Simon Fraser University computer, and is useful for activity- 31 ~production and shallow penetration radiation transport estimates for high energy nucleons. Deep penetration estimates are not possible because of the usual statistical accuracy problem with the Monte-Carlo technique. To supplement the activity production estimates by NMTC, Rudstam's (G. Rudstam, Systematics of Spalla­tion Yields, Z. Naturforsch. , 21a (1966) 7-) empirical relation has been coded and can be used in conjunction with or separate from NMTC. Several analysis subroutines for processing the NMTC generated results have been written. Work is continuing on codes for estimating neutron transport and activity production at ener­gies below 'v 15 MeV.4.2.2 Shielding Configuration and OptimizationThe proton and meson experimental areas of TRIUMF are essentially large, open rooms. The primary and secondary beam lines and tar­gets will be shielded by local, demountable blocks to allow maximum flexibility in experimental configurations. The basic shielding block module has been chosen to be 2 ft by 3 ft by 6 ft; all other, larger, shielding blocks will be sized in multiples of these dimensions. The bulk of the primary beam line tunnel shield­ing will be in the form of large blocks -- up to 50 tons -- to reduce fabrication and handling costs.An economic optimization study of the basic shielding for TRIUMF was undertaken primarily to establish the requirements for com­ponents with long lead times. Three basic shielding materials -- concrete, heavy concrete and iron -- can be used to economic advantage for the demountable shielding around targets. The expected specific cost (per unit weight) ratios for these materials are 0.8:1.0:6.0. These ratios are applicable, as an example, for fabricated concrete at $80 yd”3 , heavy concrete at $ 160 yd - 3  and iron at 15i lb-1. The optimization of direct shielding costs only, with no consideration of floor area or secondary beam line length, for a localized 5 kW beam spill region in a geometry approximating that of the meson production targets indicates shield component volumes of 710 yd3 , 320 yd3 and 9 -6 yd3 for concrete, heavy con­crete and iron respectively. The optimum is fairly broad. For- 32 -example, a 35 percent change in the heavy concrete volume imposes only a 5 percent cost penalty.For radiation sources approximating a uniform line distribution, as has been assumed for the primary proton beam lines, the economic optimization indicates no iron and only the marginal use of heavy concrete. If the price ratio per unit volume between heavy concrete and normal concrete decreases from 2 . 0  to 1 .6 , however, the cost difference between normal and heavy concrete disappears.- 33 -5. CENTRAL REGION CYCLOTRON MODELThe model proved its usefulness during 1971 in the full scale testing of some prototype cyclotron components, in the development of measuring techniques, and in increasing personnel expertise. However, the radio­frequency resonator testing program required considerably more time and effort than originally envisaged and this has led to a delay of several months in the rest of the program.The 80-ton magnet was delivered and installed, together with its excita­tion coils. Following the field survey, trim and harmonic coils were installed on the vacuum tank lid and bottom.Eight modified resonator sections and flux guides, making up the two dees of the central region cyclotron, were installed in the vacuum tank during July. Considerable effort was made to improve the cleanliness of this operation by ultrasonic cleaning of the panels before assembly.A pressure of 3 x 10- 7  Torr was achieved with oil diffusion pumps and 80°K cryopumping. A stable 110 kV on the two resonator dees was ob­tained during August. With the basic resonator design confirmed, work then switched to the resonator tuning mechanisms.Two resonator sections were modified to accept redesigned root pieces capable of adjustment for a 3% frequency shift. It became apparent that the mechanical complexities of these devices could lead to un­reliability and at a subsequent meeting the 3% frequency variability was abandoned. A satisfactory design for the fine tuning mechanism at the root was found, and considerable improvement was made in the con­trol and stabilizing