UBC Graduate Research

Digitizing Campus Tree and Shrub Social Value Maps Lightfoot, Marley; Lin, Tori (Yachen) 2020-08-31

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Digitizing Campus Tree and Shrub Social Value Maps Marley Lightfoot, Tori Lin University of British Columbia VOL 500 Themes: Biodiversity, Land, Climate, Community  Date: Aug 31, 2020       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. UBC SEEDS PROGRAMM A R L E Y  L I G H T F O O T  &  T O R I  ( Y A C H E N )  L I NS E P T E M B E R  2 0 2 0DIGITIZINGCAMPUS TREE ANDSHRUB SOCIALVALUE MAPPINGProjectBackground05ExecutiveSummary03ProjectProcess07Results: Maps &Descriptions08Protocol17Limitations &Recommendations18Appendix21TABLE ofCONTENTSACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe acknowledge that our study area is animposition on the ancestral, traditional, andunceded territories of the Musqueam People. We would like to thank those whosecontributions and consultation made thisstudy possible.UBC SEEDS SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAMDr. Tahia Devisscher : Banting Research & TeachingFellow, Department of Forest Resources Management,Centre for Interactive Research on Sustainability Emma Luker: Planning Analyst, UBC’s Campus +Community Planning DepartmentLaura Maria Arango: Applied Research Coordinator,UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program123In partnership with UBC Campus + Community Planning, the main purpose of thisproject is to continue to update UBC Vancouver Campus’ tree inventory. In additionto assessing biophysical tree data, spatial data of social values linked to greenspaces was collected by students in Phase 1A. The long-term objective is to preparethe data across the whole campus. This project serves as a pedagogical pilot step.Once this data is collected through all of UBC, planners can better understand howpeople are valuing spaces and what features are more (or less) valued than others.Phase 1A has been completed, and the current priority is assessing what the dataformatting steps are to achieve a fully integrated and holistic perspective of UBC’sgreen spaces. The process of this project consisted of gathering the data that wascollected by students in 2019 and 2020, and digitizing it. The results of this mappingshowed which areas rated highest across the board, and which areas are the mostuner-valued on campus. The highest rated areas were the Buchanan complex, theKoerner Library, and the Faculty of Forestry area. The lowest valued areas were theareas around the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre, and around the Sauder School ofBusiness. Once all the data was processed, we created a protocol to be applied tothe following phases of the project to help facilitate data integration. This includesspreadsheets with instructions that students will use to fill out data. In addition, weprovided recommendations to address the three major limitations: datainconsistency, missing data, and subjectivity. The next phase of this project continuesin the next academic year, using the protocol and recommendations listed in thisreport.EXECUT IVE SUMMARYABOUT USPAGE | 04As a recent UBC graduate from the Urban Forestry program, Marley iscontinuing her education by building on her passion for GIS and datavisualization. She will be pursuing a Masters of GIS from UlsterUniversity beginning in September. Outside of school you can findher walking her dog Theodore in the Burnaby parks, sketching plants,or trying to learn to code.Yachen is currently a master student of community and regionalplanning at UBC. She has earned a master degree in urban designfrom University of Hong Kong. Interested in green space, she plans toexplore how to use big data to help analyze urban green space, andto understand how people use different kinds of public green spacein cities.MARLEYLIGHTFOOTYACHEN LINIntroductionUBC Campus & Community Planning (UBCC&CP)UBC Information TechnologyUBC Botanical GardenUBC SEEDS ProgramThis project aims to continue to add to UBCVancouver Campus’ tree inventory database incollaboration with different stakeholders.There are several stakeholders involved in thisproject, which include:PROJECTBACKGROUNDOur work is one piece of a multi-facetedproject that combines urban tree inventorywith ecosystem service assessment,specifically social value mapping. Studentsfrom Urban Forest Inventory and Assessment(UFOR 101) assessed sites