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UBC Nightlife Events : Searching Opportunities for Creating an Inclusive Nightlife Event and Increasing… Cardinal, Nicole; Cardinal, Christopher; Carrico, Ruby; Cho, Wonjun; Chow, Laura; Climie, Philip; Davis, Katherine; Flock, Ian; Given, Kaitlynn; Glass, Liana; Heinen, Alexandra; Henry, Allison; Hildebrand, Jenna; Jarvis, Angela; Kew, Jonathan; Kosch, Henry; Lam, Hayston; Luk, Timothy; Luzong, Kevin; McNaughton, Mark; Oakunsheyld, Brianne; Oscilowicz, Emilia; Penner, Pearl; Poskitt, Mark; Rankmore, Sydney; Reisman, Sean; Roberts, Lauren Elizabeth; Roe, Jean; Rondolo, Ryah; Saini, Anandvir; Cruz, Elvia Sanchez Santa; Sarshar, Soraya; Cruz, Jorge Soler; Southard, Rose; Stepanik, Lucie; Streib, Arden; Taylor, Julie; Vespaziani, Leni; Vissers, Michael; Walker, Graham; Witoszkin, Andrea 2019-04-30

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report      UBC Nightlife Events: Searching Opportunities for Creating an Inclusive Nightlife Event and Increasing  Arts and Culture District Opportunities Nicole Cardinal, Christopher Cardinal, Ruby Carrico, Wonjun Cho, Laura Chow, Philip Climie,  Katherine Davis, Ian Flock, Kaitlynn Given, Liana Glass, Alexandra Heinen, Allison Henry,  Jenna Hildebrand, Angela Jarvis, Jonathan Kew, Henry Kosch, Hayston Lam, Timothy Luk,  Kevin Luzong, Mark McNaughton, Brianne Oakunsheyld, Emilia Oscilowicz, Pearl Penner,  Mark Poskitt, Sydney Rankmore, Sean Reisman, Lauren Elizabeth Roberts, Jean Roe, Ryah Rondolo,  Anandvir Saini, Elvia Sanchez Santa Cruz, Soraya Sarshar, Jorge Soler Cruz, Rose Southard,  Lucie Stepanik, Arden Streib, Julie Taylor, Leni Vespaziani, Michael Vissers, Graham Walker,  Andrea Witoszkin University of British Columbia PLAN 522 Themes: Community, Wellbeing April 30, 2019    Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. UBC Nightlife Qualitative Assessment:  Searching opportunities for creating an Inclusive Nightlife Event and increasing Arts and Culture District opportunities    Report to UBC Student Engagement and Educational Development for Sustainability (SEEDS) Program by  PLAN 522 Students  School of Community and Regional Planning  Under the Supervision of Instructor Sara Ortiz Escalante   April 2019     2  TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES ................................................................................................4 UBC ARTS AND CULTURE DISTRICT: ON-CAMPUS RESIDENT GAPS AND OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................12 UBC ARTS AND CULTURE DISTRICT: STUDENTS LIVING OFF-CAMPUS ...................32 UBC ARTS AND CULTURAL DISTRICT: GAPS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR NON-CAMPUS POPULATIONS ..............................................................................................61 INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVES ON UBC NIGHT TIME EVENTS .............79 UBC NIGHTLIFE EVENTS – WOMEN, TRANSGENDER, FEMME AND NONCONFORMING PEOPLE ..................................................................................... 100 UBC NIGHTLIFE EVENTS - INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS (RACE AND MIGRATION) ..................................................................................................................................... 119 UBC NIGHTLIFE EVENTS: ACCESSIBILITY .................................................................. 154     3 INTRODUCTION  This report gathers the group projects that the class of PLAN 522: Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis have conducted and which include qualitative assessments of UBC Nightlife and Arts and Culture District.  This two-credit course focuses on the what, why, who and how of qualitative mixed methods research design, data collection and analysis relevant to professional planning practice. As a core course for SCARP Master's students, this practice-based course provides beginning and more advanced students an opportunity to prepare for their professional careers.  Students will learn about and apply each step of various methods and strategies in qualitative data collection and analysis useful for planning practice.  Students worked in seven separate groups, three of them look at the Gaps and Opportunities of the UBC Arts and Culture District and three of them conducted an assessment to give recommendations of how to create a UBC inclusive nightlife event, working from an intersectional perspective. The seventh group worked in the two topics from an indigenous perspective.   In this report, we first include an executive summary for each of the group projects, followed by the full report that each group drafted, focusing on the specific group of population with whom they worked.     4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES  Executive Summary Group 1.1: Arts and Culture District Gaps and Opportunity Analysis with On-Campus Residents The Arts & Culture (A&C) District is supported in part by the adjacent population of students, staff and residents who live within the neighbouring area. This report aims to identify the gaps and opportunities for increasing the attendance and participation of this demographic at events within the A&C District. These were identified through data gathered at pop-up engagements conducted in the NEST and Orchard Commons. These engagements consisted of three interactive boards, where participants would respond to a series of questions with sticky notes, and informal interviews, where a broader understanding would be gained of the participants ‘sticky note’ responses.  By the time the pop-up engagements had concluded, over 50 individuals had been engaged with, and approximately 200 unique responses had been received. After performing a thematic analysis of those responses, several key findings were determined. These findings were grouped together under the themes: (1) Advertising, Marketing and Coverage, (2) Theme and Appeal of Events, (3) Affordability and Financial Constraints, (4) Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors, (5) Venue and Timing, and (6) Other Commitments. From these findings, several short term and long term recommendations emerged. In the short term, it is recommended that content advertising and outreach strategies have a focus on social media and online presence opposed to traditional print media. In addition, awareness about event incentives should be increased and attendance data for events within the A&C District should be coordinated and collected. As for the long term, it is recommended that an A&C identity be developed throughout campus and that events be increasingly student-led as well as impromptu or drop. Events should also be considered that contain social interaction and meeting new people as part of the event.    5 Executive Summary Group 1.2: Arts and Culture District Gaps and Opportunity Analysis with Students Living Off-Campus The UBC Arts and Culture District was conceived in 1957 with the vision of bringing arts and culture onto UBC to enhance campus culture. In its current form it consists of a cluster of buildings on the Northwest portion of campus. Recent effort has been taken to fulfill the original vision for the Arts and Culture District, this is where the impetus for this project originates.   The purpose of this research project was to assess the barriers that are keeping the off-campus population from attending nighttime events in UBC Art and Culture District. Our group narrowed the scope of the study to students living off campus to enhance our ability to obtain representative data. The study also looked at the opportunities for retention and possible incentives to increase the off-campus student population’s attendance at nighttime events.  We conducted a literature review that covered research on the community impact of arts and culture, as well as other institutions’ best practices with their arts and culture districts.  Two data collection methods were used, intercept surveys and a focus group. The surveys were delivered online through various media outlets and social networks, in addition to in person surveys conducted in the AMS Student Nest. At the end of the survey there was a section for further research. An email list was generated from willing participants and invitations for the focus group were sent out. The research was constrained by weather disruptions, limited time and research capacity.  The survey results indicated that 62% of respondents had never attended an evening event in the Arts and Culture District, 28% had, and the remaining 10% had attended an event in the District, but not a nighttime event. The focus group participants expanded on the general trends observed through the survey results. They were generally unfamiliar with the Arts and Culture District. The Chan Centre, Museum of Anthropology, and Belkin Art Gallery were visited by the participants, but only one of them attended a nighttime event at the Chan Centre.  Reasons cited for low attendance included difficulty staying on campus between the   6 end of classes and the start of nighttime programs. Students living off campus usually do not feel like commuting back to for evening events if they have been on campus during the day.  Recommendations for improving the District are increased messaging and advertising of the District, and including more promotion of the free tickets that are available to students. Other recommendations include creating one centralized database that has a complete list of upcoming events in the District for ease of finding events. Finally the District would benefit from a cohesive brand image to cement it as part of campus life in students minds. Executive Summary Group 1.3: Arts and Culture District Gaps and Opportunity Analysis with Non-Campus Populations  The UBC Arts & Culture District (the District) provides many events and services to people both affiliated and not affiliated with UBC. This research project aims to understand how people who do not work, study or live at UBC use the District. Many people not affiliated with the University attend cultural events in the District – from museum nights at the Museum of Anthropology to world-renowned musicians at the Chan Centre for Performing Arts. In partnership with UBC SEEDs, the UBC School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP) and the Arts & Culture District, this research project was guided by the following three key objectives: 1. Identify what compels or prevents people who are not affiliated with UBC to stay on campus before or after events. 2. Identify the barriers and motivations that exist for non-affiliated visitors in terms of attending nighttime events at UBC. 3. Provide recommendations for the barriers and gaps identified. From January to March 2019, the researchers (SCARP students) conducted a literature review, non-participant observations, intercept interviews, and pop-up engagement to reach the research objectives. The researchers attended two events (at the Museum of Anthropology and the Chan Centre). There they utilised pop-up engagements and one-on-one interviews as the primary data gathering techniques.   7 Approximately 60 participants were engaged in total. The two major themes that emerged from the participant data were related to transportation and a lack of information and amenities. Participants faced barriers with regards to parking, distance from home, and transportation options. Additionally, many participants were unaware of services in the District or felt that there was a lack of options. Lastly, the researchers provide recommendations to build place-based and targeted awareness about the renowned events and services offered in the Arts & Culture District at UBC. Executive Summary Group 1.4/2.4: Indigenous Community Perspectives on UBC Night Time Events This report examines Indigenous community perspectives on the Arts & Culture District at UBC and on night time campus events. While there is a lack of academic literature on the topic, students from minority and non-dominant backgrounds are susceptible to negative experiences in higher education systems.  A mixed-methods approach was utilized for this engagement, which took place in the First Nations House of Learning. An Indigenous medicine wheel was included in order to incorporate Indigenous epistemology as a method of welcoming and acknowledging our Aboriginal participants in a respectful way. The research uncovered a recognizable cohort of young students who live very close to campus and identify as Indigenous women. A majority of the participants were not familiar with the UBC Arts & Culture district, though some had attended events. Significant barriers for attending Arts & Culture events revolved around cost, content and inclusivity. Suggestions from participants for future events almost exclusively included Indigenous pop-culture and Indigenous arts-related content. If UBC wishes to host events that appeal to the Indigenous community, strong considerations should be given to the inclusion of Indigenous artists and cultural celebrations. This will provide an opportunity for an inclusive event that centralizes Indigeneity at UBC while still welcoming the  Executive Summary Group 2.1: UBC Nightlife Events – Women, Transgender, femme and nonconforming people   8 The purpose of this research is to explore the barriers and incentives that exist for women, transgender, femme and gender nonconforming people to participate in nighttime events on UBC campus. Through our research, we hoped to be able to understand in what spaces women, transgender, femme and gender nonconforming people want to see more events taking place, what would compel them to attend nighttime events on campus, and what is currently preventing them for participating in existing nighttime events.  To answer these questions, we used a mixed-method qualitative approach. We started with a review of key literature on the subjects of gender, nightlife and inclusive spaces. This helped us understand what other Canadian campuses are doing to create inclusive campus events and also to frame our research through an intersectional feminist lens. We then collected our data through three outreach and engagement activities. We set up a booth at the NEST Building in central UBC campus with two large engagement boards, asking “where do you want to see a nighttime event on campus?” and “what would draw you to a nighttime event on campus?”