circuitry of the RF amplifier.Bringing the injection gap into line with the dee gap (as described in Section 3-3) necessitated changing the axial injection system. The beam is now injected along the magnet axis to a spiral inflector with slanted electrodes, which bends the beam into the median plane. This is followed by a horizontal deflector which provides proper centring at the injection gap. The computer program, used to control the numerically-controlled milling machine which generates the inflector electrode surfaces, was modified to produce this more complicated electrode shape, and both- 34 -upper and lower electrodes have been milled. A photograph of the inflec tor is shown in Figure 5.1.Considerable design effort has been required to modify the resonators for the centre electrodes. The RF characteristics were checked using a half-scale copper-clad wooden model. A latching mechanism which clamps the upper and lower hot arms along the centre region electrodes, in order to provide a mechanically stable centre region, was designed and tested.- 35 -Figure 5.1 Inflector electrodes- 36 -6 . PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULING6 .1 Project ManagementTRIUMF's Project Management Office is staffed by engineers on detached assignment from two consulting engineering firms: Shawinigan Engineer­ing Co. Ltd. and Montreal Engineering Co. Ltd. These engineers are responsible for overall project planning and supervision, contract man­agement, accounting, purchasing, inspection, expediting and scheduling. 1971 has been a busy year for the group, involving supervision of the major building and accelerator component contracts awarded during the previous year.6.2 Scheduling1971 has seen major progress of the work. The main building was com­pleted in time for the cyclotron erection crews to move in on schedule, and installation of services and finishes is well under way. Construc­tion of the vacuum chamber has proceeded within a very tight schedule, but was held up by delays in installing trim and harmonic coils. It is anticipated that this lost time will be made up.The substation will be commissioned in January 1972 and it is still expected that the major milestone -- the start of magnetic field measure­ments —  will be passed on schedule at the beginning of July, 1972. The target date for delivery of an external beam remains November, 1973- Figures 6.1 and 6.2 show condensed schedules to completion of the project.6 . 3 ManpowerFigure 6 . 3 charts the design manpower allocated to the project at the four universities and at the various consulting firms.- 37 -Figure 6.1 Condensed schedule (cyclotron)- 38 -Figure 6.2 Condensed schedule (building and beam transport)- 39 -Figure 6.3 TRIUMF manpower-  hO  -7. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMProspective users of TRIUMF are required to submit their experimental proposals to the Experiments Evaluation Committee (EEC), which meets about three times a year. Experiments approved by the EEC are then considered by the Operating Committee which makes the final decisions on financial matters, conflicts concerning major items of equipment, and priorities. As far as possible the Operating Committee tries to work within the recommendations of the EEC.It will be TRIUMF policy to make its facilities available to guest workers; this may take the form either of a co-operative experiment performed by a group composed of TRIUMF and non-TRIUMF members, orof submission of a proposal by a non-TRIUMF group.During the year the Experiments Evaluation Committee met twice. An organizational meeting was held on May 22, 1971 at the time of the TRIUMF Annual Meeting, and a meeting at which proposals were considered was held on September 17“ 18 , 1971- At the latter meeting 29 proposals were submitted to the Committee.After reviewing the proposals submitted, the EEC made a number of recom­mendations relating to the experimental facilities to be installed in time for initial experiments. These recommendations are presently being studied by the Operating Committee.A draft User's Handbook was circulated early in the year, and a revisedversion was available for distribution in December.