based on 6 socialvalues, and submitted a report based on thesefindings at the end of the term. This projectUses the data that students created to mapthe social values, and createrecommendations for future data collectionand methodology.This work contributes to a larger project thataims to discover the value of UBC Vancouver’surban forest and discuss how social values caninform planning policies on campus.PHASESCOMPLETE2 22GROUPSTOTAL109ACRES TOTALPAGE | 05Project ObjectivesThe social value map data currently exists ina segmented format that needs to beevaluated in order to understand the nextsteps for digitization and integration into theexisting tree and shrub inventory datasetand i-Tree Eco data (ecosystem services)The priority of this project is to understandwhat needs to be done to digitize existingsocial value data, and create a system tostreamline future value data collectionThe integration of the biophysical and socialdata will allow a more comprehensiveunderstanding of the true value of UBCVancouver’s urban forestThis information will ensure consistency inthe data uniformity and accuracy, as well asadd legitimacy to the overall tree inventorydata collection methodology486Advancing Societal IssuesProvide recommendations for socio-culturaldata collection related to UBC’s urban forestand engagement processes based onfindingsTo inform and strengthen urban forest andurban forest biodiversity policy and planningwork, the CAP 2030 and Campus Vision2050Provide recommendation to the way in whichUFOR 101 students collect data so thatdigitalization can become easier12 935671011123  45789 1011NBuchanan Beaty BiodiversityMuseumForest SciencesCentreKoerner LibrarySauder School ofBusinessLand and FoodSystemsPAGE | 06PROJECTPROCESSChoosing ValuesTo determine the social values to be evaluated,students were asked to submit the value(s) thatcame to their mind in a classroom activity. Thesewords were collected in a word cloud, and the topfive/six were used for that year. This activity wasdone once in each phase, so the values differslightly between 2019-2020.Some of these values are similar enough to begrouped together; for example, social cohesion(2019) and community sharing (2020) weremapped together because they represent similarvalues. Others were dissimilar, so they weremapped individually such as recreation (2020).Data InterpretationAt the end of term, students submitted a finalreport of their findings in their sites. Studentswere required to submit information aboutecosystem services, gathered using iTree andphysical observations. Students were notrequired to submit data on social values, sothe submissions had different ways ofrepresenting that data. The following is anexample (Group 10, 2020):Diversity/Species RichnessAestheticsSocial CohesionWilderness/NatureCultural SignificanceSpecies DiversityAestheticsCommunity SharingRecreationSerenity/Safety/RefugeCultural/Historical SignificanceA B C D E15 10 5 0 Using these diagrams and charts, we collectedthe values and input them into spreadsheets.Once we had all of the values collected, thedata was formatted and edited to beconverted into shapefiles. Some submissionsdid not include information on social values, sothese zones are displayed as “missing values”in the maps. Once the data was converted into shapefiles,it was classified to display the range of values.Finally, colors were chosen for readability.PAGE | 07CARTOGRAPHYOnce the data was converted into shapefiles,it was classified to display the range of values.Finally, colours were chosen for readability. For each dimension, there is a different colourtheme and a distinctive colour theme for theaverage of all the different aspects.RESULTSIn this section, we will display the results from ourdata collection, in addition to short summariesand rationale behind color choices. Each colour theme is split into 50 classes, with aninterval of 0.1 for each class. The darker coloursrepresent the higher scores, and the lighterrepresent the lower scores. Dashed areas arezones or subzones with no valid data. Becausethe current completed study area is small, using50 classes is doable. However, once the studyarea expands to include more of UBC, classes willbe reduced to 5-10 for legibility, and to make theinformation easier to digest. For this report, weused 50 classes to better display theinformation. There are 8 maps total: 7  value maps, and onesummary map with the averages of all valuessummarized to display the highest-valued areasof the students. W I L D E R N E S SS E R E N I T YC U L T U R ED I V E R S I T YA E S T H E T I C SR E C R E A T I O NC O M M U N I T YPAGE | 08WILDERNESSWILDERNESS/NATUREThe Wilderness/Nature value was only evaluated in2019. For this reason, the 2020 appears as empty.The zone average does not have any stand-outs,with the highest value at only 2.4. The subzonemap displays the range of values, with highervalues in the south-west area of the sites. The color green was chosen because it is oftenassociated with nature (Kemmis-Scott, 2009).  