. We approached groups of people passing by, and asked them to participate. Participants were asked to write their identifiers on sticky notes and place them on the two boards. If respondents were willing to participate further, we would conduct a short and informal interview that allowed us to gather more detailed information about barriers and incentives to participating in nighttime events on campus. Our last engagement method was in the form of a short online survey that we sent to three groups on campus that work to promote gender-diversity and inclusion at UBC. In our research we found that just over 50% of respondents wanted to see nighttime events in and around the NEST. The next most-desired location was in the Arts and Culture District of UBC campus. For type of events, those involving food, music, and drinking were most popular among our studied population. Accessible transportation has been identified as a main draw to nighttime events, specifically for those living off-campus, making up 60% of respondents. We found that many people attend events for social interaction or because their friends are also attending. Music is also a main draw to nighttime events; however, it can also be a deterrent to individuals if it they do not enjoy the type of music being played. Further,   9 transportation, along with distance from home are the primary factors preventing our targeted population from attending nighttime events. Cost, food and busy schedules were also identified as being important factors. These findings have led us to make four key recommendations. First, event information should be shared and contained in a central location. Second, events should be free as often as possible. Third, events should be held in central locations, close to main transportation stops on campus and fourth, events on campus should have a greater diversity of content to attract a wider range of students.  Executive Summary Group 2.2: UBC Nightlife Events - International Students (Race and Migration) As an internationally renowned and increasingly cosmopolitan educational institution, a key challenge for the University of British Columbia (UBC) over the coming decades will be nurturing a vibrant, and inclusive community culture that is welcoming to students from all different parts of the world. Part of this challenge will involve planning for the provision of quality ‘uniquely UBC’ events that are inclusive to international students.  The purpose of this research is to provide recommendations to UBC’s Community Development team on what a unique nightlife event(s) that attracts and is inclusive to international students could look like. The focus on a ‘night-time event’ was chosen, as this was seen to be a salient gap in terms of current campus events offered and an area of immense opportunity. Due to the lack of literature relating directly to this specific area of research, a preliminary task for our team was to synthesize existing bodies of literature on international student experience on campus, and barriers to international student engagement in campus events. The core focus of our research however, involved carrying out a series of informal interviews, a focus group, and a mapping exercise with twelve international students at UBC (both graduate and undergraduate) to garner their garner their insights into how UBC could construct an appealing inclusive night-time event. This qualitative analysis yielded some perspicacious results.    10 Key findings related to the ideal timing of an event (Fridays, preferably in early-mid fall); the quality of the event (uniqueness and event quality were greatly preferred over event quantity or homogeneous ‘party’ or ‘sports events’); and the disproportionate focus on first year undergraduate students when planning events (3rd or 4th year undergraduates often felt they were a limited number of events aimed at their cohorts). Graduate students also reported feeling socially isolated and uncomfortable attending the many campus events which they perceived to be aimed at undergraduates. There was also a general consensus that marketing was often a weak point in terms of campus events, and that a primary barrier to international student engagement with campus events was lack of awareness about these events in the first place.  Our recommendations stem directly from these findings. Several key recommendations include  1. Providing low-cost (or free) events;  2. Utilize existing club networks and capabilities to improve outreach to international students, and to collaborate in the marketing and running of events.; 3. Consider the differences in the student experience for graduate and undergraduate students and what their motivators and interests are. Additional recommendations relating to potential types of events and the timing and location of these are also included in this report.  Executive Summary Group 2.3: UBC Nightlife Events: Accessibility Our team worked in collaboration with UBC SEEDS to examine how we could make campus nightlife more accessible to those with disabilities. We initially based our inquiry on the evaluation of accessibility and equity guidelines for event programming at UBC (with a focus on nightlife). We chose to adopt an inclusive interpretation of disabilities to capture a breadth of peoples. We also employed a community-based research methodology to capture the myriad factors which make events inaccessible on-campus.   11 To inform our research, we conducted a literature review of media articles and existing events guidelines. The literature demonstrates that accessibility considerations are frequently sidetracked, mentioned in passing, or even excluded from the events programming framework.  With a particular focus on barriers and recommendations for events, we produced a survey and designed interview questions. We developed a promotional campaign to recruit interviewees who identified as having a disability. While the survey was unsuccessful, interviews  yielded substantial findings and numerous recommendations.  After transcribing and coding these interviews, we were able to identify two major themes that encompass barriers to nightlife programming: physical barriers and attitudinal barriers. The former comprises inaccessible infrastructure and obstructions, the latter comprises lack of consideration and ignorance. This heuristic provides insight into the commonalities that make events inaccessible, despite the particularity of any single person’s disability. Our project’s limitations include the relatively small pool of research participants and a narrow window of opportunity to collect data. Because of the seeming lack of precedent partnership with communities accessibility advocates, finding a club, collective, or network was a major challenge. As such, the majority of our interviewees were graduate students. Our recommendations make clear the breadth of infrastructural, programmatic, and training strategies and guidelines to make events accessible — many recommendations being immediately actionable. The recommendations include categories for visual impairment, mobility, organizing structures, logistics, social dynamics, hearing and non-verbal conditions, and light- and sound-sensitive conditions. We believe that by assuming a critical approach to the evaluation of disability and accessibility, we can design events which are, really, more accessible for all. This extends to wayfinding, inclusive web platforms, emergency considerations, consistent pathways for access and exit, stronger social environments, technological upgrades, and more. From a planning perspective, these guidelines and policies will produce cumulative goods.   12 UBC ARTS AND CULTURE DISTRICT: ON-CAMPUS RESIDENT GAPS AND OPPORTUNITY ANALYSIS Allison Henry, Anandvir Saini, Angela Jarvis, Henry Kosch, Mackenzie Walker and Rose Southard  1. Introduction/Context The Arts & Culture (A&C) District of the University of British Columbia (UBC) is supported in part by the adjacent population of students, staff and residents who live within the neighbouring area. This report aims to identify the gaps and opportunities for increasing the attendance and participation of this demographic at events within the A&C District. Increased participation in cultural activities can result in a wide range of benefits such as new perspectives being gained leading to enhanced creativity, innovation and improved wellbeing. The further development of a cultural area centered around artistic events can also lead to collaborations and a sense of community by acting as a bridge between otherwise independent individuals. Additionally, arts and cultural events offer opportunities for conserving traditional cultures of diverse communities, which in turn can facilitate community building. Thus, understanding the gaps and opportunities for increasing the participation of on-campus demographics can in turn help connect and develop a wider community through use of the District. 2. Literature Review The content, timing and pricing of events are significant determiners in deciding whether or not patrons attend events. Lack of convenience in scheduling for attendees as well as financial constraints can potentially deter attendance, while increased convenience and affordability can attract attendance. Types of events is also an important factor, as interests may vary across the population. This is covered by the following analysis of the events hosted in UBC’s Arts & Culture District. This information was collected via a review of event offerings by Arts and Culture District institutions during the month of March, 2019. All data is based on online   13 event listings by the following institutions: The Chan Center for Performing Arts, Frederic Wood Theatre, Museum of Anthropology, and UBC’s School of Music. 46 events were listed during this period at these 4 institutions, with the School of Music hosting the majority of offerings.  Overview of Events  Figure 1: Arts & Culture Events by Venue   Figure 1, above, shows the distribution of events by venue. The School of Music hosted 23 public events in March, or 50% of the total events hosted by district institutions. The Chan Center for the Performing Arts hosted 15 events in the same period, and the Museum of Anthropology and the Frederic Wood Theatre hosted 5 and 3 events respectively.  Figure 2: Events by Type    14  Figure 2 shows the various event offerings by event type. An overwhelming number of events hosted were musical, with 36 of the 46 events offered being musical performances of some type, and 22 of the musical 36 events were listed by the School of Music. This leaves four lectures, two each of art and theatre, and one each for the categories of dance and film.   Figure 3: Start Time of Events   In Figure 3, the timing of March events is shown. The most common time is noon for event start times, and this is due to the School of Music frequently hosting musical performances at this time during the week. Other than this, events most commonly happen after 7:00 PM, with the most common timing in this timeframe being 7:30 PM. Figure 4: Events by Day of the Week     15 The most common day of the week for events to take place was Thursday and Friday in the period surveyed, as shown in Figure 4. These two days of the week had 12 events each listed during this time, while Monday had no events and Tuesday, Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday boasted 5-6 events apiece during March.  Figure 5: Event Admission Prices  (All prices in CAD. Student ticket prices selected where multiple price options existed.) Figure 4 details the prices of Arts & Culture District events. 61% of events were listed as free, or free with admission in the case of the Museum of Anthropology. 15% of events were priced between $5 and $10, and 9% of events were in the $10-$20 range. The School of Music and the Frederic Wood theatre had the lowest ticket prices and the highest proportion of free events, with an average admission price of $2. MOA’s average admission price was $8, and the Chan Center averaged $17 per ticket.   The events reviewed here show that a large number of events were offered by the Arts & Culture district during the month of March, and we can assume based on this that the district usually hosts regular event offerings. The variety of times and days shown is positive, as it gives more allowance for attendees to work with their schedule. Pricing for events is likewise very affordable, with all events averaging a $7 admission price. The variety of events offered may be a deterrent to attendance, as most events are musical offerings which may not appeal   16 to all audiences. A higher variety of events may be a tool to widen the audience and increase attendance.  References  Event Calendar. (n.d.). Retrieved March 28, 2019, from UBC School of Music website: https://music.ubc.ca/calendar  Events. (n.d.-a). Retrieved March 28, 2019, from Museum of Anthropology at UBC, Events website: https://moa.ubc.ca/events/  Events. (n.d.-b). Retrieved March 28, 2019, from Chan Centre website: https://chancentre.com/events/  Homepage. (n.d.). Retrieved March 28, 2019, from UBC Department of Theatre and Film website: https://theatrefilm.ubc.ca/  3. Theoretical Framework and Methodology A community-based participatory qualitative research methodology was used to gain a more detailed understanding of the relationship between the A&C District and the on-campus resident demographic. We began to develop our understanding by initially using media and document analysis to review the existing event offerings and marketing strategies of the A&C District. Subsequently, we conducted a thematic analysis on data gathered from pin-up boards and informal interviews at multiple pop-up events to understand how the study participants are or are not being engaged into the A&C community.  Through this research, the main questions we sought to answer were:  1.    What would engage the audience to spend more time before or after events?  2.    What is keeping them from doing so now? 3.    What would compel the potential audiences to attend cultural events? 4.    What’s stopping them from doing so now? The scope of this project was decided to be residents that define themselves as living on campus, which includes students, faculty, staff, and non-UBC affiliated residents. The area   17 defined as on-campus includes Westbrook Village, as this is considered to be part of UBC, but excludes the University Endowment Lands which are operated as a separate entity from the University.  