UBC Graduate Research

Ocean Heat Pump Regulatory Review Eweka, Eugene 2020-12-28

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         Ocean Heat Pump Regulatory Review     Prepared by: Eugene Eweka Prepared for:   Course Code: APPP 506C University of British Columbia   Date: 28 December 2020       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a report”.  University of British Columbia  Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program  Student Research Report 1 / 53                               APPP 506C      APPP 506C   Instructor: Professor Vladan Prodanovic  Capstone Project Ocean Heat Pump Regulatory Review  Date: Monday, December 28th, 2020.  Submitted by:   Eugene Erasogie Eweka     2 / 53 CONTENTS APPP 506C ............................................................................................................................................... 1 DEFINITION OF TERMS.................................................................................................................... 6 1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 7 2. REVIEW OF REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................... 9 3. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF OSHP TO STAKEHOLDER GROUPS ....................................... 23 3.1 Equity Considerations ........................................................................................................... 23 3.2 Economic Impacts ................................................................................................................ 24 3.3 Environmental Impacts ......................................................................................................... 24 3.4 Cultural Impacts .................................................................................................................... 27 4. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS .................................................................................................... 28 4.1 Summary of Stakeholder Engagement ................................................................................. 32 4.2 Stakeholder Analysis ............................................................................................................ 40 5. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................. 44 6. APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................. 46 6.1 Geographical Map of Indigenous Communities in the Area of Proposed project. ............... 46 6.2 Stakeholder Engagement Tracker ......................................................................................... 46 7. REFERENCES............................................................................................................................. 49    3 / 53  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would like to genuinely acknowledge the support and contributions of persons without whom this study would not have otherwise been completed. Thank you to Prof. Vladan Prodanovic, CEEN Course Director, Helen May, Program Director, Blair Antcliffe (Project Mentor), SEEDS Coordinators (Allison and David Gill) Vincent Harper Officer at Department of Oceans and Fishery, Rebecca Yashim (Government Liaison Manager and Professional Researcher). I also acknowledge my parents for their steadfast guidance and Isaac Idowu for his inspiration throughout this project. Finally, I am grateful for my siblings Damian Eweka and Paul Eweka (PhD Researcher at University of Glasgow) for their constructive criticism and ongoing encouragement over the course of the research process.            4 / 53 ABSTRACT  As part of UBC’s plan to reduce its GHG emissions significantly, the University’s Energy Centre is working towards installing an ocean-source heat pump for the Vancouver campus. This paper explored the multitude of regulations and requirements from the Federal, Provincial, and Municipal governments, to support setting up an ocean-source heat pump as a supplementary heat source for UBC’s Vancouver campus buildings. A general evaluation of the potential impacts of the ocean heat pump project was presented in this paper. The paper also summarizes the feedback obtained from a broad stakeholder engagement process conducted from September to November 2020, to enable UBC identify, manage and address the needs and concerns of stakeholders with setting up an ocean-source heat pump at the Vancouver campus. This report is to serve as a guiding document and reference resource for the entire ocean source heat pump project implementation process at UBC, and for future expansion or similar research projects.          5 / 53 LIST OF ACRONYMS  BC HYDRO – British Columbia Hydro Services CCP – Comprehensive Community Plan CEA – (BC) Clean Energy Act  CEEN – Clean Energy Engineering  CHP – Combined Heat and Power  CO2 – Carbon Dioxide  COP – Coefficient of Performance DFO – Department of Fishery and Oceans, Canada DH – District Heating  FN – First Nation GHG – Greenhouse Gases HVAC – Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning  LEED – Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design OCP – Official Community Plan  OSHP – Ocean Source Heat Pump(s) OSHP – Ocean-source heat pump SEED – Social Ecological Economic Development Studies UBC – University of British Columbia. UEL – University Endowment Lands    6 / 53 DEFINITION OF TERMS Foreshore is the land between the high and low watermarks of streams, rivers, lakes, and the ocean. In British Columbia, the Province owns nearly all freshwater and saltwater foreshore. Land adjacent to foreshore may be privately owned, but in common law the public retains the privilege or "bare licence" to access the foreshore (Government of British Columbia: Land Use – Private Moorage webpage). Navigable