PAGE | 092.4LEGEND02.55SERENITYSERENITY/SAFETY/REFUGEThis value was evaluated in 2020 only, resulting in2019 appearing as empty. In the zone averages, theBuchanan building area has the highest average at4.6. Additionally, the Forestry building amphitheaterhas the second highest score at 4.2  The chemistrybuilding area has the lowest rating of 2.2.4.62.24.2The color orange was chosen because it isassociated with positivity and calmness(Cherry, 2019). This relates it to serenity andrefuge. In addition, orange is associated withsafety because of the color of traffic conesand high-vis vests that keep outdoorworkers safe. PAGE | 10LEGEND02.55CULTURALHISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE /CULTUREThe values differ slightly here - in 2019 'CulturalSignificance' was evaluated, then in 2020'Cultural/Historical Significance' was evaluated.These values were similar enough to be mappedtogether. The highest value in the zone averagemap is the Buchanan complex with a value of 4.0.The chemistry building area has the lowest at 0.9. Purple was chosen because it is associated withroyalty and historically wealthy families (Bourn,2011). 4.0PAGE | 11LEGEND02.550.9DIVERSITYThis value was evaluated as 'Diversity/Species Richness'in 2019, and as 'Species Diversity' in 2020. The zoneaverage rates fairly even across the board, with thechemistry building area rating the highest at 3.8. Thelowest for zone is Main Mall, coming in at 1.8. DIVERSITY/SPECIES RICHNESSRed was chosen to represent diversity becauseit is the most internationally loved color(Morton, 1995). It is significant in Indian, Asian,African, and Native-American cultures as a signof good luck (Morton, 1995). Because thecultures are diverse, red was chosen torepresent species diversity.3.81.8PAGE | 12LEGEND02.55AESTHETICSAesthetics were evaluated in both 2019 and2020. In the zone average map, aesthetic sisthe only value that has a full rating of 5. Thiszone is home to the Koerner Library andGeography building complex. Interestingly, the zone that rates the lowestin this value is directly adjacent to thehighest rating zone, with the average rating of1.9 - the Henry Angus building. The color pink was chosen because of itsassociation with affection, love, and beauty(Bourn, 2010).  AESTHETICS5.01.9PAGE | 13LEGEND02.55RECREATIONRECREATIONThis value was only evaluated in 2020 as 'Recreation/Activity'.The Buchanan complex area has the highest average rating of3.9, and the chemistry building has the lowest at 1.2.Blue was chosen because it represents strength andstability in the human body (Kemmis-Scott, 2009).3.91.2PAGE | 14LEGEND02.55COMMUNITY3.91.6This value was evaluated as 'Social Cohesion' in2019, and 'Social/Community Sharing' in 2020.These were seen as similar enough to be mappedtogether. The chemistry building has the highest averagerating of 3.9, while Main Mall has the lowest at 1.6.Yellow was chosen because it is often associatedwith positivity and mingling behaviour (Bourn,2011).SOCIAL COHESION/COMMUNITY SHARINGPAGE | 15LEGEND02.55AVERAGEThese maps display the overall average of all valuesevaluated in both 2019 and 2020. This shows which zonesrate highly across all the values, and which rate lowest. Thiscould inform planning decisions by providing guidance asto which areas are valued less by students.OVERALL AVERAGE The highest rated area is the Buchanan complex at3.9. The lowest zone is the Sauder School of Businessarea with an overall rating of 1.8. It's important to note that the zone averagedoes not represent the value of the entire area,as some subzones are rated very high, but theaverage brings them down. PAGE | 16   3.9  1.8LEGEND02.55To develop future projects or research basedon this dataset, this project comes up withthe following protocol for data collection and  visualization.There can be two ways to group studentsconducting