-  1,1 -8 . REPORTS FROM USERS GROUPS8 .1 Meson Users GroupThe basic ideas for the meson beams have not changed very much since last year's report, although there has been considerable detailed im­provement of the designs for the various channels. The efforts of the meson users are now being directed more and more to specific experiments, and the work on the channels is progressing to the stage of the design­ing of bending magnets and quadrupoles. This work is described in Section 3-8.The beam line which has first priority and which will be available in November 1973 is the stopped pion-muon channel derived from the second target (T3) in the meson area. The beam line with second, but high, priority is the high energy pion channel which takes forward-going pions from the first target (Tl). It is expected to have this channel ready within the first few months of operation. The low-energy high- resolution channel takes backward-going pions off the first target, and will not be set up until 1 9 7 5 .8.2 Radiochemistry Users GroupSeveral potential users have recently joined the Group in expectation of using the facility for proton and neutron activations for both re­search and analysis. Two reports are expected soon; one outlining the anticipated sensitivity levels for neutron activation analysis of trace elements, the other indicating the activity level of various rare and short-lived isotopes that may be produced by neutron and proton activa­tion. There is interest in the biological sciences in short-lived isotopes of oxygen and nitrogen for tracer studies.At the thermal facility several thermal and cascade neutron irradiation ports will be available. Ahead of the neutron target gross proton irradiations may be performed, whilst in the proton area an irradiation site can be used for irradiations requiring a clean, well-define, vari­able energy proton beam. Both areas will be connected by rapid "rabbit" lines to the Radiochemistry Annex for analysis, chemical separations and tracer studies. Space will also be available in this building for- 42 -research in radiation damage effects, hot atom and recoil studies, development of new short-lived Mossbauer sources, and nuclear chemistry.A joint application by the Users Group as a whole will be submitted for funds to equip an advanced automatic neutron activation analysis labora­tory and isotope production facilities.8.3 Slow Neutron Users GroupThe main business in this past year has been to receive some sort of guarantee from the TRIUMF Operating Committee that an 'interesting' mini­mum proton beam would be delivered into the Thermal Neutron Facility.The Group requested a minimum beam current of 50 yA, and the Operating Committee stated that it was TRIUMF's intention to deliver at least this under normal operating conditions.Dr. D.W. Hone of Royal Roads Military College resigned as Chairman. The new Chairman is Dr. A.S. Arrott of Simon Fraser University.8 .4 Proton Users GroupThe membership of the Proton Users Group has grown to 6 5; this includes 12 scientists from outside the four founding universities.A number of experiments have been submitted by users to exploit the first low intensity extracted beams. The experiments proposed for the initial phase of operation can be divided into two groups; experiments requiring intensities up to 10 yA, and experiments limited to around 100 nA. The users recommended development of two lines into the Proton Area, as shown in Figure 8.1. One line will supply beams of up to 10 yA to a thin target scattering chamber, a liquid deuterium target for producing polar­ized and unpolarized neutron beams, and to a radiochemical irradiation facility upstream from the beam dump. The other line will be directed diagonally across the Proton Area to provide good quality beams of up to 100 nA for scattering and reaction experiments using a proton spectro­meter or particle detection systems.The availability of good quality proton beams, both as regards energy spread and emittance, from the TRIUMF cyclotron has led to the formation of a working group to produce design specifications for a high resolution- 43 -o<<oQl±J2soCDFigure 8.1 Initial experimental area layout- 44 -proton spectrometer which would satisfy the requirements of a number of users. The preliminary specifications drawn up include a momentum reso­lution of ±0.01% or better for 500 MeV protons, solid angle acceptance of greater than 