TRIUMF: Canada's national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics

Annual report, 1972 TRIUMF Jan 31, 1973

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


51833-TRI-Annual Report-1972.pdf [ 31.78MB ]
JSON: 51833-1.0107763.json
JSON-LD: 51833-1.0107763-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 51833-1.0107763-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 51833-1.0107763-rdf.json
Turtle: 51833-1.0107763-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 51833-1.0107763-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 51833-1.0107763-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

T R I U M FANNUAL REPORT 1972MESON F A C I L I T Y  OF:U N IV ER S I T Y  OF ALBERTA  SIMON FRASER U N IV ER S I T Y  U N IV ER S I T Y  OF V I C T O R IA  U N IV ER S I T Y  OF B R I T I S H  COLUMBIATRIUMFANNUAL REPORT 1972TRIUMFUNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER 8, B.C.CANADAFOREWORDTRIUMF continues to be watched across Canada and the world, both as a major new facility in nuclear science and as a co­operative project bridging several universities and several disciplines. In 1972 there was much to see. As reported here, the major components of the cyclotron were put together. This major achievement ran smoothly, except for the interruption of a general construction dispute which perturbed the sched­ule. The cyclotron assembly was the end-product of many years of design work and of complex contracts, some of which were a real challenge to local industry in the western provinces.The Board of Management has overseen the growth of the project and the solution of a large number of very difficult technical problems. It takes great pride in the construction achieve­ments and in the spirit which has carried the project forward since its beginning. From its inception TRIUMF faced doubts about the ability of a multi-university organization's being able to cope with ike complex problems as so d a t e d  with a proj­ect such as TRIUMF. The substantial achievements recorded here should allay those doubts. What promises to emerge is a very lively and very important research facility whose broad scope and co-operative spirit may well be emulated elsewhere in Canada.W.L. _________0Chairman of the Board of ManagementCONTENTSINTRODUCTION 1THE YEAR OF CYCLOTRON CONSTRUCTION 2FULL OPERATION OF THE CENTRAL REGION CYCLOTRON 7TRIUMF PROGRESS 10Magnet 10Vacuum System 13RF System 1 ^Ion Source and Injection System 18Beam Dynamics 21Probes and Extraction 25Control System 28Safety 29Project Management and Schedule 30Engineering 32Buildings and Services 33Shielding 3^Beam Lines and Experimental Facilities 36Experimental Facilities in the Meson Hall 36Experimental Facilities in the Proton Hall 1^TOWARDS INITIAL EXPERIMENTS b6Initial Program ^6Users Groups A9ORGANIZATION 50FINANCIAL STATEMENT 52APPENDICESA. Conferences 5bB . Pub 1i cat i ons 55C. Staff 57D. Users Groups 62vINTRODUCTIONThis was the year of major cyclotron construction for TRIUMF. The construction period of a very large and very novel accelerator can be divided into phases, beginning with a conceptual phase,continu- ing with a design phase, fol1 owed by major accelerator construction and ending with commissioning of the acce1erator for operation. For TRIUMF this five-year construction period began withthe funding of the project in April 1 9 6 8 . The work of conceptual and detailed de­sign dominated the next few years and culminated, in 1 9 7 1 , in the manufacture of most of the major cyclotron components. It was dur­ing 1972 that the major components were put together, ready for com­missioning during 1 9 7 3 *This annual report covers the deve1opment of the whole TRIUMF facil­ity during 1972 and begins with the two major achievements of the year: assembly of the major components of the TRIUMF cyclotron andfull operation of the central region cyclotron (CRC). The CRC is a full-scale version of the difficult central portion of the TRIUMF cyclotron. The process of bringing the CRC into operation has great­ly improved our understanding of the central region and has given us complete confidenceinour abilitytoaccelerate beam th rough th i s most critical region of the main cyclotron.Perhaps the pictures of the assemb 1 y of the cyclotron components w i 11 help to convey the central ideas of TRIUMF. The original idea of the project was to capitalize on two breakthroughs in accelerator technology— the development of the sector-focused cyclotron for high intensities and the acceleration of H" ions for efficient extrac­tion— to produce a meson factory capable of producing far greater numbers of mesons than any previous facility. The conversion of this idea into hardware yielded a cyclotron whose scale and com­plexity greatly exceeds any previously built. The ultimate reward in performance and versati1ity— in high beam quality and intensity, in variable energy and simu 1taneous beams— should enable TRIUMF to be, for some years, a unique tool for intermediate energy nuclear science. The other meson factories being completed at Los Alamos, USA and Zurich, Switzer1 and are quite different in construction and capabilities, so that inmany ways the three facilities will comp­lement one another, and each will find particular fields in which it is pre-eminent.J. Reginald Richardson D i rectorTHE YEAR OF CYCLOTRON CONSTRUCTIONThis was the year in which the cyclotron took shape in the vault. Assembly of the full lower halfof the magnet (January) provided an opportunity to display the scale of the cyclotron, its six-fold sym­metry and the elegant spiral shape of the sectors, not to mention a fairly complete gathering of the TRIUMF ma in site staff. The pic­ture also reveals the lower magnet coil (sharply-angled sections at the outer edge of the spi ral sectors), the pi 1lars and jacks of the main support structure, the holes in the magnet sectors for the tie- rods to be attached to the bottom of the vacuum tank, and the cen­tral support column of the cyclotron.2CAR 50 TONFabrication of the vacuum tank (Ebco Industries, Richmond, B.C.) had been completed in the adja­cent meson hal 1 in early January. It underwent intensive testing which confirmed there were no leaks in the tank welds. In February, the tank was lifted over the wall and installed on the lower magnet sectors.Some of the lower tie-rods are shown here, attached to the bottom of the vacuum chamber. The entire tie-rod system suggests the regular geometry of a German forest. Also shown are some of the trim and harmonic coils, ports in the chamber, and cooling lines.Instal1 at i on of the vacuum tank confi rmed that the tie- rod attachment points on the chamber matched the holes in the magnet, making all the cross-checking and inspection effort seem worth while.The upper magnet sectors were assembled in March. The upper coils, not yet complete or welded due to a construction trades 1ockout/strike,pro- ject from the sectors, as do the upper tie-rods and the central support structure.kThe main support structure was ful1y assembled (April) giving, as shown , a more or less complete external appearance to the cyclotron. The web is spread above the magnet to support the vacuum load (2700 tons) on the tank lid and to support the whole upper half of the cyclotron when it needs to be raised.A general labour dispute, beginning in May, caused a delay of several months in cyclotron construction. Although some work on the elevation system was possible in July, the full effect of the strike was felt on the schedule because the co i 1 welding— a task on the cr i t i ca 1 path— cou 1 d not resume until August.The full upper magnet assembly— magnet plus support structure— was first raised by the multiple set of jacks on July 6. The twelve jacks, ope­rating synchronously, raise the whole assembly by about four feet in approx 40 min. Commissioning of the jack system encountered a design problem: the low starting efficiency of the right-angle reducing gears was not fully appreciated during design and the drive motors turned out to be undersized for starting. The solution was to boost the motor rat­ing by 20% by increasing the motor voltage by 10%.5The upper coils were welded in September, in preparation for installa­tion of the magnet power supply system (October and November) designed to deliver DC power (110 V , 27,000 A) to the magnet.In the autumn months the shielding beams for the vault roof were con­structed and moved into place (photo, p. 3^)- By early November the roof completely covered the cyclotron.Attachment of the vacuum tank lid to the upper magnet made it possible to elevate the lid with the support structure. Upon lowering the at­tached lid onto the tank walls the chamber was pumped down (November 16) to a rough vacuum for the first time with the tie-rods bearing the va­cuum load. Each of the 66A tie-rods supports about seven tons of the vacuum load. The combined force of the lower tie-rods distorted the 11 ft thick reinforced concrete base by about a millimeter. The con­sequent levelling of the vacuum tank under pressure was not difficult but tedious.Fi rst power (8%) was del ivered to the magnet on December 1 and ful1 power was achieved nine days later. The main magnet field survey began on December 11, shortly after the cyclotron erection contractors (Cana In­dustrial Contractors Ltd., Edmonton) had finished their work.6CURRENT (yuA)The CRC beam current as a function of the radius at full operation (December 1972). The current here is measured by a probe at 90 deg with a radial scan of 1/5 in.FULL OPERATION OF THE CENTRAL REGION CYCLOTRONDuring 1972 the central region cyclotron (CRC) became fully operational: fi rst beam through the axial injection system May 12, fi rst accelerated beam June 2, first reliable beam to full radius October 5 , and finally, a high intensity beam November 27-The CRC was begun three years ago as a full-scale model of the central region of the main cyclotron. Its intended purpose was multifold: as a system for the full-scale testing of prototype components;as a flexible long-range research tool for studying improvements in the central part of the machine; as a device to aid in commissioning the main cyclotron by solving the difficult problems of injection, inflection and initial acceleration, and resonator sparking and heating. With production of the beam, the CRC achieved the last,and most important, of these aims.The first beam measurements carried out in the spring proved that the axial injection system (a spiral electrostatic inflectorand deflector illustrated in the 1971 Annual Report) performed as calculations indi­cated, apart from some high voltage breakdown problems due to the mag­netic field. The high voltage discharges occurred mainly around the7The CRC facility only the cove of the main machine hut still the worldr s largest 3 MeV cyclotron.conductors and support insulators carrying voltage to the electrodes. They were eliminated by redesigning the insulators and increasing the conductor diameter. These results were consolidated by a thorough break­down study, carried out by summer students, which provided a better under­standing of the problem and will be used in the design of the TRIUMF inflector system.Following the achievement of first beam, development work was carried out on the ISIS system, on beam probes, on beam dynamics and on RF, all of which are discussed in the progress reports (pp 13-25). This devel­opment work improved diagnostic techniques sufficiently so that latein the year the CRC beam could be studied and improved to the full six turns.During the beam improvement programme the accelerated beam was found to behave as expected out to three turns and then to be deflected down­wards at larger radii. Analysis and solution of the problem was pro­vided by the beam dynamics group. The analysis showed that two possible causes of this behaviour were an up-down voltage asymmetry in the res­onators or a radial magnetic field component in the cyclotron median plane. Using correction plates and magnetic trim coils to compensate8for either of these possible effects, the beam was brought to ful1 radius in October. A subsequent magnetic field survey using a three-dimen­sional Hall plate revealed a k to 6 G radial component in the median plane which accounted for the beam behaviour. This field asymmetry was then removed by shimming. Then the beam could be accelerated to full radius with correction plate voltages required to compensate mainly for resonator misalignments.At the end of the year the transmission efficiency from inflector en­trance to full energy was about 70% for a phase width of ^0 deg. Using the RF buncher to increase current intensity by a factor of two, the performance achieved was 8 yA DC average at full energy out of 60 yA at the ion source.The injeation line carrying the CRC beam from the external ion source to the cyclotron.9TRIUMF PROGRESSMAGNETDuring 1972 work toward assembling and commissioning the magnet some­what overshadowed progress in the magnet model measurements and improve­ment of the CRC magnet.The effort on the magnet during the year began with assemb 1 y of the upper magnet sectors; erection of the magnet and its support structure was well along at mid-year.The welding of the coil system was interrupted by the mid-year labour dispute, and the work could not be completed until September. The con­ductors which constitute the coils are fifteen parallel a 1 urninum siabs (each 1.16 x 18.8 in. in size) insulated by fibreglass preimpregnated with a radiation-resistant epoxy system.The magnet power supply presented a worrisome problem. This power sup­ply, des igned for 1 10 V and 27,000 A, stabilized to one part in 105, is one of the largest ever built in North America. Although large, it i s a conventional designwith a vari- able transformer prima ry- regu 1 ator feeding the diode banks to