The sites initially considered for our pop-up engagements were an on-campus residence building (Ponderosa Commons), Westbrook Village (Save-On Foods) and the NEST. It was believed that together these sites would provide a wide cross-section of our target demographic. For instance, an on-campus residence building would target students that live in a specific area on-campus, the NEST would provide access to a wider range of on-campus residents, and Westbrook Village would target relatively more non-student residents that live on-campus. To widen our range of demographics, these engagements would also be conducted at different times of day.  The engagement event at the NEST was conducted during lunch time when foot traffic was at its peak period. We located ourselves between other display tables which allowed us to collectively boost each other’s foot traffic with the intent to increase participation. The second engagement session was originally scheduled to be located outside of Ponderosa at dinner time, but at setup time it was determined that due to inclement weather there was an insufficient amount of pedestrian activity. To maximize engagement interactions, we relocated to Orchard Commons, a multi-use residential/academic building that has a dining hall. We set up during dinner hours to capture a high-level of foot traffic; however, this location did not generate the same degree of interaction as the NEST. Our engagement for Westbrook village outside of the Save-On Foods unfortunately had to be cancelled due adverse weather conditions. There were significant differences in the ambiance, layout and participant demographics between the two engagements we conducted. The NEST was a relatively open space which allowed for participants to congregate and observe the engagement from a distance prior to deciding if they wanted to approach. The Orchard Commons dining hall was nearly opposite as we were set-up in a corridor within which most individuals walked by us, or tried to avoid   18 us, on their way to the adjacent dining hall. There was a high-level of foot traffic, but not the same degree of interaction as there was at the NEST.  The popup engagement and surveying consisted of three interactive board, where participants would place sticky notes as they responded. Each board had a question that the respondents were to answer. See Appendix. Board 1 - Pin the Map: Where do you access arts and culture on campus? Board 2 - What would compel you to attend more events on campus? Board 3 - What reasons prevent you from attending events on campus? After participants had responded with sticky notes, we then held informal conversations with them to gain a broader understanding of their responses. When holding these conversations, it was important to let the participant guide the conversation. During this whole process, and while deciding the questions for our boards, we tried to be as open ended as we could, as we did not want to be prescriptive in the questions we were laying out, or the conversations we were engaged in. We felt that this was the most important key for gaining new insights that we ourselves could not detect on our own.  4. Findings By the time we had concluded our pop-up engagements, we had engaged with over 50 individuals, and received approximately 200 unique responses. Through the subsequent thematic analysis of those responses that we completed, several key findings could be determined. We grouped them together under the following six themes: (1) Advertising, Marketing and Coverage, (2) Theme and Appeal of Events, (3) Affordability and Financial Constraints, (4) Psychosocial and Behavioral Factors, (5) Venue and Timing, and (6) Other Commitments. 3.1 Advertising, Marketing and Coverage  This was the most prominent factor for which feedback was received.    19 Unawareness about Arts and Culture District There were instances where the participants were unaware of the existence or presence of the A&C District on campus. For instance, during one of the pop-up engagement events, a participant said, “I didn't know there was an arts district”. Similarly, participants who were aware of A&C events on campus, were often unable to locate the District on a campus map. The prevalence of ignorance about the existence, scope and events of the A&C District points towards a gap in information sharing. Participants suggested that ‘increased visibility’ of the A&C District and its events would compel them to participate more.    Gaps in Information Sharing and Media Coverage   Most of the participants did not know where or how to receive information about upcoming events. This finding highlights a gap and opportunity for additional advertising and marketing of A&C events. Several participants mentioned that they tend to attend events that they see posted on social media (especially Facebook). Respondents seldom referred to the promotions of A&C events on the official website of UBC. However, it was found that promotion of events by word of mouth also garnered interest of on-campus residents.  For instance, some study participants mentioned that ‘in-person promotion of events helps attract students’ and ‘word of mouth is super powerful’. Participants suggested that information about the events should be posted well in advance to facilitate their time management and planning to attend the events. In contrast, there was also concerns stemming from advertising overload meaning that participants felt inundated with too much information leading to confusion, desensitization to advertising resulting in loss of interest in attending events. Some participants, who were students living in on-campus residences, mentioned that they were   20 ‘overwhelmed with the amount of advertisements’ and consequently over time they ‘became desensitized to things’. Based on the feedback from our engagements, it appears that social media advertising is more effective than both printed materials and online website promotion. Advertisements done through social media may receive more attention and coverage as participants indicated social media was their preferred method. In-person promotion of events can help attract students, and word of mouth is a free and powerful resource. In addition, in-person pop-up events and “word of mouth” can also help combat students’ feelings of being “desensitized” and “overlooked” by advertisements they are exposed to online and in print. This reinforces the power of pop-up events. However, in-person pop-up advertising can be relatively resource intensive. 3.2 Theme and Appeal of Events Theme of events The participants of this study felt that they would be more compelled to attend the A&C events if the themes of the events were more diverse, such as those based on social issues (eg. climate change and sustainability), moral values, diverse cultures, fine arts, sports, pub-dance events, and events that celebrate difference.  Format of events There was also interest in different formats of these events like talks, chats, presentations, lecture series, pop-up performances, visual events and art galleries. Although initially these may be viewed as tangential arts and cultural since they are not traditional performance and presentation formats, they are commonly attended by campus residents and could be   21 leveraged for a new perspective on A&C. For example, a speaker series formatted as TED talks was suggested by a participant and these could be focused on A&C content. Mass appeal of events In general, it appeared that the A&C events currently offered did not enjoy popularity among the student population living on campus. Some students indicated that they did not feel as if they were the target audience for the A&C District. For instance, some respondents stated that they were ‘not interested in many events’. One participant highlighted that there are ‘lots of other things going on and I found out about a jam session on Facebook, which is off-campus’. This reflects the competition that the A&C District events face to get more attention from on-campus residents. It was observed by one participant that events at The Pit are popular, and that if there were more events like that in the A&C District, there would be more on-campus participants. There was also some concern that the event formats should be customized and designed in a way that makes them more accessible to participants with special requirements and disabilities. A participant in one of the pop-up engagements mentioned that she had a hearing problem and people like her would be interested in more visual events.  Lastly, students involved in arts and cultural studies may be more aware than the average student, both about the A&C District and its various events. For example, one participant was an undergraduate student in Arts for Media Studies, and knew where the A&C District was as they actively host the Arts Undergraduate Society Open Mic Night at Somerset. At the same time, it was found that popular events like Talks with Michio Kakes and Winter Classic enjoyed prominent mass appeal and were sold out. Many participants also expressed desire for smaller galleries or pop-up arts events.  Performers & Artists The results showed that the on-campus residents were interested in attending performances by famous people or celebrities. In contrast, there was also interest in local artists. Some participants also suggested that more financial and logistic support should be provided for   22 grassroots student-led events (like music clubs). For example, one of the study participants was a student who performed jam sessions outside the NEST and wondered what could be done to promote student led clubs or organization. Some participants called for collaboration with on-campus residences and coordination with their student representatives. If the A&C District hosted more student-led events, such as open mic or comedy nights, student participation may increase. It was suggested that these events could be coordinated with student representatives of on-campus housing. 3.3 Affordability & Financial Constraints Cost of admission  Most of the participants felt that the major deterrent in attending A&C events was the ‘cost of tickets’, which were perceived as ‘expensive’ which partly reflects the financial priorities of the student demographic. Many on-campus residents expressed interest in attending free events or having the option of ‘reduced price for groups’. At the same time, one participant also suggested that ‘small money investments help getting people to commit to attending’. Food It was found that many participants wanted to attend events with an option of free food and alcoholic beverages. Free food appeared to add to their savings and thus had the ability to increase draw. Even if the food was not free, an interest was found in the integration of food options with venue of the A&C events. One participant suggested that ‘lunch time events need to have food’.      23 3.4 Psychosocial and Behavioral factors  Psychosocial issues  The results revealed that some of the participants did not attend the A&C events due to social anxiety. They perceived events as ‘intimidating’ and suggested that such events ‘need ice breakers’. A few on-campus residents were ‘worried that others won’t attend events’ so they in turn refrained from participating in the events. Laziness, or alternatively phrased as lack of motivation, was also found to be a reason that kept the participants from attending the events. Companionship Lack of company was a major factor stated by many participants that prevented them from attending events. Participants reported that they had ‘no one to go with’ and that they were ‘more willing to attend with friends’. On-campus residents who had a network of friendly connections were more likely to attend the A&C events. For instance, a participant who was a Residence Advisor said that she ‘knows people and has connections to events go too’. Similarly, a business undergraduate student stated that he has‘ gone to Belkin, MOA, and a capella in one of the music buildings because a friend of a friend was promoting it’.        24  3.5 Venue and timings Location of events Many participants expressed a desire to have events located closer to central campus or near student housing. Currently many of the events are far from centralized transit service, academic classes, and residences.  However, one participant who works as a Residence Advisor commented that they enjoy going to the Museum of Anthropology because it feels like you are visiting somewhere off-campus.  Figure 1 indicates the current locations that on-campus participants go to access A&C, with larger circles representative of those locations which were noted more frequently from participants. The results of the sticky notes from the map was copied and digitized to create this figure. As mentioned previously, the majority of participants were not able to locate the A&C District on the map, and many of the places where participants go to access A&C, are outside of the District boundaries. An older participant stated that if they were going to see A&C, they would go to Downtown Vancouver.         25  Figure 6: Where Participants Seek Arts and Culture on UBC Campus  Timing of Events Many participants also expressed concern over the timing of events, specifically the length of time and the commitment required. They said that attending an event for two to three hours may be too much of a commitment, but would attend more spontaneous or drop-in events, where people can come and go and stay for however long they please. Some participants also stated that the current timing of events is inconvenient, with weekday evenings being the best. Often some events conflict with class times. Frequency of Events Some concern was also expressed over the frequency of events. A few participants indicated that tickets were often sold out or difficult to purchase, and wished for a greater frequency of what was offered. This concern was often expressed in relation to the timing of events. If students could not attend due to timing conflicts, then they were much more likely to attend if the frequency had increased.   