3 msr, and a momentum acceptance of ±5%.Design of a 60-inch scattering chamber to be used with proton beams of up to 10 yA has been completed, and fabrication has started.A working group of users interested in nucleon-nucleon experiments has developed specifications for production of unpolarized and polarized neutron beams. With the availability of polarized proton beams directly from the cyclotron, a request was made that a polarized proton target should be available as soon as possible to enable a complete study of triple scattering and spin correlation parameters to be carried out over the energy range 150 to 500 MeV.8.5 Rad job ioloqy and Radiotherapy Users GroupThis group held a full day meeting at the British Columbia Cancer Institute on Thursday, May 20, preceding the Annual Meeting of TRIUMF. Local members of the group reported on the plans for the Radiobiology- Radiotherapy Annex of the TRIUMF Laboratory, on the design of the beam transport system to deliver pi-mesons to the annex and on the progress in construction. Dr. M.R. Raju, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Univer­sity of California, Berkeley, reviewed experimental work on dosimetry and radiobiology of negative pi-mesons carried out with pions from the l84~inch cyclotron at Berkeley. Dr. G.F. Whitmore of the Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, discussed the radiobiological investigations which he thought would be required before use of negative pions for radio­therapy would be feasible.The substructure and superstructure of the Radiobiology-Radiotherapy Annex are now completed. The elevator is being installed and work on the first stage of mechanical and electrical services is in progress.The partitioning of the laboratories within the annex and distribution of services to these laboratories is being deferred until plans for the use of the laboratories have been developed in more detail.- 45 -9. ORGANIZATION AND COMMITTEES9.1 Board of ManagementDuring the year Dean B.L. Funt of Simon Fraser University resigned from the Board and his place was taken by the incoming Dean of Science,Dr. S. Aronoff.The Board now comprises: University of Alberta:Simon Fraser University:University of Victoria:University of British Columbia:Dean Kenneth B. Newbound Dr. J.T. Sample President Max WymanMr. Jack Diamond Dean S. Aronoff Mr. Cyrus H. McLeanDean J.L. Climenhaga Dr. H.W. Dosso Mr. J.T. Ky1eProf. W.M. Armstrong (Chairman)Mr. R.M. BibbsDr. G.M. Volkoff (Secretary)9.2 Operating CommitteeDr. J.R. Richardson assumed the Chairmanship of the Committee on being appointed Director, as of September 1, 1971- Dr. E.W. Vogt, the member for the University of British Columbia, went on sabbatical leave to Oxford and his place was taken by Dr. K.L. Erdman. Dr. J.B. Warren is acting as alternate member for the University of British Columbia.Dr. R.M. Pearce of the University of Victoria returned from sabbatical leave, which he spent with the Darmstadt group at CERN, and resumed his place on the Committee. Dr. L.P. Robertson is again acting as alternate member for the University of Victoria.The Committee (alternate members in parentheses) is now composed of:Dr. J.R. Richardson Dr. G.C. Neilson Dr. B.D. Pate Dr. R.M. Pearce Dr. K.L. Erdman Mr. J.J. BurgerjonCha i rmanUniversity of Alberta Simon Fraser University University of Victoria Un ivers i ty of B.C.Chief Engineer(Dr. W.K. Dawson)(Dr. R .K. Korteling) (Dr. L.P. Robertson) (Dr. J.B. Warren)Mr. N. Brearley acts as Secretary to the Committee.- 46 -9-3Dr.Mr.Building CommitteeJ.B. Warren J . B. El 1iott Dr. R.G. Korteling Dr. G.A. Beer Dr. E.G. Au1d Dr. H.F. Batho Mr. J.J. Burgerjon(Alternate members i nCha i rmanUniversity of Alberta Simon Fraser University University of Victoria Un i vers i ty of B.C.B.C. Cancer Institute TRIUMF Engineeringparentheses)(Mr. E .B . Ca i rns) (Dr. J.M. D'Auria) (Dr. D.E. Lobb)(Dr. D.A. Axen)(Dr. R.O. Kornelsen) (Mr. T.A. Creaney)9.4Dr.Dr.Dr.Dr.Mr.Mr.Dr.Mr.Mr.Safety Advisory Committee B.D. Pate (Chairman). F . .H.R.R.H.E.W. RachukBatho Smi thJohnson Rank i nR.T. MorrisonT.A. CreaneyG.D. Wait (Secretary)Simon Fraser University B.C. Cancer Institute B.C. Dept, of Health Services and Hospital Insurance Un i vers i ty of B.C.Royal Roads Military College Radiation Protection and Pollution Control