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Annual report, 1973 TRIUMF Nov 30, 1974

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T R I U M FANNUAL REPORT 1973MESON F A C I L I T Y  OF:U N I V E R S I T Y  OF ALBERTA  SIMON FRASER U N I V E R S I T Y  U N IV E R S IT Y  OF V I C T O R I A  U N I V E R S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIATRIUMFANNUAL REPORT1973TRIUMFUNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER, B.C. .CANADA V6T 1W5This Annual Report is dedicated to Dr. Bruno Duelli (1925-1973) by his colleagues at TRIUMF in appreci­ation of his devotion and his contributions to our project.CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 1CENTRAL REGION CYCLOTRON 2CYCLOTRON 4Beam Dynamics 4Magnet 8Vacuum System 13RF System 14Ion Source and Injection System 17Probes and Extraction 19Structures and Handling Equipment 21Control System 24SAFETY 27SHIELDING 30PROTON BEAM LINES 32EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES 34BUILDINGS AND SERVICES 42EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME 43ORGANIZATION 46FINANCIAL STATEMENT 48APPENDICESA. Pub 1i cat i ons 50B. Staff 51C. Users Groups 58vINTRODUCTION1973 was a difficult year for TRIUMF and ended with its major problem— reducing the errors in the field of the as-built magnet to tolerable levels— still some distance from resolution.Though delay in achieving the required field configuration was a serious setback for the schedule it did provide such obvious benefits as more time to ready other components, thus reducing the possibility of future delays in other areas. A less obvious, but nonetheless very real, consequence of the challenge presented to our technical staff, and the intensive effort mobilised to meet it, was the extent to which it reinforced confidence in TRIUMF1s resources to overcome the problems that will undoubtedly arise in future years.Despite TRIUMF's affairs having been dominated throughout the year by the magnet problem and the constraints it placed on some activities, considerable progress was made in a number of areas, as described in the following pages. Highlights of the year included: the central region cyclotron's acceleration of 100 yAof H“ ions to the full maximum energy of 3 MeV and the maincyclotron ion source's production of 100 yA at 300 keV.One aspect of 1973 activity that differed from previous years wasthe on-site participation of University of Alberta and University of Victoria faculty on leave from their home institutions. Thus, with University of British Columbia and Simon Fraser University people on hand as usual, not being subject to geographical restrictions, this was the first year in which the fundamental characteristic of the project— the co-operative effort of four universities— was given physical expression.J. Reginald Richardson Di rectorCENTRAL REGION CYCLOTRONEffort on the central region cyclotron, which became fully operational in 1972, continued and on June 29 the design aim of 100 yA accelerated to full radius was achieved. We now have had about 1000 h of operating experience with the RF system and the ion source, and several hundred hours with beam accelerated in the CRC.Experimental beam studies of central trajectory properties using a small emittance beam ended in February, and the results of these mea­surements were reported at the 1973 Particle Accelerator Conference. It was found that 90% of the beam injected in a 30 deg phase interval could be accelerated to full radius. The problems of centring the beam radially and correcting for dee mi salignments and weak magnetic focusing using vertical steering plates were solved.During these measurements it became obvious that some machine improve­ments, in particular to the root connections of the resonator structures, were required before proceeding with further studies at high-current levels in the median plane. While these improvements were under way, the experimental effort was switched to the ion source and injection beam line to study the beam behaviour at higher currents up to 1 mA using the full emittance beam.Emittance measurements were made at the exit of the accelerator tube for different ion source settings. These were fed into beam transport pro­grams, either SPEAM or TRANSPORT, and settings for the quadrupoles along the beam line were calculated. These settings were used as starting values, and by an iterative procedure of manual optimization and calcu­lations it was possible to transport a beam of up to 500 yA to the inflector exit with an efficiency of 75“80%. The beam loss was distri­buted roughly uniformly along the beam line.The resonator improvements were completed in May, and the system was checked at RF voltage levels up to 110 kV. The long-term voltage stability and sparking rate were considerably improved.A mechanical beam chopper was used to reduce the duty cycle of the beam to 10% for optimization of the high instantaneous current beam in the median plane of the cyclotron. The median plane probes, except for a beam stop at full radius, are not water cooled. After achieving a good transmission with the chopped beam, the full beam was injected, and currents of 40 yA buncher off and 100 yA buncher on were achieved with approximately 600 yA at the ion source. Subsequent measurements were made to investigate the effect of the space charge of the higher current beam in the median plane. No radial effects were observed, but the vertical size of the beam was slightly larger, due mainly to a larger emittance beam from the ion source at higher current levels.During the last months of the year most of the effort was switched from the central region cyclotron to the main machine, with the CRC used mainly for testing diagnostic probes, extraction foil lifetimes2and the TRIUMF inflector. The experimental work to date with the CRC has given us confidence that we can meet TRIUMF requirements for some time. However, there still remain some essential beam studies with the CRC which will be necessary before TRIUMF can meet its ultimate design potent i a l .One of these programs is the addition of third harmonic to the RF, which is necessary for good energy resolution of the beam from the main cyclotron. A third harmonic amplifier has been built and the resonators have been powered to the design voltage in the absence of the fundamental frequency, but some development work remains before a flat-top RF wave can be achieved.Further studies with high-current beams to improve the beam stability along the injection line and through the inflector are also planned in the future.Beam spots on scintillators of 1 in. diam taken at 90 deg and 270 deg over the first seven turns.Measured beam positions are plotted on the theoretical curves calculated for a cen­tred beam: when the plotted points lie above each other the beam is well centred.TURN NO.DEE VOLTAGE (kV)RADIAL BEAM SIZE (In.)BEAM DYNAMICSWork has been carried out in three major areas this year:1) central region cyclotron - beam measurements and analysis2) cyclotron design - optimisation for better beam quality3) magnet survey - field analysis and shimming predictionsAnalysis of CRC resultsBeam diagnostic measurements in the central region cyclotron have pro- vided a direct check on the computational methods used to evaluate orbit behaviour under various perturbing effects. Experiment and theory have been found to be in good agreement. Thus the radial beam patterns measured on the differential probes differed by less than 0.1 in. from the predictions of the PINWHEEL code; also their centring was within 0.15 in. of the theoretical ideal for a 30 deg phase interval (see fig., p.3). The radial-longitudinal coupling effect between the radial and phase motions of the ions was also investigated experimentally. This effect is of crucial importance in determining the incoherent radial betatron oscillation amplitude and hence the energy spread in the ex­tracted beam. As can be seen in the figure below calculations based on a simple analytical theory describe the experimental results quite well.A beam of restricted emittance was used for these experiments in order to make a more precise comparison with theory.The vertical focusing of the ions over the first few turns is dominated by the electric focusing forces at the dee gaps. The strong phase dependence of these forces can be clearly seen (fig., p.3) where the beam spots are shown at each half-turn. Analysis of the spot dimensions showed good agreement with theory; at 15 deg phase the spacing of waists indicated vz % 0.2, while defocusing occurred for phases below ~3 deg, as expected.kCyclotron design studiesBeam dynamics studies for the 500 MeV cyclotron this year have ranged over most of the design features affecting the beam, from the ion source exit to the extraction foils.For the injection line a detailed study has been made of the potentiali­ties and limitations of chopping and bunching the DC beam from the ion source in order to match the phase acceptance of the cyclotron, which amounts to 10-20% of the RF cycle. On the central region cyclotron the bunching factor was found to be limited to a maximum of 3, while the chopped pulse length could not be reduced below about 25 deg. The study showed that these limitations are attributable to increases in the energy spread of the beam when it is bunched or chopped. This is criti­cal because the spiral electrostatic inflector is strongly dispersive and transforms an energy spread in the ISIS beam into large vertical oscillations in the cyclotron; there is thus a rather tight tolerance on the energy spread of about ^0.2%. The energy spread introduced by the buncher, which is essentially a two-gap linear accelerator, is of course an intrinsic feature of the bunching process; it can be minimized by having a long drift length to the cyclotron— in TRIUMF's case 21 m. In the chopper it is the longitudinal fringing fields at the entrance and exit of the RF deflection plates which cause the energy spread— the amount depending on the beam quality and pulse length aimed at. In addition, longitudinal space charge forces arise in the intensity modu­lated beams leaving either chopper or buncher and introduce an addition­al energy spread and debunching effect. This is especially serious for the chopper, which has therefore been placed as close as possible to the cyclotron. For the buncher this is not possible, but the beam line has been modified to allow space for a debuncher just prior to injection, which would partially compensate the energy spread produced by the com­bined action of the buncher and the space charge forces. The study indicates that performance on TRIUMF should be a little better than that on the CRC. A bunching factor of 3 should be obtainable for an unpolar­ized beam of 1 mA DC, and a factor A for a polarized beam of lower intensity. The chopper should produce a minimum phase width of 12 deg for a standard emittance beam; for narrower pulses phase selection slits will be employed within the cyclotron.In the central region a detailed study of the orbits indicated that a 50% improvement in phase acceptance could be achieved by small changes to the RF resonator shape near the first turn, and the resonator design has been modified accordingly. The changes improve the focusing properties of the injection gap and the first main dee gap crossings to better match the injected beam emittance to the cyclotron acceptance. With a suitable deviation from the isochronous magnetic field near the centre, it should now be possible to accelerate a 45 deg wide phase range with the following properties at 30 MeV:i) radial centring better than 0.05 in. ii) total radial amplitude <0.25 in. iii) incoherent amplitude <0.4 in.5This beam quality, which would yield ±1 MeV energy resolution at 500 MeV, had previously been predicted only for a phase range of 30 deg.To compute the behaviour of a beam of many particles over hundreds of turns by means of step-by-step integration through the magnetic field is an expensive procedure. To avoid this we have developed a linear motion code COMA, which tracks each particle by multiplying together matrices describing whole segments of the magnetic field. The cost of running COMA is a factor 20 lower than that for our step-by-step tracking codes, while the agreement between them is of the order of 0.001 in., from the second turn outwards.Besides being used to calculate the cyclotron acceptance under a variety of operating conditions (as for the central region modifications described above), COMA has also been used for several studies at higher energy, including one of the beam-defining slits. These are adjustable radial slits located near 70 in. and 100 in. radius (15 MeV and 30 MeV, respectively). The studies with COMA confirmed that they could provide the reduced betatron amplitude (0.024 in.) and improved energy spread (±220 keV) required. It also appears that they can produce beam pulses as short as 200 pico-sec with a current of about 100 nA out of 1 mA from the ion source.Field survey analysis and shim predictionsIn support of the cyclotron magnetic field survey the Beam Dynamics Group has been responsible for analysing the measured field data and, since September, for predicting what shim changes should be made. After ini­tial processing by the Magnet Group, the product of a standard 380 degsurvey of the vertical field component Bz at the 103 flip coil radii isa magnetic tape containing nearly 400,000 field values. These are first checked for consistency with their neighbours on the polar grid, and then Fourier analysed at each radius. The properties of the orbits are then calculated from this reduced field data. The most critical propel—  ties for Bz are the orbit time, whose deviation from five times the RF period must not exceed a few parts in 101* at any radius, and the vertical focusing power, which must be kept positive everywhere (in terms of vz , the number of vertical betatron oscillations per turn, we must keepvz > 0). In addition, the imperfection (non 