give 12- phase rectification. Secondary reg­ulation is obtained from a transist­or pass bank driven by a signal re­ceived from a 1 V shunt sensing the output current. During manufacture several components had to be re­worked because of inabi 1 i ty to pass factory acceptance tests, and the transistor type used in the secondaryThe main magnet eoils during instal­lation. The upper coils here are not yet insulated, and they are raised by 4 ft. The connectors between the up­per and lower coils are at the left.10The magnet survey system, and the magnet group, in­side fhe vacuum tank, with the tank lid raised 4 ft.regulator had to be changed because the manufacturers stopped production of the type originally selected. In addition, the brushes on the primary regulator variable transformer had to be changed due to overheating at ful1 exci tat ion.The power supply delivered its first current to the magnet on December 1 (10%) and reached full current on December 10.The various magnetic field survey systems had been designed in 1971 and were ready to be used in July of this year. However, because of the labour dispute the start of the field survey was great1y delayed. Sub­sequently some modifications of the survey system were made in an en­deavour to regain some of the time lost. The field survey began on December 11 and will continue into the first few months of 1973-The basic survey system consists of the following:105 precision-wound spools of wire (flip coils) that are placed at 3 in. radial increments along an aluminum I-beam. The flip coils are rotated 180 deg, and the resulting voltage signal, which is propor­tional to the magnetic field, is integrated and monitored by a com­pute rized data acquisition system. The radial position of these coi1s in the magnet gap is known to ±0.01 in.The aluminum I-beam, 320 in. long, 6 in. high, carries the coils, theflip mechanism, and all the signal and control cables.The I-beam is rotated about the cent re of the magnet by an air-drivensystem that automatically positions itself at 1 deg increments by1 1clamping onto a series of index plates placed inside the vacuum tank. The angular accuracy of the I-beam position is ±0.01 deg.The system is capable of doing a full survey of the magnet in less than three hours.A number of major studies were completed during the first ten months of 1972 with the^ 1 : 10 scale magnet model which had developed out of the many years of design work on the TRIUMF magnet.The mode 1 measurements provided the procedure for determining the required shim corrections to the main magnet pole profile. The techniques may speed up the iterative process of tailoring the magnetic field.A survey of the magnetic field in the region where the accelerated par­ticles a re extracted was carried out with the 1:10 scale mode 1 to check an earlier survey on the 1:20 scale model. The survey system for this reg ion on the ma i n magnet was des i gned on the bas i s of these new resul ts.Further, it was found that by using a heavy aggregate concrete as the shielding adjacent to the cyclotron a considerable saving in costs and space could be realized. The material ava i 1 ab 1 e f rom a loca 1 mine (p. 3A) is slightly magnetic and has a minor but significant effect on the magnet- ic field of the cyclotron. Studies on the 1:10 model indicated that two types of ore were quite acceptable, provided that a certain number of blocks are placed before the magnet commissioning is completed.12VACUUM SYSTEMTesting and insta11 ation of the vacuum tank proceeded smoothly. Before installation in the vault (see photographs, p.3), the tank was vacuum tested, using a system based on cryogen i c pumpi ngat 20°K and 80°K with some auxiliary pumping for non-condensable vapours. The pumping system was conceptually the same as that designed for the final installation, the first part of which was being installed in late 1 9 7 2.The roughing system for the tests consisted of four rotary piston pumps (combined speed of 300 £/sec) backing three Rootes blowers (combined speed of 1000 £/sec) which operate below 25 Torr. The cryogenic array had an estimated speed of 80,000 Si/sec for air and 5 x 105 £/sec for water. These latter speeds will be doubled in the final system. The auxiliary pumping, for hydrogen and helium, was provided by two 10 in. diffusion pumps. Because of their contaminating propensity diffusion pumps will not be used in the final system. During the vacuum test the system achieved a pressure of 1.5 x 10-7 Torr. The final installation is designed to achieve a pressure of 4 x 10"8 Torr in about four hours.Helium leak testing and ana 1 ysis of the residual gas spectra showed that the many seamless welds in the vacuum tank were leak free. The tank walls are mainly 7/8 in. inthi ckness. It was al so shown that the doub1e buna gasket lid seal with intermediate pumping and the a 1uminum 0-rings on the numerous tank ports (photograph, p.4) sealed satisfactorily. The lid seal, 178 ft in length, is probably the longest single seal of this type ever built.Although the original test achieved a pressure of 1.5 x 10-7 Torr, lower pressures cou1d not then be attained because of a helium leak in the 80°K cryopanel . A total tank outgassing rate of 3 x 10-1+ atm-cm3/sec was measured, in broad agreement with other published data. By artificially admitting air to simu 1 ate a long period of operation it was possible to estimate that the time between defrosting of the 20°K panels can be as long as one month.The initial performance of the vacuum tank after the lid was attached to the upper magnet assembly and the tie-rods assumed the vacuum load has already been described (p. 6).13RF SYSTEMThe whole RF system— amp 1 i f i ers, p 1 us DC power supp 1 y, t ransmi ssion line, and resonators— was assembled during 1 9 7 2 , and by the end of the year the assembled resonators were resting on a test rig in the proton hall and were being tested in air for parasitic mode problems. Following the decision at the end of 1971 to fix the resonator frequency (the basic frequency of 23-1 MHz is a fifth harmonic of the cyclotron frequency) and thus forego the luxury of possible 3% variations in frequency, the basic RF system has remained virtually unchanged. The adoption of a fixed frequency, made necessary by mechanical design problems, did not change the main amplifier but promises to greatly ease the parasitic mode problems.RF amplifiersInstallation of the amplifier supplied by Continental Electronics Manu­facturing Co. (Dallas, Texas) was begun in February and was substantial­ly complete in August. The amplifier system, as designed in 1971, cons ists of eight ACW250000 tetrodes connected as push-pu11 pairs in a grounded grid configuration, driven by a 4CW100000E low-noise tetrode. The sys­tem is connected to the resonators through quarter-wave combiners and a resonant line impedance transformer. At completion of installation (August) 1800 kW of combined power was delivered to the soda-water dummy load. The major complications involved in achieving this power level were in the parasitic oscillations that occur red at various frequencies in the amplifiers themselves and in the amp 1ifier/combiner combinations. The configuration of the combiners using lumped constant circuits ne­cessitated numerous parasitic traps to c 1ean up the high-frequency para­sitic modes and allow the system to operate at full power.The crowbar protective circuitry and the main powersupply circuit breaker have operated successfully at full load. Control interlocks and con­trol wiring have been completed for CAMAC control of the system. Stat­us and levels of oomponents of the RF system have been monitored by CAMAC ci rcui try.Due to budgetary restrictions work on the third harmonic amplifier has been limited to prototype work only. The third harmonic to the basic frequency (23.1 MHz) will eventually be introduced to "flat-top" the voltage wave and thus to increase the microscopic duty factor of the TRIUMF beam and make separated turn acceleration technically feasible. The prototype cavity and the power amplifier circuitry were tested on the CRC. The amplifier will consistof a solid state preamplifier fol­lowed by a ACX3000A driver and a ACW100000E final amplifier. The power requirements have been increased by the decision of the beam dynamics group to use a modified wave shape (trapezoidal), with up to Zk% of third harmonic amplitude, to further increase the phase acceptance of the accelerator.1AA section of the RF transmission line.Transmission lineThe RF transmission line has been redesigned and is now partially in­stalled. From the RF transmitter through the successive levels of the servi ce annex and i nto the vaul t the t ransmi ss i on 1 i ne cons i sts of a 50 ohm water-cooled 9 in. commercial coaxial conductor havi ng a length of 65 ft (1.5 A). This line is connected to a specially designed 11 in. 50 ohm water-cooled aluminum line having capacitor stations at the ends and in the middle that are used to match the “flat" section through this sec­tion, which has a high standing wave ratio, into the resonators. The power is coupled into the resonators by means of a ceramic cylindrical feedthrough into the vacuum tank and a water-cooled coupling loop at the resonator root, as in the prototype design.The th i rd ha rmoni c 1i ne is an a i r-cooled 6 in. linewitha similar, sma11- er feedthrough and a shorter coupling loop.ResonatorsA “floating skin" design for the resonators was fabricated as a proto­type and tested in the early part of the year. The 0.005 in. copper on 0.1 in. aluminum roll bond resonator surface is connected to the resonator support structure only at the resonator root end and is suspended from it by a compact leaf spring which allows the skin to move parallel to its surface. Stresses induced in the support structure by both thermal expansion and water pressure fluctuations in the integral cooling tubes of the skin are greatly reduced in the “floating skin" design, and it was adopted for manufacture. Current-carrying contact surfacesof the aluminum resonators as well as the root structures are copperp 1 atedto minimize contact resistance.Fabrication of the resonators (Ebco Industries of Richmond, B.C.) was finished in December.With the decision to fix the cyclotron frequency at 23-1 MHz the res­onator length was fixed and a new root section for the resonators was15designed wi th a simp1ified plunger tuning system which givesa total tuningof9-^+ kHz. The adjustable tipwas retained with a manual ad­justment feature that allows for coarse tuning over a much larger range (1 b2> kHz) .The weight of the assemb 1 y has been doubled by the changes in the struc­ture a 1 though the mechanica1 reso­nant characteristics and the bend­ing moments have been kept the same Single resonator. as |n the prototype system.A large steel test frame has been constructed with mounting pads in the same positions as in the vacuum tank. One half of the fabricated res­onator system has been mounted in this frame. Cooling and power con­nections were made and the system is ready to run to 40 kV in air to check the operating parameters of the system before the resonators are installed in the vacuum tank.A bank of resonators ready (on the test frame) for performance tests in air.16RF studies on the CRCPrototype RF control circuitry has been constructed and tested on the CRC. Automatic phase and amplitude control has been achieved utiliz­ing both capacitative and inductive pick-ups. Automatic resonator fine tuning by means of the tuning plungers was also achieved by comparing the RF phase at the resonator root and the coupling loop. The reson­ators could thus be run in the driven mode at high amplitude (1 : 1014) and frequency stability of 1: 1 07 . Automatic signal switching circuits enabled the system to return to the stable mode if sparkover occurred.One of the original reasons for building the CRC was to check on reson­ator sparking and heating problems. However, little difficulty was ex­perienced in pulsing the system "on" through the initial mu 11ipactoring ion loading problem that existed when the RF was first applied to reson­ators that had been pumped down from air. In the central region elec­trodes, RF electric fields of 100 kV/in. cou 1 d be easi1y achieved after a few hours conditioning. The CRC was also used to study effects on baffles inside the resonators to achieve the correct wave form ratio for the th i rd ha rmon i c.ION SOURCE AND INJECTION SYSTEM (ISIS)The prototype ISIS, installed on the CRC, became operational in 1972, and the insta11 ation of the ISIS system for the main cyclotron has made a good start.Prototype ISISThe prototype system, as described in the 1971 Annual Report, has all of the major components of the TRIUMF system: an Ehlers ion source pro­ducing 1.0 mA of H" beam preaccelerated to 300 keV; a moderately long and complicated injection line (whose hardware is shown on p.8) which guides the beam and chops and bunches it; an inflector system which bends the beam into the central plane of the cyclotron.Injection line for central region cyclotron. The rotating wheel and the 1:5 selector will be part of the CRC system but not of the TRIUMF ISIS.The mechanical assembly of the CRC ISIS system was completed in March. It commenced supplying a DC beam to the CRC in April and a chopped and bunched beam in July. Typically, DC currents of 30 yA are transmitted from source to inflector with up to 80% efficiency. The chopper/buncher combination produces current pulses of phase width 18 deg and bunch factors up to three for narrow pulses. The use of this beam for beam18The electrostatic hends used in the ^  injection beam line with their vacuum envelopes removed._  A typical beam line electrostatic ’ quadrupole assembly.dynamics studies is described on pp. 21-24. Work continues on the prob­lems associated with optimizing