water as defined in the Canadian Navigable Waters Act, means a body of water, including a canal or any other body of water created or altered as a result of the construction of any work, that is used by vessels, in full or in part, for any part of the year as a means of transport or travel for commercial or recreational purposes, or as a means of transport or travel for Indigenous peoples of Canada exercising rights recognized and affirmed by section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, and • there is public access, by land or by water; • there is no such public access but there are two or more riparian owners; or • The only riparian owner is either the Federal Government or a Provincial Government. Ocean-source heat pump (OSHP) system refers to a heat pump system which harnesses the ocean's thermal energy as a means of generating renewable energy (Z.K. Cao et al, 2009). Riparian Owner owns the land in which a body of water sits. The ocean water itself is owned by the provincial government in BC, and all aquatic crownlands are administered by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy for commercial, industrial, conservational, and recreational uses. University Endowment Lands (UEL) is an unincorporated area that lies to the west of the city of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent to the University of British Columbia and the lands associated with the Vancouver campus.  7 / 53 1. INTRODUCTION The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a leading player both academically and practically in clean energy. Since 1997, UBC has been striving to be environmentally responsible and setting up programs like the SEEDS program through the Sustainability Office in 2000. The campus serves as a nexus of research and practice, serving as a test bed in creating green sustainable communities. The Vancouver campus has set its own GHG reduction targets, and has already made significant financial investments into innovative systems, such as the $24 million Campus Energy Centre (CEC), which is a state-of–the-art hot water boiler facility on campus, the Energy and Water Services (EWS) unit, the Bioenergy Research Demonstration Facility (BRDF), the Academic District Energy System, Eco-TREK, and several other innovative projects. UBC set up its own Climate Action Plan in 2010, with a target GHG emission reduction of 67% by 2020 and 100% by 2050. UBC also created the Green Building Action Plan in 2018 to control energy demand in campus buildings. UBC is developing its Climate Action Plan (CAP) 2030, looking to further reduce GHG emissions from the 2020 target of 67% below 2007 levels. This product focuses on UBC’s academic district energy system, as the CEC, which burns natural gas, is a significant contributor to UBC’s GHG inventory. One option to replace the heat generated by the CEC is an Ocean‐Source Heat Pump (OSHP). However, there are potentially significant political and regulatory hurdles to implement this. This project would help to identify some of the potentially significant hurdles. UBC’s SEEDS (Social Ecological Economic Development Studies) Sustainability Program in collaboration with UBC Energy & Water services is looking for solutions to replace the heat generated by the CEC using an Ocean‐Source Heat Pump that could further reduce the natural gas consumption in the campus after the Bioenergy Research & Demonstration Facility (BRDF) expansion.  This research project takes UBC’s Energy Centre one step closer to actualizing this by providing a reference point for some key regulatory requirements and stakeholder needs. The goal of this research 8 / 53 was to determine the social and regulatory frameworks to support setting up an ocean heat pump at UBC Vancouver by reviewing the various existing laws and regulations which might dictate how and where an ocean‐source heat pump could be installed and operated at UBC Vancouver, and assessing stakeholders’ interests and influence levels for this project. The objectives set at the start to meet the research goal were: • Stakeholder analysis for a potential OSHP connecting to UBC’s Academic District Energy System • Investigation of the regulatory framework in which such a project might exist – which laws and regulations would govern the design, placement, and operation of a potential OSHP, and at which level of government do each of those regulations exist?  The research is presented in 4 major parts or sections, excluding this introductory section. The first section below presents the findings from the regulatory review. Section 2 discusses the equity, environmental, economic, and cultural impacts of ocean heat pumps, based on a literature review and feedback from stakeholders. Section 3 discusses and presents the feedback from the stakeholder engagement. The last section provides a brief summary and recommendations from the research project.          14 / 53 Navigation Protection Act Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations & Rural Development  foreshore area where it will be located. The regulating Agency responsible for leasing and licensing crown lands for projects is the Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Devt. • Navigable Waters: The NPA regulates activities that may risk obstructing or interfering with navigation in the listed water bodies in the Act. Proponents are required to apply to the Navigation Protection Program to obtain an approval. • Clearing Trees on Crown land: If the project will involve clearing trees to lay the pipes, an application for a license to cut is required by the Ministry of Forest, Lands, Natural Resources, and Rural Development, as authorized by the Forest Act. • Contaminated sites and spills: The Ministry of Environment and Information Requirements (PDF) • Ocean Energy