UBC Graduate Research

Bike Theft Reduction at UBC Lu, Mengqi; Santos, Kenneth; Shani, Parsa; Shojaee, Amir; Sharma, Aanchal 2020-04-15

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report         Bike Theft Reduction at UBC Mengqi Lu, Kenneth Santos, Parsa Shani, Amir Shojaee, Aanchal Sharma University of British Columbia Course: URSY 520 Themes: Transportation, Buildings, Land Date: April 15, 2020       Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. Bike Theft Reduction at UBC - Final ReportURSY 520UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAMENGQI LUKENNETH SANTOSPARSA SHANIAMIR SHOJAEEAANCHAL SHARMASupervised by Dr. Tran MartinoApril 15, 2020Executive SummaryThe URSY 520 team undertook this engagement with the objective of delivering asuite of novel measures to reduce bike theft on the UBC campus, in an effort to removethis key barrier for students to bike to UBC.In order to do so, the project team first conducted a baseline analysis of both thestatus of biking within the mode-split of commuters to UBC, as well as of the status ofbike security infrastructure on the UBC campus. This endeavor allowed the team to bestunderstand the strengths and weaknesses of currently deployed solutions.Following the baseline analysis, a literature review and idea generation phase wasundertook to develop a comprehensive list of 13 potential bike security and theft-preventionmeasures that may be possible.In order to provide a preliminary level of insight into the merits and drawbacks ofeach of the options on the aforementioned list, a multi-criterion filtering matrix was de-veloped in consultation with the client, allowing the team to gain a better understandingof how each option performs on each of the key metrics.The initial filter highlighted above led to a qualitative assessment of the high-rankingalternatives, ultimately leading to a three-pronged solution that encompasses many of theoptions in the initial filtering matrix.1. The Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub: refers to the sharing/borrowing of bike safety equip-ment, including U-locks, bike alarms, and GPS anti-theft devices.2. Bike Storage Rooms & CCTV: refers to the introduction of bike storage rooms withinbuildings that are situated in high-theft areas, along with the use of CCTV for areasthat this is not a possibility (subject to regulatory restrictions).3. Theft-deterring Signage and Public Engagement: refers to the use of posters to de-ter thieves, along with the adoption of a comprehensive public engagement strat-egy, including social media campaigns, engagement programs, competitions, and a“BikeToUBC Week”.iiTable of ContentsExecutive Summary iiiTable of Contents iiiList of Tables vList of Figures v1 Introduction 11.1 Background and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Theoretical Framework and Methods 22.1 Data Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Data Gaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Baseline Analysis 53.1 Current Transportation Mode Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.2 On-campus Bicycle Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53.2.1 Classic Bike Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.2.2 Bike Cages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.2.3 Bike Lockers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.3 High-theft Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.4 Interview Insights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Literature Review and Idea Generation 94.1 Literature Review Insights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94.2 Ideation and List of Potential Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Initial Filter 11iiiTable of Contents5.1 Filtering Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115.2 Results of Initial Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Assessment of Alternatives 146.1 Key Insights and Assessment of Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146.2 Recommendations: A Three-Pronged Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Implementation 177.1 Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177.1.1 U-Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187.1.2 Bike Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207.1.3 GPS Anti-Theft Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207.1.4 Pilot Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237.2 Bike Rooms and CCTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247.2.1 Equipment Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247.2.2 Sample Storage Room Layout and Capital Cost Estimate . . . . . . . . 267.2.3 Spatial Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277.3 Theft-deterring Signage and Public Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287.3.1 Theft-deterring Signage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287.3.2 #BikeToUBC Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Next Steps 328.1 Performance Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328.2 TransLink TDM Grant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338.3 Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 References 34ivList of Tables4.1 List of Potential Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105.1 Filtering Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125.2 Initial Filtering Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137.1 Key U-Lock Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197.2 Promising U-Lock Brands and Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197.3 Promising Bike Alarm Brands and Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207.4 GPS Anti-Theft Device Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217.5 GPS Anti-Theft Device Price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217.6 Pilot Scenario 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237.7 Pilot Scenario 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247.8 Pilot Scenario 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24List of Figures2.1 Project Roadmap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2 Comparison of locks used on stolen bicycles and locks used on current bicycles(Lierop, et al., 2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.1 Weekday Person-Trips by Bike (UBC Vancouver Transportation Status Report,2018) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5vList of Figures3.2 Classic Bike Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.3 Bike Cages on Campus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63.4 Bike Lockers on Campus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73.5 Bike Theft Hotspots and Building Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87.1 Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub Implementation Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177.2 Sold Secure and ART U-Lock Rating Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187.3 Kryptonite York Standard U-Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197.4 Wsdcam Bike Lock and Alarm Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207.5 Boomerang CycloTrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227.6 GPS Anti-Theft Devices Implementation Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227.7 Bike Wall Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257.8 High-density Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267.9 Angled Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267.10 Sample Bike Room Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277.11 Spatial Deployment of Bike Storage Rooms and CCTV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287.12 Sample Theft-Deterring Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287.13 The Offset Effect (Nettle et. al., 2020) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297.14 Theft-deterring Signage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297.15 Preliminary Public Engagement Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307.16 Sample Posters – checklist (left), locking and registration (middle), lock sharingprogram (right) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318.1 Proposed Bike Valet Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33vi1Introduction1.1 | Background and ObjectivesDespite best efforts, bike theft continues to be a problem on the UBC campus, withover 290 