the beam transport efficiency and with the production and injection of beams of higher current and shorter bunch 1ength.TRIUMF ISISThe TRIUMF ISIS was being assembled in the main building at the end of 1972. The unpolarized ion source and the beam 1ine are closely related to similar parts of the CRC except that the long vertical section (45 ft) of the beam 1ine leading from above the vault shielding down through the shielding and the cyclotron support structure involves new technical problems, mai nly associ ated with difficultyof access and the possibility of radiation damage. The vertical section was in the detailed engineer­ing design stage in December and imposed an unusually heavy but temp­orary load on the drawing office.At the low energy level of 300 keV space charge repulsion between the protons gets noticeable around instantaneous currents of 100 yA. In the transverse direction one can take care of this repu1sion wi th strong quadrupole lenses. In the 1ongitudina1 direction the space charge force tends to debunch the beam pulses and prevents the production of very short intense pulses in the injection line. Internal phase slits will there­fore be installed in the cyclotron to complement the chopper in obtain­ing short pulses. Computer studies of the space-charge debunching19The Faraday cage of the TRIUMF ISIS ready for assembly of the ion source (December 1972).effect have shown that the optimum location and voltage of the buncher are current dependent and that a bunching factor of about 2-3 can be ex­pected .Polarized ion sourceA polarized ion source of the Lamb shift type using the first zero-crossing techniques is presently under construction at the University of Alberta. The present version of the polarized ion source is reliably producing a beam of approx 70 nA of H_ ions with a quench ratio of 7:1. This yielded a polarization of 70-85%, depending on the argon cell magnet­ic field. Beams of approx 100 nA can be produced but at some loss in polarization (quench ratio of 4:1). This is due to argon charge ex­change in the wrong region of the source. It is clear that more beam couldbeobtainedwitha more powerfu 1 duoplasmatron;such a one is pres­ently being completed in the University of A 1 berta workshops. Also seen are charging effects in the insulators which support the electric field deflection plates; these are being modifiedsothe direct beam cannot see the i r su rfaces.Calculations have shown that it should be possibleto measure the beam polarization to an accuracy of a few per cent by a suitable sequence of atomic sub-state population measurements. For this purpose it is ne­cessary to know the magnitude of the argon cell magnetic field and the density of the argon gas in the cell.20BEAM DYNAMICSDuring the past year the TRIUMF beam dynamics effort was in transition from theory to reality. The many years of work in computing orbits was conf ronted by the introduction of a beam into the CRC and culminated, after several months, in a successfully operating CRC, as described (pp.IS). The report here concerns what the CRC experience demonstrated about the behaviour of the beam and the impact of the experience on future beam studies. The beam dynamics work associated with CRC is closely coupled to the work of other groups— particularly ISIS and beam probes— whose work on CRC is reported separately. The installation of the RF chopper and buncher yielded a narrow phase width beam to study phase-dependent effects such as the electric focusing of misaligned resonators.Earlier theoretical wo rk on radial beam quality has been con t i n ued in 1972, and in particular several techniques for improving the radial- longitudinal coupling have been investigated. The most practical ap­proach appears to be to superimpose on the magnetic field a localized deviation from isochronism. This deviation is arranged so that a beam bunch with anRF phase interval from 0 to 30 deg is s 1ipped towards nega­tive phases at 3 MeV (seven turns), once the region of strong electric vertical defocusing is past. After acceleration for thirty turns or so it is slipped towa rds positive phases until the bunch straddles the maximum voltage gain phase of 0 deg. The radia 1 - 1ongitudina1 coupling acts in an opposite sense for positive and negative phases and thephase history above is designed so that the stretching in the positive phase part of the acceleration is counteracted by the motion in the negative phase part for the central phase particle of the bunch.With these and other studies it has been shown that in principle it is possible to produce a well-centred beam with an acceptable incoherent radial betatron amplitude, that is, one that will give ±600 keV energy spread at 500 MeV, with a 30 deg wide phase acceptance when the funda­mental rad i o- f requency alone is used, and a 60 deg phase acceptance when the optimum amount of third harmonic radio-frequency is added with the correct phase with respect to the fundamental.A great deal of work during the year concerned the control of the coher­ent vertical motion of the beam and was important in achieving opera­tion of the CRC. The TRIUMF beam can easily be displaced vertically by the forces that arise from misaligned resonators and vertical asym­metries in the magnetic field.A photograph of the spot produced, by the beam when striking a scintillator at one of Hie early turns is shown. The increased beam height at large radius is explained by the lower electric focusing for phases near 0 deg, where the energy gain is maximum.21b) Effect of a 1 rim misalignment of the resonators on the axial motion of the ions.22The behaviour of the beam in passing through a misa 1 igned resonator sec­tion is illustrated. The numbered solid linesof Figure (a) are the equi- potentials around a pair of resonator sections misaligned by an amount Ad; the arrows indicate the sense of the forces actingona particle beam being accelerated across the resonator gap.Figure (b) shows the motion computed for particles of different RF phases that start in the geometric mid-plane of the magnet and are accelerated by the set of resonator sections illustrated in the inset, where one diametrica11y-opposite pair are displaced upwards, and the other dia­metrical 1y-opposite pair are displaced downwards. It was assumed that direct1y-opposite resonators were displaced from each other by a dis­tance Ad of 0.08 in. It can be seen that the beam acquires a large coherent vertical oscillation amp 1 i tude ; the s i tuat i on i s wors t for pa r- ticlesofO deg phase since they experience the weaker focusing forces. It has been possible to explain the behaviour analytically. Since it will be very difficult to align the central resonator sections to re­quired tolerance of Ad < 0.02 in., a system of e 1ectrostatic plates has been designed to compensate for the vertical impulse giventhe beam when crossing the gaps of misaligned resonators.The equipment to measure the vertical field asymmetry, 3Bz/3z, and de­tect magnetic asymmetries has been designed, and the principie has been tested on the 1:10 magnet model. The figure below shows the transverse field resulting from a steel shim 1/32 in. thick by 1 in. diam placed on the upper pole su rface in the cent re of a hill in the 1:10 mode 1; this was obta i ned by measur i ngtheresulting 3Bz/3z usingatripleHall plate. The calculated transverse field is that obtained assuming that the shim behaves as an el 1i psoi d in a un i form magnet i c field. When piaced to fu 1 1 cyclotron size the volume of the shim is 2b in.3 and this is sufficient to dis- place the beam about 1 in. if such an error were to occur on each sector. It is hoped that one can shim the magnet to the required precision. Should thisnot be possible then,alterna- t i ve 1 y , one wi 1 1 need to ad­just the beam hei ght by pass- ing more current through the upper or lower part of a trim coi 1 pa i r than passes through its partner, and to proceed empirica11y by ob­serving the beam behaviour in a manner similarto that by which one adjusts the isochronism and first har­monic. Shim studies with the 1:10 model.In the actua1 operation of the CRC, as described above, it was necessary to use both electrostatic plates and asymmetrically-excited trim coils to get the beam to full radius. The settings were in good agreement with the observed resonator misa1ignments and measured transverse field component.Future beam studieswill check the beam behaviour in detail and will rely on the CRC experience and on the computer programs developed during the year. A program has been prepared capable of integrating numerically in three dimensions the particle trajectories in the measured magnetic field and in the electric field calculated, using a three-dimensional relaxation program. The general orbit and equi1ibriurn orbit codes have been modified to take account of vertica11y asymmetric magnetic fields, and the latter now can search for closed orbits in both radial and ver­tical space simultaneously. A linear motion code has been written which will reduce the cost of many studies, notab 1y the ca1cu1 ation of accep­tances .2bBEAM PROBES AND EXTRACTIONThe beam probes and extraction foils will be the last major group of com­ponents to be assembled in the cyclotron (late 1973) before the emergence of the first beam. Consequently 1972 was a year of design work and of practical experience with probes in the CRC. However, the main cyclo­tron vacuum tank already displays the numerous ports (see photo, p. b) ready for the insertion of probes.341,2,3,b Extraction probes5,6 High energycurrent probes7,8 Low energycurrent probes9,10 F i xed phase probes11,12 Centring probes1 A , 1 5 Beam qua 1i tydef i n i ng slitsThe position of various probes in the cyclotron.Extraction probesExtraction probes can be inserted into the vacuum tank at a total of four possible positions to enab1e extraction of as many as four simultaneous beams. Initial cyclotron operation will require two extraction probes, one for each of the extracted beams. Special problems are encountered with simultaneous beams. The required beam cur rents for the two experi- mental areas can differ by a factor of 100 or more. Stable simultaneous extraction will be achieved by using a tungsten wire of 0.0003 in. or carbon wire of 0.001 in. diam as partial stripper for beams into the proton area, and an approx 0.001 in. thick carbon foil for total extrac­tion into the meson area. The extraction efficiency of such a foil is 100%. The energy dissipated in the foil is about 0.5 W/yA at 500 MeV and this can be radiated away.The design of the extraction probe system is basically complete. To achieve mechanical stability the stripper is suspended in the median plane and is guided and supported by a single extension probe with three independent motions. Linear motion is accomplished by a spindle-driven probe arm on whose front is mounted a short trolley assembly with a foil cartridge. This trolley provides the azimuthal adjustment. The ver­tical adjustment is obtained by moving the trolley assemb1y up and down. Because of its length the probe arm is supported from the vacuum tank lid. The centre of the probe mechanism is located A in. above the median plane. The probe itself can be completely extracted through a lock in­to its own vacuum housing.With the present design the probe covers an energy range from 180 MeV to 500 MeV w i th beam currents of 100 yA at maximum energy. Special heads can extend the range somewhat beyond the lower limit. The probe has a quasi-radial movement of 169 in. for complete extraction and an azi­muthal movement of 22 in. The height can be adjusted over 1 in.It is hoped that the foil cartridge containing sixfoilswill last longer than one week under full operating conditions. The sing1e foi 1 exchange can be done without extracting the probe. The cartridge will be ex­changed when the probe is completely extracted.A model for the azimuthal motion including the cartridge foil exchange has been built and tested. High vacuum has been achieved on dry lub­ricated ball-bearings and bushing as well as on sliding contacts.Diagnostic probesDiagnostic probes for a variety of purposes— current probes, centring probes, defining slits, phase probes— and periscopes have tank ports at many different positions (as illustrated in the drawingon previous page). A set of probes consisting of a low-energy and a high-energy current probe is located radially at an azimuthal angle of 70 deg relative to the deep gap and another set diametrica11y-opposite to the first.The low-energy probe covers the radial range from 10 in. to 150 in. (70 MeV) within the dee area. The probe arm carrying the probe head extends from i ts support and drive mechani sm at the lid of the tank into the gap between the resonators. The beam will be completely stopped at the probe head. Because of its complexity the head is not water cooled. The average beam current will thereforebe restricted for diagnostic pur poses by reducing the duty cycle of the beam.The high-energy current probe covers the range from 150 in. to full radius. He re the beam will be strippedatthe probe head using thin foils, and the protons will be dumped into a beam stop located at the periphery of the vacuum tank. The stripped electron current will then be measured. The construction of this probe is similar to the low-energy probe ex­cept for the probe arm which will be replaced by a trolley carrying the foi1s .26The current probes stay in the vacuum tank. When not in use they are retracted toward the vacuum tank iid to clear the median plane in which the beam circulates. This makes it necessary to exchange probe heads for both probes through a vacuum lock at the bottom of the tank.The design of the low-energy probe is complete except for the probe heads. Model studies have been made on the probe drive with probe stem. One of the lowering