Policy (PDF) • Clean Energy Guidebook (PDF) •  Crown Land Fees schedule (PDF) Park Use Permits: • FrontCounter Park Use Permits • Permit Policy for Commercial Filming [PDF]  • Permit Insurance Requirements [PDF]  • Permit Application [PDF]  • Permit Cancellation [PDF]  • Ecological Reserve Permits [PDF]  • Permit Fees [PDF]  15 / 53 Climate Change Strategy is authorized by the Environmental Management Act (s.79) to assess for spill prevention and require risk mitigation by proponents. This assessment is covered by the Environmental Impact Assessment. • Provincial park use: The Ministry of Environment and climate change strategy regulates the use of provincial parklands for activities in protected areas. A park use permit is required for this project if it is to be situated at wreck beach, which is a protected parkland. Applications are processed by FrontCounter BC. Permits are reviewed under the BC Parks Impact Assessment process. • Water use or diversion: Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy requires an application through FrontCounter BC if a project will use water or affect its • Permit Term Length [PDF]  Research Permit Policy [PDF] Navigable Waters:  Navigation Protection Program Application Indian Reserve Land use: Indian Act, 1985, s.28(2) Clearing Trees on Crown Land: Application for a license to cut  Water use or diversion: FrontCounter BC Water License application     18 / 53 Development Permit Board Committee specifically, requires any company wanting to ‘make any changes to the public realm’ (work that impacts UBC’s built environment, such as the public realm, tree removals, landscapes and public art, which may include installing the connecting system underground) to apply for and obtain a development permit (UBC C+CP Development Permits). The Development Permit Board reviews all applications. To confirm whether or not this permit is required, contractors and project managers are encouraged to contact Development Services on UBC. • This permit is not required when the structure is an accessory structure less than 2.0 m high and not more than 10 m2 in floor area provided it is in conformity with Section 7.0 (UBC Development Handbook 2020): • Development Permit Application Form and relevant reference materials • Building Permit Application form and reference materials • BC Building Code 2018 • Application form for System shutdown • UBC Building Operations Service Shutdown Policy and Procedures • UBC Service Connection Permit Application form (Energy & Water Services) • Technical Safety BC 19 / 53 ▪ Maximum height 4.5m ▪ Must not exceed site coverage of 18%, a building area of 140 m2, or be wider than 80% of the lot width. • Some considerations for whether a permit would be required can include: whether the pipes be laid underground, What the receiving station at UBC will look like, whether the receiving station already exists or if it needs to be built, whether it be indoors or outside, These considerations will determine whether this project gets classified by the Board as Class A (no permit required), class B (minor and easily approved permits), or class C (all other developments, major projects). • C+CP may also require the contractor to obtain a building permit if changes are to be made to the buildings that will be connected 20 / 53 to this new heat/electricity source (consult the BC Building Code). C+CP administers the Code on campus, ensuring buildings and fittings are in compliance. • This project will likely require an Excavation and Backfill Permit from the Associate director of Municipal Engineering (Landscape and Infrastructure Group, C+CP), because it involves drilling for connections to underground utilities. • The permits expire 12 months after issuance. The contractors will also need to submit an application for service shutdown and will have to have obtained a Service Connection permit prior to start of the work, from the Department of Building Operations. The contracted company will be responsible to calling all applicable inspection authorities (water, sewer, gas, 23 / 53  3. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF OSHP TO STAKEHOLDER GROUPS  This section presents a summary of the feedback received from stakeholder on potential impacts in the 4 criteria defined at the start of this research: equity, economic, cultural, and environmental impacts. Stakeholder feedback (where provided) was complimented with various online sources (including guiding documents, reports, and web pages of renewable energy-affiliated organizations). In many cases however, feedback on impacts to stakeholders was not received, as the focus of the discussions were around regulatory requirements. Therefore, the potential impacts presented here are general estimates and assumptions made based on the research available and may not reflect the actual impacts that stakeholders may experience. This section therefore can serve as a guide for further conversations with stakeholder groups and for a more in-depth stakeholder impact analysis, when the specifications of the OSHP system are determined by the project managers.  3.1 Equity Considerations Based on the feedback from residential building users on campus, the district energy center at UBC, and surrounding communities, there were no identified equity impacts of setting up the OSHP at the Vancouver campus. It was anticipated that the campus residents (students and faculty) may have concerns around noise pollution during installation and possibly from running the OSHP and temporary disruptions to outdoor spaces during installation. It was also anticipated that the Energy and water Services would have concerns around additional installation and ongoing maintenance costs, and neighboring communities would be concerned about potential land and water use impacts, animals that feed in the area et cetera. However, none of these concerns were raised during the stakeholder 24 / 53 engagement process as anticipated, which would have been useful in developing an equity impact rating for various stakeholder groups, based on the expected costs and benefits.  