Officer, University of B.C.Vancouver General HospitalTRIUMFTRIUMFDr. J.D. Abbatt, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, attends meetings of the Committee as an observer.9.5 Experimental Instrumentation CommitteeDr. W.K. Dawson (Chairman)Dr. D.A. AxenDr. G.A. MossDr. G.R. MasonDr. G. JonesDr. J.M. D'AuriaUniversity of Alberta Un i vers i ty of B.C.University of Alberta University of Victoria University of British Columbia Simon Fraser University9.6 Experiments Evaluation CommitteeAs a result of changes in Users Group Chairmanships, Dr. Dr. D.F. Measday replaced Dr. D.W. Hone and Dr. G. Jones The Committee now comprises:A.S. Arrott and respect ively.Dr. J.T. Sample (Chairman)Dr. J.M.W. GibsonDr. A.S. ArrottDr. E.M. HenleyDr. D.F. MeasdayDr. R.G. KortelingDr. A.E. LitherlandDr. L.P. RobertsonDr. J.E. RothbergDr. D.C. WalkerMr. N. Brearley (Secretary)University of AlbertaB.C. Cancer Institute Simon Fraser University University of Washington University of B.C.Simon Fraser University University of Toronto University of Victoria University of Washington Un i vers i ty of B.C.TRIUMF- 47 -10. CONFERENCESSchweizerischen Physika1ischen Gesel1schaft, Lausanne,Swi tzer1 and.1971 Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, Illinois. Papers presented are listed in Section II.(Published in IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.)Canadian Association of Physicists, Ottawa, Ontario.2nd International Conference on Polarized Targets, Berkeley, California.4th International Conference on High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure, Dubna, USSR.4th International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland.Symposium on Ion Sources and Formation of Ion Beams, Upton, New York.8th International Conference on High Energy Accelerators, Geneva, Switzerland.Muon Physics Conference, Fort Collins, Colorado.R.M. Pearce and N. Al-Qazzazz. "The TRIUMF stopped muon faci1 i ties".FebruaryMarchJuneAugustSeptemberSeptemberSeptemberSeptemberSeptember-  k 8  -11. REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONSTRI -71 -1 R-J. Louis. "The properties of ion orbits in the central regionof a cyclotron".TRI-71-2 P. Kitching. "REVMOC, a Monte Carlo program for calculating charged particle transmission through spectrometers and beam 1 i nes".TRI-71-3 I.M . Thorson and A.S. Arrott. "Conceptual design of the TRIUMF thermal neutron facility".TR|-71"4 C.S. Han. "Analysis of cyclotron-type electric lenses and effects of posts".T R I - 7 I - 5  Not issued.TRI“71“6 W.G. Simon. "Particle fluxes from targets bombarded with500 MeV protons".TRI-71-7 W.G. Simon. "Particle fluxes from a deuterium target bombardedby 500 MeV protons".J.L. Bolduc and G.H. Mackenzie. "Some orbit calculations for TRIUMF". IEEE Trans. Nucl . Sci. NS18, 287~291 (1970-R.H.M. Gummer. "Accurate determination of the RF waveform at TRIUMF". Ibid. , 371-2.R.J. Louis, G. Dutto and M.K. Craddock. "Central region orbit dynamics in the TRIUMF cyclotron". Ibid., 282-6.J.B. Warren. "TRIUMF, March 1971". Ibid. , 272-6.-  k s  -12. STAFF UBCTRIUMFPayrol1 FromFacu1ty J.B. Warren Professor Di rector 100D.L. Livesey Professor (Field Measurements) 0B.L. White Professor (ion Source) 0E.W. Vogt Professor on leave, 71/72 0K.L. Erdman Professor (RF) 0M.K. Craddock Assoc. Professor (Beam Dynamics) 0E.G. Auld Assoc. Professor (Magnet) 0R.R. Johnson Asst. Professor (Cont rol) 100 JulD.A. Axen Asst. Professor (Vacuum) 0§I§duate_StudentsR.J. Louis L. Friesen A. Prochazka L.W. Root J.L. Bolduc K. Brackhaus P. Robinson R. Gibb J.A. Spuller(Beam Dynamics) (Magnet)(RF)(Beam Dynamics) (Beam Dynamics)(RF)(Magnet)(Magnet)(Experimental Dev.)100100100100100100100100100 OctG.A. Duesdieker (Beam Dynamics) 100 NovTRJUMF (Vancouver)J.R. Richardson Director 100 SepJ.J. Burgerjon G.H. MackenzieChief Engineer Research Assoc. (Beam Dynamics)100100R.H.M. Gummer Research Assoc. (RF) 100A.J. Otter Research Engr. (Magnet) 100D. Sloan Research Assoc. (Cont rol) 100M. Zach Research Engr. (CRM) 100R. Poirier Research Engr. (RF) 100N. Brearley Documentation & Public Relations 100E.W. Blackmore Research Assoc. (CRM) 100J.W. Carey O.K. FredrikssonPlant Engineer i Cyclotron Engineer100100D.R. Heywood Research Engr. (Control) 100G. Dutto PDF (Beam Dynamics) 100V. Rodel Research Engr. (ISIS) 100 FebW. Joho PDF (Beam Dynamics) 100 AprC . Kos t Computer Analyst (Beam Dynamics) 100 AugJ . V . Cresswel1 Research Engr. (Control) 100 AugP. Bosman Research Engr. (ISIS) 100 SepD. Healey PDF (Vacuum) 100 SepF. Choutka Structural S Architectural Designer 100 DecUnti 1 Aug 31Feb 28 Apr 30Aug 31 Apr 30Jul 31- 50 -*TRIUMF From Until Payrol1I5iyyf_iy§!]