feedthroughs has been tested. The second feedthrough with the 1 inear drive has been fabricated and assembled. The test stand for the complete probe assembly has been constructed. The lowering mechanism for the high-energy probe will be identical with those of the low-energy probe.The centring probes are located in the dee gap and will be used as shadow probes for orbit-centring, together with the current probes. The shad­owing pin is carried on a tape-driven trolley within the dee gap from 10 in. to 330 in. at the bottom of the vacuum tank. With a different probe head they also serve as RF pick-up probes for measuring the RF field distribution along the dee gap. The design is basically complete.There will be a number of slits and flags located on the lower centre resonators for the purpose of phase and emittance defining to yield a high-resolution beam. A radial flag is located at the first half-turn, a vertical flag around 6 MeV. The first radial slit is piaced at about k MeV. Three radial slits wi 1 1 be located between 15 and 30 MeV. All slits, including the vertica1 f1ag , are adjus tab 1e remote 1y in width and position. The radial flag is adjustable but not remotely. The basic design is near completion.It is the intention to use intercepting phase probes in conjunction with the current probes and fixed positioned, non-intercepting phase probes in magnetic field valley No. 1. The final design has not started yet.Two periscopes have been designed and fabrication has been started. The optical part consists of a Tay1or-Hobson alignment telescope and a 2 in. pentaprism. The periscopes can be inserted into the vacuum tank from the bottom and will be used for aligning the resonators, determining probe positions and other survey problems under vacuum, and hopefully also under operating magnet conditions.CONTROL SYSTEMCyclotron control equipment was being installed during the year in the control room. The control system is based on equipment which is CAMAC interfaced to a number of Supernova computers. The system offers com­plete operator control of cyclotron equipment with the option of future program control. This concept has been used in the CRC control sys­tem installation, in developing control interfacing, and in installing cyclotron control equipment.The CRC control system uses dedicated numerical displays and shaft en­coders on the console. The console is interfaced via CAMAC to an 8K Supernova computer. CAMAC is used to interface all cyclotron components. Details of the CRC control system are summarized in a paper presented at the Sixth International Cyclotron Conference (see Appendix B). The initial operation of the CRC was manual. Beam transport and dynamics calculations were used as a base to estab 1ish injection line and cyclo­tron characteristics. These injection line characteristics are now parameters for a computer control sequence that operates the injection line. The system has proven flexible enough to accommodate design changes in the CRC. Cyclotron electrostatic deflector controls were installed in an hour of combined technician and programmer time.Digita1 -to-analogue converters and digital control units were manufac­tured locally (Canadian Dynamics Ltd.) to a CAMAC specification. Inter­mediate military specification componentsand qual ity production methods have resulted in reliably operating CAMAC modules. Designs and proto­types have been made for stepping motor controllers (probe drivers) and control panel interfaces (shaft encoders and slew buttons) on CAMAC. Both unitsare in the product ion engineering phase of their devel opment. Beam diagnostics development and production engineering of diagnostics electronics according to the NIM specification have begun.The majorityof cyclotron controls rack, power cablingand crate instal- lation is done. Branch highway cables have been installed between the control room and service annex areas. Long branch highways are operated in a differential mode using a CAMAC module originating from a TRIUMF des i gn . A remote consolehas been installed in the magnet survey t ra i 1 e r. Magnet power supplies can be controlled by the survey team from their trailer without involving personnel station in the control room. The central console controls installation is partially finished. Using prototype modules the console and cyclotron computer program is being debugged.The systemof controls operating the CRC has given confidence and cred­ibility to the computer-based TRIUMF cyclotron control system now under installation. Detailed production engineering and quality components have yielded reliable modules that are essential in the extensive cyclo­tron control system.28SAFETYThe TRIUMF Safety Advisory Committee (TSAC) advises the Director who has responsibi1ity for safety at TRIUMF. The Safety Officer is a non-voting member of TSAC and puts into effect measures endorsed by the Director. In 1972 TSAC met six times and discussed a variety of reports on pro­posed safety procedures requested and received from the individuals res­ponsible. Recommendations were made on the safety procedures in operating the main magnet, RF system, meson targets and liquid hydrogen targets. Other topics considered included: gamma monitors at the main entrance to the fence area, emergency phone lines, a first-aid and decontamina­tion centre, the safety interlock system for access control, remote handling and radioactive waste disposal.In July TSAC held a joint meeting with the Accelerator Safety Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Control Board, at the TRIUMF main site. The meeting concerned itself with construction progress, safety details of project components, procedures for remote hand 1 ing and waste disposal, the machine commissioning scheduleand timetable for initial operation, and the proposed development of the TRIUMF safety group and program.In October the Safety Officer and TSAC met in closed session to consider and prepare recommendations on TSAC composition and chairmanship, the role of TSAC within the TRIUMF organization, and the future safety pro­gram and respons i b i1i t i es of the TRIUMF safety group. A s ub-comm i t tee was formed as a result of this meeting, and has prepared a document on the role and structure of the TRIUMF safety group, including the man­power requirements and safety budget.Significant progress has been made by TRIUMF staff in the detailed de­sign of the safety interlock system. There has been a change in thecon- cept on the layout of logic circuits. All logic decisions on inter­lock procedures w i 11 be executed by a hard-wired PDP-1 A industrial con­troller located in the main control room. The area safety units will serve as cab 1ing distribution boxes between the central controller and other systems which include the inspection stations, radiation monitors, the alarm system and certain devices in the eye 1otron and beam line sys­tems .The accident record at TRIUMF was excellent, with only four days lost during the year due to injuries on the job.29- N 3 f l  -PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND SCHEDULEWith heavy construction largely completed during the year, the project management services contracted from Shawinigan Engineering Company and Montreal Engineering Company were taken over by a more permanent organi­zation, the TRI UMF Business Office,headed by a newly-appointed business manager. Both engineering companies have contributed a great deal to TRIUMF throughout its difficult years of design and construction in en­suring that the project received good value for its contracts and in keeping the project close to its schedule. The transition toward the new Business Office was a gradual one, with staff from both companies (notably the project manager and the contracts manager) providing their services for some time on a part-time basis and the schedu1ing engineer remaining throughout the year, but the effective changeover took place on July 1.The new Business Office has introduced an improved accounting system, which includes commitment accounting. This feature is not available from the UBC Finance Department (which handles TRIUMF's accounts) and should enable better budget control in the future.The schedule suffered a severe blow in the 3-nionth labour dispute which stopped all of the cyclotron assembly work in mid-1972. The dispute included stoppage of eye 1otron erection and installation of the exten­sive mach i ne se rv i ces system, and therefore the full du rat i on of the dis­pute was lost from the schedule. The actual loss was, in fact, a few weeks longer because of retraining following resumption of work— for example, many of the experienced coil welders disappeared at the begin­ning of the dispute and when work resumed new welders had to be trained. Largelyasa resultofthe disputeTRIUMF found itself 4% months behind schedule toward the end of 1972.Efforts were made to adjust the schedule and manpower during 1972 and 1973 so that some of the lost time can be regained— so that the date of the fi rst beam w i 11 not be 4% months after the previously scheduled date of November 1973. Toward the end of 1972 this meant the addition of 22 temporary technicians and draftsmen to enable shift workinthemain mag- net field survey, RF systern commissioning, and assemb1y of the ISIS in­jection line. An earlier general construction strike disrupted the schedule by 2% months in 1970 but that dispute occurred early enough so that most of the lost time could be recovered wi th some extra effort and cost. This time the dispute was so long and occurred at such a late and crucial time in the schedule that the effort and cost of recouping time pose much greater difficulties for the project.The manpower graph rep resen ts the d i s t r i but i on of manpowe r— for develop­ment, design and engineering, supervision of construction and commis­sioning— among the four universities, the main site and various engi­neering companies. It reflects the shift toward in-house engineering discussed below and the extra technical help,discussed above, recruited to recoup lost time. A staff list isincludedatthe end of th i s report.ENGINEERINGThis year an increasingly larger proportion of the engineering staff's time hadt ob e devoted to supervision of construction,eye 1otron assembly and installation of services. Although the design of most major cyclotron components was complete, the detail design of the resonators was still taking a large effort and barely stayed ahead of production at Ebco Indus­tries (Richmond, B.C.). In addition there were numerous auxiliaries, seemingly trivial individually, but all essential to an operational cyclotron,which demanded considerable engineering and design office ef- fort. To mention just a few: a cyclotron shielding support ring andvau11 f1oor,cooling circuits for all cyclot ron components, cooli ng man i- foldsforthe 80 resonator segments, cab 1e routing and termination of trim and harmonic coils, transmission lines, cryo-transfer lines, roughing lines, service bridge, cyclotron shielding and vault crane.A number of companies continued to be involved in TRIUMF engineering. The Vancouver branch of Dilworth, Secord, Meagher and Associates (the project's principal engineering consultant for the cyclotron) moved from the neighbouring B.C. Research Council to the TRIUMF site early in January. They were, at this stage, primarily involved with the detail design of the resonators and in monitoring the last stages of contracts for which they did the engineering. After the comp 1etion of the resonator detail drawings, the branch moved back into its own premises on July 1, while TRIUMF continued the engineering of remaining auxiliaries, such as men­tioned above, with its own staff.Further external engineering effort was provided primarily by Farquharson Engineering of North Vancouver, who did the detail design for the cyc­lotron shielding support ring, and the vault roof shielding beams as well as the preliminary design of shielding blocks for cyclotron and beam line shielding. An assignment for the design of the eye 1otron se rv- ice bridge was comp 1eted by North-West Machine Technology of North Van­couver. J. Bradley, P.Eng., a private consultant special izing in stress analysis, did a successful conceptual design for the cyclotron inter­sector shields, which presented a difficult support problem.The engineering of experimental facilities has made a start this year as a joint effort between the various groups at the four TRIUMF uni­versities and the main site. In principle conceptual designs and the engineering of components is done at the universities, while services, building adaptations, cont rols, safety and shielding is done at the ma i n site. For this purpose four draftsmen were hired and the equiva1ent of approximately two engineers made available. Only half of this effort has been used, due to heavy demands of the cyclotron groups, while the conceptual experimental area layouts are not quite frozen as yet. To date, progeess has been made with the beamline sections located in the vault, for which engineering is 70% completed. The engineering design work for experimental facilities is discussed below.32BUILDINGS AND SERVICESThe main buildings were essentially completed in 1971 although the con­tract for mechan i ca 1 S electrical services and finishes— covering basic heating, air-conditioning and electrical power supply, as well as the various cooling systems for the eye 1otron— was not comp 1eted unti 1 Apri 1. Tenders for the supply and installationofthe vault crane were invited in December. In January the service annex was ready for occupancy by the controls group, and the chemistry annex, also completed in January, provided temporary quarters for various groups.Electrical servicesThe electrical substation and 69 kV overhead 1 i ne were comp 1 eted in early 1972; the TRIUMF