6-fold) harmonics of Bz mustbe kept within bounds set by the various betatron oscillation resonances. The first harmonic is the most serious for TRIUMF and must be shimmed to less than 1 G between 30 in. and 120 in. radius. The second and third harmonics must also be kept below a few gauss near certain resonances.To simulate the effect of adding shims to the magnet pole edge a com­puter code 'SHIMMING' has been developed. This code superimposes the field changes produced by individual shim plates at any of their 402 possible locations, the field data for this operation being obtained by interpolation between the field changes measured for specimen shims. The field changes predicted by SHIMMING have been found to be accurate to within ±25%; the deviations can be attributed to local variations in a6shim's effectiveness, depending on whether it is placed at a bump or dip in the shim profile. This accuracy is sufficient to permit slow convergence of an iterative shimming procedure; typically 60% of the predicted improvement is obtained.To predict the shim changes required to correct deviations from the ideal Bz a least squares fitting code has been used. This computes the shim changes needed at 402 locations to fit 8 parameters (orbit time, and the first, second and third harmonics of Bz) at 150 radii simultaneously. By means of these codes the average orbit time error has been reduced from 30 x 10-t+ to 3 x 10-1+ (sufficient for normal, non-separated turn, operation), two regions of vertical defocusing near 240 and 490 MeV have been removed, and the first, second and third har­monics have been reduced by an order of magnitude to the 1-2 G level.The next task on the magnet will be measuring and shimming out any horizontal field components in the vertical plane. The analysis codes for the 3BZ/3Z survey have been written and tested. The shimming pre­diction codes are under development.7MAGNETThe last two weeks of 1972 saw the beginning of the already-delayed field measuring work, and the first complete 360 deg Bz survey on December 31 revealed a serious deviation from isochronism. A series of measurements to evaluate how to modify the magnet to achieve the required field was started on January 2 but came to an abrupt end with failure of the main magnet power supply outdoor transformer which was totally destroyed by fire three weeks later. Thus began a long and difficult year.Main coil power supplyThe main magnet power supply, as noted in the 1972 Annual Report, had given a good deal of trouble during the manufacturing stage, and in January was being operated in a semi-commissioned state, still under the manufacturer's responsibility. The outdoor variable transformer failed at the brush surface on January 8, and the magnet had to be operated with no primary regulation directly from the isolating transformer. The latter destroyed itself completely by catching fire on January 23 (the actual cause of the fire is still a matter of dispute between the manu­facturer and TRIUMF), and a crash program to obtain a reliable replacement was initiated immediately.A new transformer and tap changer was specified, bid and ordered by February 9- Federal Pioneer Ltd. of Winnipeg did an outstanding job in building, testing and shipping the new 3-6 MVA oil-filled unit within five weeks of receipt of order, and it was installed and energized by March 30. Its running-in period was successfully completed by April 16, thus limiting the interruption to the field survey to twelve weeks.During the shutdown modifications were made to the rectifier unit to improve its control and performance. Temperature stabilization of the shunt was improved, and with the magnet survey restarted on April 18, the power supply was given a 16-hour stability test. Stability achieved was only ±30 ppm (±10 ppm specified), due mainly to a larger-than- anticipated temperature coefficient of the shunt. Following an investi­gation the voltage sensing points were modified and field changes sensed using the outer turn coil were fed back, and a short-term stability of ±3 ppm was achieved in November. Longer-term stability was established by the use of an NMR gaussmeter with its sensing head modified for remote operation. Tests in December produced no detectable variations over a period of 12 h, after a warm-up time of 3 h. With the sensitivity of the NMR device of 0.02 G, this means that the stability is better than 5 parts in 106 , the required tolerance for normal operation.A problem still to be corrected is the eddy current heating in the elec­trostatic shields of the rectifier transformers. A solution to this problem is in hand but was postponed till after completion of the magnet survey.Despite such operational problems, by the end of the year the power supply had operated for 1266 h since April 18. The present operating level of818,000 A is well below the design rating of 27,000 A and is right at thelow end of the operational range. At this level the main coil tempera­ture rise is ^16°F.Magnet field measuring systemThe system developed to make a reliable and accurate survey has been described previously (1972 Annual Report and Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Magnet Technology, Brookhaven, 1972) and has proved to be as good as, and in many cases better than, the aimed-for des i gn:Positional accuracy of the probes in radius 6R ±0.010 azimuth 60 ±0.005 in.Field accuracy Bz ±0.5 G in 5000 (proven)dB7Br measured by to ±0.01 G in 5 GThough the surveying equipment had been designed for a job expected to last only a few months, it bore up remarkably well and signs of fatigue did not appear until late in the year, when increasing amounts of time had to be spent on maintenance.9Magnet field tailoringThe initial measurements had disclosed a surprising difference in the average field (B) of the main magnet and that of the 1:10 scale magnet model which had been used to develop the procedure for determining the required shim corrections to the main magnet pole profile. For it was found that the horizontal return yokes of the main magnet were more ef­ficient in conducting flux to the centre than had been expected from the model measurements. When the coil current was reduced so that the field at 300 in. radius was the same as in the model, the field at the centre was higher than the model by 100 G, which was greater than the capacity of the pole contour shims in that region.This discrepancy proved to have been caused by the higher magnetic per­meability, at low-flux density, of the main magnet steel. Although of the same chemical composition, the model steel was rolled to thicknesses of 0.5 and 0.3 in. and then straightened whereas the main magnet steel was rolled to thicknesses ten times larger.During the wait for the replacement transformer, the magnet team ran a series of studies with the 1:10 model to determine the extent of yoke shim work and extra pole shims required to improve isochronism and also what adjustments should be made to the auxiliary coils near the centre. In mid-March the shimming began, and eventually 100 tons of yoke shims were added at large radii. These suitably-sized low carbon steel blocks had been supplied by the manufacturer of the magnet sectors (and had been intended for use as heavy shielding); they were made up of scrap steel from the plates used in fabricating the cores and had been pre-cut to 3 x 12 x 12 in., 3 x 12 x 2b in., and 2b x 12 x 2b in. The blocks were attached to the cores by so-called threaded 'Nelson studs' under the sectors and by gravity above them, thus being easily removable.Yoke shims on Sector D 12 x 12 x 3 in.10Results of the resumed survey in late April indicated that though the modifications made during the shutdown period greatly reduced the error in B, it had not been eliminated. The effect of additional auxiliary coils— six bucking coils to adjust the flux entering each magnet sector from the support structure— was not great enough, and the field was still too strong near the centre. The next effort was major surgery to the sectors, and in May some 16 tons of steel was cut off the return yokes by a process called 'gauging1, which involved the heaviest elec­tric arc welding gear available. The metal melts in the arc but a con­siderable fraction vaporizes and is carried away in 'smoke1. The operation took three weeks in a round-the-clock effort under most diffi­cult working conditions, and an elaborate exhaust system was necessary to keep the steel dust from spreading throughout the building. More extensive surgery would have been preferable— on the premise that at a later stage it would be easier to add steel than to remove more— but structural integrity of the sectors imposed constraints. The yoke- cutting brought B roughly within the capability of pole shims.However, survey work in early June showed that the radial component of the field (Br) was much too strong, about 10 times tolerance. This was caused by the asymmetry of the support structure and aggravated by the high permeability of the steel. From theoretical predictions based on the central region cyclotron field survey it had been known the main machine would be very sensitive to the radial field component. The magnitude of the error and its large radial extent proved to be very difficult to deal with. It was not possible to study this effect ade­quately on the 1:10 model, due to its relatively small size.Another deficiency to be corrected was a field bump at R = 12 in. This was finally solved by winding an extra coil around each transition piece between support structure and vacuum chamber. These 10,000 At coi1s , i dent i fi ed as 'Trim coi1 O', were most d i ffi cult to wi nd due to their inaccessible location.By the end of August the cutting and shimming of horizontal yokes and the addition of trim coil 0 had resulted in a reduction of the errors in the average field to within 5 G of isochronism except at the extreme inner and outer radii, and vz was real from injection to 506 MeV. The magnet now appeared to be shimmable by adjusting the pole shims to bring the field closer to isochronism and to reduce undesirable low-order harmonics in the field.Until September adjustments to the pole shims had been made on the basis of the knowledge gained from the 1:10 scale model. A complete shim iteration— changing shims, measuring the field and analysing the results— took about 12 h. With the precision of the measurements becom­ing tighter and the need to improve the efficiency of the shim itera­tions, a computer programme was developed by the Beam Dynamics Group which simulated the addition and subtraction of shims in about 10 min. Its predictions of the changes in isochronism and focusing frequencies for a given profile modification agreed with the changes measured on the magnet for the same profile to within Using these computer11predictions the field was steadily improving. In November Br had been improved from 30 G to 7 G at the centre, and it was now clear that no further 'major surgery' to the yokes would be necessary. The field was now being measured so accurately that movements of large masses of steel became noticeable and had to be controlled. One of the measures that had to be taken was restricting the 100 ton crane from travelling over the vault when measurements were in progress.In December the last stages of the magnet survey were started: measuring both Bz and Br while checking harmonics and including the central region This was necessary as the various field parameters affect each other. Thousands of pole and other shims were moved at this stage by an effi­cient team of technicians recruited from all over the project, with much help from students and academic volunteers, whenever a new configuration had to be installed.Some Magnet Comparisons. It is interesting to compare the tolerance required for the TRIUMF magnet with that of some other cyclotrons. To a first approximation, the tolerance in field (eg), determined by need for isochronism, is given by average field strength (B*z) divided by number of turns (n) to full energy times the RF harmonic (h):CyclotronAveragefieldNumber of turnsRFha rmon i cRelative field toleranceBz (kG) (n) h Bp _  a  -----------B nh50 MeV machines(UCLA ,  Man i toba) 19 200 1 148SIN (590 MeV) 8 300 6 7TRIUMF (500 MeV 4 1250 5 lSo it is clear TRIUMF has a unique problem; in fact, its magnet has already been shimmed to a higher tolerance than most other cyclotrons.Combination magnetThe two combination magnets for extracting beam into beam lines I and IV were installed early in the year (one without its coils, damaged in transit); one was tested and commissioned. These magnets affect the field of the main magnet so it was essential they be properly placed be­fore magnet commissioning completed. Some adjustments have to be made to the coils and the pole pieces of the magnets to optimize their beam extraction properties.12VACUUM SYSTEMInitial tests immediately after construction and installation in 1972 permitted a realistic evaluation of the TRIUMF vacuum system under actual conditions. As a result of this experience several changes have been implemented during 1973- The cryopanel design has been changed to an all-welded construction and the number of joints reduced by a factor of three. The design has also been changed to ensure perfect optical baffling of the 20°K cryopumping surfaces. A new set of cryo- panels has been fabricated and tested. The total heat leak for the two panels is 100 W, well within the capability of the cryogenerator. A new feedthrough from the cryoline to the tank has been designed, using welded joints, as no system using indium-coated seals was found satis­factory after a large number of thermal cycling tests.A superinsulated liquid nitrogen transfer line for the injection system has been designed and installed. This design is similar to the one for the cryoline between the cryogenerator and the cryopanels in the tank.An extensive series of tests has been carried out to determine the hydrogen-pumping properties of titanium sublimation