data collection. In the currentpractice, each group of students assessedthe social value of one zone for all of thedimensions. This project suggests there couldbe an alternative way of data collection,which is to assign one group of students toevaluate only one dimension in social value(such as aesthetics) across the wholecampus or several zones. This way mayprovide students with a more completepicture of the whole area and enable them tocompare between different zones and givefairer scores. This project provides datacollection forms for both of the groupingoptions for the researcher to use andcompare. Please refer to Appendix A.There is also a summary table for themapping process. This table gathers all thedata recorded in the data collection tablesand calculates the average values. Thesummary table can be linked to a shapefilefor ArcGIS, QGIS or other cartographysoftware. For now, the tables integrate thedimensions mentioned in the previous twophases of the project, which may be furtherfinalized for future use. PROTOCOLPAGE | 17 The comment column is for the students orthe person conducting data collection toleave important insights about an area and torecord the qualitative data of social value.The column has an upper limit of 50characters or less but can be changed basedon the need of the user.This project also provides instruction for datacollection and visualization in the future. Asthe group may take a long time to completein multiple phases, a standardized processmay be helpful in order to keep the data workin one system for analysis and comparison.Appendix B is the instruction and may bealtered accordingly to the actual conduct ofthe project.LIMITATIONS &RECOMMENDATIONSDATAINCONSISTENCY1.This section outlines the biggest limitationswhen approaching this project, as well asrecommendations to explore in the nextphase of the project. Theserecommendations could be applied to largerplans for the project such as policy planning,o to smaller steps in the project, such as nextsemester.  Although there were specific ways forstudents to collect and submit ecosystemservices data they collected, there were nospecifics related to the value datacollected. Submissions ranged from bargraphs, 3D graphs, highlighted areas onmaps, and hand-drawn indicators to nodata submitted at all. This was a challengewhen collecting data for mapping, andresulted in some areas displaying as ‘nodata’ due to lack of usable information.Some students did submit the raw data intables, however it differed between thegroups. The areas that differed were in thetable titles, and general formatting of thedocuments. This took some time toevaluate and put into formatted tables thatGIS software would recognize. A good way to address this is to havestudents submit the raw data collected in atable, rather than representation of the data(ie. bar graphs). This is outlined in theprotocol, where students fill out astandardized graph to help with theconsistency of the data. Having the datasubmitted in spreadsheets would alsofacilitate translating the data to maps in aneasier way.RECOMMENDATIONMISSINGINFORMATION2.Missing data is the most difficult torectify. In the cases where data wassubmitted in different formats, it could beworked through and figured out with time.Working with no data from the beginninggoes right to the ‘no data’ category. It’salso worth noting that the students maychoose to not do parts of assignments,which means it can be hard to avoid.RECOMMENDATIONThere is little to be done when studentsdo not submit any data, however makingthe value-data a core part of the report inaddition to the ecosystem services datacould create incentive for students tocollect the data in full.PAGE | 18EMBRACINGSUBJECTIVITY3.Subjectivity is usually unwelcome in datascience, and in this project, subjectivity iseverywhere. The subjectivity begins at thebeginning of the semester when studentschoose what they feel are the most importantvalues. Then, the students evaluate the sitesbased on how they feel in the space. Thismakes it difficult to have standardized maps ifthe values change year to year. This is achallenge, but also it’s what makes this projectunique. Societal values change all the time,reflected in the differing values among thestudents. This is a challenge to map, howeverit’s important to embrace subjectivity as itrepresents a large part of how we behave ashumans.There is a fine line between making the datamore