site was energized from the substation on February 19- The substation provides power only to TRIUMF, but space has been allo­cated so that it may be extended to supply other loads as the south campus of the University of British Columbia is developed.The substation contains two 12/16 MVA transformers, 69/12.A7 kV. The transformers have automatic load tap changers to regulate the voltage. Should the voltage vary more than 0.6% for a period of 30 sec, the load tap chargers will operate. The total range of adjustment is +15% to -$%. Under normal operation one transformer feeds the main magnet and RF sys­tem and the second transformer feeds all other loads. It is possible, however, to put all loads on one transformer.The 12,470 V distribution to various load centres throughoutthe bui1d- ing and to the office building was completed and energi zed, as were the load centres where the voltage is transformed to 480 V and 120/208 V. Also, the lighting, a fire alarm system, and a 150 kW diesel generator standby power unit were all installed and put into full operation.Mechanical servicesAll the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems for the main hall, service annex and med i ca 1 fac i 1 i ty were compl eted and now are fu 1 1 y operational. The heating for all the areas is by hot water supplied by two 100 ps i boilers located on the top floor of the service annex.The four water cooling systems for the cyclotron and auxi1iary power sup­plies were completed and put into operation. All the systems, except the raw water to the cooling towers are totally enclosed, with stainless steel piping and plate type heat exchangers. The water used is kept at a conductivity of one micromho per centimeter or less by mixed bed ion exchange columns.Essentially, all mechan i ca1 and elect ri ca1 systems are complete for build- ing and cyclotron services,with tap-offs 1eft for extension of the sys­tems to the beam line and experimental areas.33SHIELDINGThe most visible manifestation of TRIUMF shielding during the year con­cerned the 36 huge shielding beams which span the cyclotron vault. The beams are 100 ft long and 5 ft high and weigh between 93 and 98 tons each. They were poured outside the main TRIUMF bui1ding by Cana Construction Ltd., in late summer and early fall, and moved by rail into the meson hall. Then the two 50-ton cranes moved them into position over the cyc­lotron. The beams are prestressed to carry their own weight and have a slight curvature (if inverted, they break of their own weight— this was not verfieid experimentally!) By early November the entire vault was roofed over by the beams. The ultimate vault shielding will consist of three layers of such beams.A substantial savingwas accomplished during the year by finding a 1ocal source for the aggregate to be used in the shielding blocks destined for the periphery of the cyclotron. I nstead of using an ilmenite aggregate imported from Montrea1, these blocks w i 11 be fabricated from a pyrite/ pyrrhotite aggregate obtained recent 1y from Texada Mines Ltd.onTexada Island (50 miles up the coast from Vancouver). Because the magnetic permeab i 1 i ty of this mater ial is significantly different from un i ty ('vl .08) the concept of using such blocks was tested on the 1:10 scale magnet model. From these studies, it was found that the shielding blocks near­est the cyclotron would need to be available before the conclusion of the main magnet field survey, early in 1973- The production of these3^blocks (F. Stanzl Construction Ltd.,Vancouver) is proceeding in parallel with detailed design of the remainder of the cyclotron shielding from the block layouts previously established. Some standard concrete blocks will be used adjacent to the main magnet windings to reduce the sensi­tivity of the magnetic field to the shielding configuration.The feasibi1ity of supporting inter-sector shieldof up to 11 tons from the cyclotron top support structure over the narrow sector pole tips has been established. This will afford more efficient use of the thick mag­net poles for top shield and still allow raising of the top of the cyc­lotron without moving any peripheral shielding.Further computer codes for activation analysis have been developed dur­ing the course of the year.It was decided earlier that the shielding of the beam line and experi- mental facilities shouldbein the form of 1 oca 1 demountab 1e b 1ocks, wi th large blocks (up to 50 tons) for the primary beam tunnel. A civil engi­neering study was carried out in 1972 by Farquharson Engineering, West Vancouver, to establish a preliminary design and cost estimate for the heavy and standard concrete shielding blocks. The study showed that a fairly significant premium is paid for block shapes deviating substan­tially from simple cubic form; this arises partly from a conservative criterion for the internal reinforcing requirements, but indicates that long, flat shapes should be avoided wherever possible. One effect of this study is that the blocks for the single-layer shielding of beam line tunnels have been changed from a shape of 6x6x12 ft to 6x8x12 ft in stan­dard concrete and 6x8x9 ft in heavy concrete.BEAM LINES AND EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIESThe beam 1 ines and experimental faci1ities on which the initial research program of TRIUMF will be based were being designed in 1972 by 15 task forces, each responsib1e for a separate element of the system. The over­all layout of the beam lines— in its December 1972 state of evolution—  is shown on the following drawing, and some of the work accomplished by the task forces during the year is described in more detail below.As the year progressed, decisions were made about the initial experi­ments yielding, by the end of 1972, the experimental program described on pp. 46-49. These decisions have a 1 tered some of the ear 1 ier plans for experimental facilities. In many other cases work on future experimental facilities has been delayed by shortage of research funds. The aim ofthe effort has been to achieve as viab1e and interesting a facility asfunds permit, during the year in which the beams of the cyclotron are developed towards full intensity.From the start use will be made of multiple simultaneous beams, an im­portant advantage of the H" cyclotron and unique among the meson fac­tories. The TRIUMF eye 1otron has been designedand bui 11 to accommodate up to four such beams (labelled I, II, III, and IV) each extracted at different positions in the cyclotron and each being independently vari­able in energy and intensity. At first, two beams will be extracted,a low intensity beam (beam line IV, less than 10 yA) for the proton areaand the ma i n beam (beam line I , wh i ch will bu i1d up i n i ntens i ty , dur­ing 1974, from a few yA to the design value of 100 yA) for the meson area. In addition, beam line IV will be split into two (lines IVa and IVb), alternatively, for different uses.Experimental facilities in the meson hallThe experimental facilities of the meson hall consist of beam line I, the meson-producing targets (T1 and T2), the secondary channel sassoci­ated with the thick target (T2) , and the therma1 neutron facility. For initial experiments the first target (Tl) and the therma1 neutronfacil- ty will not be installed, and the main beam will be stopped, instead, by the target T2 itself.Beam line IBeam line I was in the detailed design stage during 1972 at the Uni­versity of V i ctor i a and will be assembled at the main site during 1973-Prototype quadrupoles (4Q19/8, 8QN16M/7, 8Q.16/8) and the combination magnet have been designed, ordered and de1ivered, and the first of the quadrupoles has been tested, as described below. Design work on steer­ing magnets has been completed and the design of stands , vacuum flanges (capable of being handled remotely) and the 20 deg bending magnet has begun. Detailed optics calculations for the beam line have been com-36A prototype quadrupole magnet in its test bed.pieted, and work has started on spill calculations. The control sys­tem for magnets and vacuum system has been designed, and work on the diagnostic control system is proceeding. A conceptual design of the safety system has been proposed.Beam current-monitoring devices and their locations along beam line I have been specified. For much of the first year of operation the devices will all be intercepting types and will be inserted, when needed, by re­mote control. A standard vacuum housing for monitors has been designed to facilitate interchange and maintenance of monitors.The prototype AQ19/8 quadrupole magnet has been subjected to many tests and measurements including careful determination of its harmonics. Two methods for measuring harmonics have been developed. One consists of a Hall plate field measuring system which uses a CAMAC interfaced mini­computer for on-line interactive data taking and initial processing. The software technique is such that the effect of any selected harmonic can be either emphasized or de1eted. The other method uses a very stable rotating coil and a narrow bandwidth precision wave analyzer. In each method both the amp 1itude and phase coefficients are measured and com­pared to a precision of better than O . U .  Errors in the methods have been considered in detail, including the effect of misalignment of the rotat i ng co i1.A new device to locate the magnetic centre of a quadrupole has been de­veloped over the past two years and used recently on the 4Q 19 /8 proto­type quadrupole. This device, whose detai1s are being published (Nucl. Instr. & Meth., in press) is an exampleof the simple and elegant solu­tion which sometimes emerges from the technical problems that projects like TRIUMF present. The physical principle of the device is that a non-paramagnetic sphere, chosen to have natural buoyancy in a paramag­netic fluid, will take up a position of minimum energy in a magnetic field. So one chooses a small non-paramagnetic plastic sphere, places38it in a stable paramagnetic fluid whose density is adjusted to that of the plastic, and inserts the device in the quadrupole. In a very short time the plastic sphere floats to the centre of the quadrupole and re­mains there. The method is accurate, convenient and inexpensive.Meson production target T2This has been designed at the Universityof Victoria and is being manu­factured. The target consists of beryl 1iurn, copper and carbon rods with a thickness of 20 g/cm2 . The closed loop cooling system and the cata­lytic recombiner have also been designed. A control circuit for target selection has been designed and tested, and a preliminary design of the system status/safety interlock circuits is near completion. Various mon itoring devices have been specified for coo 1 an t f1o w , pressure,tern perature measurements, etc. , and testing of the devices is in progress. An 8 ft deep pit and hoist has been insta11ed at the University of Vic- toria to enable handling of the target during assembly and test. Remote handling p rocedu res have been investigated and a handling flask and serv- ice procedures compatible with the design of both meson and neutron pro­duction targets have been evolved.In conjunction with the development of meson production targets and the secondary stopped pion and muon channel, a pion production experiment was completed, in December, at the SREL faci1ity in Newport News, Vi rginia. The experiment is a collaboration between staff of the National Aero­nautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Universityof Victoria members of TRIUMF. The aim of the experiment was to measure __0 and __I yields at low energies and large angles for proton beams at 590 MeV and 470 MeV incident on various target nuclei.Secondary channelsSecondary channels associated with the primary proton beam of beam line I have been in the conceptual or detailed design stage at the University of Victoria during 1972. The medium-energy pionchannel associated wi th production target T1 is not part of the initial facility and the work has therefore involved conceptual design only. This channel will use pions produced between 1.6 and 3-3 deg and co11ected by a septum magnet.Not shown on the layout drawing is a further secondary channel associ­ated with T2 which is expected to be designed next year (see experiment 35, p. 48). It will provi de pos i t i ve muons for muon i urn chemi st ry. Two secondary channels associated wi th target T2— the medical pion channel and the stoppi ng pion and muon channel— wi 1 1 be developed very soon after the first beamisachieved. The optical design of the med i ca 1 N_ channel has been completed. Work on the design of the support structure, slits, sextupole magnets and a special short 8 in. aperture quadrupoleis pro­ceeding. A mount for the quadrupole triplet plus sextupoles in themedi- cal __T channel has been developed which requires that the components be pre-a1i gned, rigidly mounted as a unit and supported on three jack points set in shielding blocks within the tunnel.39A beam blocker concept has been developed for al 1 channels based on shield plugs which may be inserted into the gap of the first channel bending magnet without interfering with channel vacuum. The vacuum systems ofboth secondary channels w i 11 be coup 1ed directly to the vacuum systemswithin the T2 shield block using a radiation-hard seal. The isolation windows or valves will be located in a region where radiation-hard com­ponents are not required.Thermal neutron facilityThe the rma 1 neutron facilityatTRIUMFwill ultimately form the beam s top of beam line I, although research funds have not been sufficient to con­struct the facility for initial operation. However, it remained under study at Simon Fraser University during 1972.The conceptual design of the facility proposed earlier (Annual Report1971 and Report T RI - 71-3) includes a fairly high density of voids in the