pumps. Once acti­vated these pumps will continue to absorb hydrogen for periods up to one week with the filaments off, as long as no contamination occurs.The titanium sublimation pumps can be expected to have a lifetime of one year.RFSYSTEMWork on the radio-frequency system during 1973 was almost entirely de­voted to assembly, testing and modification of the resonator segments to achieve required performance. By December the 80 segments— cleaned, baked and wrapped— were ready to go into the vacuum chamber, and the proton hail, after serving for a year as the resonator system's 'work shop' was taken over by the shielding contractors.Resonator testing had just begun at the end of 1972. One-half of the system was mounted on a large steel test frame, with a ground plane positioned where the middle of the accelerating gap would occur in the normal mode of operation in the cyclotron. Voltage probes were con­nected to the resonator tip through this plane, and measurements were taken of the voltage uniformity for the fundamental and third harmonic modes of operation and of the Qs of the system at signal level.As expected, the fundamental frequency mode was not critical in voltage uniformity or quality factor. The third harmonic mode revealed that several changes had to be made to the system to allow tuning for both modes to be done simultaneously. The centre post cut-outs seriously detuned the centre sections for third harmonic, and thus modifications to the root pieces on all eight centre sections were required before the tuning and Q were satisfactory. The frequency of these sections was]klowered by the extra capacitance arising from the centre post, and the correction was made by the addition of k in. re-entrant root pieces to shorten them and raise their frequency to that of the unmodified 'standard' sections. A consequence of the modification was the elimi­nation of the fine tuning bellows in the roots of the centre resonator un i ts.In its present configuration the resonator system will tune to both first and third harmonic simultaneously over a frequency range of 50 kHz centred about the nominal operating frequency of 23-075 MHz.The 'half' resonator configuration was powered to 50 kV (the maximum voltage attainable in air) through the coupling loop and transmission line assembly by the main RF power amplifier. Satisfactory operation without parasitics was achieved, and feedback control circuitry and voltage stabilization were achieved in both the driven and self- oscillatory modes. Modifications made to the driver circuitry allowed for an automatic turn-on from the main cyclotron control console.Frequency stability problems were discovered which resulted in detuning that would lead to peak power demands in the full power mode of opera­tion exceeding the power capabilities of the main amplifier. The instabilities arose from two causes:1) Pressure pulses in the cooling water circuit arising from cavitation in the main cooling pump and the piping in the primary cooling circuit2) Vibrations due to turbulence in the coolant passages in the resonators and cooling header couplingsA pressurized flow diffusion tank was designed and a model tested by UBC's Civil Engineering Department. This tank will be installed in the cooling water system next to the vault wall and is expected to reduce the pressure pulsations to a reasonable level.Vibration dampers were redesigned for the resonator hot arm tips and the prototype units were tested on the 'half' system. These dynamic, friction-loaded dampers were able to reduce the vibrations of the resonator arms by a factor of four. The total reduction of the 'noise' in the system should bring it to within safe limits for stable operation.As well as powering the resonator assembly in air, the power amplifier was run at full power for two hours into the dummy load once each day for several weeks. During the course of these tests changes were made to hardware in the amplifiers, and the tuning procedure for the system was established. The CAMAC control interface was checked out and critical items were replaced. Failure of the capacitors in the trans­mitters continued to be a problem. They were replaced by vacuum capacitors, which have as yet given no difficulties.The centre segments in the resonators have been completely modified by the addition of numerous beam slits, correction plates, stops, scrapers,15and beam probes. These were all found necessary as a result of central region cyclotron studies.A cleaning system for the resonators was set up in the proton hall in July. Each resonator was helium leak tested, washed, ultrasonica11y de­greased in a mild etchant, rinsed and washed in hot water. Four resonators at a time were then mounted in a large vacuum tank and were heated to high temperature by passing hot water through the cooling channels while the system was evacuated to 10"5 Torr. Prior to removal of the cooled resonators, they were again leak tested by pressurizing the cooling channels in the evacuated tank. They were then removed, wrapped in polythene, and stored until the magnet survey completed.Procedures for installation of the enormous amount of hardware associ­ated with the system were worked out, and installation equipment was designed and tested on the frames. Alignment procedures were established for the stringent tolerances of a few thousandths of an inch required for good beam quali ty.16ION SOURCE AND INJECTION SYSTEM (ISIS)The prototype ion source and injection system has been commissioned to deliver the design specification current (100 pA average accelerated to sixth turn) to the central region cyclotron (see p. 2). The ISIS system for TRIUMF is an improved version of the prototype with the fol­lowing essential differences:There is no complex double 90 deg bend, such as is necessary in the prototype. Most of the beam loss, and a considerable fraction of the beam-off-due-to-sparking time in the CRC injection system, was associated with the double bend, and its elimination should improve the beam transmission.The TRIUMF beam line is in the fringe field of the cyclotron, which has to be corrected and shielded as necessary to avoid degrading the emittance and the polarization of the injected beam.The TRIUMF chopper is situated as close as possible to the inflector, to avoid debunching of chopped beam pulses due to longitudinal space charge effects.The TRIUMF ISIS unpolarized ion source has been commissioned to the level of providing 100 pA of 300 keV H" ions, and has been used to make central trajectory studies of the first sections of the horizontal section of the beam line. The remainder of the horizontal section of the beam line has been installed, and is in the process of vacuum and electrical commissioning. Studies of magnetic shielding methods are in progress and have so far succeeded in attenuating the transverse components of the field inside a 9 in. diam pipe 50 G to less than 0.25 G.Modules of the vertical section beam line are being assembled and bench tested, ready for installation through the access hole in the concrete roof beams and down through the cyclotron support structure.Polarized ion sourceThe Lamb-shift polarized ion source under construction at the University of Alberta is presently undergoing final testing. A maximum beam of 420 nA of H" has been produced, with a more typical beam being of the order of 300 nA. The source has been operated continuously for 150 h. Operation was extremely stable, with only minor adjustments necessary. The test was terminated when the duoplasmatron filament burnt out.There was some decrease in polarization towards the end— from 85% ini­tially to 75%. This was probably due to cesium contamination. It appears that we can expect six days of continuous operation followed by twelve hours of maintenance (replacement of the duoplasmatron filament and cleaning of the cesium build-up).17The injection line for the polarized beam is presently being designed. The Wien filter is under construction. Measurements are presently under way on site to determine the magnitude of the stray magnetic field from the cyclotron. Magnetic shielding will be necessary in order to reduce it to tolerable levels for the operation of the source and the injection system.18BEAM PROBES AND EXTRACTIONThe diagnostic and extraction probes which are planned for TRIUMF were described in considerable detail in the 1972 Annual Report. During 1973 most of the designs have been turned into hardware, and a number of probe systems were assembled and mounted in test frames to simulate the cyclotron geometry. Measurements were carried out to evaluate the probe performance. Further practical experience in diagnostic tech­niques was obtained using the central region cyclotron.Since installation of the probes is a critical path activity after the resonator installation and testing period, and before the first beam search, some effort will be made to install as many of the probe assem­blies as possible during the resonator installation period. This has the additional benefit of a longer testing period, in particular to determine the effect of RF pick-up on the probe heads.Fabrication and machining of parts for the probe assemblies has been a combined effort of the TRIUMF Machine Shop, the University of Alberta Physics Machine Shop and Technical Services Workshop, and local firms.Extraction probesThe extraction probe for Valley IV was completely assembled and tested. A number of pyrolytic graphite foils were tested at power densities up to 270 W/cm2 with the beam from the CRC. This is about the required power density for a 100 yA extracted beam.Extraction iprobe mechanism.19Diagnostic probesThe centring probes located in the dee gap must be installed prior to the resonator segments, and therefore this assembly work has had top priority. The drive systems for all the probes are similar, using an M093 stepping motor for the accurate drive, with the position readout from a shaft encoder, and an SS250 synchronous motor for probe inser­tion where required. Measurements carried out with the centring probe, which has a 300 in. travel, indicate that a radial position accuracy of ±0.015 in. is possible.The current probes are made up of a pair of low-energy probes (R = 11 in. to 150 in.) and a pair of high-energy probes (R= 1^6 in. to 316 in.) which are located at 70 deg and 250 deg relative to the dee gap. To achieve the necessary vertical positional accuracy, the probe head is supported on a trolley which runs along the top of the lower resonator. The high-energy probe, which is now being fabricated, is similar except that the probe head is supported by a rail assembly. Some minor design changes were required after the magnetic field survey indicated higher than expected fringe fields in the region of the stepping motors.Four radial slits, a radial flag and a vertical flag are located on the lower centre region resonators for the purpose of phase and emittance defining for diagnostic work, or to yield a high-resolution beam. The slit and flag assemblies are partially fabricated and assembled.AlignmentTo determine probe positions or the location of other components in the cyclotron under vacuum, an alignment system consisting of two peri­scopes, two rotary mirrors for introducing light, and a pop-up target for vertical reference will be installed.One of the periscope assemblies to be mounted below the vacuum tank. It can be inserted into the median plane with the tank evacuated.20STRUCTURES AND HANDLING EQUIPMENTCentre postThe centre post is that part of the support structure that ensures the structural integrity of the cyclotron against the 2 6 9 1-ton load at the centre. 67% of this load is caused by a portion of the atmospheric load, 2 3% by a portion of the weight of the return yokes and 10% by a portion of the magnetic force. During the field survey the post con­sists of a temporary cylindrical #316 stainless steel structure which at the same time served as a bearing for the field-measuring arm.The final centre post has to be far more complicated in shape and of re­duced cross-section to accommodate the inflector, and turned out to pose a major procurement problem. The search for a suitable material started in mid-1 9 7 2. We were looking for a forging in a low-permeabi1ity high- strength alloy. An order was placed with Huntington Alloy Products Division in West Virginia for a forging in a Monel alloy K-500. Shortly after the order was accepted the company went on strike. Forced by the uncertain delivery situation, we decided to look elsewhere. We found a company in Wisconsin which assured us that they could come up with a centrifugal casting that would meet all our stringent requirements except the low permeability. After several discussions a modified chemistry was proposed that would give us what we wanted. Twelve weeks later the company came back and told us that they had failed and that they knew of no trick that would overcome the cracking problems they had experienced.Now the situation was becoming desperate. A renewed search for a sup­plier resulted in a quote from Armco in Los Angeles, and strangely enough they offered to give us a forging in a stainless steel alloy T286, an alloy that we at the outset were trying to acquire. By now we had lost a full year. Quoted delivery time was 10 to 12 weeks.In the meantime we had also found an aluminum bronze alloy which would meet all our requirements and a company which claimed that they could staticly cast a high quality post for us. In view of the desperate situ­ation we ordered this casting as well as the T286 alloy.It turned out that the aluminum bronze casting was full of gas porosity and other flaws, dis­covered during the X-ray inspec­tion, which rendered it useless to us. The Armco T286 forging was delivered to Ebco Industries (Richmond) in good condition on September 12. Machining of the centre post body was completed in early December, and the com­plete post fitted with contact rings, shield etc. was delivered on December 21.21Support structure elevating systemDuring 