26 3.6 Other commitments Study Workload  Participants also noted that they would like to attend more A&C events, but there are several reasons preventing them from doing so. One example provided was a heavy academic workload. Many students said that they had too much homework and assignments, as well as other academic priorities which kept them from participating. However, the comment of a lack of time, did come from participants outside of school as well, and was much broader than from coursework. Many participants discussed that they don’t have time to attend a whole event. One participant wished that there were more impromptu events, or events that provided the flexibility to attend for a small amount of time.  5. Limitations Based on the parameters of the study and engagement process undertaken, there were several limitations including, but not limited to; schedule, budget, resources, demographics, unforeseen conditions, and format which will be discussed in the following sections.  Schedule, Budget and Resources Firstly, this study was completed within a compressed schedule due to its connectivity with the graduate coursework of PLAN 522: Qualitative Methods. Due to the 8-week schedule, which included scoping, forming groups, techniques learning, and reporting for the project, there was less than 2 weeks to complete the actual engagement activities. Furthermore, both budget and resources limited the feasibility of utilizing various other qualitative engagement methodologies permissible within the schedule. With more resources and time, a much wider demographic and geography may have been engaged with, across several qualitative methods.    27 Geography and Segregation of Demographics Many of the demographics within UBC are segregated, and because of our limited timeframe and resources, we were limited in which demographics we could engage with. UBC is a large campus with unique groups clustered in shared spaces but with limited intermingling. This created challenges in accessing a diverse and representative group through two engagements. As we only established a pop-up engagement at the NEST and Orchard Commons, we only conducted a pop-up engagement in two buildings, one in central campus and one in south campus. An example of the difference in responses was evident between the NEST and the Orchard Commons engagements with a great number of students at the dining hall noting their struggles with time and social isolation as hindrance to their participation in activities, which did not tend to be the case with the students we interacted with at the NEST.  Inclement Weather We had planned to do a third pop-up engagement at Westbrook village to better engage the non-student on-campus population, however due to inclement weather this had to be cancelled. In addition, we were forced to do indoor events only and had to adapt the engagements we did do as a result. For instance, our second engagement was originally planned for Ponderosa, which would have been favourable to do outside where foot traffic is highest, however due to inclement weather, this traffic was very low, and we had to shift this pop-up engagement to Orchard Commons.  Sample Bias and Limited Data While we did engage 50 on-campus residents, and received 200 unique engagements, it should be noted that this is still a very small subset of the overall population that lives on-campus. Therefore, while the comments we received are notable, due to a low sample size, making assumptions that the majority of the on-campus population holds these same concerns may not be, statistically speaking, accurate.  Pop-up Format   28 There are also several limitations with the format we chose. Due to the pop-up nature, we could only obtain what information from holding brief conversations. In addition, we cannot fully understand or recommunicate the feelings that were expressed to us. The pop-up format was brief with most engagements lasting less than a minute. The resulting feedback was “off the cuff” as opposed to detailed or thoroughly contemplated.  6. Recommendations Short Term  Develop Content Advertising and Outreach Strategies Develop content advertising and outreach strategies with a focus on social media and online presence opposed to traditional print media. Outreach strategy should include awareness about event incentives (e.g., affordable/free and food). Increase Awareness About Event Incentives Free events are only an affordable option if you are aware that it is happening. Incentives can come in many forms, but certainly admission price and food were repeatedly heard in our engagements.  Coordinate Attendance Data Collection It is important to coordinate attendance data collection to develop more understanding of attendance and attendee demographics, which can be used to better inform future policy decisions. Long Term Develop an Arts and Culture identity throughout campus The development of an A&C identity both within the district area but also across campus in less formal spaces such as the NEST or student residences. This could be accomplished by   29 developing an A&C identity throughout campus through place-making, wayfinding and decentralization. Explore Opportunities for Student-Led Events Throughout our engagement, we also heard of the importance of ensuring that there are opportunities for the A&C District to not just be for students, but also by students. Grassroots events could be developed through coordination with established student clubs and initiatives. There may also be opportunities to consider the integration of ‘art activism’.  Offer Events for Which Attendance is Impromptu Future consideration for drop-in and informal events to accommodate students’ busy schedules could lead to increased student participation. Build Community Through Social Interactions Events should also be considered that can have social interaction and meeting new people as part of the event. Activities to be encouraged should focus on building community through social interactions. This could include events such as trivia, open mic, icebreakers, and informal questions and interactions with performers.       30 Appendix Figure 7: Board 1 used for the Pop-up Engagements  Figure 3: Board 2/3 used for the Pop-up Engagements      31     32 UBC ARTS AND CULTURE DISTRICT: STUDENTS LIVING OFF-CAMPUS Liana Glass, Pearl Penner, Soraya Sarshar, Mark McNaughton, Ian Flock and Kevin Luzong  1. Introduction/Background The University of British Columbia hosts an extensive Arts and Culture District, from the Museum of Anthropology (MOA) to the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, offering a diverse range of events and attractions for those who pay it a visit. There has been an ongoing disconnect however between those who attend these events and those who attend the University, with many student and faculty members disclosing that they are unable to attend the nighttime events offered by the University. Our project aimed then to assess the barriers that the UBC population faces from attending nighttime events in the UBC Arts and Culture District, narrowing the scope to students who live off-campus. According to the Student Union Society of the University of British Columbia (2018) – Academic Experience Survey Report, 67 percent of students live off-campus. Figure 1 shows the geographic range covered by UBC students’ homes. With the majority of the student body off-campus, we believed this research was integral in understanding barriers in nighttime event attendance. By conducting qualitative research, we were able to highlight the various barriers students off-campus face, as well as gather recommendations for how to overcome them. Through qualitative analysis we were able to contribute to the ongoing research happening at SEEDS to help maintain and grow the ever-thriving arts community here at the University of British Columbia.         33 Figure 8: Distribution of UBC Student Population   Source: Campus and Community Planning (2016)  2. Methodology The focus of the project is to understand the gap in attendance at UBC Arts and Culture nighttime events amongst UBC students who live off-campus. Our assigned group was “people affiliated with UBC who live off campus”. To narrow down the subject to a more feasible scope, we chose to focus on students who live off campus. The main goals of the project were to:  a) Identify inhibitors to attendance at nightlife events; b) Assess opportunities for student retention on campus; and c) Examine the work that other universities have done to promote their respective arts and culture districts.   34 In order to meet the goals of the project, our group completed a review of relevant literature, intercept surveys and a focus group. The literature review covered other institutions’ approach to arts and culture access, and academic articles about arts and culture impact. In the primary data collection stage of our project, we followed a mixed inductive and deductive research methodology: we provided possible responses to some questions, while others were open-ended. This mixed methodology allowed us to evaluate whether our research corroborated our observations and literature review findings, as well as leaving the possibility of previously un-considered responses to be given by participants. To do this, we conducted a survey both online and through intercepting participants; and held a focus group, the questions for which can be found in appendices A and B respectively.  For the intercept surveys, our group went out in pairs to the nest to intercept participants, offering Tim Bits as incentive and compensation for participation. The Nest sample was made up of predominantly those who identified as women. The survey was also circulated on the internet. Around two thirds of participants indicated they have not attended an event in the Arts and Culture District. Most of the respondents were Graduate students. Most students who live off campus have a commute between 30-60 mins compared to a smaller 0-30 minute commute. Finally, the focus group was made up of survey participants who indicated that they were willing to take part in further research. The focus group helped us better understand the barriers that students face in attending events at the Arts and Culture District here at UBC, and allowed us to explore possible incentives to increase attendance in the future. The focus group was conducted by three of our group members, and participants signed the letter of Information and consent shown in appendix C.  3. Limitations Similar to many research projects, there were limitations to our research. As a result of having a small (N=50), sample size, the results are perhaps not indicative of the overall population. Further, the intercept survey participants predominantly identified as female, reflecting another limit to the representativeness of the sample. Finally, time was also a limitation to our   35 project. The time available to investigate the research problem was constrained by the limited time frame of the assignment. With more time available, we could have collected more survey and focus group results, permitting for a more representative sample. 4. Literature Review The articles summarized below cover the range of research from the impact of arts and culture on communities to arts and culture districts in practice. An understanding of how arts and culture districts influence their surroundings is an important starting point when thinking of the benefits that can be shared from developing arts and culture districts. With recent efforts to develop UBC’s Arts and Culture district specifically, the relevant research can serve inspiration on how to manage the trade-offs that can occur through the arts.  Guetzkow, J. (2002). “How the Arts Impact Communities: An Introduction to the Literature on Arts Impact Studies”  This paper covers the question of the impact of arts and culture on communities, and the theoretical problems inherent in this question. We often think of arts and culture as being good for individuals and the surrounding communities, but how exactly are the benefits of the arts distributed? To link impact of arts in any sense means thinking about the different mechanisms that arts and culture operate on: direct involvement, audience participation, and the presence of artists and arts organizations. Guetzkow looks at three claims related to the impact areas of the arts: The arts increase social capital and community cohesion, the arts have a beneficial impact on the economy, the arts are good for individuals.  While there is evidence in each of the claims, it is complicated by the ability to imply a causal relationship. This is because the benefits from the arts are very difficult to measure in any concrete way. The author suggests we instead look at opportunity costs instead of the benefits of the arts. The importance of asking specific questions about the impact of arts, allows us to ascertain whether there is a real effect of arts and culture on the community or not.  We must also be careful to be specific in our definitions when posing a question of art impact. Asking specific   36 questions can guide better inquiries to assessing the real impact of arts and culture in a community.   Rich, M. A. and Tsitsos, W. (2016), Avoiding the ‘SoHo Effect’ in Baltimore: Neighborhood Revitalization and Arts and Entertainment Districts. Int J Urban Regional, 40: 736-756. The focus of this paper is on how arts and culture districts affect urban neighbourhoods. For the purpose of this analysis, the researchers looked to the Station North Arts & Entertainment District in Baltimore, Maryland as a case study. It is notable that the neighbourhood is surrounded by three major universities: Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), Johns Hopkins University (JHU), and the University of Baltimore. Since its designation as an arts and entertainment district in 2002, the neighbourhood has seen the emergence of public–private partnerships to develop artist housing, artist studios, and arts educational buildings. Three main community groups–legacy residents, artists, and middle/upper-class homeowners–negotiate with one another at the micro-level, shaping the social dynamics of the neighborhood. Larger institutions, including JHU, MICA, community development corporations, and the city, appear to exert undue influence over the physical and economic status of the neighbourhood. In conclusion, the researchers have found that Station North presents a case of an arts and cultural district that, on the surface, is doing everything it can to avoid gentrification, while at the same time, is using creative placemaking strategies to brand the neighbourhood as a palatable neighbourhood for middle-class professionals to consume experiences and reside.  