moderator assemb1y for beam tubes and irradiation facilities. Be­cause the flux depression arising from such voids are difficu1t to esti­mate, a graphite moderator assemb1y to simu 1 ate the therma1 neutron faci 1 - i ty was built surrounding the 14 MeV (d,t) neutron generator of Simon Fraser University. The thermal neutron density at various points in the moderator assembly was determined from measurements of the 3-activity produced by 55Mn (n ,y)56Mn reactions in 88% Mn-12% Ni foils for various void sizes and configurations. The neutron source strength was measured by monitoring the 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu 3-activity with the same apparatus and procedure used for the Mn-foils. The variations with time of the neutron production during the irradiation and the 3-counter sensitivity during counting were also monitored. A summary of the results is shown in the drawing where the relative neutron density near the centre of the as­sembly is shown as a function of the total cross-sectional area of the voids at all positions. The representation is qualitative in that it takes no account of void position. However, it does indicate the ap­proximate magnitude of the flux depression effects.oX1350 0 10oVoid Area, in220o30O40 50The neutron density of a point near the centre of a 42 in. cube of graphite surrounding 14 MeV (d+t) neutron source is shown as a function of the cross-sectional area of beam tube voids extend­ing from the outside to the in­terior of the assembly.40Isotope productionThe isotope production unit which is planned to be part of the beam 1 i ne I beam dump at some future date al so rema i ned under study, in 1972, at Simon Fraser University. A report, completed ear 1y in the year (TR I-SFN-72-3), considered the question of isotope production at TRIUMF and concluded that the greatest potential need in this area is for short-1ived (T% < 1 day) and for very specific long-lived nuclides. Further, it suggested that the prob1em of providing high yields of such short-lived isotopes shou1d be investigated, incorporating the gas-jet recoil transport sys­tem. Thus, when it is decided that TRIUMF should mount a large-scale operation in this area, the techniques that could be employed would in- clude the standard "rabb it" system for long-1i ved speci es as wel1 as the gas transport technique for shorter-1ived species.A complete gas-jet recoil transport system was assemb1ed at SFU to study and develop a working system using 14 MeV neutron-induced fission reac­tions of uranium initially, and at a later date 1A MeV neutron-induced react ior.s oi many targets including al umi num, copper, and magnes i urn foi 1 s. The characteristics of the present system are that fission products hav­ing half-lives of the order of seconds and longer have been transported a distance of 30 m from point of production with an overa11 collection efficiency of up to 70% using ethylene as the carrier gas.The market for TRIUMF isotopes remains under study.Experimental facilities in the proton hallBeam line IVBeam line IV (a & b) consists of many beam transport elements which are included in the drawing (p. 37) and which were under detailed designat the University of Alberta during 1972. To accommodate many different users the beam line is split into two separate lines, IVa and IVb, with the first of these intended for moderate beams (<10 yA) and the second for 1ow-intensity beams (<100 nA). Both beam lines will have variable energy (150-500 MeV) and an eventual beam resolution of +75 keV.Beam line IVa is intended to have three target locations: a nuclearchemistry scattering chamber, aheliurn jet recoi1 facility,and a liquid deuterium target for the product ion of secondary polarized and unpolar­ized neutrons and protons. The length of the proton hall (80 ft) is rather too short for all of these experiments on one beam line, and so the precise arrangement of these facilities was changed at the end of the year. The layout of this beam line, as envisaged in December, is shown i n the drawing. The 10 yA beam dump of th i s line will now be lo­cated internally. The scattering chamber has a 10 ft radius working area around it.Beam line IVb also has three target locations. The line is designed to run in both a doubly achromatic mode and a dispersed mode of operation.41Initially the line will be operated in a dispersed mode for beam diag­nostics. For this purpose a double focus is provided at each of thetarget locations tl and t2. When diagnostics are being done the other target location, t3, will be used for experiments. However, a doubly achromatic mode will be the normal operating mode for the line. Here a double waist is provided at each target position. This allows a beam of small divergence ('vO.l deg) to st r i ke targets thus a 1 1 ow i ng good angu­lar definition in experiments. The 100 nA beam dump is located in a corner of the proton hall. The dominating feature of the layout of beam line IVb is the large space (a 36 ft radius semicircle) to accommodatethe high resolution proton spectrometer.The two beam dumps of beam lines IVa and IVbare being designed at Royal Roads Military College, Victoria. They have one interesting feature with respect to their massive 70-100 ton iron cores. The cheapest method of manufacture appears to be to purchase a scrap iron container having a reasonably suitable geometry, say a cylinder, to mount a re-entrant beam tube, and then to have a steel foundry pour 1 off-composition 1 por­tions of 'heats', as they become available, into the container. The cost appears to be less than 10£ per pound, as opposed to about double this if manufactured from plate. This technique will be tested early in 1973.Scattering chamberThe thin-target scattering chamber of beam line IVa has been designed at Simon Fraser University with one particular type of experiment guid­ing the s pec i f i cat i on. However, as required by the TRIUMF P-area users, flexibility is the next most significant criterion being used.A 60 in. inside diameter was chosen to provide as much room as econom­ically feasible. This should all o w most of the f ragmen t em i ss i on studi es to be done inside the chamber where remote positioning of the solid- state detectors to be used allows all angles to be studied with one set­up. The large diameter a 1 lows for rudimentary time-of-f1ight to be done inside the chamber as an aid in identifying the fragments. Accurate time-of-f1ight studies will be carried out with extension arms.An unusually large numberof rotating elements— four besides the target —  should allow one to do coincidence studies with the optionof remote- ly adding or removing time-of-f1ight, which can degrade other system parameters for certain measurements.At present the main tank and vacuum system has been constructed and tested. The centre hub assembly is in the final stages of fabrication and the remote control electronics— including that for the position encoders—  are being designed. The facility is expected to be completed by the summer of 1973 and installed in beam line IVa later in the year.Schematic diagram of the liquid D2/H2 target.Liquid B ea 2 targetThe liquid deuterium/hydrogen target has been designed at the Univers­ity of Victoriato operate with 100 W of heat dissipationin the target volume. The necessary refrigeration is provided by the standby Phillips B20 cryogenerator for the cyclotron cryo-array. A target 1 adder a 11ows insertion of any one of three targets (or no target) as required. The maximum target thicknesss, presently envisaged, is 4 in. (=1.7 g/cm2 deuterium). Detailed design is progressing and preliminary fabrication experiments and tests on a thin-walled stainless steel target casette have been successfully completed. The standby cryogenerator has been set up at the University of Victoria and a test trailer modified to in­clude blow-out doors and non-sparking features.High resolution proton spectrometerThe high resolution proton spectrometer (HRPS) w i 11 be completed during 1974 at the University of Alberta and will capitalizeon the extreme1ygood energy resolution (±75 keV at 500 MeV) expected in the extractedproton beam at TRIUMF. The resolution planned for the HRPS will matchthat of the beam. During the course of the design many systems wereinvestigated in order to attain the specificat ions of high momentum reso­lution (<0.01%) capability of small angular measurement (<5 deg) and large solid angle (>3 msr). It was decided that a vertically-bending system, similar to that adopted for the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) , would be most suitable. It was indicated by the users that it43Targe tQDD system of the high resolution proton spectrometer.QDD PARAMETERS, 500 MeVBend (x) Plane Magnification ROO -1.141Di spers ion R 16 14.928 cm/%Rl2 0.0 cm/mrNon-Bend (y) Plane R 33 0.0r 34 -0. 138 cm/mrr 36 0.0 cm/%1st Order Momentum Resolution ±0.00765 % Po(xQ =±0.1 cm)2nd Order Momentum Resolution Corrected on focal plane ±0.00450 % Pn(ful 1 Afi, Ap) Corrected J_ to opt i c axi s ±0.278 0% P0Uncorrected on focal plane ±0.221 % PoUncorrected 1  to opt i c axi s ±0.471 U* PoFocal Plane Angle Corrected 63.1 degUncorrected 70.8 deg1st Order Angular Resolution ±0.725 mr (±0.042°)(for ±1 mm spatial resolution)2nd Order Angular Resolution Corrected ±2.22 mr (±0.128°)(ful1 An and Ap) Uncorrected ±9.23 mr (±0.528°)Soli d Angle (Ap = 0) 1.1 IT ms rMomentum Acceptance (An = 0) ±5-0 % p0QDD Magnet ParametersDj Entry Angle -23.14 degEntrance Curvature Radius 1.48 mExit Angle 14.34 degExit Curvature Radius 1.91 mD2 Entry Angle 28.84 degEntry Curvature Radius -8.72 mExit Angle 28.84 degExit Curvature Radius 2.36 mwould be most desirable to attain the capability of small angle mea­surement without using beam stops within the target chamber as proposed at LAMPF or without intentionally a 11owingthe beam to strike any of the magnetic elements.The spectrometer design proceeded on two fronts: one considered aquad- rupo1e-dipole-dipole (QDD) system. The other considered a 'septum- quadrupole'-dipole-dipole (SDD) system with the septum quadrupole being a high gradient dipole. First-order results indicated that each system could provide the required momentum and angular resolution. However, the minimum forward angle at full beam intensity for the QDD system was approx 10 deg whereas that for the SDD systemwas approx 4 deg. Further 'hard-edge' second-order calculations indicated, however, that whereas a second-order optimized QDD design could be developed, a similar de­sign for the SDD system was extremely difficult to optimize. Conse­quent 1 y , the des i gn group have decided to go ahead with construction of the basic QDD system. Should an optimized second-order corrected de­sign for the SDD system be forthcoming, it is not difficult to switch from the QDD system to the SDD system. The drawing shows the optimized second-order design for the QDD spectrometer and the table lists the calculated performance of that system.Because the HRPS w i 11 not be ava ilable during the initial year of TRi UMF operation, a study has been made of the feasibi1ity of using some of the HRPS components in a mediurn-resolution system (MRPS). The MRPS would use the quadrupole and first dipole of HRPS. To be mounted on the sup­port structure of the HRPS, the MRPS would have none of the second-order corrections incorporated into the HRPS design. Second-order effects would, instead, be taken into account by software. Both the momentum resolution and the angular resolutionof such a system should be comp­arable to those of the first extracted beam of TRIUMF.Counter developmentAs part of the preparation for initial experiments development work has proceeded at the University of Alberta on the production of multiwire proportional chambers and the associated electronics. Graphic arts and printed circuit equi pment have been set up and two wi re wi nd i ng mach i nes have been built to handle chambers as large as 1.5 m by 2.0 m.TOWARDS INITIAL EXPERIMENTSThe in itia l programIn 1972 the experimental program for the first year of operation (1973- 7 *0  was decided. Experiments to be mounted must first be submitted as proposals. The proposals are screened by an Experiments Eva 1uation Com­mittee, whose membership is given on p. 51- The proposals of highest scientific merit are then recommended for funding and for scheduling.For groups at the four TRIUMF universities working within the many re­search areas for which the facility was established, the funds for ex- peri men ts come from an ope rat i ng budget to be awarded to TRIUMF annually. For other groups in Canada the grants for experimental funds are expected to result from direct application to the Federal (or other) granting agencies. For the initial experimental program the TRIUMF Operating Committee has been making tentative allocations from the anticipated initial operation budget for experiments approved by the Experiments Evaluation Committee, and it has attempted to co-ordinate experimental resources from all sources with the development of the basic experimenta1 facilities as described above.In spite of many limitationsthe initial research program which has emerged promises to be interesting, broad and balanced. Although the build-up towa rd full beam i n tens ity will have only begun in 1973-7*+,the initial research program includes some meson experiments in addition to the many nucleon experiments which do not require very intense beams. Although funds for the initial operation of experiments and for the initial ex­perimental faci1i t ies are extremely 1imi ted, it appears poss ible to mount a considerable number of different experiments in the initial program. Although proposals are evaluated on scientific merit, the participation of scientistsin the experimental program is fa i rly balanced within the four universities and includes a healthy proportion from elsewhere in Canada and from abroad.Of A5 proposals received by the Experiments Evaluation Committee, those listed below were recommended to the Operating Committee and are expected to begin in the initial year. The approved experiments have had some inf1uence on the arrangement of basic experimental facilities. A tenta­tive layout of the initial experiments, as of December 1972, is shown in the following drawing.keMeson HallBeam Dump (100 n A) Bio-Medica l Area(26,27,40) .Location of initial experiments on the floor.The number of the experiments is that pertainingto the Initial proposalsnot listed here. Many of the experiments are combinations of parts ofthe corresponding initial proposals. I n each case the name of the spokes­man for the group of experimentalists is underlined.