1973 the upper half of the cyclotron was elevated 201 times. Al­though the elevating system was finally accepted on March 8 after installation of a new autotransformer, it continued to give some trouble.A failure at the end of May was found to be caused by movement of the rotor on the drive shaft of one of the 12 motors, which caused the rotor fan blades to foul the air guide vanes so that the starting torque was insufficient. The faulty motor was removed and a key-way installed. A second motor was similarly modified in July, and a spare motor was purchased so that it can be installed if further failures occur.There has been a recurring problem of lubrication and grease leakage from the 100-ton jacks during the year. The solution appears to be re­placement of the seals and installation of a recirculating line so that the grease does not constitute an operational clean-up problem.Service bridgeIn December the service bridge, designed by Northwest Machine Technology Ltd. (North Vancouver) and built by Ebco Industries (Richmond), was installed in its tunnel, or rather cave, recessed in the vault wall.This is the first step towards equipment that some time in the future will allow much of the servicing of components inside the vacuum chamber and which eventually may have to be done by remote control.The service bridge can be inserted into the cyclotron when the upper half is elevated, and made to rest on the centre post via a large thrust bearing. It can then be dis­connected from the carrier trolley that carried it from the tunnel into the cyclotron. Its outer wheels then rest on the lower return yokes, which are filled with aluminum 'bridges' between sectors to provide a continuous running service. A service trolley runs on the bridge in a radial direction. The bridge can be rotated around the centre of the machine and the service trolley reach every corner of the vacuum chamber, both top and bottom. A man can ride on the bridge and in­spect and install equipment without having to walk in the tank or rest on the delicate resonators and cryo- panels. Semi-remote or remote handling equipment can be fitted on the service bridge.22Vault craneA 7-5“ton vault crane, which runs on a circular set of box girders sus­pended from the support structure, was constructed and installed by Colmat Hoisting & Materials Handling Equipment Limited (North Vancouver). This crane allows the handling of shielding blocks, magnets and other heavy equipment in the vault when the shielding roof prevents use of the main crane. It can also be used with the support structure in its ele­vated position, thusproviding greater lifting heights. Due to its effect on the magnetic field the crane must always be parked in the same location.The jib and girders are of rather unconventional design and required substantial engineering effort, both by TRIUMF staff and by Colmat.23CONTROL SYSTEMActivity in 1973 continued to be concentrated on installation. The general CAMAC system for cyclotron process control has grown to a six- branch system; the central control console serving the cyclotron and beamlines was 80% installed by year-end; and considerable progress made in interfacing the control system on a device-by-device basis to cyclotron components.Although hardware installation and interfacing is still under way, essential parts of the control system have been available to users for most of the year. Magnet power supplies can be controlled from the magnet survey trailer via a remote CAMAC console. Two similar consoles are used by ion source installers to check equipment installation and to study ion source operation characteristics. The sole control route to the first TRIUMF ion source is a CAMAC-based serial light link spanning 300 kV; this system was in continuous operation from September.Computer reliability has improved significantly. After logging six months of weekly computer failures, a crash programme of fault diagnosis and remedy was begun. At the end of a two-week period and 3** manweeks of labour, the computers were declared reliable. There has not been a subsequent system failure in over 7000 uninterrupted hours.Interfaces and programmingIn the course of interfacing cyclotron components several standard inter­faces have been developed. The table on p.26 summarizes CAMAC, NIM and 19 in. rack mounting interfaces used; these units have been installed and are in operation on the cyclotron. Each unit is documented with drawings, parts lists, art-work and circuit-board negatives.Three large programs are servicing the cyclotron control system: Aremote console program connects consoles in installation areas to cyclo­tron components; a cyclotron scan program monitors cyclotron device operation; and a master console program services console interfaces in the control room. These programs are operated in a real time operating system and are constructed from system-dependent modules, device handlers and general sub-routines. The latter two are of general use and include a GEC-Elliott CAMAC interface including LAM handling facilities and a CAMAC serial link handler. NOVA BASIC has been modified to incorporate hardware multiply and divide, and a data acquisition/process control language TRICL has been developed. TRICL is interactive, includes CAMAC/DML instructions, allows interrupt handling, and executes with speeds intermediate to BASIC and Assembler.2kINTER PROCESSORCOMMUNICATIONS LINK „   ^CD- V QQLU COL UO o Z D: >L Ut oZQ _OC C C )o—io-*£  o  fc= ct z  t= 0  2  O NXtO§  O O2  Z ZZ.—„ Q- O X ^2oZ>i_ h- — z=3 ^  <£ O  111 o: ^o a ^co  >O U3O COa tf _ J f—Z  ><1  LU  ^  -I. DC t o  O  cOSystem detailsThe control system is broken into digital control, analogue beam measure­ments and an independent safety interlock system (see p.28). Process control is handled digitally while beam current, i.e. dynamic variable, measurements are made via a signal-routing system terminating in the control room.Experimenter communication with the control system is under development. Serial links between the control room and experimenter terminal are planned, and an application has been made to obtain a high-speed data link to the UBC computer system.ModuleNumber Packag i ng Descr i pt i on Comments*t DAI 0+5 DBL CAMAC Quad Digital-to-Analogue Conv. 0-5 V OUT; 10-bit resolutionTC0441 DBL CAMAC Quad Digital Controller 4-bit relay driver & contact sensorCI0816 QUAD CAMAC Octal Analogue Inverter Unity gain inverter input & input available on front panelC A 1616 DBL NIM 16-fold Ampli fier Current-voltage amplifierMPX01 SGL CAMAC Interface to Analogies 5200 Interfaces multiplexer to CAMACSMC001 DBL CAMAC Stepping Motor Controller Controlled rate, destination drive to SMT. Senses limit swi tches.SMT001 DBL CAMAC Stepping Motor Translator Power pulse drive to two stepping motors0446 19" Rack Synchronous Motor Controller Forward-Reverse control from T C 0 4 4 1 , local control with inter­locks0447 19" Rack Dual AC Controller 0N-0FF control for motors from TC0441, local control with inter- 1 ocks0450 DBL NIM Analogue Motor Controller Runs motor to setpoint derived from 4DA10+5Q A 4 1015 DBL NIM Quad Amplifier-Discriminator Signal amplifier with settable discriminator signaled on isolated relayQ A 4 100 SGL NIM Quad Current-Voltage Converter 1 n A - 10,000 nA IN, 0-1 V OUT in 2 gain rangesWA100 SGL NIM Wire Scanner Amplifier 1 n A - 10 nA IN, 0-1 V OUT internal time fiducial mpxCR100 NIM Ion Chamber Readout Integrating wire scanner with 2-plane readoutMPX16 SGL NIM Quad 1:4 Relay Multiplexer 75 contact resistance between LEM0 inputs and outputs controlled via CAMAC 0D1606MPX80 ELC0 Dual 1:4 Soli d State Multi plexerDifferential input multiplexing plus 10 x gain for thermocouple measurements26SAFETYEarly in the year the proposed overall safety program developed by the TRIUMF Safety Advisory Committee (TSAC) toward the end of 1972 was reviewed. Since budget constraints prevented support of the full pro­gram, a somewhat reduced version incorporating the essential features was adopted. The TRIUMF Safety Group (TSG), under the direction of the Chief Safety Officer, which until- 1973 had been operating with virtually no manpower, was established formally. Its primary responsibilities continued to be detail design and installation of the safety interlock system and radiation-monitoring systems (described below). A lab was set up in the Chemistry Annex basement for activation analysis, monitor calibration and electronics assembly.During the year considerable time was spent by TSG in preparing, and TSAC in reviewing and approving, draft documents for submission to the Atomic Energy Control Board in support of an application for a licence to operate the cyclotron. Another major activity for both groups was the thrashing out of the initial safety manual for the project.Other matters reviewed at TSAC meetings during the year included submis­sions from the experimentalists responsible for installation of various experimental facilities. These submissions included analyses of the hazards presented together with proposals for ensuring safety in the face of these hazards. The establishment of a pilot research program on cytogenetic analysis for radiation dosimetry purposes was agreed between the Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Royal Roads Military College and TRIUMF. Personnel dosimetry via conventional techniques for application at TRIUMF was also discussed. Periodically TSAC reviewed progress in the installation of safety hardware and particularly the safety interlock system for the accelerator and beam 1i ne systems.Safety interlock systemContinuing detail design and installation of the safety interlock system monopolized much of the TSG effort in 1973 (55%)- Considerable progress was made and it is expected that the various parts of the system will be ready as needed when the cyclotron will be started up and subsequently when experimental areas will be receiving beams.The logic resides in the read-only memory of the PDP-lA situated in the control room. Status signals are routed to the PDP-1A from the follow­ing: radio-frequency system, cyclotron magnet, ion source and injection system, stripper foils, dipole magnets, beam stops, key release units, the low-energy beam probe, emergency trip pushbuttons, door interlocks, radiation set-points and beam spill set-points. The PDP— 1A will also be used for machine protect interlocks between major systems. The output of the PDP-14 will supply inhibit signals to many of the above devices and also drives various alarms.27OUTPUTSCONTROL ROOM SYSTEM SIGNAL DISTRIBUTIONBEAM SPILL MONITOR READOUTSSAFETY ACCESS CONTROL PANELMACHINEPROTECTPANELRADIATIONMONITORREADOUTSSERVICE ANNEX DISTRIBUTION CENTRE BLIVB VAULTRADIATIONDETECTORSBEAM-SPILLDETECTORSSYSTEMS SYSTEMSINTERFACE INTERFACE-STRIPPERS -RF CROWBAR-DIPOLES -MAGNET-BEAM STOP -ISIS-MACHINE -MACHINEPROTECTION PROTECTIONAREA SAFETY UNITRADIATIONDETECTORSBEAM-SPILLDETECTORSAREA SAFETY UNITEMERG.TRIPSLOCKUPCHAINMESON HALL DISTRIBUTION CENTRE BLI- CAREA SAFETY UNITALARMS KEYSYSTEMSafety interlock system.28Radiation protectionRadiation-monitoring equipment consists of a variety of portable survey meters for a-, y- and neutron-detection, four neutron area monitors, two gamma-area monitors, and foils for evaluating neutron flux using activation techniques. Most of the detectors required during the first phase of cyclotron operation were, on hand by the end of the year, and studies were in progress on the response of these detectors to the radiation fields that will be present.In February the security fence enclosing the accelerator building, the workshop and the CRC laboratory, and thus enclosing the potential radiation area, was completed.The personnel dosimetry service through the Radiation Protection Bureau of the Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, which until mid— 1973 had only applied to staff working in the CRC lab, was extended in October when the ISIS floor was declared a radiation area.Accident recordFire, which is usually the worst safety hazard, hit us twice during theyear: The transformer unit for the main magnet power supply burned it­self out in a fierce fire on a rainy January 23- As the unit was located outside, damage was limited to the unit itself, which was atotal loss involving approx $85,000 (see p.8). The second fire wascaused by the contractor that installed the vault crane. A welder had 'protected' the cyclotron components underneath him with a tarpaulin which caught fire, and a set of flexible connections for the trim and harmonic coils was destroyed at a cost of approx $10,000. No-one was injured in either fire.Other accidents amounted to nothing more than some light cuts, burns and minor eye injuries, which were all swiftly dealt with by the First Aid Team.Slinging of heavy, awkward loads produced a few near-accidents, which indicate that continuous safety awareness is imperative for all who get involved in these operations. One of these concerned a newly-produced concrete shielding block in which the metal threaded insert was forgot­ten when the block was poured, so the 3-5“ton block was hanging on a 'concrete thread'. The block was only 1 ft off the ground when it dropped. After this incident all lifting holes were tested with a little magnet and marked for presence of the inserts.SHIELDINGBy December activities of the various shielding contractors threatened to engulf everything else: stored blocks for cyclotron, beam line and experimental area shielding taking up much of the meson hall; the vault walls production and installation demanding a fair amount of space in both the meson and proton halls, not to mention the needs of the 100 nA internal beam dump core being readied for installation in a concrete shield in one corner of the proton hall; and the resumption of roof beam production outside the building. In fact, queues of the familiar yellow S red Ocean Cement mixers had not been seen on such a scale since the heavy concentrations during pouring of the cyclotron and building foundation.Production