Zanke, M. (2018). The History of UBC’s thriving Arts & Culture District. Retrieved from https://www.ubc.ca/ubc-now/2018/arts-and-culture-district.html In 1957, UBC started a committee dedicated to creating an arts centre on campus. The hope of the committee was to redefine the campus atmosphere and provide an opportunity to instill new energy and creative expression on campus. As a result, the Frederic Lasserre building   37 opened in 1962 and the Frederic Wood Theatre opened in 1963 followed by the School of Music. In 1965, the arts centre was socially titled the UBC Norman MacKenzie Centre for the Arts. Many more buildings have been added to the arts centre since the first three buildings were built. The Centre for the Arts, now known as the Arts and Culture District, continues to be a distinct cultural and educational experience. Additionally, the Arts and Culture District continues to encourage free artistic expression. Presently, the Arts and Culture District is home to the Museum of Anthropology, the Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery, the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, and the Beatty Biodiversity Museum. The vision for the Arts and Culture District is led by Deb Pickman who is a UBC Alum and is active in the arts. Pickman has witnessed the growth of the Arts and Culture District first hand. Unfortunately, Pickman has noticed that students rarely attend events in the Arts and Culture District. Lastly, Pickman encourages students to attend events in the Arts and Culture District as the District is a place to discover new passions.  Bristol, U. of. (2006). A vision for the University’s cultural life. Bristol, UK: The University of Bristol. Retrieved from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/university/governance/policies/cultural.html This paper provides a brief overview of the University of Bristol's existing cultural life, and sets out aims and objectives to guide future cultural activities in the area. This paper helps to recognize, promote and sustain, as well as broaden the aspect of the University’s life which is its cultural district. The paper also helps to situate the University of Bristol into the larger context of the city and its role as an institution icon with a reputation recognized around the world. In order to help bring forth the cultural aspect of the University, the paper lists six objectives in which the University should adopt. 1. To establish a broad policy and development framework while acknowledging the existing aspects of the University’s cultural life. This includes integrating cultural activities into the planning and decision-making of the University, as well as interpreting, developing and implementing a Cultural Vision for the future.   38 2. To help existing and proposed cultural enterprises at the University succeed and to safeguard and promote their cultural assets. This will come by looking at the potential of existing infrastructure that exists at the institution for cultural activities. 3. To help faculties, departments, division and student groups identify and pursue new cultural opportunities. 4. To achieve greater internal and external recognition of the institution’s cultural strength, and to bring them to light within the institution and the city. 5. To integrate current cultural activity in their Positive Working Environment agenda, as well as Education Strategy. 6. To increase the University’s engagement with cultural events that are already happening in the city. Finally, the University recognizes the opportunity it has to bring forward cultural activities on campus, and the benefits it will bring to the quality of life of both students and staff. Given its identify and reputation, the University wants this endeavor to hold a close relationship with the city-region and to formally adopt the 6 objectives in a comprehensive and thorough plan.   5. Survey 5.1. Survey          In this section we will summarize and analyze the results of the online survey. First, we will outline the basic identifiers and demographic data collected in the survey, through respondents’ selections of formulated, multiple-choice options. Next, we will compare the demographic data of off-campus students who have attended nighttime events in the Arts and Culture District with those of off-campus students who have not. Finally, we will analyze and present the responses to the open-ended survey questions. 5.1.1.  Sample Demographics   39 Fifty off-campus students completed the online survey. Considering basic identifiers, 54% identified as female, 44% as male, and 2% preferred not to share their gender. Fifty percent of respondents were graduate students, and 46% undergraduate, with 4% choosing not to indicate their level of study. Figure 9.Participant Attendance                 As is shown in Figure 2, survey results further showed that 62% of respondents had never attended an evening event in the Arts and Culture District, 28% had, and the remaining 10% had attended an event in the District, but not a nighttime event. Finally, to gain some perspective on where students are coming from to access events, we asked for their commute times to and from campus. Forty-two percent of respondents reported a commute time of between 0 and 30 minutes, while the remaining 58% commute for between 30 and 60 minutes.          Two questions relating directly to the Arts and Culture District itself were also covered. As Figure 3 shows, the Chan Centre and MOA were the most-attended event-spaces. The survey also included a question addressing students’ awareness of the free student tickets available to Arts and Culture District events. The response to this was that students overwhelmingly do not: 72% of respondents did not know about the free tickets, 22% knew, and 6% chose not to respond.         40 Figure 10: Most Attended Event Centres  Source: UBC Arts and Culture District Survey 5.1.2. Attendees Considering only respondents who had attended a nighttime event in the Arts and Culture District, the demographics change: 47% of attendees were women, 46% were male, and the remaining 7% chose not to respond to this question. These results show a more even divide between male and female than the overall survey responses, and a higher portion of non-responses. Graduate students made up 40% of attendees, undergraduates 53% and non-responses 7%. In this sub-group, undergraduates make up the larger portion of respondents, while in the overall sample graduates are more highly represented. The breakdown of attendees’ commute times is very similar to that of the overall sample: forty percent of attendees were in the under 30-minute commute group, and the other 50% commuted between 30 and 60 minutes.     41 5.1.3. Non-attendees Looking at respondents who had not attended a nighttime event in the Arts and Culture District, the data is slightly different again. In this sub-group, 58% were women, and 42% men, no respondents chose not to answer this question. This represents the largest difference between respondents by gender groups when compared to the other sub-group and the sample as a whole. Fifty-two percent of these respondents were graduate students, with 42% being undergraduate students and 3% chose not to answer.  Finally, in the non-attendee sub-group, 45% of respondents commuted less than 30 minutes to campus, and 55% commuted between 30 and 60 minutes, representing a higher weighting toward the longer commute than the attendee sub-group.  5.1.4. Open Responses  In this section, we will analyse and present the results of the open-response questions from the survey. The majority of these questions were structured as multiple choice, with the option to select “other” and provide additional information. The responses in this “other” group were coded following an inductive approach: we did not impose predetermined categories, but rather identified categories of responses that emerged from the data. The questions and their responses were as follows:  Can you identify any barriers that are stopping you from attending an event in the Arts and Culture District?  In the first stage of responding to this question, students were able to select all that applied from don’t know, time of events, types of events, unaffordability, and other. As Figure 4 shows, don’t know, and other were the most commonly selected responses, while time of events was also a considerable barrier.       42 Figure 11: Barriers to Attending Events in Arts and Culture District  Source: UBC Arts and Culture District Survey Figure 4 further shows the main categories that emerged within the other responses where students chose to elaborate. These main categories of barriers were lack of awareness of events, distance of events, and lack of interest. The most predominant other barrier identified was lack of awareness. Some examples of the responses given by participants in these categories are shown in the callouts stemming from them in Figure Y as well. In addition to these examples, written responses included, “it’s not advertised,” and, “UBC is too far from East Vancouver to travel to on a regular basis.”  What would compel you to attend an event in the Arts and Culture District?  This question received fewer responses than the previous one. Structured the same way, the initial options from which participants could choose were other, more applicable programming, lower ticket prices, and don’t know. In contrast to the previous question, to which unaffordability was the least common response, lower ticket prices was the most commonly identified response that would compel attendance, as is shown in Figure 5. The general theme of responses in the other category was of students indicating they were too busy with school or other commitments to attend Arts and Culture District nighttime events.     43 Figure 12: Factors to Compel Attendance to Events in Arts and Culture District  Source: UBC Arts and Culture District Survey  What does compel you to attend events in the Arts and Culture District?  With data provided from another group who held a pop-up engagement at an Arts and Culture District evening event, we were able to analyze reasons for which off-campus students do attend these events. The most common categories of responses in this data included the low cost of events, the availability of free food, the effectiveness of their advertising, and the locations of the events on campus.   While our project is aimed at identifying barriers for students who do not attend, it is worthwhile to note that some of these responses contradict the barriers identified in the first open-ended question. This is a positive indication that once these barriers are removed, students do feel compelled and are able to attend events.  What are some ways to engage fellow students to encourage attendance at vents in the Arts and Culture District?  This was the final question in our survey. The multiple-selection options we provided were don’t know, increased transportation options, lower ticket prices, more applicable programming, more evening food options, and other. The responses were all selected by at least two students, with lower ticket prices being the most selected option. Within the other   44 response, the categories of responses included increase advertising, reduce academic conflicts, and integration with off campus opportunities. These responses included suggestions of working with faculty to include event-attendance in their courses, or to reduce conflicts with class times; and to hold more events off campus. The flow of these responses is reflected in Figure 6. Figure 13: Ways to Encourage Student Attendance at Arts and Culture District Events  Source: UBC Arts and Culture District Survey  5.2 Focus Group As part of our data gathering process, we conducted a focus group on March 4, 2019. This focus group was targeted towards individuals who completed our earlier survey and identified as UBC students living off-campus. The purpose of this focus group was to identify the needs, gaps, challenges, and opportunities, with regard to nighttime events at the UBC Arts and Culture District. In total, there were three participants. Through this activity, they engaged in a facilitated discussion, guided by a series of focus questions. The focus questions and participants’ responses are as follows: How familiar are you with the Arts and Culture District at UBC?   45 The participants were unfamiliar with the Arts and Culture District on a whole, but they were all familiar with the different facilities that comprise the district, including the Museum of Anthropology, Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, Belkin Art Gallery, etc. Have you attended any events in the Arts and Culture District? If so, which ones, and why? What was your experience? Two out of the three participants had previously attended events in the Arts and Culture District. One had previously attended a performance at the Chan Centre, while the other frequently visited the Museum of Anthropology and the Belkin Art Gallery. Both participants expressed that they enjoyed their experiences. Of the events that you’ve attended in the Arts and Culture District, were any of them evening events? The participant who attended a performance at the Chan Centre confirmed that it was an evening event. However, the participant who frequently visited the Museum of Anthropology and the Belkin Art Gallery had only visited during the daytime hours.   