£2y^Sr2 cnt'dJ.C. Yandon Research Asst. (Vacuum) 100N . Reh1i nger Research Asst. (Magnet) 100K. Poon Research Asst. (Magnet) 100J. Fawley Research Asst. (RF) 100B. Ozzard Research Asst. (Control) 100M. Hone Research Asst. (ion Source) 100R. Wise Research Asst. (Vacuum) 100E. Page Research Asst. (ion Source) 100W.J. Lester Research Asst. (ion Source) 100H.H. Simmonds Research Asst. (RF) 100A. Clark Research Asst. (Control) 100M. Dubs Research Asst. (Probes) 100 Aug 1D. Evans Research Asst. (Magnet) 100 Aug 1G . Wa1s h Research Asst. (Vacuum) 100 Aug 1K. Lukas Research Asst. (CRM) 100 Aug 26Patricia Sparkes Research Asst. (Control) 100 Sep 1T. Mi tchel1 Research Asst. (Magnet) 100 Sep 1G . Roy Research Asst. (ISIS) 100 Sep 1B. Evans Research Asst. (CRM) 100 temporaryL. Voboril Research Asst. (CRM) 100 Sep 7B.T. Trevitt Research Asst. (ISIS) 100 Sep 27Frances Humphrey Research Asst. (Control) 100 temporaryP.C. Taylor Research Asst. (1S 1 S/Probes) 100 Oct 18N. England Research Asst. (ISIS) 100 temporaryK.R. Arbuthnot Research Asst. (ISIS) 100 Dec 1 5P. van Rook Research Asst. (Chief Draftsman) 100L.A. Udy Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100H. Hansen Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100A.T. Bowyer Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100J . Ha 11ow Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100R. We i s Research Asst. (Draftsman) 100 temporaryA.M. Teteris Research Asst. (Controls Design) 100 temporaryD.C. Smith Research Asst. (Workshop Supv.) 100K. Dusbaba Research Asst. (Machi ni st) 100S. Olsen Research Asst. (Mach i n i st) 100W. Bryson Research Asst. (Woodworker) 100W. Frey Research Asst. (Mach i n i st) 100M. Larnder Research Asst. (Mach i n i st) 100 MaR.C. Stevens Research Asst. (Mach i n i st) 100 Jun 16Colleen Meade Programmer (Comput i ng) 100D. Marquardt Programmer . (Control) 100W. Fung Asst. Programmer (Control) 100 Jul 11 . Da S i 1 va Rece iver/Storekeepe r 100 Jan b JuR.G. Benda 11 Clerk of Works 100 Mar 1G.J. Ratzberg Electrician 100 Jul 12W.J. Pennington Crane Operator 100 Jul 19A. Kay Rece iver/Storekeepe r 100 May 31A. Richards Asst. Receiver/Storekeeper 100 temporaryP.B. McLintock Asst. Clerk of Works 100 temporary■ 51 "IMy^F.lVancouyer], cnt'dAda Strathdee Lynne Bass Nancy Palmer Else Groves Barbara Bailey Marge Williams Sa11y Seddon Carolyn Willi amsT.A. Creaney A.D.G. Robinson J . Ki1patri ck D.A. Calder R.H.S. BarkerSecretaryBookkeeperSecretarySecretarySecretarySecretarySecretaryReception!stProject Manager Contracts Manager Scheduling Engr. Civil Eng i neer Civil Eng i neer(SECO)(MECO)(SECO)(SECO)(SECO)%TRIUMF Payrol1100100100100100100100100FromSep 1 May 1 ( Dec 1!Jun 1U VICFacultyR.M. Pearce L.P. Robertson G.R. Mason D.E. Lobb G.A. BeerProfessor Professor Assoc. Professor Asst. Professor Asst. ProfessorJik VL _£2j^€2’€(Extract ion) 11(Secondary Beams) 0 (Beam Transport) 0(Experimental Area) 0D.W. Hone9L§yy§£e_StudentsN. Al-Qazzaz P.W. James R.W. Harrison S.T. Lim R. FyvieIBiyMLlYiytoMa).T.A. Hodges P.A. ReeveC. Glavina T.R. King W. Sperry T.R. WittenD.W. Hunt J. Nelson P.G. Verstaaten R.R. Langstaff T.R. GathrightD.A. BealeAssoc. Professor (Beam Dumps)Research Assoc. Research Assoc.PDFPDFPDFPDFP rog ramme r-Ana1ys t Techni cian Techn i c i an Des i gner/Draftsman Techn i c i an Techn ician(Secondary Beams) 23 (Beam Diagnostics) 0 (Beam Transport) 98 (Secondary Beams) 0 (Beam Transport) 0 May 31(Targets) 100(Beam Optics) 100(Beam Diagnostics)100 (Beam Monitors) 100 Oct 2£(Secondary Beams) 100 (Secondary Beams) 80 100 100 1001 00 Nov 1100 Oct 5100 Sep 27Unt i 1Aug 31 Apr 30Apr 30Aug 31Aug 31 Aug 31- 52 -%TRIUMPayro(yi££or|al cnt 1 dJulia Hunt Secretary 100JoAnne Sperry Secretary 100Lynda Willi ams Programmer 100SFUFacultyB.D. Pate Professor (Chem.Exp.Fac.) 0A.S. Arrott Professor (Neutron Target) 0C.H.W. Jones Assoc. Professor (Chem.Exp.Fac.) 0R.G. Korteli ng Assoc. Professor (Nuc1.Equ i p .Dev.) 0J.M. D'Auria Asst. Professor (Chem.Exp.Fac.) 0C.D. Griggs (Neutron Target) 100H. Dautet (Chem.Exp.Fac.) 100BiyMf.lBurnabyl1.M . Thorson Research Assoc. (Shldg. & Act iv.) 100G.D. Wait Safety Officer 100R. Green PDF (Nucl.Equ i p.Dev.) 100S. Gujrathi Research Asst. (Neutron Target) 100R. Toren Programmer (Shldg. & Activ.) 