History of Nursing in Pacific Canada

“Lest we forget” : a project to identify University of British Columbia School of Nursing graduates who… Zilm, Glennis; Warbinek, Ethel Jul 31, 2014

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    “Lest we forget”      A Project to Identify University of British Columbia School of Nursing Graduates Who Served in the World Wars  1914-1918 and 1939-1945   by  Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek             White Rock, BC November 2004; July 2014 © Copyright 2014 Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek  Electronic copy made available through the University of British Columbia Library’s cIRcle Project All items in cIRcle are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as  Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ca/   “Lest we forget”: A Project to Identify University of British Columbia School of Nursing Graduates  Who Served in the World Wars 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 by Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek       For more information about this document, contact  Glennis Zilm Ste. 306, 1521 Blackwood St. White Rock, B.C.  V4B 3V6 E-mail: gzilm@telus.net  or  Ethel Warbinek 2448 - 124th Street Surrey, B.C.  V4A 3N2 E-mail: warbinek@telus.net   All photographs are copyright by their owners:  Please do not use the photographs without permission.   Photos of Joan Doree used with her permission. Photos of Jean Dorgan and Nancy Lee from BC History of Nursing Archives.  Used with permission. Photos of Dorothy Ladner from Edna Ladner Estate. Used with permission of Valerie Grant.    “Lest we forget”  University of British Columbia School of Nursing Graduates  Who Served in the World Wars  1914-1918 and 1939-1945 (As identified to July 2014)  World War I  Beatrice Agnes Bickley (Stroyan),  QATNS PHN Certificate 1923Lillian Florence Kier (Roberts), CAMC PHN Certificate 1921 (first graduating class)Mary T. Shand, CAMC PHN Certificate 1927Bertha Thorsteinson (Thompson), QAIMNS, CAMC PHN Certificate 1924  Jean Wilson, CAMC BASc (N) Degree 1935 World War II  Marcia Aitkens, RCAMC or RCAF   BASc (N) Degree 1949Lilly Claire Belecky  TS Certificate 1947Margaret Beveridge, RCAMC BASc (N) Degree 1943Leone Marie Brown, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1947Jean M. Ciceri, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1947Doreen Mildred Denby, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1944Margaret Louise Dobbin, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1937Joan Doree, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1948, BASc (N) 1949  Henrietta Jean Dorgan, RCAMC  BASc (N) Degree 1934Patricia Dunfield, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1943 Page 4  Florence L. Ferguson, RCAMC  TS Certificate 1947Norma Fieldhouse, RCAMC, RCAF TS Certificate 1947Margaret Fletcher, RCAMC BA, 1930; PHN Certificate 1949Joan Gore (Spring), RCAMC TS Certificate 1949; BASc (N) Degree 1950Eileen Ingram, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1949Moya Eleanor Jack, RCAMC PHN Certificate, 1953Bertha Jenkins, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1928Elizabeth Jenkins, RCAMC BASc (N) Degree 1943Ruth Mary Kennedy, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1947Florence Kirkpatrick (Doherty), RCAMC  Certificate 1947Dorothy May Ladner, RCAF BASc (N) Degree 1944Nancy Viola Lee, SAMNS Certificate 1946Asenath Leitch, RCAF BASc (N) Degree 1938Caroline H. Livingstone, RCAMC Certificate 1947, BASc (N) Degree 1950Elizabeth Nicols Lydiard, RCAF BASc (N) Degree 1949Sheila McDiarmid, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1938Marion E. MacDonell, RCAMC BASc (N) Degree 1941K. Geraldine McIntyre (Wilson), RCAF PHN Certificate 1947Marjorie Helen McLaughlin, RCAMC       Certificate 1947  Helen (Bee) Georgia MacPherson (Rodin),      SAMNS BASc (N) Degree 1950Lorna May Makepeace, RCAMC BASc (N) Degree 1936   Page 5  Dorothy Muriel Mawer, RCN PHN Certificate 1947Bernice C. Miller (Hatcher), RCAMC Certificate 1946Isabel Mungen, RCAF PHN Certificate 1939Helen K. Mussallem, RCAMC Honorary PhD 1994Mabel Olund, RCAF PHN Certificate 1935Marion Miles Pennington, RCAMC BASc (N) Degree 1932Elizabeth (Betty) Putman (Yelland),       RCAMC PHN Certificate 1949; BASc (N) Degree         1952Pauline J. Siddons, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1948Margaret (Margie) Stevens, RCAMC PHN Certificate 1949; BASc (N) Degree 1950Winnifred Taylor (Hickman), RCAMC Certificate 1947Cleta Thompson, USAMC TS Certificate 1948; BASc (N) Degree 