What, if anything, makes attendance at these evening events difficult for you? The participants unanimously agreed that the biggest hindrance to their attendance at evening events is the inconvenience of staying on campus to wait for the start of these events. They expressed that there is a long gap between the end of their classes and the start of these evening events, and since they also have long commutes off-campus, they would prefer to go home instead of staying at UBC. The participants were not interested in returning to campus in the evening after already going home. One participant also commented that he lives with his family and has obligations in the evening, which further prevents him from attending evening events. What would compel you to attend more evening events at the Arts and Culture District? The participants agreed that a greater variety of events, along with an increase in the number of showtimes, could compel them to attend more evening events within the Arts and Culture   46 District. They also mentioned that lowering the cost of tickets or offering free tickets to students would encourage them to attend more events. Two of the three participants were unaware that students are already able to get free tickets. What are ways in which you think the school, and particularly the Arts and Culture District, could do in order to engage more with students are living off-campus? The participants agreed that better branding of the Arts and Culture District and increased advertising of the events would be greatly beneficial. One participant recommended that a weekly or monthly newsletter be sent to students with a calendar of all the upcoming events within the district. Another participant recommended that social media, particularly Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, be utilized to create a recognizable brand for the district. One also mentioned the success of the UBC Connects public lecture series and suggested that the Arts and Culture District use similar tactics to promote its events.  6. Discussion  Based on the discussion with our focus group participants, we recognize that there was a general lack of awareness about the UBC Arts and Culture District. While the students were familiar with individual facilities, such as the Chan Centre for Performing Arts and the Museum of Anthropology, they were unaware that these are all designated under a single district on the UBC campus. The participants were also unaware of student incentives, such as free tickets to shows and events. Overall, the participants agreed that improved branding of the Arts and Culture District as a unique entity and increased advertising of the events would be beneficial.  From their comments, it was clear that the biggest deterrent to their attendance at nighttime events was the inconvenience of staying on campus and waiting for the events to begin. However, more diverse programming and additional showtimes could encourage them to attend. As in the Maryland case study, it is clear that intentional and active branding and placemaking efforts can be effective in this regard. The Bristol case highlights the role that university policy could play in enlivening the District, and that such places are important for   47 the opportunities they provide students. From the literature review overall, we learn that arts and culture districts benefit individuals as well as the community, and the participants in our study certainly reflected the belief that this could be the case at UBC’s District as well. Overall, the participants agreed that the Arts and Culture District is a great benefit to UBC and that they would like it to have a more prominent presence on campus.  7. Recommendations  Based on the findings from our survey and focus group results, we recommend that the UBC Arts and Culture District undertake the following actions: 1. Increase advertising of events both through traditional media, such as posters and student papers, and through social media.  2. Increase promotion of free student ticket availability by making this a central component of the advertising recommended above. Students indicated both that ticket prices were a barrier to attending, and that roughly three quarters of them are unaware of the availability of free student tickets. This represents an opportunity to increase awareness of an already-existing solution to this barrier.  3. Create a centralized and accessible events calendar or directory. Paired with increased advertising, this will facilitate students’ access to events in the Arts and Culture District.  4. Create and promote a cohesive brand for the Arts and Culture District. Many students indicated that they were not aware of the District as a unified entity. Increasing brand recognition and that this is tied to a specific geographic location on campus would help generate awareness of and interest in Arts and Culture District events.  5. Create, or encourage partner organizations on campus to create places on campus where students feel welcome and comfortable to stay while they wait for evening programming the Arts and Culture District. This would help with the identified issue that students are deterred   48 from attending events by the need to wait on campus after their other commitments have ended.   8. Conclusion Throughout this report we have attempted to answer the research question: What are the primary factors that determine attendance at nighttime Arts and Culture events amongst UBC students who live off-campus? Through an extensive literature review, intercept surveys and participatory focus groups, we seek to answer this question, and to provide further recommendations. Our surveys indicated that 62% of respondents never attended an evening event in the Arts and Culture District, with 58% had a commute time between 30 and 60 minutes to and from campus. When asked to answer what barriers they found in attending nighttime events in the Arts and Culture District, the predominant choice answered was the time of the events. Other comments included lack of awareness, distance, and lack of interest.  Incentives to coming to these events recorded in the survey included increasing advertisement, reducing academic conflict as well as integration with off-campus opportunities. Furthermore, our focus group provided further insight indicating that overall there was a lack of awareness about the UBC Arts and Culture District. While students were aware of individual facilities, they were unaware of the District as whole and all the program and events it has to offer. A recurring recommendation was to improve the branding of the Arts and Culture District in order to create a unified identity. This was paired with a recommendation on a centralized and accessible events calendar or directory to compliment this branding. Overall, our team and our participants unanimously agreed that the Arts and Culture District is a great benefit to the University of British Columbia, in which we would like it to have as a more prominent presence on campus. We hope our research, findings and recommendations can help lead to a more notable and utilized Arts and Culture facility at our University.     49 Bibliography Bristol, U. of. (2006). A vision for the University’s cultural life. Bristol, UK: The University of Bristol. Retrieved from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/university/governance/policies/cultural.html Guetzkow, J. (2002). “How the Arts Impact Communities: An Introduction to the Literature on Arts Impact Studies”  Rich, M. A. and Tsitsos, W. (2016), Avoiding the ‘SoHo Effect’ in Baltimore: Neighborhood Revitalization and Arts and Entertainment Districts. Int J Urban Regional, 40: 736-756. Zanke, M. (2018). The History of UBC’s thriving Arts & Culture District.  Retrieved from https://www.ubc.ca/ubc-now/2018/arts-and-culture-district.html                50 Appendix A: Survey  PLAN 522 Arts and Culture District Survey  Start of Block: Default Question Block Q1 Hello! We are conducting research on how to engage students in attending events at the Arts and Culture District at UBC with Campus and Community Planning (SEEDS) and Deb Pickman from the Office of the Dean. This is a short survey to engage students in attending events at Arts and Culture District. What do you most identify with? o Woman  (1) o Man  (2) o Two-spirit  (3) o Non-binary  (4) o Prefer not to answer  (5)  Q1b At what level are you currently studying? o Undergraduate  (1) o Graduate  (2) o P.H.D.  (3) o Other  (4) ________________________________________________ o Don't know  (5) o Prefer not to Answer  (6)       51 Q2 What housing situation do you most identify with? o Student housing  (1) o Housing on UBC  (2) o Non affiliated member of the public  (3) o Off campus (0-30 min)  (4) o Off campus (30-60 min)  (5) o Don't know  (6) o Prefer not to answer  (7) o Other  (8) ________________________________________________   Q3 What faculty are you currently a part of? o Faculty of Applied Science  (1) o Faculty of Arts  (2) o Sauder School of Business  (3) o Faculty of Medicine  (4) o Peter A. Allard School of Law  (5) o Other  (6) ________________________________________________ o Don't know  (7) o Prefer not to answer  (8)   Q4 Intro: The UBC Arts and Culture District, located at the north end of UBC’s Point Grey campus, is home to the Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, Museum of Anthropology, the   52 Morris & Helen Belkin Art Gallery, the Audain Art Centre, the Old Auditorium, the Frederic Wood Theatre and the UBC School of Music.  Have you attended at least one evening event in the Arts and Culture District at UBC? o Yes  (1) o No  (2) o I have attended an event in the Arts and Culture District but not in the evening  (3) o Don't know  (4) o Prefer not to answer  (5)   End of Block: Default Question Block   Start of Block: Student who live off campus Display This Question: If Q4 = Yes Q5 At what venue did you attend this event(s)? Please select as many as applicable ▢        Chan Centre  (1) ▢        Museum of Anthropology  (2) ▢        Belkin Art Gallery  (3) ▢        Audain Art Centre  (4) ▢        Old Auditorium  (5) ▢        Frederic Wood Theatre  (6) ▢        UBC School of Music  (7)   53 ▢        Don't know  (8) ▢        Prefer not to answer  (9)  Display This Question: If Q4 = Yes  Q6 What would compel you to attend more events on campus? Please select as many as applicable ▢        Lower ticket prices  (1) ▢        More applicable  programming  (2) ________________________________________________ ▢        More evening food options  (3) ▢        Increased transportation options  (4) ▢        Other  (5) ________________________________________________ ▢        Don' know  (6) ▢        Prefer not to answer  (7)   Display This Question: If Q4 = Yes  Q7 What are some ways to engage fellow students to encourage attendance for events in the Arts and Culture District? Please select as many as applicable ▢        Lower ticket prices  (1)   54 ▢        More applicable programming  (2) ________________________________________________ ▢        More evening food options  (3) ▢        Increased transportation options  (4) ▢        Other  (5) ________________________________________________ ▢        Don't know  (6) ▢        Prefer not to answer  (7)   End of Block: Student who live off campus   Start of Block: Student who live off campus Display This Question: If Q4 = No Or Q4 = I have attended an event in the Arts and Culture District but not in the evening Or Q4 = Don't know Or Q4 = Prefer not to answer   Q8 Have you ever heard of UBC’s Arts and Culture District? o Yes  (1) o No  (2) o Don't know  (3) o Prefer not to answer  (4)     55   Display This Question: If Q4 = No Or Q4 = I have attended an event in the Arts and Culture District but not in the evening Or Q4 = Don't know Or Q4 = Prefer not to answer   Q9 Can you identify any barriers that are stopping you from attending an event at UBC’s Arts and Culture District? Please select as many as applicable ▢        Time of events  (1) ▢        Types of programming  (2) ▢        Unaffordability  (3) ▢        Other  (4) ________________________________________________ ▢        Don't know  (5) ▢        Prefer not to answer  (6)   End of Block: Student who live off campus Start of Block: Conclusion   Q10 Are you aware that there are a limited number of free tickets that are available to UBC students? o Yes  (1) o No  (2)   56 o Don't know  (3) o Prefer not to answer  (4)    Q11 Are there any final comments you have for how to engage students to attend event in UBC’s Arts and Culture District? o Yes  (1) ________________________________________________ o No  (2) o Don't know  (3) o Prefer not to answer  (4)  Q12 Thank you for your interest and participation in this important research. Would you be willing to be contacted for future studies on this research? o Yes (Please enter your email)  (1) ________________________________________________ o No  (2) o Don't know  (3) o Prefer not to answer  (4)   End of Block: Conclusion        57 Appendix B: Focus Group Questions  Background -  We are conducting research on how to engage students in attending events at the Arts and Culture District at UBC with Campus and Community Planning (SEEDS). This is a focus group questionnaire to understand the barriers students who live off campus face in attending events at the Arts and Culture Districts, and to explore possible incentives to have them attend in the future.  Questions  1. How familiar are you with the Arts and Culture District at UBC? 2. Have you attended any events in the Arts and Culture District? If so which ones, and why? What was your experience?  3. Of the events that you’ve attended in the Arts and Culture District, were any of them evening events? 4. What, if anything, makes attendance at these evening events difficult for you?   5. What would compel you to attend more evening events at the Arts and Culture District?  6. What are ways in which you think the school, and particularly the Arts and Culture District, could do in order to engage with students who are living off campus more?         58 Appendix C: Letter of Information and Consent Letter of Information and Consent  Off-Campus Students’ Attendance at UBC Arts and Culture District Nighttime Events  Graduate Student Researchers Liana Glass, Pearl Penner, Soraya Sarshar, Mark McNaughton, Ian Flock, Kevin Luzong  Master of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia liana.glass@ubc.ca Research Supervisor/ Instructor  Sara Ortiz Escalante  School of Community and Regional Planning The University of British Columbia  sara.ortizescalante@ubc.ca  Purpose of the Study:  The purpose of this study is to complete a gap analysis of UBC Arts and Culture District events. Specifically, our aim is to explore and identify the factors that contribute to off-campus students’ attendance at nighttime events in the UBC Arts District. The end result of this study will be a report to the UBC Arts and Culture District with the aim of providing valuable information to them for future engagement and awareness-raising initiatives.  