bikes stolen in the past two years. Studies of UBC staff has shown that fear oftheft is one of the most significant barriers to cycling to campus, with it being ranked asthe second-largest barrier, more than weather and commute length combined. As only1.4% of trips to and from UBC are currently made by bicycle, removing the barriers tobiking to campus (in this case, theft), is a critical component of UBC achieving its 2040transportation target. Per UBC Campus + Community Planning, “cycling is key for UBCto achieve our 2040 transportation target of having 2/3 of all trips to and from campusmade by walking, cycling, and transit. Currently only 1.4% of trips to and from UBC aremade by bike.” In order to promote cycling and increase cycling mode share from 1.4% to20-25%, UBC Campus + Community Planning needs creative, scalable solutions to solvebike theft on campus.As such, UBC’s SEEDS Sustainability Program has requested the URSY 520 teamto develop a comprehensive, scalable and creative bike-theft prevention strategy that isfeasible within the program’s capital and operational constraints.1.2 | ScopeThe extent of the study is the Vancouver campus of UBC. The key deliverables asso-ciated with this project are an examination of a suite of bike security solutions for UBC’sVancouver campus, an evaluation of the merit of multiple scenarios, along an overallset of recommendations and implementation considerations. Historically, municipalitiesthat fund cycling infrastructure see increased ridership, as demonstrated in places likethe Netherlands, Denmark, or Germany (Copenhagenize Index). It is our hope that theoutcomes of this project will allow UBC to be yet another manifestation of this trend.12Theoretical Framework and MethodsThe URSY 520 team has employed the following four-stage approach to developinga strategy that is in alignment with UBC SEEDS’ objectives.Figure 2.1: Project Roadmap1. Baseline Condition Review and Analysis (Section 3): Review of the current status ofbicycle infrastructure on the UBC campus. Data collection and review of the bikeparking infrastructure (quantity, capacity, and location) and the current anti-theftmethods adopted by UBC. Review of the information on past theft cases and theassociated locations.2. Literature Review and Idea Generation (Section 4): Study and investigation withinexisting literature to develop a comprehensive list of bike security strategies, con-sidering a variety of approaches: physical infrastructure, behavioural approaches,programs, etc. Novel ideas from team members that are not present in existing lit-erature have also been captured here.3. Initial Filter (Section 5): Ranking and filtering the options developed in Stage 2 inaccordance with a multi-criterion framework developed in consultation with the22. Theoretical Framework and Methods 2.1. Data Collectionclient. This section informs which options will be assessed in greater detail in thefollowing section.4. Assessment of Alternatives and Recommendations (Section 6): This section outlinesthe interpretation of the initial filter and highlights the high-level “solutions” thatare recommended, each of which are further discussed in the implementation sec-tion.5. Implementation Considerations (Section 7): This section entails developing an im-plementation roadmap for the options that have been identified as “high-potential”in the preceding stage, including a discussion of key questions that will need to beaddressed, and spatial deployment maps, where necessary.6. Next Steps (Section 8): This section includes a brief discussion of further actions thatmay bolster bike safety on campus and are recommended for additional examina-tion.2.1 | Data CollectionSEEDS provided our group informative data on bike parking, academic capacity perbuilding, UBC Transportation, bike theft locations, e-bike programs, etc. Some of thesedocuments proved useful when our group brainstormed bike security ideas. However,in addition to the provided data, and extensive external deep dive was conducted toenhance the team’s understanding of the matter at hand, as follows:Since bike theft remains a pervasive issue globally, our group thoroughly investi-gated 10+ journal articles to understand the best practices in places as far away as Mon-treal and Washington, D.C. For example, given that “bad locking accounted for 60% ofthefts” and viewing the figure below, “comparison of locks shows effectiveness of U-locks” (Lierop et. al., 2015), this leads to a hypothesis that UBC could spend their bikesecurity funding wisely by promoting good locking techniques and using strong U-locks.Figure 2.2: Comparison of locks used on stolen bicycles and locks used on current bicycles(Lierop, et al., 2015)32. Theoretical Framework and Methods 2.2. Data GapsAdditional information was collected through meetings with the client, as well aswith a manager at the UBC Bike Kitchen, as is detailed in Section 3, Baseline Analysisbelow.2.2 | Data GapsA key data gap was during the baseline analysis; our group has had difficulty over-laying the bike theft map with a map of bike cages, lockers, and racks. With this info, ourgroup could determine, with a higher degree of accuracy, whether the high-theft areashave the proper bike security infrastructure.In addition, it is difficult to fully understand the reasons as to why a particular theftmay occur, as, when UBC Campus Security notes a bike theft incident, it is unclear if thevictim had proper security measures, such as a high-quality lock, in place.According to the journal article, Breaking into Bicycle Theft: Insights from Mon-treal, Canada, “The study makes clear that public agencies should act to prevent theftby adding bicycle parking capacity and ensuring that parking facilities are strong (thickmetal well-anchored), easy to properly use (locking to bicycle frame and removable parts),visible, and located near destinations such as work, school, shopping, and recreation.”Not only is this a data gap for now, but effective bike rack location is subject to interpre-tation when combined with UBC Planning goals, such as landscape architecture.43Baseline Analysis3.1 | Current Transportation Mode ChoicePopulation at UBC has increased to 71,750 by Fall 2018, including student, staff, andfaculty. However, the weekday person-trips to and from UBC by bike has dropped sig-nificantly after 2003 when the U-Pass was introduced, accounting for only 1.4% of tripsto and from UBC, according to the UBC Vancouver Transportation Status Report of 2018.The figure below shows the average weekday bicycle trips to and from UBC, 1997-2018.Figure 3.1: Weekday Person-Trips by Bike (UBC Vancouver Transportation Status Report, 2018)According to the Report, the usage rate of bicycle racks equipped on buses operatingon transit routes serving UBC decreased from 5.8% in 2015 to 2.8% in 2018.3.2 | On-campus Bicycle StorageMultiple options for bicycle storage are available on campus, which include Bikeracks, bike cages, and lockers. Among the 1376 survey respondents who own a bike, 575of them said that they bring their bicycle to campus.53. Baseline Analysis 3.2. On-campus Bicycle Storage3.2.1 | Classic Bike RacksBike racks facilities are available at most of the buildings and residences. Figure 3.2below shows an example of the classic bike racks that exist across the UBC campus. Asone could easily imagine, the classic bike rack is the easiest to use and deploy among allbike storage facilities. However, it is also the riskiest option in terms of theft, especiallyat night. According to the Survey conducted by NRG Research Group, among the 575respondents who bring bicycles to campus, 45% of cyclists use classic bike racks, perhapsdue in large part to their comfort and ease of use.Figure 3.2: Classic Bike Rack3.2.2 | Bike CagesBike cages are a bike storage option administered via UBC’s Bike Kitchen. Theyprovide a covered bike rack within a secure enclosure. The Bike Cages are intended forshort-term personal bike storage only and are monitored by campus security using CCTV.The available Bike Cages on campus are shown in the following figure. A total of 12Bike Cages are provided on campus, as shown in Figure 3.3 below.Figure 3.3: Bike Cages on Campus63. Baseline Analysis 3.3. High-theft Areas3.2.3 | Bike LockersBike locker rentals offer the most secure way to lock bikes on campus, whether fordaily use or long-term storage. However, this storage option is also the least accessibleand