1949Helen Unsworth, RCAMC Certificate 1947Doris Vosburgh, RCAMC Certificate 1947Jean Wheeler (Keays), SAMNS Certificate (PHN) 1946Vivian Isabel Eileen Williams, RCAMC BASc (N) Degree 1936Beverly Wilson, RCAMC BASc (N) Degree 1939    Page 6   Joan DoreeUBC PHNS Certificate 1948BASc (N) 1949Joan Doree with MedicalOfficer and patients at#11 Canadian GeneralHospital, Taplow, Eng.,Christmas 1945Cleta Thompson (L) and Joan Doree, UBC Fall 1949UBC Nursing GraduationPhotographs courtesy Joan Doree.Used with permission. Page 7 Jean DorganUBC BASc (N) 1934Photographs © BC History of Nursing Society Archives. Permission given for use in this project.Dorgan Left, with colleaguesin Germany, 1944Dorgan at a Nursing Sisters Associationof Canada gathering at a WarMemorial, 1999  Page 8 Dorothy May Ladner,Nursing 1946RCAMC, RCAF ReservesPhotographs © Edna Ladner Estate. Permissiongiven for use in this project by Valerie Grant  Page 9  Nancy Viola LeeSAMNSPHN certificate 1946Photograph © BC History of NursingAssociation Archives. Permission given for use in this project. Page 10   Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Lists  BASc (N) = Bachelor of Applied Science (Nursing) PHN Certificate = Public Health Nursing Certificate (Diploma) TS Certificate = Teaching and Supervision Certificate (Diploma) Certificate = UBC Graduation Lists for 1946, 1947, and 1948 did not differentiate between PHN and TS certificates CAMC = Canadian Army Medical Corps; the addition of “Royal” was added in November 1919 RCAMC = Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps RCAF = Royal Canadian Air Force [Nursing Sisters] RCN = Royal Canadian Navy QAIMNS = Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service QAIMNS (World War I) QATNS = Queen Alexandra Territorial Nursing Service (later QAIMNS) SAMNS = South African Military Nursing Sisters – the South African forces asked for nursing assistance from the Canadian Military, and a group of Canadian nurses was originally seconded to the SAMNS Corps; many later continued with the RCAMC  Names are as in the UBC Nursing graduation lists; later married names, when known, are in parentheses.  - - -  Acknowledgments  We have received assistance from many in our searches, but we would particularly like to thank Francis Mansbridge and Marjory Ralston of the B.C. History of Nursing Society Archives, Joan Doree, and Valerie Grant.  - - -  Page 11            “Lest we forget”  University of British Columbia School of Nursing Graduates Who Served in the World Wars 1914-1918 and 1939-1945  Glennis Zilm and Ethel Warbinek   While writing Legacy, the history of the University of British Columbia’s School of Nursing,1 we discussed the possibility of including a list of graduates who had served in World War II; such a list is a common entry in most histories of Canadian schools of nursing. However, we could find no archival records of UBC nurses who served in the War. In fact, the University itself has no complete honour roll of graduates who had served with the forces, although students working on the Totem2 and Ubyssey3 made attempts both during and immediately following the war to compile one. Some faculties and departments have also made efforts along these lines because many UBC students left the campus to enlist when the War broke out and many new graduates joined the forces immediately after graduation. An honour roll of those killed was developed for UBC’s Memorial Gymnasium, which opened in 1951; this is on permanent display in the Gym foyer.    Given the amount of research required, we reluctantly relinquished the idea while we were writing the history. The desire to see such a list remained in our minds, however, and after the publication of the book we attempted to find a way to develop such a record. Finally, in 2002, we started a list with as many names as we could find and then sought further assistance in a variety of ways. We prepared displays for the School for the November 11 Memorial Days for most years since then and asked for help in identifying others who should be on the list.   