Procedures involved in the Research: First, we will conduct a survey of off-campus students. The survey will be available online, and we will conduct intercept surveys as well. These will be conducted at transit hubs, in an effort to intercept mostly off-campus students. The survey is quite short, and contains questions around students’ knowledge of the Arts and Culture District, and ideas around student engagement. The second phase of the research will be to conduct a focus group with interested students to gain a deeper understanding of the topics covered in the survey.    59  Potential Harms, Risks or Discomforts: The potentials harms, risks, and discomforts associated with this study are minimal. There is the possibility that being approached for an intercept study will make students uncomfortable, or that some of the questions in the survey or in the focus groups may be personal to participants. Please note that participation in this survey and focus group is entirely optional, and participants may withdraw at any time.  Compensation and Potential Benefits: Students who complete the survey will have the opportunity to enter into a draw to win one of two iPads. Students will also be compensated with food and drink for participating in focus groups or interviews. The potential benefits of participation include contributing to the Arts and Culture District’s knowledge of student behaviour allowing for improved outreach in the future. Students may also benefit from acquiring new knowledge of arts and culture events on campus they may wish to attend.  Consent: By signing below, I, ____________________, agree to participate in this study as outlined above.   Printed Name   ___________________             ___________________ Participant Signature        Date  We thank you for your time and input in our research,  Soraya, Pearl, Mark, Ian, Kevin, Liana      60     61 UBC ARTS AND CULTURAL DISTRICT: GAPS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR NON-CAMPUS POPULATIONS  Timothy Luk, Emilia Oscilowicz, Wonjun Cho, Jean Roe, Jorge Soler Cruz, Tru Taylor  1. Research Objectives This research project hopes to further understand how the District is used by people who do not work, study or live at UBC. This group of people includes visitors and tourists. The research project was guided by the following three key objectives:  1. Identify what compels or prevents people who are not-affiliated with UBC to stay on campus before or after events 2. Identify the barriers and motivations that exist for non-affiliated visitors in terms of attending night-time events at UBC 3. Provide recommendations for the barriers and gaps identified The objectives and scope of this research project was guided by the expressed needs of the partner organization, as determined by ongoing communications between the researchers and partner.   2. Methodology This research utilized multiple methods: Literature review, non-participant observations, intercept interviews and pop-up engagement. The literature review was conducted in collaboration with other research groups. The review conducted by Group 1.3 is in the section below. Non-participant observations were conducted individually by researchers observing the design and use of the District during the day and night.  The interviews and pop-up engagement boards were implemented simultaneously. Utilizing boards as a visual communication tool to attract attendees, we invited participants to partake   62 in short verbal interviews. During this interview, we asked participants basic questions to understand if they were visitors, what they were doing on campus before or after visiting the venue, and what they would like to see more of on campus. Visual communication tools were used to engage participants. Of the three engagement boards, two boards had maps for participants to interact with. The first map was of Metro Vancouver and invited participants to use stickers to identify where they were from. The second map, of UBC campus, asked participants to locate anywhere they were aware of for nearby activities, events, or places they could visit on campus before and after events. This second map was used to employ techniques of cultural asset mapping. At the most basic level, cultural asset mapping provides an inventory of current cultural resources in the area.  The third engagement board invited participants to answer two questions on sticky notes. The questions were: ● What would encourage you to stay on campus for longer before and/or after cultural events? ● What barriers do you face to stay on campus longer before and/or after cultural events? Participants were incentivized by entering to win a $50 gift card supplied by SEEDs. Consent forms were available for participants to ensure their willingness to participate in the research. When engaging with the participants, student researchers wrote notes in notebooks to understand common narratives and themes. Sticky notes were important tools for recording information as participants were actively participating in the field note taking process.  3. Literature Review & Observations The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the practices and initiatives occurring in the District to increase the awareness and access for visitors to other types of amenities before and after cultural events. The literature review and observations were conducted   63 concurrently, combining an understanding of written marketing and awareness initiatives with place-based observations. Additionally, this section provides information about the opportunities for improvement identified during this process and good practices that other Arts & Cultural Districts are implementing to address these issues.  Wayfinding Wayfinding helps insure ease and efficiency when attendees are at events, shows, and concerts. As attendees make their way to a location at night, wayfinding can contribute to the safety and security of visitors attending night-time events. Wayfinding is determined by personal decision making, architecture, signage, and other communication strategies of geographical location.  Physical Wayfinding (on UBC Vancouver Campus) When an attendee encounters signs along their journey, this contributes to the individual’s confidence in direction and well-being. Attendees who are arriving from outside campus would begin their journey at a UBC bus loop, parking lot, or by alternative transportation. At the major hubs of arrival (bus loops and parking lots), there is a lack of signage for almost all campus buildings, amenities and services. The signage pointing to District venues is not present. Additionally, there are very few signs pointing to restaurants or bars in the UBC Campus area. Furthermore, the District does not have specific wayfinding or signage that communicates the boundaries of the area.  Even if physical signage was added to campus, particularly in the hubs of arrival, inclusionary and accessible signage and communication of direction does not exist. Wayfinding must consider those who have special vision needs, among others. Signage and communication of geographical location of Arts District must accommodate those users. See Appendix A for photographs of wayfinding and site observations. Online Wayfinding See: https://welcomecentre.ubc.ca/   64 With widespread access to computers for many attendees of District events, the first stage of wayfinding often occurs in their home by researching directions and more information online. Google Maps is an excellent resource for attendees to view how to walk, drive, transit, or bike to their destinations. Attendees may also conduct research on UBC affiliated websites. The UBC Alumni Centre website is advertised as the ‘Welcome Centre’ for the University, however on this website there is no wayfinding information available regarding the District. Potential Wayfinding Opportunities ● Inclusion of more accessible signage and communication for wayfinding purposes to accommodate those in need of more diverse forms of wayfinding ○ See Accessible Signage Guidelines of Canada: http://www.brailleliteracycanada.ca/CMFiles/Accessible_Signage_Guidelines_BLC-PrintFormatted.pdf ● Addition of wayfinding signage for District venues, restaurants and other services at major arrival hubs (i.e. bus loops, parking lots) ● Include advertisements and wayfinding materials on UBC Welcome Centre website Marketing Marketing informs attendees of the productions, events, and venues available in the District. Attendee education through marketing should engage and provide relevant information in a clear, concise, and easily digestible manner. The following section will review the existing marketing materials used by the District and identify gaps.  Social Media The District is using the following social media platforms to engage with possible attendees: Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Youtube. These are relevant and popular social   65 media platforms. Priority should be given to Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter as they are the most used social media platforms1.  Online Website See: https://www.arts.ubc.ca/artsandculture/ The District website is hosted by the UBC Faculty of Arts website domain, providing information on all District venues, and links to in-depth information on shows and performances. However, the website does not provide a map of the District or information about nearby restaurants, amenities, and services.  Radio and Newspaper The District and its venues have been featured in several university radio broadcasts and local newspaper publications. Both the UBC CITRadio and the Ubyssey Newspaper publication have covered shows, performances, and hours of operation at relevant District venues. Wider Vancouver publications such as the Vancouver Straight have also written about happenings at the District2. This wider Vancouver marketing and publication is important in drawing attendees from outside of UBC. Community Group Outreach and Publication See: https://www.myuna.ca/venue/ubc-arts-and-culture-district/ Local community groups and associations are important liaisons to distributing marketing information to potential attendees. The University Neighbourhood Association website includes a page dedicated to the District. This page has details about upcoming events. There is no inclusion of nearby amenities such as restaurants and bars.                                                           1 Statista (2019). Most popular social networks worldwide as of January 2019, ranked by number of active users (in millions).  Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-of-users/. 2 The Georgia Straight (2018). 70 things to do in Metro Vancouver on Saturday, September 22. Retrieved from https://www.straight.com/life/1137576/70-things-do-metro-vancouver-saturday-september-22/   66 UBC Print Publications  The following print publications were provided to the project team by our partner, Deborah Pickman.  Outdoor Art Tour Brochure - A Walking Tour of 24 Artworks on the UBC Campus: This brochure covers public artwork present within the District and has a map explaining  the history and meaning of each piece.   Museum of Anthropology Brochure: This two-page, non-glossy brochure appears to be meant for an audience that is very unfamiliar with the UBC and Vancouver areas. This brochure could be specifically for tourists coming from major tourist hubs like YVR airport or cruise ships. The brochure offers general information on how to get to MOA by transit or car. It also makes clear that MOA is wheelchair accessible.   UBC Explore - Attractions Guide and Map: This guide includes all of the District venues, as well as the UBC Farm and Botanical Gardens (which are outside of the scope of the District). This brochure is one of the only print materials that mentions the food and services available on campus.   2018/2019 Calendar Publications for UBC Opera, UBC Theatre and Film, UBC Music, Chan Centre for the Performing Arts: These four separate calendar publications cover similar current performances and showtimes for each arts organization. The Opera publication is the only document to include information about food services on campus, including the collaboration between Sage restaurant and the District.   67  Potential Marketing Opportunities  ● Mention nearby amenities and services on the District website to inform attendees of restaurants and bars they can access on campus before or after events. Marketing materials could mentions discounts such as the Sage Restaurant collaboration.   4. Engagement: Site Selection and Participants Sites for our engagement events were established as venues within the District. Two sites on two separate dates were selected, based on events occurring at these times. The sites, times, and events were as follows:  ● Museum of Anthropology. Thursday, February 14th (6:00pm - 7:00pm)  ○ Only day of the week where regular hours are open after 5:00pm ○ Approximate number of participants engaged: 15-20 ● Chan Centre for the Performing Arts.  Saturday, February 16 (5:15pm - 7:00pm) ○ Bobby McFerrin concert  ○ Approximate number of participants engaged:  30-40 All attendees during the periods of research were invited to participate in the intercept interview and pop-up engagement. The data most pertinent and within the scope of this project involved those who do not live, work, or study at UBC.   5. Data & Analysis This section of analysis is based on observations and collected data from the two events mentioned above at the the Museum of Anthropology (MOA) and the Chan Centre for Performing Arts. During each event, the demographics varied significantly. At the MOA,   68 respondents were mostly couples and families with children who were tourists visiting from outside of Canada. Respondents at the Chan Centre were primarily older (50 plus) locals who lived in the Lower Mainland. Collectively, the research team interviewed over fifty people during these two periods. The following images show the responses to the map-based questions for both groups combined. Figure 14: Participants’ place of residence          The second engagement map asked participants to pinpoint additional places on campus that they visit. Most of the locations identified were close to events within the District, such as the Rose Gardens and Belkin Art Gallery. The most frequented places were food and drink destinations, such as the University Centre and Sage restaurant. It is worth noting that during the engagement sessions, participants seemed confused by this question which resulted in limited responses. If we had additional engagement sessions, we would have adapted the research and re-worded this question.        