(14,24) Elastic scattering of protons and pola r i zed protons with lightnuclei {University of Alberta: J.M. Cameron, G.A. Moss, G. Roy,D.M. Sheppard, H. Sherif; University of Manitoba: B.S. Bhakar, W.T.H. Van Oers)(15,16) Quasi-el astic reactions {University of Alberta: J.M. Cameron,P. Ki tch i ng, W.J. McDonald, G.A. Moss, W.C. Olsen)(12) An experiment to measure the mass of new elements with isospinTz = -2 and Tz = -5/2 using the (p,8He) and (p ,9 L i) reactions {University of Alberta: J.M. Cameron, G.C. Neilson, G.M. Stinson)(26,27, A fast neutron program to measure: i) the differential cross-40) sect i on for free neut ron-proton scatter i ng and for the reactiond(n,p)2n; i i) the pol a r i zat i on in f ree neut ron-proton scattering iii) the tripie scattering parameters of the free neutron-proton system {University of British Columbia: E.G. Auld, D.A. Axen, M.K. Craddock, D.F. Measday, J . Va' vra; University of Victoria:G.A. Beer, L.P. Robertson; United Kingdom scientists co-ordi­nated by the Rutherford High Energy Laboratory: I.M. Blair,R.C. Brown, D.V. Bugg, J.A. Edgington, N.M. Stewart)(3) The study of fragments emitted in nuclear reactions (SimonFraser University: J.M. D'Auria, R. Green, R.G. Korteling,B.D. Pate)(11) A helium jet experiment to study new high neutron-excess nuc­lides (Simon Fraser University: J.M. D 1 Auria, R.G. Korteling,B.D. Pate, W.J. Wiesehahn)(6) Stud ies of the proton- and pion-induced fission of light tomedium mass nuclei (Simon Fraser University: B.D. Pate)(9,23b, The 1 arge Na-I crystal program for detecting high energy photons2*0 in: i) the p(TT- ,y)n reaction; ii) the u+ -* e+ + ve + y  decay;iii) radiative pion capture [University of British Columbia: M.K. Craddock, M.D. Hasinoff, D.F. Measday, M. Salomon; Uni- versite de Montreal: P. Depommier, R.J.A. Levesque, J.P. Martin)(18,19) Muon capture including: i) the effect of chemica1 environments;ii) the nuclear decays following capture (University of Vic­toria: G.A. Beer, T.W. Dingle, D.E. Lobb, G.R. Mason, R.M. Pearce,C.E. Picciotto, C-S W u ; University of British Columbia: D.G. Fleming; Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories: G.A. Bartholomew, E.D. Earle, F.C. Khanna; Central Washington State College: W.C. Sperry)(10,39) Low-energy pion production in light nuclei (University ofBritish Columbia: D.A. Axen, R.R. Johnson, G. Jones,M. Salomon, J.B. Warren)(1,30, Pion scattering experiments [University of British Columbia:3*0 E.G.Auld, R. R. Johnson , G. Jones ; TRIUMF staff: E.W. Blackmore)(35) Muonium chemistry - A study of positive muon depolarizationphenomena in chemical systems [University of British Columbia:D.G. F 1eming, D.C. Walker; University of California, Berkeley: J .H . B rewe r, K.M . C rowe)The names attached to individual experiments do not necessarily include all the scientists who will actually carry out the experiments— scien- tific teams tend to grow. Nor does the list of names include a 1  of thepostdoctoral fellows, nor the graduate students, technicians, etc., allof whom are an important part of each team.The initial experiments which have emerged from the evaluation process emphasize the high quality of the proton beam which will be a special advantage of the TRIUMF facility. In the past, few fundamental nucleon experiments have been carried out in the energy regime of TRIUMF and no faci1ity has approached the energy resolution anticipated. The nucleon data sought for in these experiments is of great current interest. Among the meson factories under construction, TRIUMF is unique in its easily variable energy over the range of 150-500 MeV.A numberof the experiments will begin to exp 1oit meson production, al­though the secondary meson beams will achieve much greater intensity in subsequent years. The pion production and pion scattering and the muon capture studies should yield early data. The high energy photon and muonium chemistry studieswill concentrate on developing exper iments for subsequent years. The Berkeley-UBC col 1aboration on muonium chemistry, using positive muons, will develop a secondary beam channel dedicated for this purpose. This new channel will be designed for low momentum part i cles and will be composed of borrowed bending magnets and quadrupoles.The col 1aboration of groups outside of the TRIUMF universities has in­jected a great deal of additional expertise into the initial program. For example, the United Ki ngdom-TRIUMF collaboration on the fast neu­tron program will provide many people experienced with high energy neu­trons and technical experts for liquid deuterium targets. The contri­bution of peopl e and equ i pmen t from outsidewill beanappreciable fraction of the total effort, and is essential for the breadth and quality of the program.Users groupsThe users groups, whose membership is given on pp.62-63, have continued to be active forums for the experimental program. It is here that the ideas are discussed from wh i ch proposals emerge, and it is here that prob­lems in the 1ayout of approved experiments are thoroughly aired. Several major meetings of the Proton and Meson Users were held during 1972, and these significantly affected the development of experimental facilities.The Radiochemistry and Slow Neutron Users Groups are continuing to dis­cuss the future facilities— the work in these areas is not part of the initial experimental program. During the year these two groups combined to form the Neutron Facility Users Group.The Radiobiology and Radiotherapy Users Group was strengthened by the addition of Dr. L. Skarsgardto the staff of the British Col umbia Cancer Institute. Dr. Skarsgard wi 11 1ead much of the work cn pion therapy which will be developed in the recently completed Medical Annex.ORGANIZATIONBoard of ManagementThe Board of Management of TRIUMF manages the business of the project and has equal representation from each of the four universities. It reports to the Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia which has legal and financial responsibi1ity for TRIUMF. At the end of 1972 the Board comprised:University of Alberta Dean Kenneth B. Newbound Dr. J.T. Sample President Max WymanSimon Fraser University Mr. Jack Diamond Dean S. Aronoff Mr. Cyrus H. McLeanUniversity of Victoria Dr. S.A. Jennings Dr. H.W. DossoVice-President D.J. MacLaurinUniversity of British Columbia Prof. W.M. Armstrong (Chairman) Mr. R.M. B i bbsDean G.M. Volkoff (Secretary)Ex-officio Dr. J.R. Richardson, Director, TRIUMFDr. D.G. Hurst, President, Atomic Energy Control BoardAt the beginning of the year Dean J.L. Cl imenhaga and Mr. J.T. Kyle served on the Board in places now occupied by Dr. Jenningsand Vice-President MacLau r i n .Operating CommitteeThe Operating Committee of TRIUMF is responsible for the operation of the project. It reports to the Board of Management through its chairman, Dr. J.R. Richardson. It has four voting members, one from each of the four universities. The members of the committee (alternates in paren-theses) at the end of 1972 were:Dr. J.R. Ri chardson Di rector (Chai rman)Dr. E.W. Vogt Associate Director (Secretary)Mr. J . J . Burgerjon Chief EngineerDr. G.C. Ne i1 son University of Alberta (Dr. W.K.Dr. B.D. Pate Simon Fraser University (Dr. R.G.Dr. R.M. Pearce University of Victoria (Dr. L.P.Dr. K.L. Erdman Un i vers i ty of B.C. (Dr. D.F.Dawson) Korteli ng) Robertson) Measday)50Normally the alternate members attend meetings along with members. Dur­ing the course of 1972 J.B. Warren, whowas alternate member for the Uni­versityof British Columbia, left for a sabbatical yearat CERN, Geneva, and E.W. Vogt returned from a sabbatical year at Oxford.TRIUMF Safety Advisory CommitteeDr. B.D. Pate (Chairman) Dr. H.F. Batho Dr. J.H. SmithDr. R.R. Johnson Mr. H.E. Rankin Mr. W. RachukDr. R.T. MorrisonMr. T.A. CreaneyDr. G.D. Wait (Secretary)Simon Fraser University B.C. Cancer Institute B.C. Dept, of Health Services and Hospital Insurance University of British Columbia Royal Roads Military College Radiation Protection and Pollution Control Officer, UBC Vancouver General Hospital TRIUMFEx-offioio Dr. J.D. Abbatt, Dept, of National Health and Welfare,OttawaExperiments Evaluation CommitteeSample (Cha i rman) I. Gibson Arrott Hen 1ey McDonald Measday Korteli ng L i therland Rothberg J.A. Watson (Secretary)Dr. J. T.Dr. J., M.Dr. A..S.Dr. E.. M.Dr. W.. J.Dr. D., F.Dr. R..G.Dr. A., E .Dr. J,.E.Mr. • University of Alberta B.C. Cancer Institute Simon Fraser University University of Washington University of Alberta University of British Columbia Simon Fraser University University of Toronto University of Washington University of AlbertaFINANCIAL STATEMENTA. Statementof revenue and expenditures, April 1 , 1971-March 31, 1972: RevenueAtomic Energy Control Board grant < q i2r nnnUniversity contributions ’University of Alberta $ 250,000Simon Fraser University 100,000University of Victoria 136*364University of British Columbia 715,000 1,201,364B.C. Cancer Institute grant ] y2 309Interest or  >U35T° ta1 10,523,708Add: Balance carried forwardfrom previous year g2 g^2$10,606,560Expendi turesSalaries  ^ 333 947Management consultants 7 3 '286T ravel .- r  1 u  8 0  , 6 4 1Telephone }Printing and copying 26*320Development equipment 1 ,106*658Miscellaneous and minor expenses yi ?g?Computer charges 75 *663Engineering firms (design and inspection) 620 324Construction contracts 2 6^5 *g34Capital equipment 6>60,*406Tota1 $12,273,964Overexpended funds as at March 3 1 , 1972 $(1 ,667,404)52B. Expenditures by major and mi nor codes, 6-month period April 1,1972" September 30, 1972:Major code breakdown:Admi n i s trat i on $ 178,277Technical services 177,529Bu i1d i ngs 737,717Cyclot ron 2,240,938Med i ca1 faci1i ty 24,793Experimental facilities 283,921$3,643,175nor code breakdown:Payrol1 $ 684,585Management consultants 32,866T ravel 26,811Telephone 10,498Printing and copying 18,324Development equipment 292,571Miscellaneous and minor expenses 16,354Computer charges 16 ,169Engineering firms (design and inspection) 140,391Construction contracts 738,138Capital equipment 1,666,468$3,643,17553Appendix ACONFERENCESThe Sixth International Cyclotron Conference was held at the University of British Columbia July 18-21 under the auspices of TRIUMF, IUPAP, NRC, AECL and CAP. Some 57 papers were presented ora 11y , of which seven were from TRIUMF. Since it was three years since the last Conference in Ox­ford, there was much new and interesting progress to report. A new em­phasis came in a number of interesting papers on the applications of cyclotrons all the way from medical therapy and biomedical research to the mi c roana 1ys i s of the components of smog. A number of these appli­cations will be significant for TRIUMF in the future.During the year papers on TRIUMF were also presented at the following conferences:Nuclear Physics Conference, Birmingham Apr i 1Canadian Association of Physicists, Edmonton June164th National Meeting American ChemicalSociety, New York AugustInternational Conference on Few Particle Prob­lems in the Nuclear Interaction, Los Angeles Augus tFourth International Conference on Magnet Technology, Brookhaven Septembe rThird All-Union National Conference on Particle Accelerators, Moscow Octobe r54Appendix BPUBLICATIONSD.E. Lobb, The change in beam spot size due to second-order effects in a first-order achromatic beam transport system, Nucl. Instr. & Meth., 103, 271 0972)P.A. Reeve, A conceptual study of a 300 MeV pion channel for TRIUMF, to be published, Nucl. Instr. S Meth.R.W. Cobb, T.A. Hodges, A.D. Kirk, R.M. Pearce and L . P . Robertson, Method for finding the magnetic centre of a quadrupole field, to be published, Nucl. Instr. & Meth.D.E. Lobb, Methods for calculating the effects of errors which increase the beam spot size at the end of a beam transport system, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. , J_05, 129 (1972)H. Dautet, S. Gujrathi, W.J. Wiesehahn,.J .M . D'Auriaand B.D. Pate, A gas jet transport system for the radioactive products of fast-neutron induced fission, to be published, Nucl. Instr. & Meth.S.C. Gujrathi and J.M. D'Auria,The attenuation of fast neutrons in shield­ing materials, Nucl. Instr. & Meth. 100, 445 (1972)D.F. Measday, Experiments at meson factories, Dynamic Structure of Nuc­lear States, ed. D.J. Rowe et al. (Univ. of Toronto Press, 1972)E.G. Auld, R. Gibb, G. Mackenzie et al. , Measurement of TRIUMF magnetic field (presented at Canadian Assn. of Physicists Conf., Edmonton), Physics in Canada (Abstracts) 28, #4, 44 (1972)E.W. Blackmore, G. Dutto, M. Zach and L. Root, TRIUMF central region cyclotron progress report, Proc. 6th Int. Cyclotron Conf., (A IP, New York, 1972) 95J.R. Richardson, The present status of TRIUMF, ibid., 126B.L. Duel 1i , W. Joho, V. Rodel and B.L. White, The ion source and in­jection system (ISIS) for the TRIUMF central region model (CRM), ibid., 216M.K. Craddock, G. Dutto and C. Kost, Effects of axial misalignment of the dees and their correction, ibid. , 329G. Dutto, C. Kost, G.H. Mackenzie and M .K. Craddock, Optimization of the phase acceptance of the TRIUMF cyclotron, ibid., 