3.2 Economic Impacts There was very little feedback that indicated any perceived economic impacts of installing OSHP by the stakeholder groups identified and engaged. The expectation was that UBC campus residents would be concerned about the impacts on their utility bills. The feedback received from residents however, did not include any such concerns. The conversations with representatives from the Department of Fishery (DFO) and Wreck Beach Preservation Society revealed concerns around environmental and aesthetic impacts of installing the heat pumps. The representative from the DFO was concerned with restoring the habitat to its original state that could support local economy in terms of fishing as a source of livelihood and some concerns were raised about the extension of certain species due to this activity. The wreck beach representative expressed some concerns about how revenue could be affected from recreational activities that may be halted due to the project setup time and its final conclusion.   3.3 Environmental Impacts UBC Vancouver campus has about 56,000 students and about 16,000 staff, totaling over 70,000 people (UBC Overview and Facts 2019-2020). As at the end of last fiscal year, UBC Vancouver campus purchases/used 297 gigawatt hours of electricity and generated 14.3GWh through renewable natural gas. In the same year, UBC purchased 339,000 gigajoules of natural gas for hot water generation and generated 88,000 megawatt hours of thermal energy for heating (UBC Energy and Water Services, Stats & Metrics). The UBC Green House Gas emissions report also shows a 30% reduction in overall emissions at the campus even with an increase in the floor space on Campus (UBC GHG Inventory). 26 / 53 From an energy-efficiency standpoint, there is a potential positive environmental impact of setting up the OSHP on UBC grounds. There are, however, other considerations to the environment that the setup of this technology may impact. Depending on where the project will be sited (does it cross a wildlife area or a migratory bird sanctuary?), UBC may be required to conduct a formal environmental assessment (SOR/2012-147, Physical Activities schedule). As part of the (formal or informal) environmental impact assessment, we must determine the following: 1. Will any forest or other land vegetation be cleared to lay the pipes underground from the foreshore to the campus energy center? To what extent, if any, will the disruption to the land occur? (consider impacts on wildlife, bird populations). 2. What construction materials will be utilized? What precautions will be taken to prevent potential contamination from the materials and ensure water quality is intact? (consider impacts on fish population in the immediate area). 3. How much noise impact (vibrations underground, noise from machinery running) can be expected from installing and running this technology at the foreshore and on campus? (consider mitigation efforts for outdoor/recreational activities during installation). Depending on the type of system set up (vertical versus horizontal, open versus closed loop system), various degrees of disruption to the ground may be necessary. The set up typically includes pipes which contain a heat transfer liquid, anchored to the seabed, and connected to the buildings (Renewable Energy Technologies in the Trust Area, 2013, p.2). The system can either be an open loop or a closed loop. In an open loop, the water is first extracted, then the heat is extracted from the water, and then the water is returned to the ocean (ibid, p.2). A closed loop on the other hand circulates a heat transfer liquid through the pipes.  Metrics would have to be considered as to how these Ocean heat source would affect the balance of wildlife species in the Ocean (Pacific Ocean). It is important to note a lot of people and animals eat and rely on the fish and other sea animals for food and for balance in the eco-system as a whole. Care must 27 / 53 be taken to ensure the project creates minimal harm or disruption to ocean animals and other important species.   3.4 Cultural Impacts  UBC’s Vancouver campus is located on the traditional, ancestral, and unceded territory of the Musqueam people. The communities in the neighborhood may be concerned about the potential disturbance of the eelgrass beds and other habitats on the foreshore. Prior to the project starting, it is highly recommended that UBC engage the leaders of Musqueam FN, to ensure that the installation of the pumps will not impact their cultural/traditional uses of the land in the area around the foreshore, and to make the necessary accommodations in the event that they do. On December 3rd, 2020, Bill C-15 was tabled by Minister Lametti (Minister of Justice). This Bill is a follow up to Bill C-262 that affirms the rights of Indigenous peoples in Canada, which was tabled in 2018 in an effort to pass legislation on implementing the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People. There is thus strong political attention on Indigenous rights across the country, making it very important for adequate and early engagement prior to the formal consultation process. Before the project commences, the provincial government has a duty to consult with the Indigenous groups on their traditional rights on all impacted lands in their territory, and to make efforts to mitigate any impacts. UBC will have to demonstrate that installing the pipes will be done in an area mapped for low disturbance, and in accordance with the Department of Fisheries and Ocean guidelines. One way is to install the system with an existing (or new) dock, to minimize the use of concrete and other cementing materials for the pipe laying, which disturb the area (Renewable Energy Technologies in the Trust Area, 2013). They may also have concerns about potential leaks, if a closed loop system is built (the heat transfer liquid may leak). UBC would have to demonstrate its past commitments to maintaining systems adequately, use an open loop system with water only, or use low-toxicity liquids for the heat transfer in the pipes. 