least convenient, which requires users to engage with a lock twice, both the bikeitself, as well as the locker. Each locker is only accessible by a single renter. The rental feeis $12/month plus a $45 refundable key deposit. In addition, while overnight storage isallowed, it is still not recommended, as it increases the chance of a break-in.As shown in Figure 3.4 below, bike lockers are installed at 18 locations across campus,with a total 202 lockers available.Figure 3.4: Bike Lockers on Campus3.3 | High-theft AreasAs shown in Figure below, the shaded red area indicates the locations with highreports of bike theft incidents in the 2018-2019 academic year.It can be seen that a significant percentage of the bike theft incidents take place at theresidences on campus. This may be because residences are where long-term overnightbike storage is the most prevalent. Most rooms in older residences, including Place Vanierand Totem Park do not have bike hooks equipped in their rooms. A site visit showed thatthere are only 20 bike lockers are available at each of Place Vanier and Totem Park, whichis insufficient for the needs of bike-owning residents. As a result, most bikes are seen tobe stored at the bike racks overnight.As for the central campus areas, including the Irving K. Barber Learning Centre, theLife building, and the Nest, bike storage options in these areas are primarily short term.However, the reason for the high bike theft rate at these locations is likely the high daily73. Baseline Analysis 3.4. Interview Insightspedestrian volume. In this case, improvements to short term bike-storage facilities maybe warranted.From the group meeting with the SEEDS team, it was determined that last year, mostbike thefts occurred at the bike racks, while no thefts were reported from bike lockers, andonly one reported from bike cages (an improvement from previous years, when the cageswere not monitored by CCTV).Figure 3.5 below shows that high-theft areas predominantly occur away from bikecages (placed near the main thoroughfares) and closer to the residences where many bi-cycles are often stored overnight AND outside.Figure 3.5: Bike Theft Hotspots and Building Capacities3.4 | Interview InsightsOn March 9, 2020, a team member interviewed a manager at UBC’s Bike Kitchen.He stated that in the four years he’s worked at the Bike Kitchen, burglars attempted tosteal (or stole) bikes from their shop’s storage areas three times in the past four years.When bike thieves are caught, Bike Kitchen employees do not apprehend or detain sus-pects for the sake of their safety, nor does UBC Campus Security. Campus Security sim-ply notes the bike theft incidents. As such, organizations like the Bike Kitchen may bewell-positioned to encourage cyclists to use a U-lock and avoid locking bikes outsideovernight. The manager also noted that most cyclists do not actively register their bikeson the 529 Garage online platform, and echoed sentiments that bike lockers are the safestoption at UBC, as indicated by the fact that they accumulate a long waiting list at thebeginning of each term.84Literature Review and Idea Generation4.1 | Literature Review InsightsA literature review and precedent analysis was key to developing a comprehensivelist of potential bike security and theft-prevention measures. Key insights from the con-ducted literature review/precedent study are included in this section.At nearby Simon Fraser University (SFU), they’ve mostly taken a lock-at-your-own-risk stance if other options are full. For example, SFU states “bike lockers are compli-mentary” on a “first come” basis for a $20-25 deposit. SFU also offers bike racks insidebicycle compounds at street level, bike racks at the Harbour Centre Complex and bikelockers on the vault level. Also, if students or faculty “require a bike lock on a temporarybasis, they are available from SFU security”. SFU advocates personnel to lock bikes “ina well-lit area where other bikes are located” and to “only lock your bike to a properlyinstalled bike rack” using U-locks and cable locks. In the San Francisco Bay Area, localpolice advocate two essentials: where to lock your bike and what to lock your bike with.For a “where” example, keeping your bicycle inside the home or “somewhere that’s in-accessible and invisible to prowlers.” For a “what” example, local police recommend twoU-locks, sometimes smaller U-locks “that don’t accommodate pry bars”, and novel solu-tions like Skunklock, that sprays regurgitation-inducing chemicals when tampered with(Metcalfe, 2017). In the City of Richmond, the “RCMP is deploying bait bikes along-side cutting-edge bike registration and recovery from Project 529” (Richmond News). AtPrinceton University in New Jersey, the Department of Public Safety planted around cam-pus “a few locked bicycles equipped with GPS tracking devices - known as bait bikes”with an aim to “reduce theft and encourage people to lock their bikes and register themwith the University” (Princeton.edu).Nearly an institutional icon for cycling in Copenhagen, the design firm, Copenhag-enize, publishes an annual Copenhagenize Index to give an overall snapshot of bicycle-friendliness worldwide. “The Copenhagenize Index gives cities points for their effortstowards re-establishing the bicycle as a feasible, accepted and practical form of trans-94. Literature Review and Idea Generation 4.2. Ideation and List of Potential Solutionsport. Countless cities around the world are taking up the challenge of modernising theirpublic realm, to chip away at the decades of auto-oriented street design – implementingbicycle infrastructure, better policy, bike share systems, restricting car use and more.”The Copenhagenize Index promotes cycling based on three parameters: 1. Streetscape(bicycle infrastructure, bicycle facilities, traffic calming) 2. Culture (gender split, modalshare for bicycles, modal share increases, indicators of safety, bikes for cargo) 3. Ambition(advocacy, politics, bike share, urban planning)4.2 | Ideation and List of Potential SolutionsThe comprehensive literature review conducted by our team was supplemented byan internal ideation process, in order to identify other potential solutions to bike theft onthe UBC campus that may not be well-recorded or mentioned in existing literature andprecedent studies. The result of this process is shown in Table 4.1 below.Table 4.1: List of Potential SolutionsBike Theft Preven-tion MeasureDescription TypeU-lock sharing (free orsubsidized)Providing U-locks to cyclists on campus though auniversity-administered system.PreventBike cages in high-theft areasIncreasing the number of bike cages on campus, particu-larly high-theft areas.PreventTheft-deterring sig-nage/ public edu.Posting signage that deters thieves and encourages bikesafety measures with other public engagement measuresPreventBike alarm sharing(free or subsidized)Providing bike alarms to cyclists on campus though auniversity-administered system.PreventFacilitation of seat re-movalProviding tools to cyclists to be able to easily remove theseat of their bike, along with a place to store the seat.PreventBike storage roomsProviding dedicated storage rooms in buildings that aresituated in high-theft areas.PreventManned storage loca-tions, bike valetsThe establishment of a staffed bike valet where cyclists canleave their bike under supervision for a set period of time.PreventMore (Class I) bikeracks and locationsIncreasing the number of classic bike racks on campus, par-ticularly high-theft areas.PreventBike lockersIncreasing the number of bike lockers on campus, particu-larly high-theft areas.PreventGPS anti-theft devicesProviding GPS anti-theft devices to cyclists on campusthough a university-administered system.Prevent/RecoverCCTV in high-theft ar-easIntroducing CCTV surveillance to high-theft area on cam-pus, including public areasPrevent/RecoverRFID anti-theft de-vicesProviding RFID tags to cyclists on campus though auniversity-administered system.RecoverGPS- tracked baitbikesPlacing bait bikes on campus to identify and prosecute fre-quent offenders.Recover105Initial FilterIn order to reduce the scope of the assessment of alternatives to one that is within thetime and resources of the URSY 520 team, a multi-criterion filtering matrix was chosen,as this would provide a high-level understanding of the merits and weaknesses of eachof the alternatives highlighted in Section 4.2.5.1 | Filtering CriteriaIn order to use a