100Rosemary Hotel 1 Secretary 66UA1bertaFacultyG.C. Neilson Professor (P Area) 0W.K. Dawson Professor (Control) 0J.T. Sample Professor (Bd. Management) 0W.C. Olsen Assoc. Professor (P Area) 0G. Roy Assoc. Professor (P Area) 0W.J. McDonald Assoc. Professor (P Area) 0G.A. Moss Asst. Professor (P Area; Eqpt.Dev.) 0D.M. Sheppard Asst. Professor (P Area; Eqpt.Dev.) 0J. Cameron Asst. Professor (P Area) 0P. Kitching Asst. Professor (Eqpt. Dev.) 0W. Simon Visiting Professor (P Area; Eqpt.Dev.)100G.M. Stinson Res. Assoc. Prof. (P Area;Eqpt.Dev.) 100B.L. Due 11i Res. Assoc. Prof. (Diagnostics) 100E.B. Cairns Professnl. Officer (P Area;Eqpt.Dev.) 0J.B. Elliott Professnl. Officer 0D.P. Gurd Asst. Res. Prof. (Control) 100FromMay 1Dec 1Jul 15Unti 1 Aug 30Apr 30Dec 31 Dec 31Jun 30- 53 -§dmontcrniK. Bray R. Popik L. Ho 1mE. Pearce Greta Tratt Elsie Hawi rko Audrey Forman%TRIUMFPayrol1 FromPDFElectronicsElectronicsTechnicianSecretarySecretarySecretaryTechn.Techn.(P Area;Eqpt.Dev.)100010000100Unt i 1- 5 4  -13- FINANCIAL STATEMENTA. Statement of revenue and expenditures, April 1, 1970-March 31, 1971:RevenueAtomic Energy Control Board Grant $4,600,000Universities ContributionsUniversity of Alberta $250 ,00 0Simon Fraser University 1 50 ,0 00University of Victoria 180,909University of B.C. 7 1 5 , 0 0 0 1 ,295,909National Cancer Institute (1 ,**00)B.C. Cancer Institute Grant 25,755Interest 173,502Tota 1 $6 ,0 93 ,766Add Balance carried forward from Previous year 937,816$7,031 ,582Exgend|turesSalaries $ 685,208Private Consultants 28,601Management Consultants 73,177Travel 61,664Telephone 12,251Printing S Copying 13,528Development Equipment 652,528Miscellaneous S Minor Expenses 37,439Computer Charges 29,214Engineering Firms 982,873Construction Contracts 2,175,487Capital Equipment 2,196,760Total $6,948,730Revenue for period April 1, 1970-March 31, 1971 $7,031,582Expenditures as at March 31, 1971 6,948,730Unexpended funds as at March 31, 1971 $ 82,852- 55 -B. Expenditures by major and minor codes, 9_month period April 1, 1971- December 31, 1971Major code breakdown:Administration $ 2 5 5 , 8 7 5Technical Services 258 ,0 65Buildings 2,468,*427Cyclotron 5,215,174Medical facility 13,000Experimental facilities 262,204$8,472,745Minor code breakdown:Payroll $ 700,283Construction payments 1,685,392Capital equipment 4,711,152Engineering contracts if 39 ,4 71Development equipment 639,909Project management office 57,622Travel 68,’ 000Computer charges 48,521Printing and copying 20,953Telephone 11 ’ 863Private consultants 2 8 , 9 7 1Miscellaneous and minor expenses 60,608$8,472,745- 56 -USERS GROUPSMeson Users GroupW.K. Dawson UAlberta PhysicsW.J. McDonaldG.C. Neil sonW.C. OlsenD. SheppardR.G. Korteling SFU ChemistryN. Al-Qazzaz UVic PhysicsG.A. BeerD.E. LobbG.R. Mason R.M. PearceC.E. Picciotto L.P. RobertsonE.W. Blackmore TRIUMF VancouverR.R. JohnsonG.H. Mackenzie J.R. RichardsonD.F. Measday (Chmn) UBC PhysicsE.G. Auld D.A. Axen D.S. Beder M.K. Craddock K.L. ErdmanC.H.Q. IngramG. JonesD. la PatourelD.L. Livesey K.C. Mann P.W. Martin J.M. McMillan M. SalomonE.W. Vogt (Oxford 71/72)J.B. WarrenW. WestlandB .L. Wh i teD.G. Fleming UBC ChemistryD.C. WalkerD.W. Hone Royal Roads Military College Phys i csH.F. Batho British Columbia Cancer InstituteR.L. Clark Carleton University Phys icsE.P. Hincks Carleton University Phys i csW. Falk University of Manitoba Phys i csJ. Jovanovich University of Manitoba (Cern 71/72) Phys icsW.T.H. van Oers University of Manitoba (UCLA 71/72) Phys icsD .0. Wei 1s University of Manitoba Phys icsM. Krell University of Sherbrooke Phys i csB. Goulard Laval University Phys i csP. Depommier University of Montreal Nuclear PhysicsT.E. Drake University of Toronto Phys icsR.W. Cobb Cariboo Col 1ege Phys i csA.A. Cone Langara College Phys icsG.A. Bartholomew Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories Neutron Physics0. HMusser Chalk River Nuclear LaboratoriesH.B. Knowles Washington State University Phys i csV. Cook University of Washington Phys