340J.L. Bolduc and G.H. Mackenzie, The effect of certain magnetic imper­fections on the beam quality in TRIUMF, ibid., 351K.L. Erdman, K.H. Brackhaus and R.H.M. Gummer,Some aspects of the control and stabi1ization of the RF accelerating voltage in the TRIUMFcyclotron, ibid. , 444K.L. Erdman, R. Poirier, 0. K. Fredriksson, J. F. Wei don and W.A. Grundman, TRIUMF RF amplifier and resonator system, ibid., 45155J.V. Cresswell, O.R. Heywood, D.P. Gurd, R.R. Johnson and W.K. Lacey, The TRIUMF control system, ibid., 476H. Do 11 ard, D.R. Heywood, D.E. Marquardt, D.P. Gurd and R.R. Johnson, CAMAC controls applications at TRIUMF, ibid., 485R.T. Morrison and E.K. Mincey, Nuclear medicine uses of TRIUMF, ibid., 650E.G. Auld, D.L. Livesey,A.J. Otterand N. Reh1inger,The magnetic field survey system for the TRIUMF cyclotron magnet, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Magnet Technology, Brookhaven 1972 (to be published)J.M. McMillan, Few particle problems in the TRIUMF program, Proc. Int. Conf. on Few Particle Problems in the Nuclear Interaction, Los Angeles 1972 (to be published)J.R. Richardson, TRIUMF, the meson factory in Vancouver, Canada, Proc. 3rd All-Union Nat. Conf. on Particle Accelerators, Moscow 1972 (to be pub 1i shed)D.P. Gurd and W.K. Dawson, TRIUMF control system software, CAMAC Bull. #5, 25 (1972)56STAFF Appendix CUBCFacu1ty7'OTRIUMF Payrol1Staff Changes During 1972 F rom UntilE.W. Vogt P rofessor Assoc. D i rector 0J.B. Warren Professor on sabbatical 100K.L. Erdman Professor RF 100B.L. Wh i te P rofessor ISIS 0D.L. Livesey Professor Field Measurements 0E.G. Auld Assoc. Professor Magnet 100M.K. Craddock Assoc. Professor on sabbatical 0D.A. Axen Asst. Professor Vacuum 0R.R. Johnson Asst. Professor Cont rol 100W. Joho Visiting Asst. Prof. Beam Dynamics 0R.B. Moore Visiting Professor Magnet 0Graduate StudentsK. Brackhaus RFG.A. Duesdieker Beam DynamicsR. Gibb Magnet ■ 100L.W. Root Beam DynamicsJ.A. Spuller Experimental Dev.TRIUMF (Vancouver)J.R. Richardson DirectorJ.J. Burgerjon Chief EngineerG.H. Mackenzie Research Associate Beam DynamicsR.H.M. Gummer Research Associate RFA.J. Otter Magnet EngineerM. Zach Research Engineer CRCR . Po i r i e r Research Engineer RFN. Brearley Documentation & Pub ic RelationsE.W. Blackmore Research Associate CRCJ.W. Carey Plant EngineerO.K. Fredriksson Cyclotron EngineerD.R. Heywood Research Engineer Control • 100G. Dutto Research Associate Beam DynamicsV. Rodel Research Engineer ISISC . Kos t Computer Analyst Beam DynamicsJ.V. Cresswel1 Research Engineer ControlP. Bosman Research Engineer ISISD.C. Healey Research Associate VacuumF, Choutka Structural S Architectural DesignerM. Dubs Des i gne r ProbesB. Willi ams Mechanical Designer ProbesN. Sonntag Research Associate Cyclotron GeneralS.W. Smith Business ManagerG. Vickers Commissioning Engr Magnet1.R. Heath Mechanical Engineer Cyclotron General ,J.C. Yandon 1 VacuumN . Reh1i nge r Technicians Magnet 100K. Poon MagnetJ. Fawley RFJul 31Sep 1Apr 30 Apr 30Aug 31Jan 1 Jan 3 Jan 7 Mar 15 Nov 2057% S t a f f  ChangesTRIUMF D u r i n g  1972P a y r o l 1 F rom U n t i lTRIUMF (Vancouver) cont'dB. Ozzard Control 1M. Hone ISISR. Wise VacuumE. Page ISISW.J. Lester ISISH.H. Simmonds RFA. Clark Cont rolD. Evans MagnetG . W a 1sh VacuumK. Lukas CRCPatricia Sparkes Cont rolT . Mi tche11 MagnetG . Roy ISISB. Evans CRCL . Vobori1 CRCB. Trevitt ISISFrances Humphrey Con t ro1P .C . Taylor 1 S 1 S/ProbesN. England ISISK.R. Arbuthnot ISISD.W. Thompson Uretha ArthurT , . . RF>• Techn i c i ans „ ,Cont rol • 100JanJan102kD .R. G i bbons Cont rol Feb ]kYvonne Langley Control Ma r 3R.W. Simpson ISIS May 25D .A. Ch i sholm RF Jun 12J. Lenz ISIS Oct kA. Sal ter Control Oct 19J . Me 11roy RF Nov }kL. Humphries RF Nov 16W. Noelte RF Nov 16G. Welch ISIS Nov 22B .E. Evans ISIS Nov 27M. Toth ISIS Nov 27A. Brooke ISIS Dec kJ .D . Blair ISIS Dec 6S .J . Smi th Probes Dec 11B. Salama Magnet Dec 11S. P. Lee Magnet Dec 11E. Ka1 a i dz i s Magnet Dec 11Y . Kim Magnet Dec 11A.O. Lacusta Cont rol Dec 18P. van Rook L .A . Udy H. Hansen A.T. Bowyer J . Ha 11ow R .G . Benda 11 A.M. Teter i s H. Sprenger S. Turke L. RobergeDesign Office SupervisorDes igner-draftsmen y 100Apr 1 May 1 Jun 19Aug kNov 30 Nov 3058% S t a f f  ChangesTRIUMF D u r i n g  1972P a y r o l 1 From Un t  i 1TRIUMF (Vancouver) cont'dE. Meyer > Jul 26R. Brander Aug 1 5H. Spruyt Aug 21G.C. Bryson Sep 1K. Balik Designer-draftsmen Sep 1A. Unsworth Oct 30H. van Weerden Nov 6E . Ma rkew i tz Nov 1 AD. Jordan Nov 1 5B. Scheuring Dec 28R. Brewer Workshop Supervisor Aug 1D.C . Sm i th Workshop SupervisorK. Dusbaba Mach i n i s tS. Olsen Mach i n i stW. Bryson WoodworkerW. Frey Mach i n i stR.C. Stevens Mach i n i s tL. Harron Weider Nov 1 A■ 100Col 1een Meade ProgrammerD. Marquardt ProgrammerW. Fung ProgrammerG.J. Ratzburg Elect r i cianW.J. Pennington Crane OperatorA. Kay Rece i ver/Sto rekeeperC. Bruce Asst, to Storekeeper Jan 3L. Willoughby Clerk of Works AprP. Moase Clerk of Works MayW.P. Healy Maintenance Electrician Sep 25Ada Strathdee Asst. Information OfficerLynne Bass Asst, to Business ManagerNancy Palmer Secretary to DirectorMarge Williams SecretarySally Seddon SecretaryCarolyn Wi11iams Recept i on i stLesley Scarfe Secretary Sep 1Mary Ta i nsh Secretary Oct 23Attached StaffT.A. Creaney Project Mgr/Co-ordinator Eng Exp Fac (SECo)A.D.G. Robinson Contracts Manager (MECo)J . Ki1 pat r i ck Scheduling Engineer (SECo)R.H.S. Barker Civil Eng i neer (SECo)f-toFacu1tyR.M. Pearce Professor 1 1L.P. Robertson Professor Extraction 1 1G.R. Mason Assoc. Professor Secondary Beams 0D.E. Lobb Assoc. Professor Beam Transport 0G.A. Beer Asst. Professor Experimental Area 0Jun 30Apr 1May 31Jun 30 Oct 3059% S t a f f  ChangesTRIUMF D u r i n g  1972P a y r o l l  From U n t i lUV i c (cont'd Graduate StudentsN. Al-Qazzaz Secondary Beams 23P.W. James Beam Diagnostics 0R.W. Harrison Beam Transport 100S . K. Kim Mesic X-ray 0 Sep 1R. Fyvie Beam Transport 100TRIUMF (Victoria)T.A. Hodges Research Associate Targets 100P.A. Reeve Research Associate Beam Optics 100C. Glavina PDF Beam Diagnostics 100T. R. King PDF Beam Mon i tors 100D.A. Bryman PDF Secondary Bm Monitors 100 Apr 1R.H. Price PDF Mes i c X-ray 0 Nov 1 3K.R. Kendall PDF Medical Channel 100 Dec 1 5D.W. Hunt Programmer-Analyst 100Lynda Willi ams Programmer 100J. Nelson Techn i c i an 100P.G. Verstaaten Techn i c i an 100R.R. Langstaff Des i gner/Draftsman 100T.R. Gathright Techn ic i an 100D.A. Beale Techn i c i an 100R.D. Lyle Draftsman 100 Jun 5N .0. Willi ams Des i gne r 100 Jun 1Julia Hunt Secreta ry 100Roya1 Roads M i1itary Col 1egeD.W. Hone Assoc. Professor Beam Dumps 0SFUFacu1tyB.D. PateA.S. ArrottR.G. Korteli ng J.M. D 1AuriaGraduate StudentsH. Dautet TRIUMF (Burnaby)I.M . Thorson G.D. Wait W.J. Wiesehahn R. GreenD. McMillan R.C. TorenC.R. Hampton Sh i rley HeapProfessor Professor Assoc. Professor Assoc. ProfessorResearch Associate Research Associate Research Associate PDF PDFProgrammer Techn i c i an SecretaryChem & Exp Fac Neutron Target Nucl Eqpt Dev Chem & Exp FacShielding & Act i vtn SafetyChem & Exp Fac Nucl Eqpt Dev Safety00001001001004310010010010066Dec 6Jan 25 Jan 3Aug 31 Feb 29Jun 3060% S t a f f  ChangesTRIUMF D u r i n g  1972P a y r o l 1 From U n t i  1VAlbertaFaculty and Research StaffG .C . Ne i1 son Professor P AreaW.K. Dawson Professor ControlJ.T. Sample Professor Bd of ManagementW.C. Olsen Assoc. Professor P AreaG . Roy Assoc. Professor P AreaW.J. McDonald Assoc. Professor P AreaG.A. Moss Assoc. Professor P AreaD.M. Sheppard Assoc. Professor P AreaJ.M. Cameron Asst. Professor P AreaP . Ki tch i ng Asst. Professor P AreaH.S. Sheri f Visiting Asst. Prof. P AreaH.W. Fearing V is i t i ng Scient i st P AreaB.C. Robertson Research Associate P AreaN. Ahmed Research Associate P AreaD.A. Hutcheon Research Associate P AreaS.T. Lam Research Associate P AreaD.R. Gill PDF P AreaE .B . Ca i rns Professn1. Off i cer P Area / Eqpt DevJ. B. El 1iott Professnl. Offi cer P AreaSep 1TRIUMF (Edmonton)K.H. Bray PDF P Area 100B.L. Due 11i Assoc. Res. Prof. Probes/D i agnost i cs 100D.P. Gurd Asst. Res. Prof. Cont rol 100J .A. Li dbury Design Engineer Spect romete r 100C . 1 . Link Secreta ry 100E. Pearce Techn i c i an Eqpt Dev 100G.M. Stinson Asst. Res. Prof. Spectrometer/P Area 10061Appendix D USERS GROUPS Meson Users GroupUniversity of Alberta:W. K. Dawson W.J. McDonald G.C. NeiIson W.C. OlsenD. SheppardSimon Fraser University: R.G. Korte1i ngOther institutions:University of Victoria: G.A. BeerD.E. Lobb G.R. MasonC .E . P i cc iotto R.M. Pearce L.P. RobertsonTRIUMF Vancouver:E.W. Blackmore G.H. Mackenzie J.R. RichardsonUniversity ofD.F. Measday, Cha i rmanE.G. Auld D.A. Axen D.S. Beder M.K. Craddock K.L. ErdmanD.G. Fleming M.D. HasinoffC.H.Q. Ingram R.R. JohnsonBritish Columbia:G. Jones J .M. McMi11 an K.C. Mann P.W. Martin J.M. Poutissou M. SalomonE.W. VogtD.C. Walker J.B. WarrenB.L. WhiteE.P. Hi neks, R.L. Clarke, Carleton University D.W. Hone, Royal Roads Military College D.O. Wells, J. Jovanovich, W. Falk,W.T.H. van Oers, University of ManitobaH.F. Batho, L. Skarsgard, B.C. Cancer Institute P. Depommier, B. Goulard, University de MontrealG. Bartholomew, 0. Hausser, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories M. Krell, University de Sherbrooke T.E. Drake, University of TorontoA.A. Cone, Vancouver City College Langara CampusG.T. Ewan, Queens UniversityJ. Rothberg, V. Cook, University of WashingtonH.B. Knowles, Washington State University R.R. McLeod, R. Atneosen, Western Washington State CollegeC. Schultz, University of MassachusettsL. Rosen, Los Alamos Scientific LaboratoryH. Plendl, Florida State UniversityT.R. Witten, Rice UniversityW.C. Sperry, Central Washington State CollegeJ.K. Chen, University of PennsylvaniaN. Tanner, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, OxfordD.V. Bugg, Queen Mary CollegeCl. Perrin, Institut des Sciences Nucl&airesProton Users GroupUniversity of Alberta:W.J. McDonald, G.A. MossCha i rman B. Ca i rns CameronG.R C.R PDawson E 11iott F reeman James Ki tch i ngG.C. Ne i 1 son W.C. Olsen T.R. Overton G . Roy J.T. SampleD. Sheppard G.M. StinsonF.E. VermeulenSimon Fraser University:A.S. Arrott R.G. KortelingJ.M. D'Auria B.D. PateR. Green I.M. ThorsonUniversity of Victoria:G.A. BeerD.E. LobbG.R. MasonC .E . P i cc i ottoR.M. PearceL.P. RobertsonS.A. RyceTRIUMF Victoria:D.A. Bryman T.A. Hodges T.R. King P.A. ReeveUniversity of British Columbia:E.G. Auld K.C. MannD.A. Axen P.W. MartinM.K. Craddock D.F. MeasdayD.G. Fleming E.W. VogtG.M. Griffiths D.C. WalkerM.D. Hasinoff J.B. WarrenC.H.Q. Ingram B.L. WhiteR.R. JohnsonG. JonesTRIUMF Vancouver:E.W. BlackmoreG.H. Mackenzie J.R. RichardsonOther institutions:R.L. C 1 arke, Carleton UniversityK.G. Standing,D.0. Wells,W. Falk, J. Jovanovich,W.T.H. van Oers, University of ManitobaH.F. Batho, B.C. Cancer InstituteH.B. Knowles, Washington State University R.R. McLeod, R. Atneosen, Western Washington State UniversityL. Rosen, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory M. Rickey, G.T. Emery, Indiana University L.M. Lederman, Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory Cl. Perrin, Institut des Sciences Nucliaires L. Wolfenstein, Carnegie-Mellon University62Neutron Facility  Users GroupUniversity of Alberta:G.R. FreemanH.E. Gunning A.A. NoujaimSimon Fraser A.S. Arrott, Cha i rman C.H.W. JonesUniversity:B.D. Pate J.M. D'Auria I .M. ThorsonUniversity of Victoria: G . Bushnel1 L.P. Robertson S.A. RyceUniversity of British Columbia:R.G. Korteling R.R. HaeringA.V. BreeD .G . FIemi ng L.G. HarrisonC .A. McDowel1E.B. Tregunna J. TrotterD.C. Walker I.H. Warren S. ZbarskyOther institutions:R.T. Morrison, Vancouver General HospitalD.W. Hone, Royal Roads Military College L. Rosen, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory R.R. McLeod, Western Washington State College L.W. Reeves, University of WaterlooRadiobiology and Radiotherapy Users GroupB.C. Cancer Institute: J.M.W. Gibson, ChairmanH.F. Batho L.D. Skarsgard R.O. KornelsenD.M. White law M.E.J. Young R.W. HarrisonUniversity of Alberta:University of Victoria: M.J. Ashwood-Smi th'.E.E. Daniel G.R. Freeman R.F. Ruth L.G.S. Newsham M. SchacterA.A. Noujaim T.R. Overton D.M. Ross J. WeijerPha rmacology Chemistry Zoology Phys iology Phys iology Pharmacy Biomed. Eng. Science Fac. Genet i csG.O. Mackie J. HaywoodG.B. Friedmann D.E. Lobb R.M. Pearce L.P. RobertsonB iologyPhys i csSimon Fraser University:B.L. FuntB.D. Pate R.R. Haering| Chemistry Phys i csUniversity of N. Auersperg R.L. Noble D.H. Copp J.F. McCreary I .McT. Cowan D.C. Wa1ke rH. Stich P. LarkinD.V. BatesG.M. Volkoff J.B. WarrenD.F. MeasdayBritish Columbia: Cancer Research Cent re Phys iology Coord.Hea1th Sci. Grad. Studies Chemi s t ryZoologyMed i c i ne Science FacultyPhys i csOther institutions:R.T. Morrison, Vancouver General HospitalD.W. Hone, Royal Roads Military CollegeD.L. Weijer, University Hospital, Edmonton J.W. Scrimger, S.R. Usiskin, R.C. Urtasun, Dr. W.W. Cross Cancer Institute, EdmontonS. Rowlands, C.E. Challice, University of CalgaryH.B. Knowles, Washington State University P. Wooton, H. Bichsel, University of Washington63H i■*  T' SK« - T' t;' £."■'mmid#-’ & -Z?i- - : ytefeft- , *' *■ 5 ' W; r ' , -  .--I'. ;llsl#m m m ..& ry ■■s|■■ry\. ;;1-5:;!1 y’P,»-mm m n \-y y y .Mi 1 ’ ||S. m r n m m ^vy-.r-yyy M v \ r  ^ / y - y• ’ • W‘y - ■ '-• • • ’ .........:■•■■ • 'v> ' \ : :v V ' v  :r-y'';yyA:y ;;:;..6 5 0    	0 y ‘, v  -y..M*■,; v^ '  # y  -'00* <ji£:p ■ V  >- ■ 1.'W --. yYyy * > . .y•::,y:'.! ■  • I '&{■my *7 #§S®vJ--i y i 7 y y ■; 1'- #/ v?:-;i. PSm.■‘ ’ - * y y 4-#7 : 7 ^ 7^7  77^ - ' 777 ': . _ .:v£;oViW;V£'^ ■ . ■• ' 7^777■y;:"7y 7 7 7 7 ; 7777'-■ " ■ ’1 ' 4 . 1 W 1%  7 7 7 . ^ 7  4 : % ^,77:v7:7- : ';S:r-'r' ' t t ' -t- ' V '■;.'' ■;■.,•■' .% -: yv'y-'i v ; ' 7 7  7 V l / V - ■:...-- •:• •. -..v..;. •' . ...•■; •. ;:■ -:-y;v.'v'-:,y:;.;


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items