of the cyclotron shielding blocks (partly heavy concrete and partly standard, averaging 7200 and 5^00 lb each) was completed early in the year by F. Stanzl Construction Ltd. (Vancouver). Since the heavy concrete blocks adjacent to the cyclotron are slightly magnetic, they had to be in place before the end of the magnet survey. Advantage was taken of the interruption due to the magnet power supply fire in January, and some 170 blocks of the 380 that will eventually surround the machine had been placed by April. The rest were stored in the meson hall.Although initially only the cyclotron shielding blocks were to be pro­duced at this stage, it was found that a considerable cost saving could be achieved by extending the contract to cover experimental area needs for movable blocks at this time. Thus the high1y-efficient assembly line facing the loading platform to the meson hall produced an addi­tional if00 2'x3'x6' standard blocks and 230 2'x3'x6l and 25 1 1 x21 x3' heavy blocks, which will be used for beam line tunnel walls and around primary and secondary target locations.In October work on the semi-permanent shielding on the east and west vault walls began (also by F. Stanzl Construction Ltd.). This shielding will bring the original structural walls up to the required 16 ft thickness. It has been designed in such a way that most of it can be removed without using pneumatic equipment or explosives— by separating manageable sections with plywood. Sections in the vicinity of the beam plane have been made removable, to accommodate future alterations in the beam line configuration.Production of the remaining 72 roof beams, to complete the three layers needed to cover the vault, was resumed in December by Cana Construction Ltd. (the Vancouver branch of Cana Industrial Contractors of Edmonton). These prestressed beams, as described in the 1972 Annual Report, are produced on site, at the rate of one per day. In November the vault was completely 'closed' in again when the first layer was replaced. Most of this had been removed early in the year to allow main crane access until the vault crane was operational.31PROTON BEAM LINESAt the start of the year progress with procurement of beam line components had been relatively slow as the bulk of the engineering effort on the main site was required for cyclotron construction, in particular to meet the heavy demands of the magnet survey. Therefore, it was decided that the Universities of Alberta and Victoria would take a greater share in this work and see that specifications were written and the orders placed directly by these universities. The respective responsibilities were divided with regard to the nature of the components rather than the area each particular university was primarily interested in.Thus, the University of Alberta assumed responsibility for the dipoles and power supplies while the University of Victoria looked after pro­curement of quadrupoles and undertook to deliver operational beam line diagnostics for all beam line devices to the main site. As a result of this effort, most of these components were on order by the end of the year and deliveries had started. With arrival of the first A in. quad­rupoles in November and the 19-8 deg dipole for beam line I in December, the magnet test area in the meson hall was enlarged to include quadrupole and dipole test stations.Prototypes of the four different quadrupoles had been subjected to exten­sive tests and measurements at University of Victoria after each arrived from the manufacturer. They were a A in. aperture quadrupole (4Q.19/8) for the proton beam lines, a conventional 8 in. aperture quadrupole (8Q16/8) for both proton and pion beam lines, a narrow radiation-hard quadrupole (8QN16M/7) for use adjacent to pion production targets, and a 12 in. aperture quadrupole (12Q12/5) for use in secondary pion channels. Three of the quadrupoles were designed under contract by manufacturers, and the 8QN16M/7 was a copy of a LAMPF design. One of the manufacturer's quadrupoles required a fairly major redesign; the others, except for4 in. quadrupole magnets awaiting acceptance testing.32some details were satisfactory. Orders were placed for 22 AQ19/8 (half of which were delivered and tested by year-end), five 8Ql6/8s and six 8QNl6M/7s. With worldwide shortages of steel and copper there is like­ly to be a delay in delivery of the latter two.Work in Victoria on the beam current monitoring devices for beam line I was extended to include those for beam lines IVa and IVb. There will be approximately 15 monitoring stations, each of which will house one of four types of detectors: scintillation screens viewed by TV cameras;split plate ionization or secondary emission centroid monitors; multi­wire ionization or secondary emission chambers; and wire scanners.Final designs for these devices had been completed and prototypes were under evaluation at year-end. In November the support structures and vacuum boxes for the monitoring equipment arrived on site.While beam line IVb will be the first to be completed, the University of Alberta placed orders for three 35 deg and one 20 deg bending magnets in July as well as the associated power supplies. They also designed and ordered the steering magnets for all lines as well as a number of common vacuum components.Main site effort was concentrated on the design of the component supports in the vault and vacuum vessels, together with detailed layouts of com­ponents and systems which were required to ensure that everything will fit together. The cooling systems in the vault were specified and cable routes established. Location of power supplies on the building ledges at grade level was finalized as well as the position of the mezzanines required to gain access to them.Vault activities precluded any installation work in 1973 but this was scheduled to start as soon as possible after the magnet survey completed. The low intensity beam line IVb has first priority because of its usefulness in machine diagnostics, to be followed by IVa. It is hoped to have as much as possible of the vault portion of beam line I in­stalled before T=0.As the final engineering details of the beam line magnets now were known it was possible to repeat the calculations on the channels with realistic optical parameters for the elements. A new general purpose multi-magnet ray-tracing program has been developed which will complement the program TRANSPORT in that high-order soft edge calculations can be made. At present the program can study three-dimensional trajectory calculations with three-dimensional quadrupole fields, but only two- dimensional fields for bending magnets.The 70-ton cores for the two proton beam dumps (designed at Royal Roads Military College, Victoria) were poured by a local foundry (Western Canada Steel) from inexpensive steel pour leftovers, and arrived on site in October. At year-end a start had been made on the excavation of the 28 ft hole in which the 10 pA dump will be buried outside the building. The 100 nA internal beam dump was being prepared for installation in the southwest corner of the proton hall, to be cast in a concrete shield around the steel core.33EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIESAlthough the overall layout of the beam lines and experimental facili­ties in the meson hall changed little from the 1972 configuration, the proton hall layout underwent some modification to overcome space prob­lems for some experimentalists, and considerable time was expended in trying to optimize the arrangement of beam line IVa. The opposing requirements involved the desire of the group using the SFU scattering chamber to operate in a parasitic manner, on the one hand, with the need of the neutron-proton scattering group for adequate space for time- of-flight and angular precisions, on the other hand. A compromise satisfactory to both parties finally evolved.The high intensity section, beam line IVa, is nominally designed for use with nuclear chemistry and secondary production experiments. A large scattering chamber, to be used for study of heavy fragments produced in the disintegration of nuclei by high-energy protons, is the first target on this line. Immediately following will be the liquid deuterium target for production of polarized neutrons and protons which will be used in nucleon-nucleon experiments. After passing through the LD2 target, the primary beam is deflected through 35 deg and is eventually deposited in an external beam dump k ft beyond the north-west corner of the building. Between the clearing magnet and the point of exit of the beam is suffi­cient room to mount other experiments.Beam line IVb will be operated in two modes. During initial operation it will be run in a dispersive mode with a double focus at target PT1. This allows measurement of the momentum spread in the beam and, hence, a reconstruction of beam behaviour in the cyclotron. In its normal operating mode beam line IVb is intended for use with experiments in which the beam itself is used as a nuclear probe. The line will be run in a doubly achromatic mode with a double waist at target PT1. At this point equipment will be mounted for elastic, inelastic and quasi­elastic scattering experiments with both polarized and unpolarized beams. Further downstream will be the high resolution magnetic spec­trometer, initially a medium resolution instrument (^300 keV at 500 MeV).Meson production target T2This beam line I target will be commissioned first and will provide mesons for the stopped ir-y channel, the medical channel, and the stopped y+ channel. Initially, proton beams up to 10 yA will be stopped in the T2 target shield. A simple proton irradiation facility will be provided in the target shield. When the thermal neutron facility is built, the full 100 yA proton beam will be refocused after T2 and transported to the neutron facility.Construction of the T2 target assembly, cooling package, target control and interlock system was nearing completion at the University of Victoria by year-end. The purge-prime package and control system had been designed; operations include ready the target for removal after it has been irradiated or prepare it for operation after servicing.3^i35Target T2 assembly showing shield discs, guide plates, bellows water couplings and target ladder.Design of the shield around the meson target has been enlarged and now contains the newly designed blockers for the three secondary channels off this target, a temporary 10 yA beam stop for the main proton beam and a small sample irradiation facility. Fabrication of the shield and associated components got under way in September.The front ends of the three secondary channels at the T2 production tar­get are essentially a part of the T2 and tunnel shield, and hence require special component designs. To connect the channel vacuum systems to the main beam line at T2, radiation-hard vacuum seals have been developed and a handling procedure has been evolved to permit replacement of front-end beam line components if required. Layout of the special shielding blocks required around T2 for initial operation of the stopped 7r-y channel was completed.Stopped  7 7 -y  channelThis channel will be commissioned for early operation. The 12 in. quadru­ples, the 10 in. gap bending magnets, and power supplies of the achro­matic system have been ordered. The analyzing magnet which follows the injector is the old Pair Spectrometer magnet that has kindly been supplied by Chalk River and is now on the floor.MSR facilityPreviously referred to as the muonium chemistry channel or simply the y channel, this beam line has been renamed the muon spin relaxation (MSR) facility, in recognition of the potential uses of both positive and negative polarized muons in a variety of applications highly analogous to those of NMR and ESR. This beam line, coming off target T2 at 55 deg,36has been designed around available magnets, quadrupoles and power sup­plies borrowed from Berkeley and Harvard, with the view of providing enough flexibility to allow for later improvements. Due to the neces­sarily ad hoc design of this channel, the available muon fluxes will be considerably less than those of the stopped ir-y channel, but altogether adequate for MSR studies— the presently conceived channel should deliver ^2xl06 y+ /sec on a 100 cm target.The MSR channel is intended to run in three modes of operation: conven­tional y+ or y" (from decay in flight) and 4 MeV y+ ('Arizona mode1).The latter mode utilizes muons from the decay of pions at rest in thesurface of the production target; it provides a nearly monochromatic y+beam (very high stopping density) which is essentially 100% polarized.Such a y+ beam is ideal for studying the interactions of muonium (y+e-) in gases and in rare solids; indeed, these will be some of the first experiments undertaken with the channel.Medical facilityThe negative pion channel going south of T2 and the adjoining Medical Annex are being built and funded jointly by the B.C. Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation and the Health Resources Fund of the Department of National Health S Welfare. Effort in 1973 concentrated on procure­ment of the nine magnet elements for the beam line— one radiation-hard 8 in. narrow quadrupole, two 45 deg wedge dipoles, three standard 12 in. bore quadrupoles, one standard 8 in. quadrupole, and two sextupoles—  particularly those with a lead time of about a year. Space limitations near T2 necessitated a special design for the radiation-hard quadrupole; it is to be a shortened version of the standard radiation-hard narrow quadrupole, and after field measurements on the latter at Victoria, re­design was completed. The two dipoles (the first radiation hard and the second with conventional epoxy-insulated windings) were ordered for delivery by m i d-1974. The standard quadrupoles, as well as the power supplies for all the magnets (except sextupoles) which have been standardized with the other TRIUMF power supplies, were part of bulk orders placed through the Victoria and Edmonton groups. The shorter lead-time sextupoles, with design and specifications complete by year- end, are expected on site in the spring.Preliminary work on shielding began, with the work concentrating on the heavy shielding surrounding the production target. Because the support structure for the beam line must be incorporated into the shielding, the detailed design of the shielding blocks requires more attention than normal. The target assembly, including a collimator and beam stop, was designed and drafted, and work began on the alignment and mounting details for the first two magnets and on the vacuum flanges and assembly procedures for all elements in the high-radiation area.A conceptual design for a computer-based CAMAC data acquisition and control system was completed, and work began on the detailed design and acquisition of the computer equipment and electronic hardware for the37physical measurements program. The controls system is being designed to provide maximum flexibility in the control and monitoring of pion beam size, uniformity and momentum distribution. Conformation with CAMAC standards should allow these aims to be achieved. By taking advantage of the bulk ordering of electronics by TRIUMF, the biomedical controls group will have a system operating and being tested as the beam line is being installed in 1974.The interior design of the laboratory and office facilities was final­ized, with construction scheduled to begin in the spring of 1974.Target T1 and the high resolution AA channelTarget Tl will be installed after T2. It will be limited to thicknesses less than 4 g/cm2 and will provide mesons for the high resolution chan­nel. Design of a septum magnet for this medium-fast pion channel has been completed and construction begun.Initial studies on proton contamination in this channel indicate a Tr+/p of approximately unity. Displacement of protons from the pion focus can be effected by interposing a thin degrader at mid-channel which will reduce the quality of the pion beam. The pion spot will be broadened due to range straggling and will be slewed by the Landau effect. At a channel setting of 210 MeV, an 83 mg/cm2 carbon foil would, for instance, displace protons by 2 cm at the focal plane while introducing an addi­tional 100 keV spread in pions. This technique, while expedient for some initial experiments, does not allow full utilization of the capabilities of the channel. Eventually, therefore, it is planned to include the use of a non-intercepting type of separator, such as the crossed electric and magnetic field type.Pion production experimentThis experiment, a collaboration between staff of NASA and the Victoria TRIUMF team, was designed to obtain data to assist in the choice of takeoff angles and geometries in the TRIUMF ir channels. The data-taking phase at the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory, Newport News, Virginia was completed early in the year. Inclusive IIN differential cross- sections for 600 MeV protons on Be, C, Cu, Pb were measured for energies of 20 to 100 MeV and angles of 60 to 150 deg. At year-end the data was still under analysis at University of Victoria; preliminary results indicated that the large angle cross-sections fall off faster than expected at high pion energies.Scattering chamberThe 60 in. thin-target scattering chamber being built at Simon Fraser University for the proton area users was in the final stages of fabrica­tion by the end of the year. The main tank and vacuum system had been tested with remote controls. The centre hub assembly for rotary motion of the four arms and target as well as vertical motion of the target38ladder were installed, and the motor drive assemblies were being fabri cated. Also in the final stages of fabrication was the CAMAC control system for these drives and their position encoders. It is expected that the scattering chamber will be completed early in 197^, ready for installation in beam line IVa when the line is being installed.Liquid D JH2 targetWork at University of Victoria continued, and at year-end machining of about 80% of the target components had been completed and preliminary assembly begun. The vacuum system and cryolines were assembled and operate satisfactorily. Vacuum testing of the gas storage and safety vessels was completed and work began on the gas handling system. Also completed was design of the integral vacuum vessel/target shield. The control and monitoring systems for the target were fully designed and about 60% manufactured.High resolution proton spectrometerAt the beginning of the year the high resolution proton spectrometer had not been developed past the conceptual design stage, as illustrated in last year's Annual Report.Engineering drawings for the first dipole were completed by late March.As the available engineering effort had to be diverted to the design of beam line magnets the first dipole was not tendered until July. Due to a lack of response to this tender from steel fabricators, it was necessary to retender that portion of the contract. This was done in mid-August. The result of these tender actions is that contracts for the coil and power supply for this dipole have been let and that contracts for the supply and fabrication of the steel will be let in November.The high resolution system consists basically of a quadrupole and two dipole magnets. Using only the quadrupole and first dipole magnets, one can obtain a system which will give adequate resolution during the early years of TRIUMF operation. This option has been actively investigated during the past year. The most favourable configuration seems to be one in which the quadrupole is moved up to 1 m from the target and the dipole rotated through 180 deg about a vertical axis, but remains at the same distance from the target. This configuration gives adequate energy resolution (better than 0.5 MeV) and a substantial increase in solid angle over the full HRPS. The disadvantages are:1) the minimum scattering angle obtainable without the beam strik­ing the spectrometer is doubled to 20 deg2) more software is required to correct for second-order effects3) poor angular resolution (±1/3 deg) in the horizontal planeThis latter disadvantage may be overcome at the expense of some loss in energy resolution by putting a wire plane in front of the quadrupole. On39balance it seems there would be substantial advantages in building such a medium resolution system for use until high quality beams with excel­lent energy resolution become available.Isotope productionStudies continued at Simon Fraser University on the need for a facility at TRIUMF to produce isotopes for commercial applications and for use by experimentalists. These confirmed the conclusion reached in 1972 that the greatest potential need is for short-lived (Ti < 1 day) and fora few specific long-lived nuclides. The demands of specific users were identified during the year and calculations of such factors as beam currents and target thicknesses necessary, mode of production, safety aspects, etc. were conducted.From the indicated and also potential demand, serious consideration will be given to the installation of such a facility in beam line I when this line is expanded. An irradiation cell holder, to be located in beam line IVa, which will accommodate various types of transport systems, has been designed and built. Production of specific isotopes for experimen­tal purposes is possible, provided appropriate transport systems and laboratory space are available.The question of the application of a gas jet recoil system as a means of transporting short-lived nuclides was explored. Products of fast neutron-induced reactions including fission have been transported with high efficiency and with short transit times using an ethylene gas system. The mechanism of this process was clarified through various studies. At year-end the question of introducing separation and purifi­cation techniques as an integral part of the system was under investiga­tion.InstrumentationThe Instrumentation Advisory Committee, formed at the beginning of the year, has worked to provide a recommended set of electronic instrumenta­tion suitable for the experimental groups at TRIUMF. These studies included engineering and cost evaluations of units submitted to us by selected manufacturers.In order to optimize flexiblity for users, NIM standards are recommended for fast logic and nuclear instrumentation and CAMAC for data acquisi­tion. 50f2 LEMO-style cables and connectors are recommended for use with all CAMAC and fast NIM logic modules, with 50fi BNC for slow electronics (positive NIM analogue and logic signals).For economic reasons as well as the need to provide special instrumenta­tion designed for specific needs, a limited program of NIM module design has been undertaken at TRIUMF.40The  i n i t i a l  l i s t  o f  r e commended  e q u i p m e n t  i n c l u d e s :1. NIM bins and power supplies: 96 W and 200 W,2. CAMAC crates from GEC-Elliott Automation Ltd.CAMAC power supplies from B.L. Packer3- NIM and CAMAC modules:Quad updating discriminators Dual 4-fold majority coincidence gates Dual 4-fold coincidence units Quad 2-fold coincidence unit Dual 4-fold logic OR gate Single 8-fold logic OR gate Signal converter Fast -*-> Slow NIM Visual scaler Linear mixer (Fan-in)Linear fan-out Linear gateLinear gate and stretcher (integrating) Variable delay units Variable attenuators (50ft)from B.L. Packer Co.Gate pulse and delay generators Amplitude encoder Time encoderRouting unit (with pulse centre detection ci rcui t)Quad time-to-digital converter (CAMAC) Coincidence buffer (CAMAC pattern unit)LRS 621 LLRS 364 A/L(TRIUMF development)(TRIUMF development)TRIUMF 14x300TRIUMF 14x2950TRIUMF 14x29900RTEC 772LRS 127 D/LLRS 128 LBorer 330EGG LG 105/NBorer 361LRS A10/LEGG GG202EGG EA 101/NEGG ET 102/NTRIUMF design LRS 2226A EGG C212Evaluation of other instrumentation is continuing.41BUILDINGS AND SERVICESThis year was the first with complete occupancy of our buildings, and in most areas over-occupancy was the rule of the day. There was no new building construction during the year.A flood occurred on the top floor of the service annex and managed to spread to all five levels, even into the vault. It revealed some cracks in the concrete floors, which were subsequently repaired by 'epoxy i nject ion 1.At the time of both fires all our safety and protective devices operated properly, and the damage to buildings was minimal.Electrical servicesThe electrical services are being continually expanded as equipment arrives and is installed. It was necessary to install a capacitor bank to avoid a power factor penalty on our power bill. Our greatest demand was kSSk kW, and this occurred in August. The only substantial power outage lasted for 20 min when a transformer in the new University sub­station blew up.Mechanical servicesAll the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and cooling systems ope­rated to satisfaction during this first year of plant operation.The one area where difficulty occurred was with the pressure fluctuations in the cooling water for the resonators. A smoothing tank has been designed and will be installed early in the coming year.It was also determined that the heat load on the beam floor of the service annex was underestimated, and with the additional trim and har­monic power supplies, it will be necessary to air-condition this area. This work is being planned for installation in the coming year.hiEXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMMEThe Experiments Evaluation Committee met twice in 1973 and recommended some new proposals and addenda to earlier proposals. Several of the new proposals were logical extensions of existing programmes through common scientific objective, common equipment or common collaborators.The following experiments have been approved for the first two years of operation: [spokesman underlined]Proton Area T=0' 24 ELASTIC SCATTERING OF POLARIZED PROTONS ON 12C, G. Roy, G .A. Moss,D.M. Sheppard, H. Sherif (University of Alberta)58 POLARIZATION EFFECTS OF THE SPIN-ORBIT COUPLING OF NUCLEAR PROTONS,P. Kitching, W.K. Dawson, W.J. McDonald, G.A. Moss, G.C. Neilson,W.C. Olsen, J.T. Sample, D.M. Sheppard, H.S. Sherif, G.M. Stinson,J.M. Cameron (University of Alberta)14 THE INTERACTION OF PROTONS WITH VERY LIGHT NUCLEI IN THE ENERGY RANGE 200-500 MeV, B.S. Bhakar, W.T.H. van Oers (University of Manitoba), J.M. Cameron, G. Roy (University of Alberta)15 THE DETERMINATION OF SINGLE NEUTRON HOLE STATES VIA THE (p,pn) REAC­TION AT TRIUMF, P. Kitching, J.M. Cameron, W.J. McDonald (University of Alberta)16 PROTON DEUTERON QUASI-ELASTIC SCATTERING VIA THE 6Li(p,pd)-, J.M. Cameron, P. Kitching, W.J. McDonald, G.A. Moss {University of Alberta)12 AN EXPERIMENT TO MEASURE THE MASS OF NEW ELEMENTS WITH ISOSPIN Tz=-2 AND Tz=-5/2 USING (p,8He) AND (p ,9 L i), J.M. Cameron, G.C. Neilson,G.M. Stinson {University of Alberta)' 26 MEASUREMENT OF THE DIFFERENTIAL CROSS-SECTION FOR FREE NEUTRON-PROTON SCATTERING AND FOR THE REACTION D(n,p)2n, L.P. Robertson {University of Victoria), E.G. Auld, D.A. Axen, D.F. Measday, J. Va'vra {Univ. ofBritish Columbia)27 MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION IN FREE NEUTRON-PROTON SCATTERING,D.A. Axen, E.G. Auld, D.F. Measday, J. Va'vra {Univ. of British Columbia), L.P. Robertson {University of Victoria), G. Roy {University of Alberta)40 A PROPOSAL FOR NEUTRON EXPERIMENTS AT TRIUMF, D.A. Axen, M. K. Craddock, J. Va'vra {Univ. of British Columbia), D.V. Bugg, J.A. Edgington{Queen Mary College3 London), N.W. Stewart (Bedford College, London),A.C. Clough {University of Surrey), I.M. Blair {AERE, Harwell)T=1' 28 A PROGRAMME OF DIRECT PICKUP REACTIONS AT INTERMEDIATE ENERGIES,D.G. Fleming {Univ. of British Columbia)59 INVESTIGATION OF THE (p,2p) REACTIONS ON 3He, 3H AND ^He, W.T.H. van Oers, B.S, Bhakar {University of Manitoba), J.M. Cameron, P. Kitching, G.A. Moss, J.G. Rogers {University of Alberta)Pa ras i te3 THE STUDY OF FRAGMENTS EMITTED IN NUCLEAR