28 / 53 The UBC culture is one that has over the decades centered around climate impact awareness and leadership in green energy. Therefore, having an OSHP promotes cultural pride and heritage at UBC.   4. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS Stakeholder analysis is an evaluative tool that provides details on various stakeholders of a project. It will be conducted based on the stakeholder impact index, which would be used as a planning and as an evaluation tool. As a planning tool, it can be used proactively to structure the project stakeholders and their potential impact on the project. As an evaluation tool, it can be used to evaluate the stakeholder management process during the project and after project completion. The stakeholder analysis for this project was conducted with the goal of assessing the interest and influence level of stakeholders. This was done through email and phone interviews with various identified stakeholder organization representatives. The feedback received from these groups is presented in this section. This summary will enable UBC to identify, manage and address the needs and concerns of stakeholders with setting up an ocean-source heat pump at the Vancouver campus. Stakeholders for this project were identified from various sources – communications with the UBC Energy and Water Services, identification of the various regulatory bodies involved based on the project description, and identification of Indigenous communities in the locale using Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System (ATRIS). ATRIS is an open government initiative tool accessible to anyone to provide access to documents and maps that are used to help governments, industry and others determine their consultation obligations and in carrying out their consultation research, and links reports with related geographic shapes on an interactive map, allowing users to locate Indigenous groups and become familiar with each group's established or asserted rights. This broad-based search yielded the following identified stakeholder groups for this project, shown in the following table:  30 / 53 BC Hydro Provincial government crown corporation Feasibility, program supports  For this project, UBC Board of Governors and Metro Vancouver government are the primary decision makers. UBC Vancouver by population size is large enough to be a municipality but has no municipal government and are thus considered unincorporated (university endowment lands). Thus, all UBC’s land use regulations (the zoning and bylaw implications of installing ocean-source heat pumps) will be overseen by Metro Vancouver (of which UBC belongs to the Electoral Area A). In year 2000, UBC signed a memorandum of understanding with Metro Vancouver to oversee its own neighborhood planning. The UBC Board of Governors therefore vets and approves all campus neighborhood plans. The Board develops and approve policies for the University, which provide direction on specific topics and issues, along with procedures and standards for compliance. The Board is also responsible for deciding whether to approve the project and ensuring the mitigation of potential adverse impacts and enhancement of project benefits (Repository of Board of Governors Policies, Procedures, Rules, and Guidelines). In most cases, decision will be based upon if there are significant adverse impacts associated with this option and if they are justified under the circumstances.  Metro Vancouver is a federation consisting of 21 municipalities, one Electoral Area and one Treaty First Nation which plans for and delivers regional-scale services for these parties as a collective, with focus on drinking water, wastewater treatment and solid waste management. It also regulates air quality, plans for urban growth, manages a regional park system (including the Pacific Spirit Regional Park which surrounds the UBC Vancouver campus and where Wreck Beach is located, on Musqueam territory) and provides affordable housing (Metro Vancouver: About Us). UBC’s University Endowment Lands are part of metro Vancouver. However, UBC is not governed by metro Vancouver’s regional district governance board. UBC is directly administered by the provincial government. UBC signed a 31 / 53 memorandum of understanding with metro Vancouver in 2015 for strategic collaboration in areas of research and innovation, operations, and general prosperity (UBC and Metro Vancouver Strategic Collaboration, December 2015). Because parts of the OSHP may be located on the regional park land, metro Vancouver would have to provide approval to UBC to set up. The Government of Canada’s Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) is the federal department responsible for safeguarding all of Canada’s fisheries, oceans, and freshwater resources and protecting aquatic habitats to ensure healthy, sustainable ecosystems. The department works with proponents to review their projects through the Fish and Fish Habitat Protection program, to determine if a formal review is required. Wreck Beach Preservation Society is an advocacy group for keeping the visual appeal of wreck beach and protecting the natural environment from deforestation, road and marina construction, and pollution by jet fuels and other pollutants (Wreck Beach: About). The beach itself is located on traditional Musqueam land and lies within the Pacific Spirit regional park. Because of its proximity to the Vancouver campus and it’s 7.8km long foreshore, wreck beach is the ideal location for the OSHP.  