filtering matrix as an analysis tool, it was first necessary to developa robust set of criteria that encompass client priorities. As such, a draft list of filteringcriteria (along with weights for each) was developed by the team and presented to theclient and was subsequently adjusted to best align with the client’s including. The finalcriteria and weighting, approved by the client, is included in Table 5.1 below.Note that the utmost effort has been made to normalize the criteria and provide cleardefinitions for each, such that the analysis remains as objective as possible. For somemetrics, such as operational cost, quantification became more challenging and access toaccurate information was limited. As such, in these instances, the determination of scoreshas been left to the judgement of the team.115. Initial Filter 5.1. Filtering CriteriaTable 5.1: Filtering CriteriaCriterion Description WeightEFFECTIVENESS 4: virtually no thefts possible/100% likelihood of recovery, 3: low chance of theft/high chance of recovery, 2: moderate chance of theft/recover, 1: possible decrease in theft/increase in recovery ability, 0: ineffective6OPERATIONALCOMPLEXITY 4: very easy to operate (no additional staff or resources needed), 3: requires minimal ongoing support and oversight, 2: requires a moderate degree of staff support, resources and adminis-tration, 1: requires extensive ongoing staff, resources and administrative capac-ity, 0: requires dedicated specialized team2IMPLEMENTATIONCOMPLEXITY 4: virtually no changes to current operations, all resources in place, 3: minimal changes to status-quo operations, 2: moderate organizational change, training, resources etc. necessary, 1: many changes/additions to existing practices required, 0: extensive training, tech tools, expert implementation team required2UBC CULTUREFIT / INTEREST 4: high fit with UBC culture (almost all bike-riders would use this), 3: good fit (high interest from bike riding population), 2: moderate fit (some bike riders would use this), 1: low fit (almost no bike riders would use this), 0: poor fit (no riders would use this) [NOTE: this is irrespective of price.]2SPACE RE-QUIREMENT 4: this option will require no additional space, 3: this option will require a small amount of dedicated space, 2: this option will require a fair amount of dedicated space, 1: this option will require extensive space, 0: this option will require extensive hard-to-obtain space (e.g. indoorspace)3CAPITAL COST 4: $0-$20 per bike, 3: $20-$50 per bike, 2: $50-$100 per bike, 1: $100-$300 per bike, 0: $300+ per bike4OPERATIONALCOST 4: no OpEx (operational expenses), 3: minimal OpEx, 2: moderate OpEx, 1: high OpEx, 0: too expensive4REGULATORYBARRIERS 4: requires no changes to existing UBC or gov’t regulations, 3: may require minor changes/approvals, 2: may have sizable regulation concerns, 1: difficult to implement under current regulatory conditions, 0: currently banned2Sum of Weights: 25125. Initial Filter 5.2. Results of Initial Filter5.2 | Results of Initial FilterFollowing the determination of the filtering criteria and weights, the team conducteda comprehensive research effort to determine the merit of each of the alternatives withineach of the criterion. The result of this endeavour can be seen in Table 5.2 below:Table 5.2: Initial Filtering MatrixEffect.Implem.Complex.Operat.Complex.CultureFitSpaceReq’tCap.CostOpera.CostRegul.BarrierScore(/100)Theft-deterringsignage/ pub-lic education2 3 4 4 4 4 3 4 82Bike alarmsharing (freeor subsidized)3 2 2 3 4 3 4 4 80GPS anti-theftdevices3 2 3 2 4 3 3 4 76U-lock sharing(free or subsi-dized)2 2 2 3 4 3 4 4 74RFID anti-theft devices2 2 2 3 4 4 2 3 68bike storageroom4 2 3 4 1 2 2 3 67Bike lockers 4 1 2 3 2 1 2 4 62GPS-trackedbait bikes2 2 2 1 3 4 3 1 61CCTV in high-theft areas3 1 2 2 4 3 1 2 60Facilitation ofseat removal4 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 56More (Class I)bike racks andlocations1 2 4 3 2 0 4 4 54Bike cages inhigh-theft ar-eas4 0 3 3 1 0 2 3 53Manned stor-age locations,bike/eventvalets4 0 1 2 2 1 0 2 44It is important to note that while scores for all criteria have been provided out of 4,the final score out of 100 is reflective of the weights shown in Table 5.1.136Assessment of Alternatives6.1 | Key Insights and Assessment of AlternativesUpon developing the initial filtering matrix shown in Figure 3 on the previous page,it was then necessary to select a suite of promising options as “preliminary” recommen-dations. In order to do so, the filtering matrix acted as a guide, but not the sole determi-nant in the selection of the final set of options to move forward with, given the limitedavailability of data and the “high-level” nature of the endeavour.The first key insight from the filtering matrix is that despite their limited effectiv-ity, theft-deterring signage public education/engagement has occupied the top position,with a score of 82 out of 100, due in large part to its low cost and limited barriers toadoption. While it is not likely that such efforts alone can contribute significantly to thereduction of bike theft on campus, they are easy to deploy in tandem with other mea-sures and can be used as a reinforcement that drives the adoption of other higher-impactsolutions.Another key observation from the filtering matrix is that the broad concept of UBCproviding a form of free or subsidized “shared” access to equipment that can either pre-vent theft (U-locks and bike alarms) or assist in recovery (GPS trackers) consistently dowell with the three aforementioned alternatives occupying the second, third, and fourthspots on the filtering matrix. As such, the team considered the consolidation of these mea-sures into a single overarching solution that can be offered through the UBC Bike Kitchen,where students are able to borrow the devices above at no charge (or for a nominal fee).Occupying the fifth position in the filtering matrix lies “RFID anti-theft devices”.These devices are, in essence, small tags that are attached to a bike that include detailedinformation on the owner, date of purchase, etc. However, it was found that such devicesrequire a larger ecosystem in place in order to be effective, such as in the UK, whereImmobiTag data is linked to all UK police force databases (ImmobiTag.com). In addition,Garage 529 already offers a similar service, rendering UBC offering a similar solution apotentially redundant effort, and perhaps it would serve UBC best to simply encourage146. Assessment of Alternatives 6.1. Key Insights and Assessment of AlternativesGarage 529 registration through public engagement measures, as part of a broader arrayof strategies.Following RFID tags in the filtering matrix lies “bike storage rooms” in the sixthposition, which have scored quite higher than “bike lockers”, which occupies the nextposition (67 vs. 62). Bike storage rooms provide the unique opportunity to provide bothshort-term and long-term/overnight parking solutions across campus, including at res-idences and high-traffic academic buildings in the central campus core. It also providesthe opportunity to reduce the cost-per-bike, as, contrary to bike lockers, an efficient high-capacity bike room design can spread the capital cost of the equipment over a largervolume of bikes. However, a key barrier to widespread adoption will be the space re-quirement, as many buildings situated in high-theft areas may not be able to provide aroom dedicated for this purpose. As such, CCTV, despite a rank of 9 out of 13, may beconsidered a suitable complementary measure, particularly for high-theft areas that maynot be able to accommodate bike rooms. It is recognized that the introduction of CCTV inpublic areas may not be a possibility given the current regulatory landscape. However,it is noted as a potential supplementary measure, given its ability to both deter thievesand assist with recovery, particularly in high-theft areas where bike rooms may not be apossibility, and students must resort to the use of classic bike racks.While GPS-tracked bait bikes ranked higher than CCTV in the in the initial filteringmatrix, they were not explored further due to the necessity of such an effort to be ledby the UBC RCMP, given the limited power of UBC staff of campus security to indepen-dently apprehend thieves, and the existing uncertainty surrounding the feasibility of suchan endeavour. However, the team encourages further examination of a potential collabo-ration