As well, in working on various other projects related to UBC Nursing graduates, we discovered that some nurses who served in World War I attended UBC Nursing programs when they returned from overseas duties. We have identified five. The UBC School of Nursing was established in 1919, in the immediate period following the Great War of 1914-1918. The decision to open this first university nursing degree program in Canada was partly in response to the tremendous services that had been rendered by the 3,141 Canadian nurses who served with the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps4 and additional numbers who served with other Allied Forces (such as Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Army Nursing Service and the United States Army Nursing Corps). These Nursing Sisters served valiantly both in the war zones and on the home front, and at least 47 lost their lives,5 including those who died in the bombing of a military hospital in France and the torpedoing of a hospital ship in the Atlantic. The public responded warmly to the dedicated efforts of the Nursing Sisters.    During World War II (1939-1945), 4,480 nurses served with Canada’s military forces (Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps 3,656; Royal Canadian Navy 343; Royal Canadian Air   Page 12  Force 481).6 They helped care for more than 60,000 wounded and dying Canadians as well as casualties from nearly every other Allied Nation. They staffed more than 100 hospitals and casualty stations7; these included small mobile units near enemy lines as well as general military hospitals, both overseas and in Canada, to which the wounded were evacuated. Although they worked near the battle zones, only two Canadian Nursing Sisters lost their lives because of enemy action during the bombings. None of the Canadian Nursing Sisters who lost their lives in the World Wars was associated with the University of British Columbia’s School of Nursing.   Initially, we identified a number of graduates who served during World War II. We started our project by examining the incomplete lists from issues of Totems and Ubysseys available in the UBC Library Special Collections and in the UBC School of Nursing Archival Collection. We copied various lists of those who served, although these often did not identify the faculty or department. We then cross checked names with graduation lists from the School of Nursing, which we had on computer disk from our work on Legacy. This method was not highly successful, and we identified only two Nursing Sisters.   We then started with the Honour Rolls of graduates of the Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing who had served in the World Wars; these were available in the first history of the School.8 This was a highly fruitful list, of course, because of the long association between the UBC and VGH nursing programs; UBC nurses had affiliated with VGH for clinical portions of the program since the School opened in 1919. A preliminary list was started that contained the names only of those who were graduates before World War II – but this was a relatively short list. Later we found Honour Rolls from other Schools of Nursing and again cross-checked the names.   One reason for a relatively small number of UBC Nursing alumni joining the forces was that degree graduates were in short supply and high demand. When the War started, large numbers of nurses volunteered for duty, and there was a critical shortage of nurses and, especially, a deficiency of qualified nursing instructors. Some UBC graduates who had wanted to enlist were turned down because they were in administrative or teaching jobs that were considered important to the war effort on the home front. For example, Elizabeth (Beth) McCann (1940), who was well known to both of us, had wanted to join up, but as she had agreed to teach at the School of Nursing at the Royal Columbian Hospital in New Westminster, she was not allowed to enlist. After the War, she joined the faculty of the UBC School of Nursing and taught there until retirement, eventually serving as Acting Director of the School.   On the other hand, Jean Dorgan, a 1934 graduate, told us that she was working in public health for the City of Vancouver and, although the City had asked its nurses not to enlist, she did. Following the War, she took a master’s degree at the University of Toronto School of Social Work and eventually was the Chief Advisor to the federal Deputy Minister of Health and Welfare in Ottawa.9   Page 13   Others who were already enrolled in the UBC program when War was declared, such as Margaret Beveridge (1943) and Elizabeth Jenkins (1943), completed the program then joined up.   