BC Pavilion Corporation is a provincial crown corporation that owns and operates 2 public facilities in downtown Vancouver: BC Place and the Vancouver Convention Center. The Pavilion was identified as a stakeholder because they have set up OSHP in their 2 commercial size buildings. They are therefore able to share learnings from their experience navigating the regulatory controls and with the use of the pumps. Transport Canada is responsible for administering the federal Navigation Protection Program (NPP), under the authority of the Canadian Navigable Waters Act. The NPP sets terms and conditions for projects in navigable waters, manages obstructions, and enforce rules on dewatering and depositing 32 / 53 materials into navigable waters (Transport Canada: Navigation Protection Program). The NPP requires an application for any project involving any navigable water body in Canada. UBC Housing was identified as a stakeholder group to capture some feedback from residents at the Vancouver campus. FrontCounter BC is a provincial government office responsible for processing all fish, wildlife, and park use permits applications for the province. They took over this role from the former Permit and Authorization Service Bureau in 2014. This office will be a primary point of contact for UBC to acquire all the necessary permits at project implementation stage. Musqueam, Tsleil-Waututh and Solh Temexw Nations were identified by ATRIS as the 3 Indigenous groups that are directly located within the area. The provincial government is legally obligated to consult and accommodate First Nations, where required, on land and resource decisions that could impact their indigenous interests (Government of British Columbia: Consulting with First Nations). At various stages of the formal consultation process, the proponent (UBC) will be involved. The provincial government recommends that proponents engage with the leadership of these Nations prior to the formal consultation process as a best practice (Building Relationships with First Nations: Respecting Rights and Doing Good Business). 4.1 Summary of Stakeholder Engagement  This section provides a summary of the stakeholder engagement process. This was carried out over the course of 2 months from early October to late November. Various key persons from the stakeholder organizations identified above were contacted by email and phone calls (refer to appendix 8.1 for details). It should be noted that not all stakeholder group key persons contacted responded to the inquiries. As no reasons were provided, it can be assumed that several offices are either short-staffed or dealing with 40 / 53 setting up OSHP technology for use at the Vancouver campus? fluid/steam greater than 80C when produced at surface.  The Act does not cover geo-exchange system.  For a geo-exchange, wells are drilled under the Water Sustainability Act and its regulations.   • For ocean or lake-based systems, a land tenure is required and there may be requirements under the Federal Government with respect to fisheries. • Respondent offered to find a contact through Geoexchange BC that may have more helpful information and connect the researcher to said contact.     4.2 Stakeholder Analysis Based on the stakeholder engagement process, a simple stakeholder analysis was performed. This involves ranking the various stakeholder groups interest and influence levels on a scale of 1-10 (a higher number for a higher influence or interest and a lower number for a lower interest or influence). From this qualitative assessment, the stakeholder groups with the highest levels of power or authority/influence in this project are the various federal, provincial, and municipal government regulatory bodies that require UBC to meet certain requirements in order to be in good standing when implementing this project. These 41 / 53 include the government of Canada’s Department of Fisheries and Oceans, the City of Vancouver, Metro Vancouver, FrontCounter BC, BC Hydro, the UBC Board of governors, and the Indigenous communities in the immediate area. The stakeholder groups with high levels of interest include organizations and groups that stand to be directly impacted (whether positively or negatively, based on their assessment) by the installation and running of OSHP technology. These include the Indigenous communities with traditional land use rights, Wreck Beach Preservation Society with their protection/conservation mission, and the UBC Board of Governors with its desire to continue to be leaders in environmental stewardship provincially and nationally. Stakeholders with high interest and influence levels are the top ranked stakeholders as this project progresses. These include the UBC Board of Governors and the Indigenous communities directly impacted by this project. One stakeholder group falls under the high interest-low influence region – Wreck Beach Preservation Society. This group must be engaged and accommodated as best as possible before and during installation of the OSHP, as such groups (especially those with activist mandates) can acquire social influence using media. This is particularly true for Wreck Beach Preservation Society, as they expressed in their email response during the stakeholder engagement that they have in the past expressed dissatisfaction with UBC’s proposed and completed projects that affect their views capes. The table below summarizes this exercise.      44 / 53 5. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  This research project has reviewed and presented the existing policies and regulations that guide ocean-source heat pumps from pre-installation assessments to monitoring and maintenance stages of the project. The various assessments, licenses, permits, and approvals were identified in this report. The project also captured the results of the stakeholder engagement process, providing results of the feedback collected and a stakeholder assessment based on influence and interest levels. Finally, the project provided a summary of the potential economic, environmental and cultural impacts that this project may have on the various stakeholders based on research and feedback from stakeholder engagement process. Setting up an ocean-source heat pump on UBC grounds will require the project manager to carefully review the regulations and ensure the project complies with the DFO regulations, obtains the necessary permits from UBC and FrontCounter BC, and makes all necessary accommodations and mitigation efforts to meet the needs of the Indigenous communities in the area that are impacted by the project. The recommended next step is to commence an environmental assessment and submit a request for review to the DFO Fish and Fish Habitat Protection Program. It is also recommended that the Indigenous communities identified through ATRIS are engaged at every stage of this project to ensure that UBC is respecting their rights and communicating with their representatives from the various offices. Considering the breadth of regulatory requirements to support the OSHP and similar projects, the significant potential impacts to the environment and people living in the vicinity, and all of the installation and equipment efficiency considerations, it is recommended that UBC SEEDS creates a compilation of all the research done so far on various aspects of this OSHP project (the engineering sections, the economic cost sections and the regulation section) and creates a step-wise project plan with evaluation metrics built into the timeline for each major project area, to ensure close monitoring and evaluation. This may require hiring a professional team or firm that can provide site assessment and 45 / 53 evaluation in real time is a recommended action going forward. As the situation of activities around UBC keeps changing, it is important to keep abreast and track these changes as they affect the results from various parties concerned about this technology.  During the stakeholder engagement, a lot of stakeholders expressed interest in having more detailed and specific information on what the actual system (location, material types, dimensions, et cetera) would look like on the ground. Some wanted a formal written report or request and at least a previous site assessment on file to evaluate the impacts for their individual groups.  For example, in addition to the site assessment done for the location of the OSHP, the Department of Fishery wanted proof (Letter of Credit which is refundable over a period of time) from UBC stating that they would cover any unforeseen damages for offsetting the Natural ecosystem in the region where this project would be conducted.  Hence, it is important for UBC’s OSHP project team to ensure that there is ongoing engagement with the stakeholder groups, particularly those with high interest and high influence in this project.  A potential next step for research through SEEDS could be an assessment of evaluations conducted on various alternative sources of energy across BC, to pull the lessons learned and to compare the efficiency of the various systems, identify pitfalls to avoid, and discuss considerations for upscaling systems. Particularly, a research interest that could be explored is the ocean and other water source heat pumps currently running across BC. This can form part of a series of research pieces that, put together, serve as a guiding document for UBC’s energy and water services, and serves as a baseline for monitoring and evaluating projects – emission reduction met, job creation, negative impacts, risks and mitigation.       46 / 53 6. APPENDIX 6.1 Geographical Map of Indigenous Communities in the Area of Proposed project.   6.2  Stakeholder Engagement Tracker  Date Organization Contact Person/info Summary of discussion Action items Nov3 2020 Fisheries and Oceans Canada Vincent Harper Tel: 250-756-7261 Fax: 250-756-7229 Concerns at Department of Fishery and Fish Act  Reach out to the DFO to conduct a pre-review of the project. Oct 19 2020 City of Vancouver 604-673-8299 City of Vancouver follow Building Efficiency codes of BC and UBC would follow same codes for this project ✓  47 / 53 Nov 2020  Dec 15 2020 UBC residents (Student/ Professor)   UBC Housing rep Dr. Amanda Gang Professor at UBC   Sean Ryan, Associate Director, Resident Life, Student Housing and Hospitality Services P: 604 827-1996 E: sean.ryan@ubc.ca Excited to see the possibilities of OSHP at UBC. Highlighted attention to the energy policy directed at getting approval from Decision maker at UBC Unable to support a survey roll out to residents. No concerns raised. ✓  Nov 3 2020 Front Counter BC Alicia frontcounterbc@gov.bc.ca Impact of Chemical substance on foreshore and any interruptions to human recreational activity ✓  Nov 3 2020 Musqueam Band Office Yeganeh Asadian, Manager of Environmental Stewardship office yasadian@musqueam.bc.ca Yet to respond Reach out to Yeganeh again to confirm a meeting date and present more information. Nov 3 2020 Barrister & Solicitor  Ian Moore E: ian@ianmoore.ca  Yet to respond  ✓  48 / 53 Nov 23 2020 P: 236-990-0378   Responded on this day with general advice. Dec 15 2020 Canadian Geoexchange Coalition Warren Walsh, Msc P. Geo, Strategic Energy Manager, Energy and Industry Decarbonization, Electricity and Alternative Energy Division. E: warren.walsh@gov.bc.ca Responded with general advice. Reconnect with a few other key persons. Meeting invitation pending.          