with the UBC RCMP in order to arrest frequent offenders and potential membersof bike theft rings.Other solutions presented in the filtering matrix that have not been discussed thusfar were not explored further due to their overall poor performance in the initial filteringprocess. The only exception to this is “manned bike storage”, which received only a scoreof 44 out of 100, primarily due to uncertainty surrounding implementation complexity,and the need for the ongoing incurring of labour costs to administer the program. How-ever, at the request of the client, the possibility of a “bike valet” has briefly been discussedin Section 8 (Next Step) as a potential candidate for the TransLink TDM grant.156. Assessment of Alternatives 6.2. Recommendations: A Three-Pronged Solution6.2 | Recommendations: A Three-Pronged SolutionIn alignment with the initial objective to offer a suite of recommendations to tacklethe issue of bike theft on the UBC campus, and following the analysis provided in Section6.1 above, the URSY 520 team recommends a three-pronged solution:1. The Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub2. Bike Rooms CCTV3. Theft-deterring Signage and Public EngagementTheBikeKitchen SharingHub refers to the establishment of a program to share/bor-row bike security equipment (U-locks, bike alarms and GPS trackers), similar to UmbraC-ity (for umbrellas), or borrowing AV equipment from the UBC Library. While it is initiallyrecommended that all three equipment be launched as part of a pilot program, the scopeof the official launch may be reduced to include only one of two of the aforementioned de-vices. A discussion of key implementation considerations is included in Section 7 below,including possible pilot scenarios.Bike Rooms and CCTV refers to the strategic deployment of both bike storage roomsand CCTV cameras in order to provide full coverage of the high-theft areas on the UBCcampus. A discussion of the spatial deployment strategy, along with potential equipmentand configurations for bike storage rooms is included in Section 7.Finally, Theft-deterring Signage and Public Engagement refers to the overarchingendeavour to both install signage that discourages theft, as well as the use of variedpublic engagement approaches (posters, social media, contests, and campaigns) to en-courage both biking to UBC, but particularly, following best practices surrounding bikesafety. Such measures can also be used to promote the options above, including the BikeKitchen Sharing Hub and the use of Bike Rooms. A preliminary strategy surroundingtheft-deterrence and public engagement is presented in Section 7.167ImplementationThis section aims to provide a set of preliminary considerations surrounding eachof the three solutions presented in Section 6 above, in an effort to assist the client infurther planning, decision-making and capital procurement efforts. It is not intended tobe an exhaustive examination of each option, but rather a guiding framework for futureexecution.7.1 | Bike Kitchen Sharing HubThe Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub is envisioned as a service operated through the UBCBike Kitchen, solely accessible to students, that allows them to gain access to a U-lock,bike alarm or GPS tracking device. The figure 7.1 below provides a high-level implemen-tation outline from a device life-cycle perspective.Figure 7.1: Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub Implementation OverviewIt may be possible for this service to be administered using existing UBC Librarycheck-out infrastructure, such that students produce their student ID, which is scannedby Bike Kitchen Staff, in turn providing the employee with access to the student’s profile.This would significantly reduce both the cost and complexity of implementation, thougha platform local to the Bike Kitchen is also not expected to be cost-prohibitive.In order to address the potential risk of theft or resale of the devices, it is suggestedthat a “renewal period” be defined (e.g. 1-month), such that students must report back177. Implementation 7.1. Bike Kitchen Sharing Hubto the bike kitchen with their equipment, pass a condition inspection, and “renew” theirpossession for another defined period (and so on). A failure to do so would then incur, ata minimum, the retail price of the equipment (NOT the cost incurred by UBC, in order todisincentive resale).The following sub-sections provide a discussion of “things to consider” when select-ing the specific type and brand of equipment for this program (as highlighted in Figure7.1 above, Procurement). The section specific to GPS trackers also discusses nuances spe-cific to the deployment of this type of device. Finally, potential pilot scenarios have beensuggested.7.1.1 | U-LocksWhile U-Locks are highly regarded as the safest types of locks, there exists significantvariety in models, brands, sizes, and materials, making the decision of what U-Lock toselect, particularly at the scale suggested for the Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub, a non-trivialmatter. Fortunately, rating agencies such as The ART Foundation (StitchingArt.nl) andSold Secure (SoldSecure.com) have decreased this burden by testing hundreds of bikelocks and providing a score for various models.Figure 7.2: Sold Secure and ART U-Lock Rating AgenciesThe ART rating is from 0 to 5 stars, while Sold Secure provides a rating from Bronzeto Gold. The ART ranking system is known as the more stringent of the two, while SoldSecure has tested a larger library of locks – i.e. there are more locks available with Sold Se-cure rankings than ART ones (TheBestBikeLock.com). It is recommended that only lockswith at least a 5-start rating from ART or a Gold rating from Sold Secure be considered forthe Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub (ideally both), given the importance of providing studentsthe highest-quality available lock, given that they are often the ones most cost-prohibitiveto students to purchase on their own.Apart from the ratings noted above, other criteria to keep in mind when selecting aU-Lock are included in Table 7.1 below.187. Implementation 7.1. Bike Kitchen Sharing HubTable 7.1: Key U-Lock Selection CriteriaShackle ThicknessEnsure a shackle thickness of at least 16 mm, which cannot be cut bybolt cutters. Shackles between 13 mm and 15 mm can be cut by largebolt cutters (36”-42”), while shackles thinner than 13 mm can be cutwith most medium-sized bolt cutters.MaterialEnsure use of hardened steel material for high durability and limitedcorrosion.SizeTest size of U-Lock with multiple sizes and types of bikes to ensureuniversal fit.MountCheck for existence of convenient bike mount for lock, test with va-riety of bikes.While there are many U-locks that meet the criteria outlined above, a sample com-parison table of promising brands and models has been developed below. These modelsare by no means the definitive “best”, but simply potential options. It is recommendedthat additional consultation with commercial wholesalers and local bike shops be con-ducted to ensure the lowest price is considered for each potential option, as current pricevalues have been collected from Amazon.ca and are for a single purchase rather than oneat volume (which is expected to yield a lower per-unit price).Table 7.2: Promising U-Lock Brands and ModelsModel Ratings Price Key ConsiderationsKryptonite YorkStandardSold Secure Goldand ART 5-star$120-$140Well-known brand, knownfor high quality supportOnGuard Brute Sold Secure Gold $70-$90Largest shackle thickness, at16.8 mmABUS Granit X-PlusSold Secure Goldand ART 5-star$140-$170Known for high durability,very lightAn image of the Kryptonite York Standard U-Lock is included as an example in Fig-ure 7.3 below:Figure 7.3: Kryptonite York Standard U-Lock197. Implementation 7.1. Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub7.1.2 | Bike AlarmsContrary to U-Locks, which are well-established, widely manufactured by recog-nized brands, and certified by dedicated rating agencies, bike alarms are non-mainstreamproducts with more limited high-quality options. However, many models tend to be oflower cost than high-quality U-Locks, while providing a loud alarm noise that can bothdeter thieves when tampered with and alert those nearby of suspicious behaviour.Some bike alarms are simply motion activated (sounded if the bike moves prior tothe alarm being disengaged by the owner using a key) and need to be used in tandemwith a basic lock, while others act as a lock with the alarm being an additional layerof protection. An overview of the functionality of the Wsdcam Bike Lock and Alarm isincluded in Figure 7.4 below.Figure 7.4: Wsdcam Bike Lock and Alarm Feature OverviewSimilar to Table 7.2, a sample comparison table of promising brands and models hasbeen developed below in the figure 7.3. As with Table 7.2, these models are by no meansthe definitive “best”, but simply potential options.Table 7.3: Promising Bike Alarm Brands and ModelsModel Price Key ConsiderationsWsdcam Bike Lock and Alarm $30-$50 Doubles as lock and alarm, unknown brandG-Keni Bike Tail Alarm $30-$50 Motion-activated, unknown brandABUS Bordo Alarm $150-$170 Well-known brand, doubles as high-security metal lock7.1.3 | GPS Anti-Theft DevicesGPS anti-theft devices, contrary to both U-Locks and bike alarms, can act as botha prevention and recovery mechanism, as they are equipped with smartphone apps thatshow the bike’s live location, making collaboration with police for effective recovery veryconvenient.The limited number of prominent GPS tracking devices on the market allowed fora more rigorous assessment of the merits of each, with reference to four separate onlinerankings websites:207. Implementation 7.1. Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub Smart Home Scout (Postscapes.com, 2020) Cycling Weekly (Arthurs-Brennan, 2019) Make Use Of (Brookes, 2019) Cyclist (Cyclist.co.uk, 2019)Table 7.4 shows the top GPS anti-theft devices from each ranking and highlightsthose that appear in multiple rankings.Table 7.4: GPS Anti-Theft Device ComparisonRank Smart Home Scout Cycling Weekly MakeUseOf Cyclist1 Sherlock GPSGuardian LightTrackerBoomerangCycloTracGuardianLight Tracker2BoomerangCycloTracSherlock GPSSherlockGPSSpybike3BoomerangCycloTracSpybike Velocate4 SmrtGRiPS Sherlock GPS5 CaveotracBoomerangCycloTracAs can be observed, the Sherlock GPS and Boomerang CycloTrac devices are listedin all four lists, while the Guardian Light Tracker and the Spybike Top Cap Tracker arelisted in two of the four lists. Table 7.5 shows how each of those four models compare inretail price:Table 7.5: GPS Anti-Theft Device PriceDevice Retail PriceSherlock GPS $140Boomerang CycloTrac $75Guardian bike light tracker $160Spybike top cap tracker $125While both the Sherlock GPS as well as the Boomerang CycloTrac appear in all fourrankings and the Sherlock GPS outranks the Boomerang CycloTrac in three of those fourrankings, the stark cost difference leads the CycloTrac to take the place of the URSY team’spreliminary recommendation, though a change in the pricing landscape may warrantrevisiting this determination.The excerpt below from the Boomerang CycloTrac website highlights some of thekey features of the device. Additional information can be found on boomerangbike.com.“If the bike is armed and someone moves it, the owner gets a message. We can also create aGeo-fence, a virtual barrier that is created by using the GPS to define geographical boundaries. If217. Implementation 7.1. Bike Kitchen Sharing Hubthe bike leaves or crosses these boundaries, an alert will be triggered and sent to the bike owner’sdevice. The fence can be at any distance to be at mile, 3 miles, or 10 miles. The alert goes toanyone you choose. There are two ways to monitor your bike. You can set the alarm and if yourbike is disturbed you receive a message. Or you can just watch your bike on the App or dashboard,and you will see if it moves.”Figure 7.5: Boomerang CycloTracContrary to U-Locks and bike alarms, which primarily entail the capital expense toprocure the equipment, the Boomerang CycloTrac requires a nominal monthly expensewith a recurring payment processed on a credit card on file, and the app needs to be setup on a student’s smartphone along with a dedicated login. As such, two implementationscenarios present themselves, as shown in Figure 7.6 below:Figure 7.6: GPS Anti-Theft Devices Implementation AlternativesIn the first scenario (“share device”) the GPS devices could be included alongsideU-Locks and bike alarms as an alternative option for student, such that they do not payfor the device itself, and simply pay the monthly fee for the duration of use. However,this option introduces sizable implementation challenges, as when students return theGPS tracker to the Bike Kitchen, they would also need to suspend and/or transfer theirmonthly data usage plan. The process of suspending and transferring of plans may intro-duce significant overhead to Bike Kitchen Operation and hinder the convenience of theinitiative.227. Implementation 7.1. Bike Kitchen Sharing HubIn the second scenario (“one-time sale, transfer of ownership”), however, UBC sim-ply subsidizes the devices and sells it directly to students. With widespread advertisingand promotion, the Bike Kitchen can sell Boomerang CycloTrac devices.It is important to note that since each individual registers for GPS tracking via Boomerang’sservice with their own personal information and personal credit card, either of the aboveoptions should not create significant cause for concern surrounding data privacy issues.However, herein lies a potential for partnership between UBC and Boomerang users toshare user data. By receiving GPS data with signed consent from volunteer purchasersin exchange for a 0-100% rebate of the purchase price and/or monthly fees, UBC gainsaccess to valuable data for future planning purposes, while program participants benefitfrom high-quality protection.7.1.4 | Pilot ScenariosWhile the sections above have discussed each of U-Locks, bike alarms and GPS track-ers in detail, it may in fact be difficult and/or redundant to offer all three in tandem withone another. As such, the following potential pilot scenarios will allow for a trial period,during which feedback can be gathered from early-adopting students, not just with re-spect to each of the three types of equipment, but also the strengths and weaknesses ofvarious models within each, particularly for U-Locks and bike alarms.For the purposes of presenting the three scenarios below, the equipment modelsmentioned in the sections above have been used. However, further research into thevarious types of devices may ultimately yield a different outcome in practice.Tables 7.6, 7.7 and 7.8 below summarize each of the three scenarios.Table 7.6: Pilot Scenario 1Device Unit Price Quantity TotalU-LockKryptonite York Standard $130 10 $1,300OnGuard Brute $80 10 $800ABUS Granite X-Plus $155 10 $1,550Bike AlarmWsdcam Bike Lock and Alarm $40 10 $400G-Keni Bike Tail Alarm $40 10 $400ABUS Bordo Alarm $160 10 $1,600GPS Device Boomerang CycloTrac $75 10 $750Total for 70 devices: $6,800237. Implementation 7.2. Bike Rooms and CCTVTable 7.7: Pilot Scenario 2Device Unit Price Quantity TotalU-LockKryptonite York Standard $130 20 $2,600OnGuard Brute $80 20 $1,600ABUS Granite X-Plus $155 20 $3,100Bike AlarmWsdcam Bike Lock and Alarm $40 20 $800G-Keni Bike Tail Alarm $40 20 $800ABUS Bordo Alarm $160 20 $3,200GPS Device Boomerang CycloTrac $75 20 $1,500Total for 140 devices: $13,600Table 7.8: Pilot Scenario 3Device Unit Price Quantity TotalU-Lock OnGuard Brute (cheapest) $80 100 $8,000Bike Alarm Wsdcam Bike Lock and Alarm (cheapest) $40 100 $4,000GPS Device Boomerang CycloTrac $75 100 $7,500Total for 300 devices: $19,500Of the above pilot scenarios, Scenario 1 (Table 7.8), or a scenario of similar scale,is recommended, as it is incurs the lowest capital expense and is thus expected to beeasier to launch. It also includes a variety of models for each type of device, allowingfeedback to be collected on the merits and weaknesses of each. However, given the lowvolumes, the scenario is unlikely to allow for bulk discounts that may be possible athigher volumes.7.2 | Bike Rooms and CCTVThis section provides an overview of equipment options for use in bike storagerooms, as well as sample room configuration and capital cost estimate. A discussionof key considerations surrounding spatial deployment in tandem with CCTV camerasis also included, with the underlying goal being to provide bike storage rooms in allhigh-theft areas possible, and using CCTV as a supplementary measure to “fill the gaps”,subject to regulatory constraints.7.2.1 | Equipment OptionsSeveral equipment options are available for indoor bike storage rooms, which in-clude but are not limited to the following: bike wall racks, classic inverted