icsJ.E. Rothberg University of Washington Phys i csR. Atneosen Western Washington State College Phys icsR.R. McLeod Western Washington State College Phys icsW. Sperry Central Washington State University Phys i csC. Schultz University of Massachusetts Phys i csT.R. Witten Rice University Phys icsL. Rosen Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryH. Prendl Florida State University Phys icsN. Tanner Nuclear Laboratory, Oxford University- 57 -Proton Users GroupK.H. Bray UAlberta Physics E.G. Auld UBCE .B. Ca irns D.A. AxenJ. Cameron M.K. CraddockW.K. Dawson G.M. GriffithsJ .B. Elliott C.H.Q. IngramP. Kitching G. JonesW.J. McDonald K.C. MannG.A. Moss P . W . Ma r t i nG . C . Ne 11 s.on D.F. MeasdayW.C. Olsen E.W. Vogt (Oxford 71/72)G . Roy J.B. WarrenJ.T. Sample B.L. WhiteD.M. Sheppard D.G. FlemingG.M. Stinson D.C. WalkerC.R. James Elec.Eng. E.W. Blackmore TRIUMFF.E. Vermeulen D.P. GurdG.R. Freeman Chemistry R.R. JohnsonT.R. Overton Biomed.Eng. G.H. Mackenzie J.R. RichardsonL.P. Robertson (Chmn) UVic PhysicsG.A. Beer J.M. D 1Au r i a SFUD.E. Lobb R.G. KortelingG.R. Mason B.D. PateR.M. Pearce A.S. ArrottC.E. Picciotto R. Green TRIUMFS.A. Ryce Chemi stry 1.M. ThorsonT.A. Hodges TRIUMF VictoriaPhys i csT.R. P.A.KingReeveD.W. HoneH.F. Batho W. FalkJ.V. Jovanovich K.G. Standing W.T.H. van Oers D.O. Wells R. Atneosen R.R. McLeodH.B. Knowles L. Rosen R.L. ClarkRoyal Roads Military College British Columbia Cancer Institute University of Manitoba University of Manitoba (Ce rn 71/72) University of Manitoba University of Manitoba (UCLA 71/72) University of Manitoba Western Washington State College Western Washington State College Washington State University Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Carleton UniversitySlow Neutron Users Group G.R. Freeman UAlbertaA.S. Arrott (Chmn) SFU R.R. HaeringC.H.W. JonesB.D. PateI.M. ThorsonChemi stry Phys icsChemi stryA.V. BreeC.A. McDowell J. TrotterD.C. WalkerTRIUMFL.P. S.A.D.W. Hone R.R. McLeod L. Rosen L.W. ReevesBurnabyRoyal Roads Military College Western Washington State College Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory University of WaterlooRobertsonRyceChemistryVancouverChemistryPhys ics BurnabyPhys i csPhys ics Phys i cs Phys ics Phys i cs Phys i cs Phys ics Phys ics Phys i csPhys i csUBC ChemistryUVic Phys ics ChemistryPhys i cs Phys icsChemi stry- 58 -Rad iG.R.H.E. A.A.D.C.D.G. L.G. C . A. S.H.E.B. I .H.ochemistry Users GroupFreeman UAlberta Chemistry Gunn i ngNouja imWalker (Chmn)FIemi ngHarrisonMcDowel1ZbarskyTregunnaWarrenUBCPharmacy Chemi stryBiochem. Botany MetallurgyJ.M. D 1AuriaC.H.W. Jones R.G. Korteli ngB.D. PateD. TuckA.S. Arrott I .M . ThorsonG . Bushnel1 S.A. RyceD.W. Hone R.T. Morrison L. RosenRoyal Roads Military College Vancouver General Hospital Los Alamos Scientific LaboratorySFU ChemistryPhys ics TRIUMF BurnabyUVic ChemistryPhys i csRadiobiology and Radiotherapy Users GroupJ.S. ColterE .E . Dan i elG.R. FreemanH.E. Gunning W.A. Fuller R.F. RuthF.L. Jackson J.W. MacGregor W.C. MacKenzie D.R. Wilson L.G.S. Newsham M. SchacterA.A. Noujaim T.R. Overton D.M. Ross W.N. Stewart J. WeijerR. Church J.B. Cragg W.A. Cochrane S. Rowlands P.J. KruegerJ.W. Scrimger S .R . Us i sk i nD.L. WeijerH.E. DugganD.W. Hone R.T. MorrisonUAlberta Biochem.PharmacologyChemistryZoo 1ogyBacter iology Pathology Med i c i nePhys iologyPharmacy Biomed. Eng. Science Fac. Botany Genet i csUCalgary Biology Med i c i neChemi stryDr. W.W. Cross Cancer Insti t. , EdmontonUniversity Hospital, EdmontonFoothills Hospital,CalgaryRoyal Roads Military Col 1egeVancouver General Hospi talN. Auersperg R.L. Noble J .J .R . Campbel1D.H. Copp M. DarrachS.M. Friedman R . B . Ke r r J.F. McCrearyC.A. McDowellD.C. Wa1ke rI . McTaggart-Cowan W.S. HoarH . Stich V .J . Okuli tch R.F. ScagelH.N. Towers J.B. WarrenUBC Cancer ResearchMicrob iology Phys iology Biochemistry Anatomy Med ici neChemi stryGrad Studies ZoologyScience Fac. BotanyPhys ics Chemi stryAcademic Affrs. Phys icsB iology Phys icsSFUB.L. Funt B.D. Pate B.G. Wilson R.R. HaeringM.J. Ashwood-Smith UVic W.G. FieldsG.B. Friedmann D.E. Lobb R.M. Pearce L.P. RobertsonJ.M.W. Gibson (Chmn) B.C.Cancer Instit.H.F. Batho A.M. Evans R.O. Kornelsen D.M. Whitelaw M.E.J. YoungT.D. Cradduck Toronto Gen. Hospital


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