Because of the severe shortage of nurses cause by the War, the length of several nursing education programs across Canada was cut; for example, an “accelerated” 28-month program (rather than 36 months) was offered at Vancouver General.10 Furthermore, UBC Nursing Programs admitted record numbers of students.11 We reported in Legacy on some of the extra- curricular activities of UBC Nursing faculty members, such as Margaret Kerr, who provided Red Cross first aid training programs for the public.12   We also found in our searches that a large number of Nursing Sisters from the VGH Honour Roll had enrolled in UBC Nursing programs immediately following the War, with the largest numbers attending during 1946 and 1947. The Canadian government was providing financial assistance for education for veterans, at first for disabled servicemen who were sent home, and later for all qualified veterans. And immediately following the war, UBC, like many other universities across Canada, waived all tuition fees for returning veterans. Nursing Sisters, like other forces personnel, were quick to take advantage of this Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) program.   Joan Doree, for example, took advantage of this program to take her Public Health Nursing Certificate in 1948 and her Nursing degree in 1949. Doree, who has remained active in the Nursing Sisters Association of Canada (Vancouver Branch) and the B.C. History of Nursing Society, was instrumental in identifying for us a number of UBC graduates who had been Nursing Sisters, either those who were classmates during the post-war years or who were colleagues during the years she worked in public health in B.C. The DVA grants program was, according to Doree, a unique and wonderful educational scheme, and gave many veterans an unparalleled opportunity for post-secondary education. Discharged service personnel had to take advantage of the DVA “credits” within five years of demobilization – unless there were unusual circumstances (such as illness) that meant the credits could be extended.13   Enrollment in the UBC School of Nursing more than doubled during this post-war period. In 1943-1944, there were 67 students registered in the degree and two certificate programs offered by the School; in 1946-1947, there were 145 nursing students, of which 52 were using DVA credits.14   We then decided we should expand our UBC Honour Roll list to include Nursing Sisters who graduated from the UBC School of Nursing either before or after the Wars. Originally, we identified two Nursing Sisters who had served in World War I and who later attended UBC’s School of Nursing, one to receive her degree and one to take a certificate in the one-year diploma program to prepare public health nurses. Since 2010, we have been working on a new project to identify the careers of UBC Nursing graduates from the early decades of the school and this  yielded a few additional names, such Lillian Florence Kier (later Roberts), who was in the first   Page 14  graduating class for the one-year Public Health Diploma program of 1920-1921.15  Since 2010, we have been working on a new project to identify the careers of UBC Nursing graduates from the early decades of the school. This has yielded a few additional names.   So far, our lists of UBC School of Nursing graduates who served in World War I and World War II contain five Nursing Sisters from World War I and 47 Nursing Sisters from World War II. The search will continue.   Endnotes 1. Zilm, Glennis, & Warbinek, Ethel. (1994). Legacy: History of Nursing Education at the University of British Columbia 1919-1994. Vancouver: UBC Press/ UBC School of Nursing. 2. Alma Mater Society (AMS). (1945). Totem 1945. Vancouver: Author. See especially pages 7 to 15.  The 1945 issue was dedicated to graduates who served, and the staff made a dedicated effort to compile a list. Other copies of this annual were checked in UBC Library Special Collections. 3. Ubyssey was the student newspaper; when Totem discontinued publication in 1943, the staff of the paper published a smaller abridged version that covered some of the material. Later this magazine-type annual also was discontinued. 4. Nicholson, G.W.L. (1975). Canada’s Nursing Sisters. Toronto: Samuel Stevens Hakkert & Co./ National Museum of Man, p. 98. 5. Canadian Nurses Association. (1999). Memorial Book. Ottawa: Canadian Nurses Association (unnumbered page listing names). This number is now considered low, especially if one includes the number who died at home of diseases (including the Spanish ‘flu) contracted in their nursing duties overseas. Historian Dianne Dodd of Parks Canada puts the number at 63 (Personal communication, D. Dodd to G. Zilm, June 2013). Military researcher Tighe McManus (quoted in Marshall, 2014) places the number even higher and writer Debbie Marshall on her website (see reference list) puts the number at 76. 6. Nicholson, 1975, p. 208. 7. Nicholson, 1975, p. 208. 