REACTIONS, J.M. D'Auria,R. Green, R.G. Korteling, B.D. Pate (Simon Fraser University)6 STUDIES OF THE PROTON- AND PI ON-INDUC ED FISSION OF LIGHT TO MEDIUMMASS NUCLIDES, B.D. Pate, D. Dautet, F.M. Kiely (Simon Fraser Univ.)11 A STUDY OF NEW, HIGH NEUTRON EXCESS NUCLIDES, J.M. D'Auria. B.D. Pate,R.G. Korteling, W. Wiesehahn, H. Dautet, G. Bischoff (Simon Fraser University), G.E. Coote [INS, Dept, of Science & Industrial Research, New Zealand)Meson Area T=09 A STUDY OF THE REACTION OF tt" + p -> y + n AT PION KINETIC ENERGIES FROM 20-200 MeV, D.F. Measday, M.D. Hasinoff, M. Salomon Univ. ofBritish Columbia), J-M Poutissou (Universite de Montreal)41 RADIATIVE CAPTURE OF PIONS IN LIGHT NUCLEI, M. Salomon, M.K.Craddock,M.D. Hasinoff [Univ. of British Columbia)TR O DUOC1EUDUAL GY L2U 4I -* ev BRANCHING RATIO, D.A. Bryman, G.A. Beer,R.M. Pearce, G.R. Mason, C.E. Picciotto, L.P. Robertson [University of Victoria)23b INVESTIGATION OF THE DECAY MODE IIB e+ + ve + y, P. Depommier,J.P. Martin, J-M Poutissou [Universite de Montreal)18 INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT ON ATOMIC MUON CAPTURE RATES,G.A. Beer, T.W. Dingle, D.E. Lobb, G.R. Mason, R.M. Pearce [Univer­sity of Victoria), D.G. Fleming [Univ. of British Columbia), W.C. Sperry [Central Washington State College)51 SEARCH FOR TRANSFER OF y“ FROM LITHIUM LATTICE TO HEAVY IMPURITIES, G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, R.M. Pearce. A.D. Kirk, G.R. Mason, A. Olin,[University of Victoria) , K.R. Kendall [B.C. Cancer Institute)19 NUCLEAR DECAYS FOLLOWING MUON CAPTURE, G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason, C.E. Picciotto, C.S. Wu, R.M. Pearce [University of Victoria), D.G.Fleming [Univ. of British Columbia), W.C. Sperry [Central Washington State College), in collaboration with G.A. Bartholomew, E.D. Earle,F.C. Khanna [Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories)42a tt - 2He: STRONG INTERACTION SHIFT, M. Krell [Universite de Sher­brooke), G.A. Beer, D.A. Bryman, S.K. Kim, G.R. Mason. R.M. Pearce,C.E. Picciotto, L.P. Robertson, A. Olin, C.S. Wu [University of Vvctoria), J.S. Vincent (TRIUMF)46 HYPERFINE SPLITTING IN POLARIZED MUONIC 209Bi ATOMS, G.T. Ewan, B.C. Robertson [Queens University), R.M. Pearce, G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason,A. Olin [University of Victoria), K. Nagamine, T. Yamazaki [Univer­sity of Tokyo), D.G. Fleming [Univ. of British Columbia)10 POSITIVE PION PRODUCTION IN PR0T0N-PR0T0N AND PR0T0N-NUCLEUS REACTION,G. Jones, D.A. Axen, R.R. Johnson, J.B. Warren, M. Salomon [Univ. of British Columbia), L.P. Robertson [University of Victoria),P. Kitching, W.C. Olsen [University of Alberta)39 S-WAVE PI ON-NUCLEAR INTERACTIONS, D.A. Axen. G. Jones [Univ. ofBritish Columbia)4453 EMISSION OF HEAVY FRAGMENTS IN PI ON ABSORPTION, P.W. Martin, G. Jones, M. Salomon, E.W. Vogt [Univ. of British Columbia)1 LOW ENERGY PI NUCLEAR SCATTERING, R.R. Johnson, D.A. Axen, E.G. Auld,G. Jones {Univ. of British Columbia)30 SCATTERING OF PIONS FROM ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN AND HELIUM, B.S. Bhakar,N. Davidson, W. Falk, W.T.H. van Oers (University of Manitoba)29 A STUDY OF THE REACTIONS i r ± p ^ T r ± p A T P I O N  KINETIC ENERGIES FROM10-90 MeV, D.A. Axen, R.R. Johnson {Univ. of British Columbia),E.W. Blackmore (TRIUMF)' 35 A STUDY OF POSITIVE MUON DEPOLARISATION PHENOMENA IN CHEMICAL SYSTEMS,K.M. Crowe (University of California) , D.G. Fleming, D.C. Walker{Univ. of British Columbia), R.M. Pearce (University of Victoria),J.H. Brewer (TRIUMF)60 STUDY OF MUON IUM FORMATION IN MgO AND RELATED INSULATORS AND ITS DIF­FUSION INTO A VACUUM, D.G. Fleming, G. Jones, R. Orth, J.B. Warren{Univ. of British Columbia)37 SEARCH FOR REACTION y~ + Cu -* e+ + Co, D.A. Bryman, G.A. Beer, L.P. Robertson (University of Victoria), M. Blecher, K. Gotow (Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University)T=1r 56 A STUDY OF THE DECAY OF THE MUON ('TINA'), D.F. Measday, M. Salomon,M. Hasinoff, J.E. Spuller, R.N. MacDonald, D. Berghofer {Univ. of British Columbia), P. Depommier, J-M Poutissou {University de Montreal)23a SEARCH FOR THE DECAY MODE IIe B am y P. Depommier, J.P. Martin,J-M Poutissou (University de Montryal)57 SEARCH FOR THE y+ -> e+ + y DECADE MODE, P. Depommier, J.P. Martin,J-M Poutissou (University de Montryal)' 20. ISOTOPE EFFECT IN y CAPTURE, G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason, R.M. Pearce,C.E. Picciotto, C.S. Wu (University of Victoria), D.G. Fleming {Univ.of British Columbia), W.C. Sperry (Central Washington State College)13. MEASUREMENT OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SIZE OF THE NUCLEUS WITH MUONIC X-RAYS, PARTICULARLY THE 2s-2p TRANSITION, G.A. Beer, G.R. Mason,R.M. Pearce, C.E. Picciotto, C.S. Wu (University of Victoria), D.G. Fleming {Univ. of British Columbia), W.C. Sperry {Central Washington State College)Paras i te49 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RADIATION EFFECTS OF PIONS AND ELECTRONS,D.C. Walker {Univ. of British Columbia)54 TT± REACTION CROSS-SECTION MEASUREMENTS ON ISOTOPES OF CALCIUM,R.R. Johnson, K.L. Erdman, D.A. LePatourel {Univ. of British Columbia), J.L. Beveridge (TRIUMF)45ORGANIZATIONBoard of ManagementThe Board of Management of TRIUMF manages the business of the project and has equal representation from each of the four universities. It reports to the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia which has legal and financial responsibility for TRIUMF. At the end of 1973 the Board comprised:University of AlbertaSimon Fraser UniversityUniversity of VictoriaUniversity of British ColumbiaDean Kenneth B. Newbound Dr. H. Schiff President Max WymanDean S. Aronoff Mr. G. Stuart Dr. B.G . Wi1 sonDr. J.M. Dewey Dr. H.W. Dosso Dr. S.A. JenningsProf. W.M. Armstrong (Chairman) Dr. R.R. HaeringDean G.M. Volkoff (Secretary)Ex-officio Dr. J.R. Richardson, Director, TRIUMFDr. D.G. Hurst, President, Atomic Energy Control BoardUntil mid-year Dr. J.T. Sample of University of Alberta and Vice- President D.J. MacLaurin of University of Victoria served on the Board in places now occupied by Dr. Schiff and Dr. Dewey. Changes in Simon Fraser University Board membership occurred at the end of November when Mr. Cyrus H. McLean and Mr. Jack Diamond stepped down and their places taken by Mr. Stuart and Dr. Wilson. The Board met three times in 1973.Operating CommitteeThe Operating Committee of TRIUMF is responsible for the operation of the project. It reports to the Board of Management through its chair­man, Dr. J.R. Richardson. It has four voting members, one from eachof the four universities. The members of the committee (alternate members in parentheses) at the end of 1973 were:Dr. J.R. Richardson DirectorDr. J.T. Sample Associate DirectorMr. J.J. Burgerjon Chief EngineerDr. G.C. Neilson University of AlbertaDr. B.D. Pate Simon Fraser UniversityDr. R.M. Pearce University of VictoriaDr. K.L. Erdman University of B.C.(Cha i rman) (Secretary)(Dr.(Dr.(Dr.(Dr.W.K.R.G.L.P.D.F.Dawson) Korteli ng) Robertson) Measday)46In July E.W. Vogt stepped down as Associate Director, and J.T. Sample began a sabbatical year at main site, serving as Associate Director.G.C. Neilson and L.P. Robertson were also spending the 1973/7^ academic year at TRIUMF. The committee met six times in 1973-TRIUMF Safety Advisory CommitteeDr. B.D. Pate (Chairman)Dr. L.D. Skarsgard Dr. J.H. SmithDr. R.R. Johnson Mr. W. RachukDr. R.T. Morrison Dr. J.T. Sample Dr. L. KatzDr. G.D. Wait (Secretary)Simon Fraser University B.C. Cancer Institute B.C. Dept, of Health Services and Hospital Insurance University of British Columbia Radiation Protection & Pollution Control Officer, UBC Vancouver General Hospital TRIUMFUniversity of Saskatchewan TRIUMFThe following attended meetings as guests of the committee:Dr.Mr.Mr.Mr.J.R. J. J. I .M. D.K.Ri chardson Bu rgerjon Thorson McM i11 anTRIUMFMr. S.C. Frazer, Workers Compensation Board Dr. D.H. Sykes, Atomic Energy Control Board Dr. J.D. Abbatt, Dept, of National Health & Welfare, Bureau of Human EcologyUntil mid-December Dr. H.F. Batho served on the committee as the B.C. Cancer Institute representative, and Mr. H.E. Rankin of Royal Roads Military College until June in the place now occupied by Dr. Katz. The committee met nine times in 1973-Experiments Evaluation CommitteeDr. J.T. Sample (Chairman)Dr. L.D. SkarsgardDr. A.S. ArrottDr. E.M. HenleyDr. W.J. McDonaldDr. D.F. MeasdayDr. R.G. KortelingDr. A.E. LitherlandDr. J.E. RothbergDr. E.P. HincksMr. J.A. Watson (Secretary)TRIUMFB.C. Cancer Institute Simon Fraser University University of Washington University of Alberta University of British Columbia Simon Fraser University University of Toronto University of Washington Carleton University University of AlbertaIn July Dr. Skarsgard joined the committee in place of Dr. J.M.W. Gibson.b7FINANCIAL STATEMENTA. Statement of revenue and expenditures, April 1, 1972-March 31, 1973:RevenueAtomic Energy Control Board grant $5,300,000University contributionsUniversity of Alberta $250,000Simon Fraser University 100,000University of Victoria 13 6,36AUniversity of British Columbia 715,000 1 ,201 ,36AB.C. Cancer Institute grant 54,204Interest (24,636)T°tal $6,530,932Subtract: Deficit balance forwardfrom previous year (1,665,103)$4,865,829Expend itu resSalaries $1,513,939Consultants 100,074Travel 65,489Telephone 21 ,188Printing and copying 30,338Development equipment 559,576Miscellaneous and minor expenses 63,230Computer charges 32,464Engineering firms (design and inspection) 146,302Construction contracts 846,755Capital equipment 3,13 6,108Total $6,515,463Overexpended funds as at March 31, 1973 (1,649,634)Total $4,865,82948B. Statement of revenue and expenditures, April 1, 1973-Sept. 30, 1973:RevenueAtomic Energy Control Board grant $4,650,000University contributionsUniversity of Alberta $125,000Simon Fraser University 100,000University of Victoria 69,037University of British Columbia 357,500 651,537B.C. Cancer Institute grant 17,876Interest 24,291Total $5,343,704Subtract: Deficit balance forwardfrom previous year (1,649,634)$3,694,070Expendi turesSalaries $1,058,155Management consultants 29,178Travel 41,331Telephone 8,365Printing and copying 6,405Development equipment 255,111Miscellaneous and minor expenses 94,781Computer charges 18,745Engineering firms (design and inspection)Construction contracts 208,871Capital equipment 900,539Total $2,621,481Funds as at September 30, 1973 1,072,589$3,694,07049Appendix A PUBLICATIONSConference proceedings:J.R. Richardson, Problems and possible solutions for the TRIUMF project, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 3, 207 (1973)J.J. Burgerjon, O.K. Fredriksson, A.J. Otter, W.A. Grundman, B.C. Stonehill, Construction details of the TRIUMF H“ cyclotron, ibid., 243E.W. Blackmore, G. Dutto, W. Joho, G.H. Mackenzie, L. Root and M. Zach, Experimental results from the TRIUMF central region cyclotron, ibid.,248R.W. Harrison and D.E. Lobb, A negative pion beam transport channel for radiobiology and radiation therapy at TRIUMF, ibid., 1029I.M. Thorson and W.J. Wiesehahn, Nuclear data for shielding and activa­tion estimates for TRIUMF, Proc. of Symposium on Applications of Nuclear Data in Science and Technology, Paris, 1972 (to be published)G.H. Mackenzie, TRIUMF status report, Proc. of 10th European Cyclotron Colloquium, Groningen (to be published)D.F. Measday, The experimental programme at TRIUMF, Proc. 5th Int. Conference on High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure, Uppsala (to be pub 1i shed)D.R. Heywood and B. Ozzard, An optically-coupled serial CAMAC system,Proc. of 20th Nuclear Science Symposium and 5th Nuclear Power Systems Symposium, San Francisco (to be published)J.H. Brewer and D.G. Fleming, Muonium hot atom chemistry, Proc. of Symposium on Practical Applications of Accelerators, Los Alamos (to be pub 1i shed)Journal publications:P.A. Reeve, L.P. Robertson, N.M. Al-Qazzaz and C.H.Q. Ingram, Some experi­mental methods for measuring the optical parameters of a beam line (to be published, Nucl. Instr. S Meth.)H. Dautet, S.C. Gujrathi, W.J. Wiesehahn, J.M. D'Auria and B.D. Pate, A gas jet transport system for the radioactive products of fast-neutron induced fission, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. 107, 49 (1973)W.J. Wiesehahn, H. Dautet, J.M. D'Auria and B.D. Pate, The application of a gas jet recoil transport system to the products of fast neutron reactions, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. 109, 613 (1973)W.J. Wiesehahn, J.M. D'Auria, H. Dautet and B.D. Pate, The role of ethylene molecule clusters in a gas jet radioactivity transport system (to be published, Can. J. Phys.)W.J. Wiesehahn, J.M. D'Auria and J.C. Irwin, Evidence for ethylene- molecule clusters in a gas jet system (to be published, Nucl. Instr. &Meth.)50Appendix BSTAFFBREAKDOWN OF TRIUMF STAFF TOTAL AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1973Ma i n s i te UBC UVic SFUUA1 ta TotalSc i ent i s ts 271 4 42 32 38Faculty full-time main site1 9 7 3 m 3 (7) (2) (1) (4)Faculty part-time 9 4 4 7 2 itEng i nee rs 15 1 16Prog ramme rs 5 1 2 8Graduate students 8 2 4 14Techn i c i ans 69 6 it 79Des igner-draftsmen 21 4 1 26Workshop staff 15 1 1 17Plant 6 6Admi n i st rat i on 4 4Office staff:Secretarial & clerical Library/1nformation Office911 1 0.6 1 12.61Stores 2 2174 18 23 H . 