U-shape bikeracks, high-density bike racks, and angled bike storage. A brief discussion of each isincluded below.247. Implementation 7.2. Bike Rooms and CCTV7.2.1.1 | Wall RacksBike wall racks are simple, space saving, and economical bike storage systems, andthe curved tire support suitably encompasses the shape of a bike wheel. They also allowfor the hanging of helmets or other bicycle gear and are easy to use – users can simplyroll the bike up into the wall racks. A 45 angle fit tool is also available for additionalspace efficiency requirements. In addition, locking the bike on a wall rack secures boththe wheel and the frame. The estimated capital cost for one single-bike rack is $70-$90.Figure 7.7: Bike Wall Racks7.2.1.2 | Classic RacksThe classic inverted U-shape bike rack is able to accommodate two bicycles per rack,securing both the wheel and frame. These racks are covered by durable, maintenance-free plastisol coating that protect bikes from scratches. While they are typically usedoutdoors, as shown in the figure 3.2 they can be used in the context of bike rooms as well,though they do not provide the best use of space. The estimated capital cost for a classicbike rack is 160−180 for a two-bike rack ($70-$90/bike).7.2.1.3 | High-density RacksFor maximum capacity, the high-density bike rack offers cost-efficient bike parkingwith two tier capacity. The rack is covered with standard zinc primer TGIC polyesterpowder cost in order to protect the bikes from damage. The use of high-density bike racksis also easy, users simply roll the bike along the channel provided to secure the wheel andbike frame in space. The modular configuration makes the rack fit different room typesand sizes readily. The estimated price for this type of bike rack is approximately $2700-$3000 per four bike racks.257. Implementation 7.2. Bike Rooms and CCTVFigure 7.8: High-density Racks7.2.1.4 | Angled StorageAngled bike storage is designed to provide storage for up to eight bikes per five-footsection. The frame of the stall is made of galvanized steel, and the installation of the bikestall is available in post-mount or strut-mount configurations. Bikes stored in AngledBike Storage can be placed at 45 angles to allow for wider aisles. The price is not readilyavailable due to the variation of price depending on the precise order specifications.Figure 7.9: Angled Storage7.2.2 | Sample Storage Room Layout and Capital Cost EstimateIt is recommended that indoor bike storage rooms be located near building exitsand avoid stairs or narrow hallways. Any obstructions such as pillars, doors, windows,utility access, and ceiling pipes should also be avoided. It is recommended that storagerooms be located near a floor drain. A minimum aisle width of 54 inches is suggested forone person to use and 72 inches to accommodate simultaneous users. These measures267. Implementation 7.2. Bike Rooms and CCTVwill ensure that the impact of having a bike room in the building will introduce the leastamount of disruption to existing users, while also being convenient enough to encouragewidespread adoption.A sample bike storage room layout is shown in the Figure 7.10 below. The estimatedcapital cost is determined to be approximately $4800-$5000 for a capacity of 60 bikes.Figure 7.10: Sample Bike Room Layout7.2.3 | Spatial Deployment ConsiderationsThe areas of high bike theft on the UBC campus are generally divided into six sec-tions, among which four are residence areas. These four are shown in yellow in Figure7.11 below, and refer to Totem Park, Place Vanier, Ponderosa and Walter Gage. Giventhe high demand for overnight bike storage in these areas, it is recommended that fur-ther collaboration with each of the residences be pursued to identify potentially unusedcommon areas that may be able to be used as a bike room. Opportunities may exist toeven “carve out” bike rooms out of lobby areas that are underutilized using glass panesor other types of partitioning retrofits.The area labelled in green is the central district of the campus and includes boththe Life and Nest buildings, both key hubs of activity with the potential for identifyinglocations that can act as bike storage rooms.The central area labelled in blue, on the other hand, includes primarily faculty build-ings that may not be able to accommodate bike storage rooms within them. In suchinstances, the use of CCTV is recommended as an added security for students parkingtheir bikes along Main Mall. It is recognized that this may not be possible at this stage,but is included nevertheless for future consideration.277. Implementation 7.3. Theft-deterring Signage and Public EngagementFigure 7.11: Spatial Deployment of Bike Storage Rooms and CCTV7.3 | Theft-deterring Signage and Public Engagement7.3.1 | Theft-deterring SignageThe display of certain signage such as ’watching eyes’ has shown to make people be-have in more socially desirable ways. Experimental research on such signages has shownpositive results in reducing bike theft. One such research article on bicycle theft records a62% decrease in bicycle theft at high-theft areas on university campuses after the imple-mentation of ’watching eyes’ signages (Nettle et. al., 2012). Therefore, the effectiveness ofthis affordable and straightforward intervention suggests its more widespread adoption,even in the absence of surveillance itself.Figure 7.12: Sample Theft-Deterring SignKey considerations for the implementation of such signage are included below:287. Implementation 7.3. Theft-deterring Signage and Public Engagement1. Maximum visibility: Signage should be Installed at a height of 1.5-2 m for maxi-mum visibility. For greatest visibility of letters, use colours that contrast with thebackground color of the sign. The general rule of thumb is to use a light-coloredbackground with dark letters. Signs should be positioned perpendicular to the lineof sight of a pedestrian for better visibility. Nonetheless, any text out of the line ofsight can be made more visible by increasing the font size even if they are placedparallel to the line of sight. Signages with lighter colors should be placed in the sun-light as it reduces visibility. If possible, avoid direct light as it affects the quality ofthe sign.2. Avoid the offset effect: A study of theft-deterring signage by Nettle et. al. has shownthat the reduction in bike theft due to the implementation of signage (in experimen-tal locations) had an offset effect, as it increased theft from locations elsewhere onthe campus where signage were deliberately not set up (in controlled locations),suggesting that the major effect of the signs was to displace offenders from theirimmediate vicinity (Figure 7.14). Despite this strong displacement effect, there isa significant opportunity for UBC to achieve reductions in bike theft by the blan-ket application of this intervention at all bicycle parking infrastructure through thecampus.Figure 7.13: The Offset Effect (Nettle et. al., 2020)Figure 7.14 below includes addition examples of theft-deterring signage that can bedeployed in lieu of physical surveillance infrastructure.Figure 7.14: Theft-deterring Signage Example297. Implementation 7.3. Theft-deterring Signage and Public Engagement7.3.2 | #BikeToUBC CampaignIt is recommended that the use of theft-deterring signage, as discussed above, beimplemented in tandem with a comprehensive public engagement platform. This sectionhighlights a sample four-pronged campaign to not only encourage biking to UBC, butpromote bike safety practices. Figure 7.15 below provides an overview of this samplestrategy.Figure 7.15: Preliminary Public Engagement Strategy7.3.2.1 | Bike Security Tips and Engagement ProgramsThe first component of this public engagement strategy is to leverage social mediaand in-person programs to share bike safety tips and best practices, in turn bolstering thecommunity of biker on the UBC campus. Examples of such practices include: Promoting a “Do’s and Don’ts” Checklist: For the ease of riders, a checklist can beprepared to be handed to bikers on campus. The following is a list that can act asthe checklist (not exhaustive and subject to refinement) 1) Avoid using a cable lock 2)Lock wheels and frame together 3) Use secure bike parking (sign poles, trees, fencesare not as secure) 4) Lock your bike in a well-lit and well-traveled area 5) Take lightsand other easily removed items with you 6) Never leave your bike outside overnight Video Campaigns: Video campaigns can assist riders in learning how to lock thebikes properly. It can be rolled out on the social media platforms and show correctexamples of parking using the variety of existing infrastructure at UBC. Engagement Programs: Rider engagement is important to encourage students andstaff to continue to follow appropriate safety measures. It can also act as a plat-form to motivate the non-rider to change their mode of transport to bicycling, asthe propagation of effective safety measures on campus is demonstrated to them307. Implementation 7.3. Theft-deterring Signage and Public Engagementby such efforts. Examples of some engagement programs are: 1) Online content 2)Interactive webinars (on topics related to bike safety) 3) Campus events7.3.2.2 | #BikeToUBC WeekWhile there exist numerous events encouraging biking within the Vancouver area,a UBC-specific BikeToUBC week may be a unique opportunity to encourage biking tocampus, perhaps with biker-specific incentives, while raising awareness surrounding re-sources available to bikers on campus. Sample events include: 1) Bicycle tune-up ses-sions 2) Win a bike contest 3) Safety and security sessions 4) Biker commuter’s breakfast5) Group charity rides7.3.2.3 | Promotion of Bike Security ServicesAs has been noted, the suite of solutions presented in this report work best whendeployed together. In particular, promotional efforts have the potential to significantlydrive the usage of both the Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub as well as bike storage rooms,lockers and cages. Some possible avenues are highlighted below: Promoting the Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub: 1) Social media campaigns 2) Advocatesand ambassadors (e.g. standing in Nest) Campus bike security infrastructure (storage rooms, lockers and cages): 1) Increasedmaps showing infrastructure location 2) Signage directing towards bike rooms/cages(e.g. on ground)7.3.2.4 | Poster CampaignsPosters provide a low-cost opportunity to encourage many of the measures high-lighted above, including a bike safety checklist, locking and registration via 529 Garage,and the use of the Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub. Samples of such posters are included inFigure 7.16 below.Figure 7.16: Sample Posters – checklist (left), locking and registration (middle), lock sharing pro-gram (right)318Next StepsThis report has aimed to provide a thorough examination of prevalent bike theft pre-vention measures, in an effort to provide a suite of recommendations that will assist UBCin reducing bike theft numbers and ultimately encouraging higher bike ridership to theUBC campus. In addition to the three-pronged solution proposed herein, two additional“next steps” have been briefly discussed in this concluding section.8.1 | Performance MonitoringAfter the deployment of the theft prevention solutions, it is important to measuretheir performance and effectiveness. Therefore, a robust monitoring process must be inplace. The following may act as a preliminary framework towards developing a compre-hensive performance monitoring plan.1. Collect accurate annual theft data from campus security on parameters such as: Area/building/neighbourhood Bike parking infrastructure Bicycle type Type of lock used Date and time Bike components stolen (if partial theft)2. Analyse for pattern and identify vulnerabilities: develop layered theft map, in-cluding locations of deployed solutions and previous theft data in order to identify gaps.3. Re-deploy/re-assess solutions to address gaps328. Next Steps 8.2. TransLink TDM Grant8.2 | TransLink TDM GrantThe option of establishing a staffed bike valet on the UBC campus did not score wellon the initial filter conducted by the team, due in large part to the ongoing labor costassociated with offering this type of service. However, this option has been identified bythe client as a potential candidate for the TransLink TDM Grant, which would alleviateconcerns surrounding supplying the additional staffing cost of operating a bike valet,while providing the UBC with yet another bike security service.While the specifics of this grant application requires further research, the URSY 520team’s understanding of the current array of bike security services, as well as the spatialdistribution of theft, leads us to recommend the AMS Nest or Life building as the site forestablishing a valet of this sort. This is because a daytime valet would primarily targetcommuters rather than on-campus residents, and these buildings are situation in the cen-tral campus core, adjacent to most bus routes and easily accessible to bikers entering theUBC campus from 4th and 10th streets. Locating a bike valet in one of these buildingsalso allows for potential operational and administrative synergies, as it would be locatednear the UBC Bike Kitchen.Figure 8.1: Proposed Bike Valet Location8.3 | ClosingIt is the sincere hope of the URSY 520 project team that the analysis provided in thisreport, leading to the recommendation of a suite of bike theft prevention measures – i.e.the Bike Kitchen Sharing Hub, bike storage rooms CCTV, theft deterring signage andpublic education – has proved useful and will contribute to widespread efforts across thecampus to reduce bike theft and encourage biking to UBC.339ReferencesArthurs-Brennan, M. (2019, November 19). GPS Bike Trackers: find and follow yourstolen bike. Retrieved from http://www.cyclingweekly.com/group-tests/find-your-stolen-bike-with-a-gps-tracker-165579Brookes, T. (2019, March 15). The 4 Best Bike Trackers for Catching Thieves Red Handed.Retrieved from http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/bike-tracker-catching-thieves/Copenhagenize Index. (2019). Retrieved from https://copenhagenizeindex.eu/about/the-indexCycleSafe.com. (2020, March 5). Bike Room Layout. Retrieved from https://cyclesafe.com/bike-room-layout/Cyclist.co.uk. (2019, October 27). Buyer’s guide: GPS bike trackers. Retrieved fromhttp://www.cyclist.co.uk/buying-guides/5391/buyers-guide-gps-bike-trackersImmobiTag.com. (n.d.). Protect your bike for life from being stolen with ImmobiTag.Retrieved from https://www.immobitag.com/Lierop, D. V., Grimsrud, M., El-Geneidy, A. (2015). Breaking into Bicycle Theft: In-sights from Montreal, Canada. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 9(7),490–501. doi: 10.1080/15568318.2013.811332Metcalfe, J. (2017, May 24). The Complete Guide to Deflecting Bike Thieves. Retrievedfrom https://www.citylab.com/life/2017/05/how-to-99-percent-theft-proof-your-bike/527712/Nettle, D., Nott, K., Bateson, M. (2012). ‘Cycle Thieves, We Are Watching You’: Impact of349. Referencesa Simple Signage Intervention against Bicycle Theft. PLoS ONE, 7(12). doi: 10.1371/jour-nal.pone.0051738Postscapes.com. (2020, February 27). Best GPS Bike Trackers and Smart Locks: 2018Listings and Reviews. Retrieved from http://www.postscapes.com/gps-bike-tracker/Princeton.edu. (2018, November). Bike thieves beware: University launches Bait BikeProgram. Retrieved from https://www.princeton.edu/news/2018/11/30/bike-thieves-beware-university-launches-bait-bike-programRichmond News. (2017, September 8). Bait Bikes Deployed in Richmond. Retrieved fromhttps://www.richmond-news.com/news/bait-bikes-deployed-in-richmond-1.22553170SFU. (n.d.). Theft Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.sfu.ca/srs/campus-safety-security/public-safety/safety-guides/theft-prevention.htmlSoldSecure.com. (n.d.). Sold Secure: Security Product Testing Approval. Retrieved fromhttps://www.soldsecure.com/StitchingArt.nl. (n.d.). ART Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.stichtingart.nl/art-foundation/TheBestBikeLock.com. (n.d.). Find a Bike Lock that Works. Retrieved from http://thebestbikelock.com/best-u-lock/Figure 3.2: https://cyclesafe.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/bike-u-rack-classic-stainless-steel.jpgFigure 7.10: https://www.itv.com/news/anglia/update/2013-04-24/the-poster-thats-deterring-bike-thieves/Figure 7.12:https://www.amazon.ca/Camera-Vandalism-Displaying-Surveillance-Suspicious/dp/B01M9IRN8K https://www.mysecuritysign.com/tools-and-equipment-equipped-with-gps-warning-sign/sku-k2-5351Figure 7.16: http://www.webikeeugene.org/2017/03/21/bike-theft-down-in-eugene-but-have-you-registered-your-bike/ https://twitter.com/hashtag/mymiltonkeyneshttps : //twitter.com/hashtag/dlocks35

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