8. Cavers, Anne S. (c1949). Our school of nursing 1899 to 1949. Vancouver: Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing. 9. Personal Communication, Jean Dorgan during an interview by Ethel Warbinek on January 22, 2003. The tape is available in the RNABC Oral History Collection.  Page 15 10. Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, see especially pp. 103-113. 11. Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 102. 12. Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 107. 13. Personal Communications, Joan Doree to G. Zilm, October 2002.  14. 12. Zilm & Warbinek, 1994, p. 107. 15. Kier, Elden. (n.d.) Lillian Florence Roberts (nee Kier). In Memories Never Lost: Stories of the pioneer women of the Cowichan Valley and a brief history of the Valley 1850-1920. Compiled by the Pioneer Researchers. Printed copy available in the Duncan Public Library archival files.    Sources and References  B.C. History of Nursing Society Archives. Biographical Files on:  Joan Doree Jean Dorgan Florence (Kirkpatrick) Dougherty Ellen Jean (Wheeler) Keays Nancy Viola Lee  Helen K. Mussallem Pauline Siddons  Cavers, Anne S. (c1949). Our school of nursing 1899 to 1949. Vancouver: Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing. (Contains an honour roll of VGH graduates who served in the Wars; we cross-checked these names against the list of UBC graduates.)  Landells, E.A. (Ed.). (1995). Military Nurses of Canada: Recollections of Canadian Military Nurses. (Vol. I). White Rock, BC: Co-Publishing. (See especially Jean Dorgan, Margaret Fletcher, Nancy Lee, Helen Mussallem, Helen MacPherson Rodin, Pauline Siddons, Joan Gore Spring)  Landells, E.A. (Ed.). (1999a). Military Nurses of Canada: Recollections of Canadian Military Nurses. (Vol. II). White Rock, BC: Co-Publishing. (See especially Joan Doree)  Landells, E.A. (Ed.). (1999b). Military Nurses of Canada: Recollections of Canadian Military Nurses. (Vol. III). White Rock, BC: Co-Publishing. (See especially Joan Doree)   Page 16  Marshall, Debbie. (2014). “Finding the 47 – now 76” [Blogspot]. Retrieved June 24, 2014, from              http://rememberingfirstworldwarnurses.blogspot.ca/  Nicholson, G.W.L. (1975). Canada’s Nursing Sisters. Toronto: Samuel Stevens Hakkert & Co./ National Museum of Man.  Pearson, Anne. (1985). Royal Jubilee Hospital School of Nursing 1891-1982. Victoria: Alumnae Association of the Royal Jubilee Hospital. (Using the index [“war nursing’] and the photograph section, we obtained names which were cross-checked against the list of UBC graduates.)  Reminiscing: St. Joseph's Hospital School of Nursing commemorative yearbook 1900-1981. (1981). Victoria: Victoria General Hospital. (Contains an honour roll of SJH graduates who served in the Wars; we cross-checked these names against the list of UBC graduates.)  Zilm, Glennis, & Warbinek, Ethel. (1994). Legacy: History of Nursing Education at the University of British Columbia 1919-1994. Vancouver: UBC Press/ UBC School of Nursing.   Author Notes:  Glennis Zilm, BSN, BJ, MA, DLit (H), is a former Registered Nurse and a semi-retired freelance writer and editor in the health care fields. She is an honorary professor in the University of British Columbia School of Nursing. Ethel Warbinek, BSN, MSN, is a former Registered Nurse and is an assistant professor emerita with the University of British Columbia School of Nursing. The two are co-authors of Legacy: History of Nursing Education at the University of British Columbia School of Nursing 1919-1994 (Vancouver: UBC Press/ UBC School of Nursing, 1994). Both are founding members of the B.C. History of Nursing Professional Practice Group of the College of Registered Nurses Association of B.C. and both have served in a number of its executive positions. They are also long-time members of the Canadian Association for the History of Nursing.  Page 17 Please Help So far, the lists of UBC School of Nursing graduates who served in World War I and World War II contain five Nursing Sisters from World War I and 47 Nursing Sisters from World War II. There may be more names to be found. We would therefore appreciate any help in identifying other names that should be placed on our “Lest we forget” list. If you know of anyone whose name should be added, please get in touch with Glennis Zilm (604-535-3238 / gilm@telus.net) or Ethel Warbinek (604-538-5066) or leave a message for us with the University of B.C. School of Nursing Office and we will get back to you. July 2014                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

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