49 / 53 7. REFERENCES  1. Repository of Board of Governors Policies, Procedures, Rules, and Guidelines. Online Resource Retrieved from: https://universitycounsel.ubc.ca/board-of-governors-policies-procedures-rules-and-guidelines/policies/   2. Land Use, Permitting and Sustainability Policy - UBC Policy UP12. Online resource retrieved from: https://planning.ubc.ca/planning-development/policies-and-plans/campus-land-use-planning/land-use-permitting-and-sustainability-policy-ubc-policy  3. UBC development Handbook. June 2020. Retrieved from: https://planning.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/2020 04/HANDBOOK UBC DevelopmentHandbook2020 0.pdf   4. UBC Development and Building Regulations. 2019. Retrieved from: https://planning.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/2019-11/REGULATORY_UBC_DevBldgRegulations2019.pdf   5. Greater Vancouver Regional District Electoral Area A Zoning Bylaw No. 1144, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.metrovancouver.org/boards/Bylaws1/GVRD_Bylaw_1144-Consolidated.pdf   50 / 53 6. UBC Campus + Community Planning: Development Permits. Online resource: https://planning.ubc.ca/planning-development/permits-and-business-licenses/development-permits   7. Renewable Energy Technologies in the Trust Area – Ocean Based Geo-Exchange Systems. 2013. Islands Trust Memorandum. Retrieved from: http://www.islandstrust.bc.ca/media/209514/Renewable%20Energy%20Technologies%20-%20Ocean%20Based%20Geo-Exchange%20to%20LTCs.pdf   8. British Columbia Government. (2016). Climate Leadership Plan. Victoria: British Columbia. Retrieved from: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/environment/climate-change/action/clp/clp booklet web.pdf   9. Renewable City Strategy. November 2015. City of Vancouver. Retrieved from: https://vancouver.ca/files/cov/renewable-city-strategy-2015.pdf   10. Charles Lankester. 2018. UBC Sustainability Scholars Program Campus Energy Infrastructure Study. Retrieved from: https://www.sustain.ubc.ca/sites/default/files/2018-02%20Campus%20Energy%20Infrastructure%20Study_Lankester.pdf   11. UBC Campus Energy Centre. Online resource: https://energy.ubc.ca/projects/district-energy/campus-energy-centre/   12. UBC Overview and Facts 2019-2020. Online Resource Retrieved from: https://www.ubc.ca/ assets/pdf/ubc overview facts 2019-2020.pdf.  51 / 53  13. UBC Energy and Water Services, Stats & Metrics: 2018/19 Fiscal Year Energy Generation and Energy and Water Purchases. Online Resource: https://energy.ubc.ca/energy-and-water-data/stats-metrics/   14. UBC Sustainability: GHG Inventory. Web resource: https://sustain.ubc.ca/campus/climate-action/ghg-inventory   15. Ecology Action Centre: What are the costs associated with these systems? Web resource available at: https://ecologyaction.ca/content/what-are-costs-associated-these-systems   16. Heating Our Communities: A Module of the Renewable Energy Guide for Local Governments in British Columbia. March 2011. Community Energy Association. Available at: https://www.communityenergy.ca/wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2014/06/HeatingGuide_Mar2011.pdf  17. Utilities & Financing: A Module of the Renewable Energy Guide for Local Governments in British Columbia. February 2008. Community Energy Association. Available at: https://www.toolkit.bc.ca/sites/default/files/CEA_UtilitiesandFinancingforRenewables.pdf   18. LEED Green Associate Study Guide: Leading Green V4 Edition. Retrieved online: https://leadinggreen.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/LeadingGreen-LEED-GA-Study-Guide-v4-ed.pdf   52 / 53 19. Source: Supplemental guide to the Professional Guidelines for Geoexchange Systems in British Columbia. 2014. Geoexchange BC. Retrieved from: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/54f378c0e4b05fe3d5e46d54/t/5510807ee4b09164b7378924/1427144830804/GeoExchange+BC+Guidelines+Series+-+User+Guide.pdf  20. Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, Sections 2-4: Physical Activities.  Justice Laws Website. URL: https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2012-147/page-3.html#h-782948   21. Open Government. Government of Canada website. URL: https://open.canada.ca/en?_ga=1.104773568.1956058488.1452095133   22. Z. K. Cao, H. Han, B. Gu, L. Zhang & S. T. Hu (2009) Application of seawater source heat pump, Journal of the Energy Institute, 82:2, 76-81, DOI: 10.1179/174602209X427060  23. Metro Vancouver: About Us. URL: http://www.metrovancouver.org/about/Pages/default.aspx  24. Metro Vancouver Update: UBC and Metro Vancouver Strategic Collaboration. December 2015. URL: http://www.metrovancouver.org/metroupdate/issue-16/228/UBC%20and%20Metro%20Vancouver%20Strategic%20Collaboration  25. Riparian Rights and Public Foreshore Use In the Administration of Aquatic Crown Land. March 1995. Province of British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks Land and Water Programs Branch. Occasional Paper No. 5.  53 / 53 26. Transport Canada: Navigation Protection Program. URL: https://tc.canada.ca/en/marine/navigation-protection-program  27. Government of British Columbia: Consulting with First Nations. URL: https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/environment/natural-resource-stewardship/consulting-with-first-nations#:~:text=The%20Province%20is%20legally%20obligated,could%20impact%20their%20Indigenous%20Interests.  28. Building Relationships with First Nations: Respecting Rights and Doing Good Business. Publication by Government of British Columbia. Available at: file:///C:/Users/ryashim2/Downloads/building relationships with first nations english.pdf.     

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