6 18 247.6^Including one physicist from B.C. Cancer Institute.2T w o  additional scientists from Simon Fraser University and two from University of Alberta work full-time at main site and have been included in main site total s.3Faculty members spending 1973/74 year on leave at main site have been included in appropriate category. During such leave, faculty members are paid by TRIUMF rather than the respective university.51% S t a f f  Change sTRIUMF D u r i n g  1973P a y r o l 1 F r om Un t  i 1TRIUMF Vancouver ( l i s t e d  i n  o r d e r  o f  j o i n i n g  t h e  p r o j e c t )J.R. Richardson J.J. Burgerjon G.H. Mackenzie R.H.M. GummerA.J. Otter M. ZachR. Po i r i e rE.W. Blackmore J.W. Carey0.K. Fredriksson D.R. HeywoodG. Dutto V. RodelC. Kos tJ . V. Cresswel1 P. BosmanD.C. HealeyF. Choutka M. DubsB. Willi ams N. Sonntag S.W. Smi thG. Vickers1.R. Heath K. Balik R. GibbR. Marek R. Lueck J.H. Brewer D. EricsonC.W. Bordeaux R. WashburnR. Wimblett W. Cameron L. MoritzG. BestD. Pearce P. SchmorH. LangJ. Bever i dge K.R. KendallL. Udy J. Yandon N. Reh1i nge r K. Poon J. FawleyB. OzzardD i rector Chief Engineer Research Associate Research Associate Magnet Engineer Research Engineer Research Engineer Research Associate Plant Engineer Cyclotron Engineer Research Associate Research Associate Research Engineer Computer Analyst Research Engineer Research Engineer Research Associate Structural S Archite Des i gne rMechanical Engineer Research Associate Business Manager Commissioning Engr Mechanical Engineer Mechanical Engineer Research Associate Commissioning Engr Research Associate Research Associate Commissioning Engr Business Manager Critical Path Co-ord on leave from RHEL Mechanical Engineer Research Associate Research Associate Research Associate Research Associate Research Associate Research Associate BCCI staff memberTechn i c i ansBeam Dynamics RFBeam LinesCRC/RF/MagnetRFCRC/P robesControls Beam Dynamics ISISBeam Dynamics E1ect ron i cs ISIS Vacuum ctural Designer Probes Probes A1i gnmentMagnetCyclotron GeneralBeam LinesMagnetMagnetA1i gnmentMSR Faci1i tyBeam Linesi natorHydrogen TargetsProbesSafetyMagnetA1i gnmentBeam DynamicsCont rolsISISMedical ChannelVacuumVacuumMagnetMagnetRF/MagnetControls> 100Feb 1 Apr 2 Ap r 26 May 1 Jun k Jun 21 Jun 25 0 Jul 1Aug 6 Oct 1 Oct 1 • 100 Oct 1Oct 1 Nov 15 Dec 1 0 Nov 1100Oct 31Aug 31 Dec 11 Aug 31 Jun 30 Ma r 3052TRIUMF Vancouver ( c on  t 1d )°/'OTRIUMF Payrol1S t a f f  ChangesD u r i n g  1973U n t i lF romM. Hone ISISR. Wise VacuumE. Page ISISW.J. Lester ISISH.H. Simmonds RFA. Clark Electron i csD. Evans MagnetG. Walsh RF/VacuumK. Lukas CRC/RFP. Sparkes Cont rolsG. Roy ISISB. Evans Cont rolsL. Vobori1 CRC/MagnetB. Trevitt ISISA.M. Teteris SafetyF. Humphrey Electroni csP.C. Taylor ProbesN. England ISISK.R. Arbuthnot ISISR. Smi th Beam LinesD.W. Thompson RFU. Arthur E1ect ron i csY. Langley El ect ron i csR.W. Simpson ISISJ. Lenz ISISA. Salter Cont ro1s May 1 1J. Me 11roy RFL. Humphreys > Techn i ci ans RF ► 100W. Noelte RFG. Welch ISISB.E. Evans ISISM. Toth ISISA. Brooke ISISJ .D. Blair ISISB. Salama ISISA.O. Lacusta ControlsR. Hi 1 ton 1S 1 S/Magnet Apr 9W. Wu ISIS Apr 9L. Chua E1ect ron i cs Apr 26R. Riches ISIS May 2R. Corman Cont rols May 29C. Lawrence ISIS May 1 kL. Lambkins E1ect ron i cs May 22G. Takacs ISIS May 30T. Moskven Safety Jun 1R. Hansen Electroni cs Jun 1E. Klassen Controls Jun 1S. Langton CRC/Magnet Jun 1F. Bach ISIS Jun 11P. Guerin RF/Magnet Jul 1D. Johnson RF/Magnet Jul 1L.T. Wong ISIS Jul 9W. Rawnsley ISIS Aug 1J. Case Vacuum Aug 1C. Yee Electron i cs j  Aug 2 7Apr 30 Nov 30 Dec 26Sep 30Ma r 7Nov 1 5Sep 30 Dec 31 May 3 153TRIUMF Vancouver ( c o n t ' d )% S t a f f  Change sTRIUMF D u r i n g  1973P a y r o l 1 F r om U n t  i 1C. M. J.D.E. N. S. M. C. R.C.D. C. L. P. R. G. J.Wa1ters Stenn i ng Stewa rt Shorter H i nves Sh i boaka Greene Smyth Fa i rey Skegg Lay Smi th LaForge Ki ng Tautz Chowdh ry Cox Geh1enS.L.E.R.H.H.E.D.B.B.H.H.J.D.C. A. W.R.K.S.W.W.R.Brewer Dusbaba 01 sen Bryson F rey C. Stevens- Techn i c i ansMagnetRFProbes E1ect ron i cs Electron i cs E1ect ron i cs RFProbesVacuumE1ect ron i csMagnetE1ect ron i csISISSafetyControlsCivilE1ect ron i cs E1ect ron i csP. van Rook H. Hansen A.T. Bowyer J . Ha 11ow R.G. Benda 11 H. Sprenger Turke Roberge Meyer Brander Spruyt G.C. Bryson A. Unsworth van Weerden Markewi tz Jordan Scheuri ng V.J. Verma E. SchenkelBruggen-Cate Mertes Westra D i vi sMatt ing1ey MarkMandelman McCa i nDesign Office Supervisor> 100- Designer-draftsmenL. HarronMachine Shop SupervisorMach i ni stMach i n i stWoodworkerMach i n i stMach i n i stWeiderSep 1 Sep 1 Sep 1 Sep E Sep 6 Sep 2L Oct 1 Oct 1 Oct 1 Oct 1 Oct A Oct 9 Oct 15 Oct 18 Nov 5 Nov 5 Nov 6 Dec 17Jan 1 1May 1 May A May 7 May 1 A Jun 1 Aug 2A Sep 1 7 Sep 195bAug 9 Jan 15 Sep 8 May 8May 31 Feb 28 May 29Mar 12 Aug 31Mar 28TRIUMF Vancouver (cont'd)% Staff ChangesTRIUMF During 1973 Payrol1 From Unt i1W. Koch L. Croz ier P. Gormley L.M. Nazar P. Sterritt CarrFI etcher Neuberg Nagel Duggal RoperW.G.J.W.V.R.G.J. Ratzburg W.P. Healey S.J. Smi thS.P. Lee P. Ram L. ClementC. MeadeD. Marquardt W. FungP. BrownH. Houtman M. MerchantA. KayC. BruceL. Wi1loughby P. Moase M. StancerD. SawyerA.N.L.M.C.L.M.V.V.S.C.L.Strathdee Pal mer BassWilli ams Willi ams Sea rfe Ta i nsh Hannah Turner Crerar Ta i tRatcli ffeAttached Staff t.A. Creaney J . Ki1patri ckUBCFacu1tyE.G. Auld D.A. Axen M.K. Craddock K.L. Erdman D.G. FlemingMach i n i st Weider Mach i n i st Mach i n i st Mach i n i s t Mach i n i st Woodworker Mach i n i st Mach i n i st Mach i n i stLate Shift Supervisor Electri ci an> Maintenance TechniciansCrane Operator► Programmers100Receiver/Storekeeper Receiver Clerk of Works Purchasing Assistant Inventory Control Clerk StorekeeperAsst. Information OfficerSecretary to DirectorAccounting AssistantSecretaryRecept ion i stSecretarySecretaryCl erkAccounting Assistant Recept ion i st SecretarySecretary (based at UBC Physics Dept)Project Mgr/Co-ordinator Eng Exp Fac Scheduling EngineerAssoc. Professor Asst. Professor Assoc. Professor Professor Asst. ProfessorMagnetVacuumon leave to TRIUMF RFMSR Faci1i ty(SECo)(SECo)0010000Ma r Apr Apr May May Jul Aug Sep Sep Oct DecMarJunAugAugNov1092k239613181510Jan 1 Jul 1Oct 15 Nov 6FebJun 15AugSep151010 1 1 12022Aug 1Aug 31Aug 31 May 15May 31Aug 31 Jul 31Jan 31 Jul 3155UBC (cont'd) Facu1ty R.R. Johnson W. JohoG. JonesD. F R. BE.W J.B B.LMeasday Moore Vogt Warren Wh i teAssoc. Professor Visiting Asst. Prof. P rofessor Assoc. Professor Visiting Professor Professor Professor P rofessorGraduate Students K. Brackhaus L.W. RootC . LeeD. Berghofer J .E. Spuller T. SuzukiL. Felawka R. MacDonaldCont rols Beam Dynamics Ins t rumentat i on on leave to TRIUMF MagnetISISRFBeam Dynami csExperimental Programme%TRIUMF Payrol1000100O'000100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0Staff Changes During 1973F romJul 1Unt i 1May 15Aug bTRIUMF V'tctoviaT.A. Hodges Research Associate Ta rgets 100P.A. Reeve Research Associate Beam Optics 100J .S . Vi ncent Research Fel1ow Med/Fast it Channel 100 Aug 20D.A. Bryman Research Fel1ow Sec Beam Mon i tors 92R .H . Price Research Fellow Mesic X-ray 100A. Olin Research Fellow Mesic X-ray 100 Sep 1T.R. King PDF Beam Monitors 100K.R. Kendall PDF Medical Channel 100L . M . Willi ams Programmer 100D.F. Smi th Research Assistant Ta rgets 100J .G . G i bson Research Assistant Targets 100M. A. N i col 1 Research Assistant Quad rupoles 100R.R. Langstaff Des i gner-draftsman 100N . 0. Willi ams Des igner-draftsman 100O.E. White Designer-draftsman 100 Sep bD . K. Ga rthwai te Designer-draftsman 100 Ma r 1R.D. Lyle Draftsman 100L.W. McFadden Draftsman 100 Jun 1 1P.G. Verstraaten Mach i n i st 100J.T. Nelson Techn i c i an 100D.A. Beale Techn i c i an 100T. R. Gathri ght Techn i c i an 100E. Garsonnin Techn i c i an 100 Jul 1J. Hunt Secretary 100HoFacu1tyR.M. Pearce Professor 11L.P. Robertson Professor on leave to TRIUMF 61 Jul 1G.R. Mason Assoc. Professor Secondary Beams 0D.E. Lobb Assoc. Professor sabbatical at RHEL 0 Jul 1G.A. Beer Asst. Professor Experimental Area 0Graduate StudentsP.W. James II Production Experiment blS.K. Kim Mesic X-ray 100May 1 1Oct 1Dec 31May 31 Jul 3156Royal Roads Military College% Staff ChangesTRIUMF During 1973 Payrol1 From Unt i1D.W. Hone Assoc. Professor Beam DumpsTRIUMF Burnaby1.M. Thorson Research Associate Shielding & Activation 100G. D. Wa i t Research Associate Safety 100W.J. Wiesehahn Research Associate Chem & Exp Fac i1i ty 100 Oct 1R. Green Research Scientist Nucl Eqpt Development 100D. McM i11 an PDF Safety 100C.R. Hampton Techn i ci anS. Heap Secretary 66F.M. Kiely Research Scientist Chem & Exp Fac i1i ty 100 Oct 1M. Kurn P rog ramme r 100 Mar 26W. Bishop Programmer 100 Aug 27SFUFacultyB.D. Pate Professor Chem & Exp Fac i1i ty 0A.S. Arrott Professor Neutron Target 0R.G. Korteli ng Assoc. Professor Nucl Eqpt Development 0J.M. D1Au r i a Assoc. Professor Chem £ Exp Fac i1i ty 0Graduate StudentsH. Dautet 0D. Dautet 0G. Bisonoff 0H. Blok 0TRIUMF EdmontonB.L. Duel 1i Assoc. Res. Prof. Probes/D i agnost i cs 100D.P. Gurd Asst. Res. Prof. Cont rols 100J.A. Lidbury Design Engineer Spect rometer 100G.M. Stinson Asst. Res. Prof. Spectrometer/P Area 100J.G. Rogers Research Associate 100A.W. Stetz Research Associate 100E. Pearce Techn i c i an 100J. Schaapman Techn i ci an 100A. Lank Mach i n i st 100F. Chan Draftsman 100C.1. Link Secretary 100UAlbertaFaculty and Research StaffG.C. Ne i1 son Professor on sabbatical to TRIUMF 100 Jul 1W.K. Dawson Professor Controls 0J.T. Sample Professor on sabbatical to TRIUMF 100 Jul 1W.C. Olsen Assoc. Professor P Area 0G . Roy Assoc. Professor on leave at TRIUMF 100 Jul 1W.J. McDonald Assoc. Professor P Area 0G.A. Moss Assoc. Professor P Area 0D.M. Sheppard Assoc. Professor P AreaJ.M. Cameron Asst. Professor on leave at TRIUMF 100 Jul 1P. Kitching Asst. Professor P Area 0D.R. Gill PDF P Area 0E. B. Ca i rns Professional Officer P Area/Eqpt Development 0J. B. Elliott Professional Officer P Area 0May 31Dec 2357Appendix CUSER GROUPSTRIUMF Users GroupIn m i d—1973 the Meson and Proton Users Groups were combined to form the TRIUMF Users Group.University of Alberta: University of Victoria: University of British Columbia:W.J. McDonald, G.C. Nei1 son* G.A. Beer E.G. Auld P.W. MartinCha i rman W.C. Olsen A. Fisher D.A. Axen T.G. MastersonE.B. Cai rns T.R. Overton D.E. Lobb D.S. Beder J.M. McMi11 anJ.M. Cameron* J.G. Rogers G.R. Mason M.K. Craddock* D.F. Measday*W.K. Dawson G. Roy* A. Olin K.L. Erdman J-M. PoutissouJ.B. Elliott J.T. Sample* C.E. Picciotto D.G. Fleming M. SalomonG.R. Freeman D.M. Sheppard R.M. Pearce G.M. Gri ffi ths J. Va'vraC.R. James G.M. Stinson L.P. Robertson* M.D. Hasinoff E.W. VogtP. Kitching A.W. Stetz S.A. Ryce C.H.Q. Ingram D.C. WalkerR.H. McCamis F.E. Vermeulen C.S. Wu R.R. Johnson J.B. WarrenG.A. Moss G. Jones W. WestlundTRIUMF Victoria: K.C. Mann B.L. Wh i teD.A. BrymanSzmon Fraser Umversvty: T.A. Hodges TRIUMF Vancouver:A.S. Arrott B.D. Pate T.R. King J. BeveridgeJ.M. D'Auria I.M. Thorson P.A. Reeve E.W. BlackmoreR. Green W.J. Wiesehahn J .H. B rewe rR.G. Korteli ng D.P. Gurd*at TRIUMF Vancouver 1973/7^+ G.H. MackenzieJ.R. RichardsonOther institutions:E.P. Hi neks, R.L. Clarke, Carleton University D.W. Hone, Royal Roads Military College D.O. Wells, J. Jovanovich, W. Falk, K.G. Standing, W.T.H. van Oers, B.S. Bhakar, University of ManitobaH.F. Batho, L.D. Skarsgard, B.C. Cancer InstituteP. Depommier, B. Goulard, University de MontrealG. Bartholomew, 0. Hausser, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories M. Krel1, University de Sherbrooke T.E. Drake, University of TorontoG.T. Ewan, Queens UniversityD.L. Livesey, University of New Brunswick A. A. Cone, Vancouver City College Langara CampusR. Cobb, T. Walton, Cariboo College W.P. Alford, University of Western OntarioH.B. Knowles, Washington State University R.R. McLeod, R. Atneosen, Western Washington State College J.E. Rothberg, V. Cook, University of WashingtonW.C. Sperry, Central Washington State CollegeC. Schultz, University of Massachusetts L. Rosen, Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryH. Plendl, Florida State University T.R. Witten, Rice University J.K. Chen, University of Pennsylvania M. Rickey, G.T. Emery, Indiana University L. Wolfenstein, Camegie-Mellon University L.M. Lederman, Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory L.W. Swenson, Oregon State University W. Bardon, National Science Foundation R. Eisberg, University of California,Los AngelesN. Tanner, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, OxfordD.V. Bugg, J.A. Edgington, Queen Mary College, University of LondonI.M. Blair, Atomic Energy Research Establishment Cl. Perrin, Institut des Sciences Nuciyaires J.P. Blaser, Schweizerisches Institut fTcr Nuklearforschung58Neutron Facility User GroupUniversity of Alberta:G.R. FreemanH.E. Gunning A.A. NoujaimSimon Fraser University:University of Victoria: G. Bushne11 L.P. Robertson*S.A. RyceA.S. Arrott, Cha i rman J.M. D'Auria C.H.J. JonesR.G. B.D. I .M.Korteli ngPateThorsonUniversity of British Columbia:A.V. BreeD.G. Flemi ng L.G. Harrison R.R. HaeringC.A. McDowel1E.B. Tregunna J. TrotterD.C. Wa1ker I.H. Wa rren S. ZbarskyOthe r i nst i tut i ons:R.T. Morrison, Vancouver General HospitalD.W. Hone, Royal Roads Military College L. Rosen, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory R.R. McLeod, Western Washington State College L.W. Reeves, University of WaterlooRadiobiology and Radiotherapy User GroupB. C. Cancer Institute: University of Victoria: University of British Columbia:L.D. Skarsgard, Chairman M.J. Ashwood-Smi th N. Auersperg Cancer ResearchH.F. Batho J. Haywood Biology R.L. Noble CentreJ.M.W. Gibson G.O. Mackie D.H. Copp Phys i ologyC.J. Gregory G.B. Friedmann J.F. McCreary Coord.Health SciR.W. Harrison D.E. Lobb Phys i cs 1 .McT. Cowan Graduate StudiesR.M. Henkelman R.M. Pearce D.C. Walker Chemi stryK. Kendall* L.P. Robertson* H. St i ch Zoo 1ogyR.O. Kornelsen P. LarkinD.M. Wh i te1 aw D.V. Bates Med i ci neM.E.J. Young G.M. Volkoff Science FacultyR.R. Haeri ngJ.B. Warren Phys i csUniversity of Alberta: D.F. Measday*E.E. Daniel Pharmacology D.M. Ross Science Fac.G.R. Freeman Chemistry R.F. Ruth ZoologyL.G.S. Newsham Physiology M. Schacter Physiology Simon Fraser University:A.A. Noujaim Pharmacy J. Weijer Genetics B.L. Funt Chemi st ryT.R. Overton Biomed. Eng. B.D. PateOther institutions:R.T. Morrison, Vancouver General HospitalD.W. Hone, Royal Roads Military CollegeD.L. Weijer, University Hospital, Edmonton J.W. Scrimger, S.R. Usiskin, R.C. Urtasun, Dr. W.W. Cross Cancer Institute3 EdmontonS. Rowlands, C.E. Challice, University of CalgaryH.B. Knowles, Washington State University P. Wooton, H. Bichsel, University of Washington59


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