consistent, and reducing subjectivity. Onething that might help is to use the same valueseach year, and have the changes reflected inthe students’ evaluations. In addition, increasingthe sample size would help reduce the extremevalues to get a more accurate rating for eachzone.RECOMMENDATIONOTHERRECOMMENDATIONS4.SELECTING SOFTWAREThere are several GIS programs readily availablefor use nowadays. For this project, we suggestusing ArcGIS or QGIS to achieve the desiredresults. ArcGIS has more robust analysiscapabilities, while QGIS is more beginner-friendly. Another aspect to consider is accessibility.ArcGIS requires the use of school computers,while QGIS is free to download and works onbasic laptops. If students will be expected togenerate maps in the future, it would bebeneficial to select a software and have a basiclab exercise to provide students with someknowledge.METHOD OF ASSESSMENTTo collect this data, a group of students wereassigned to one zone and its subzones. Thestudents then collected data for each of the5-6 values. So, at the end, the group ofstudents have looked at their site andcollected a list of values. The limitation withthis procedure is that the group is not seeingother sites/areas of the campus, so theirdecisions may be limited. An alternative way to approach this is toassign one value to each group (ex,aesthetics), and have the students evaluateeach zone and subzone. At the end of term,the students would have a list of zones withthe associated value rating (aesthetics in thiscase). This gives the students a more holisticview of the zones, and could result in moreaccurate assessments once the studentshave seen the zones that are the lowest orhighest in that values.In addition to the limitations realized in theprocess of this project, we have a couplethoughts/things to consider while movingforward into the next phases: selectingsoftware, and the method of assessment. PAGE | 19Bourn, J. (January, 2011). Color Meaning: Meaning of the Color Purple. BournCreative. Retrieved from: https://www.bourncreative.com/meaning-of-the-color-purple/Bourn, J. (November, 2010). Color Meaning: Meaning of the Color Pink. BournCreative. Retrieved from: https://www.bourncreative.com/meaning-of-the-color-pink/Cherry, K. (Octobe 2019). The Color Psychology of Orange. Very Well Mind.Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/the-color-psychology-of-orange-2795818 Kemmis-Scott, J. (2009). The Color Green. Empowered by Color. Retrievedfrom https://www.empower-yourself-with-color-psychology.com/color-green.htmlMorton, J.L. (1995). The Meanings of Red. Color Matters. Retrieved from:https://www.colormatters.com/the-meanings-of-colors/redREFERENCESPAGE | 20APPENDIX A:TABLESPAGE | 21OPTION 1: EACH GROUP EVALUATEALL DIMENSIONS IN ONE ZONEOPTION 2: ONE GROUP EVALUATEONE DIMENSION FOR ALL ZONESSUMMARY TABLE: ZONES (FOR SOFTWARE)SUMMARY TABLE: SUBZONES (FOR SOFTWARE)PAGE | 22APPENDIX B:INSTRUCTIONSPAGE | 23Data Collection Option 1: GroupEvaluates One ZonePlease have the table with you when you aredoing the fieldwork. (either printed out or onyour mobile device in an editable mode) Please do not change the format or thelayout of the table.Visit each of the areas on the table andassign a score to each of the dimensions. 0being the lowest score, and five being thehighest. Please keep the score to one decimal point.Please leave the top row of “Final Score(Average)” blank for now.Please record any comments you have forany of the areas.Please take pictures of thesubzones to help support the result of thescore. Please name the pictures with the area name(e.g. subzone1A_1 if you have multiplepictures or subzone1A if you only have onepicture)After completing the fieldwork, please enterall the scores into excel. The top row shouldcalculate itself.Instructions for DataVisualizationCopy data from the excel tables for each zoneto the summary tables. There are twosummary tables, one for each zone, and onefor each subzonePlease make sure the zone_ID/subzone_IDmatches the way the shapefile names eachareaJoin the table to the corresponding shapefileAdjust the symbology as desiredPlease enter the comments into the commentcolumn. The final comment in each cell shouldbe less than 50 characters.Please submit theexcel table in xls. or xlsx. form, more detailswill be provided by the instructor1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.1.2.3.4.

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