69  Figure 15   The following images (Figure 3) show a visual representation of the  most common answers to our engagement board questions. ● What would encourage you to stay on campus longer before and/or after cultural events?  ● What barriers do you face to stay on campus longer before and/or after cultural events?  The two major themes that emerged about barriers and incentives to spend more time on campus were related to transportation and a lack of information and amenities.    70   Figure16    Transportation Participant feedback about transportation can be grouped into two sub-themes: distance to campus and parking on campus. Participants expressed that the location of both the MOA and Chan Centre are not convenient for people who live far from campus as the commute time was a major concern. Furthermore, the timing of events made it difficult for people to stay late on campus. This was typically because attendees had commitments such as work the next day and wanted to get home. Respondents also expressed that parking and access to public transit were barriers to spending more time on campus. Many participants cited the high cost of parking as a reason they would not stay longer, although at least one participant advised it was the low cost of parking that encouraged him to drive to campus for that trip. Because the bus stops are approximately 20 minutes from the Chan Centre and there are no visible signs directing people to the stops, accessibility to public transit was a concern among people who were not familiar with campus. One researcher observed a family of tourists   71 receiving instructions to take the 99 bus route back to their accommodation from the MOA, after failing to reach a taxi company to take them home. This involved significant effort from a MOA staff member who had trouble describing the route. Another researcher noted that many attendees could not participate in the survey because they needed to catch a bus or their parking was about to expire. Overall, the data showed that the time and cost related to transportation were large factors in preventing participants from exploring more of campus before or after an event.  Lack of Information and Amenities Feedback around the lack of information and amenities as a primary barrier can also be divided into two sub-themes: knowledge of and options for amenities on campus, and understanding the MOA and the Chan Centre’s location within campus. Many participants did not know what else was available on campus and suggested that more information would help them spend more time on campus. Most of the people interviewed did not know the nearby amenities and services available on campus (destinations in the District, restaurants and bars on campus). This finding was reinforced by the lack of responses seen on Figure 2, which attempted to show the use of other amenities and attractions on campus.   Many participants noted the limited food options at UBC and specifically mentioned the lack of healthy and quality dining options open during dinner time.  Some participants noted Sage restaurant as a dinner destination, but expressed a desire for further options. Additionally, many participants said that if there were more dessert or drink options, they would be encouraged to stay on campus after events.  Most participants did not realise that the MOA was a part of the larger UBC campus, suggesting that individual destinations within the District were not understood as being associated with one another. One researcher observed two participants, who had completed the survey and were waiting on their bus, sit inside the MOA for an extended period of time (20-30 minutes) rather than exploring other nearby amenities. Overall, the data showed that many participants did not seem to consider the campus as a whole and were travelling for a   72 single destination event. In other words, they did not conceive of campus as a place to spend a large quantity of time.  6. Limitations The research methods for this project had various limitations. First, the time limit of the project resulted in a smaller sample size. Ideally, researchers would have attended more events to gain a larger sample size from a diversity of venues in the District. Secondly, due to the dates, times, and type of events chosen, demographics of participants varied. Hosting engagement during a 6-7 PM hour block may have altered the perceptions of food and services answers, as this is the prime-time for participants to have been eating a meal. Third, the style of the pop-up engagement and short interviews did not provide in-depth discussion and analysis between researcher and participant. The nature of this research style provided more for a basic understanding of the participants knowledge and awareness of UBC amenities and events. Furthermore, the researchers captured each question in isolation. Responses for all answers were not grouped for each respondent. This provides limitations for cross-tabulation in data analysis. Finally, the study engaged with participants who were already attendees of the events. This would have left those who are non-UBC affiliated and not attending events in the District as an unavailable study group.   7. Recommendations  The recommendations align with the needs of the District partners and provide a framework to benchmark the gaps that were identified during the research process. The research team considered the current capacity, resources and feasibility of the proposed actions to draft these recommendations. Moreover, the team strived to provide recommendations that could be implemented in the short term and do not require significant investments or additional workloads for the District team.  Build Strong Partnerships   73 o The District already focuses on developing strong partnerships with other businesses and nearby organizations. During the interviews at the Chan Centre, many respondents suggested they had been to the Sage restaurant before the event. There is a collaboration between Sage and the Chan Centre, providing a discount at Sage for attendees at the Chan Centre. The District could continue to build strong partnerships with organizations such as Nitobe Garden, Koerner’s Pub, Mercante and The Gallery, and provide deals or incentives for attendees of cultural events.  o There is opportunity for the District to partner with a car share program, such as Evo, to receive a discount code for attendees. This partnership would provide attendees with more travel opportunities that may reduce some transportation barriers. Marketing & Communications o The Literature Review & Observations section above highlights some opportunities for improving the marketing and communication material of the District. Furthermore, the District could provide direct communication and targeted incentives for attendees. If someone buys a ticket online, the attendee could receive an email with relevant information about car share opportunities, discounts and deals, and other events occurring on campus that evening. o For the users to understand where they are and how to get around the area, the District could implement specific place-based branding. The District has strong, bold and colourful online and print branding. There is opportunity to bring this colourful brand to the District itself. This would add a sense of place to the District, providing passersby an understanding of their locale. The wayfinding could also highlight the most accessible and direct path for non-able bodied.  Placemaking & Public Space Activation o From our observations and interviews, we concluded that there is a lack of awareness about the existence of the District. On the ground, there are limited ways to know you are in an Arts & Culture District. The wayfinding suggestions above would help users   74 understand where they are. Another way to activate the public space would be to host pop-up pilot projects. The District could host a night-time event with food trucks, lighting and music. These pop-up events could be aligned with more formal events occurring in the District.  Overall, we hope these recommendations will be useful for the District to build place-based and targeted awareness about the renowned events and services offered in UBC’s Arts & Culture District.    75      76 Appendix A - Photographic Record Museum of Anthropology (MOA): Public Engagement          The Chan Centre for the Performing Arts: Public Engagement              77  Wayfinding and Site Observations:             78      79  Indigenous Community Perspectives on UBC Night Time Events Ruby Carrico, Phil Climie, Ren Roberts, Arden Streib, Chris Cardinal, Jenna Hildebrand, Nicole Cardinal  This report examines Indigenous community perspectives on the Arts & Culture District at UBC and on night time campus events. While there is a lack of academic literature on the topic, students from minority and non-dominant backgrounds are susceptible to negative experiences in higher education systems.  A mixed-methods approach was utilized for this engagement, which took place in the First Nations House of Learning. An Indigenous medicine wheel was included in order to incorporate Indigenous epistemology as a method of welcoming and acknowledging our Aboriginal participants in a respectful way.  1. Research Questions • Does the Indigenous community at UBC attend Arts & Culture District events? • Are there any barriers or challenges for the Indigenous community at UBC in attending night time events on campus? • What type of events would the Indigenous community attend at UBC?  2. Literature Review   There is a definite lack of academic literature that examines how Indigenous populations on University campuses interact with night time events that are offered on campus. We have identified this as a significant gap and recommend further studies into this subject. During our research we determined four main factors that support the need to examine lack of   80 engagement in campus nightlife events with respect to Indigenous community members. These factors include negative experiences when dealing with higher education systems, proven links between exposure to culture and positive outcomes in Indigenous youth, and the importance of representation and physical space.  The negative experiences in higher education systems of students from minority and non-dominant backgrounds are associated with subtle and overt racism, and the conflicts that exist between Indigenous and Western cultural values (Sonn et al., 2000). The lack of support provided by higher education institutions for those triggered by course content can compound the negative aspect of these experiences. One of the ways that higher education institutions can counter this is by increasing the exposure to their own culture experienced by students from non-dominant backgrounds, this can also increase academic outcomes for these students. According to Wexler (2009), students from non-dominant backgrounds are “more likely to thrive if they relate to values that supersede family and self and that have historical continuity, commanding respect from others who have lived before and will live after them” (p. 270). This should come as no surprise as it is now part of the general discourse that representation matters for youth and adults alike, and this is no different in higher education, nightlife, or arts and culture events (Kana’iaupuni et al., 2017).The final consideration when thinking of the experiences of people from non-dominant backgrounds with higher education institutions is that of the physical space itself. We must always remember and consider that institutions such as Universities, museums, and opera houses are colonial in nature and can therefore exclude some portions of the population from accessing them (Minthorn & Marsh, 2016). This is based on both the history associated with those institutions and how those spaces are physically designed.    3. Methodology Our two groups were initially tasked with different projects. Group 1 was assigned to the UBC Arts & Culture District research initiative which aimed to explore how the Indigenous   81 community at UBC was currently engaging with the District. Group 2 undertook a research question directed from the Nightlife Events, researching what kinds of Indigenous-focused events the Indigenous community at UBC would like to see. In comparing each of the research proposals, both groups realized we had developed nearly identical plans in engaging the UBC Indigenous community. In order to not overwhelm, confuse, or exhaust our targeted demographic, we decided to combine efforts in our engagement plan, presentation, and report, while making sure to address both research topics in the process. Our engagement strategy used a mixed-methods approach and included an intercept table along with surveys at the weekly Lunch and Learn in Sty-Wet-Tan, the Great Hall, of the First Nations House of Learning. The lunches are organized by the First Nations House of Learning but hosted by different programs, clubs, or organizations each week. Members of our group, having been to the lunches in the past, knew it would be the best option for accessing Indigenous community members at UBC as we could ‘piggyback’ off of a free lunch, which is one of the most effective methods to encourage people to participate.  Our team set up two tables. The first included a large map of the City of Vancouver and copies of the survey. The other table had two engagement boards, each representing a separate research question. Our engagement strategy involved four steps: 1. Participants were asked to place a star on the map to identify where they were commuting from. 2. Participants were asked to fill out a survey (see Appendix 1), either in paper form or on an Ipad. The survey asked basic demographic questions (age, gender, role at UBC) and our main research questions.  3. Participants moved to the engagement boards and answered the corresponding questions on sticky notes. The questions on the boards were: A) Are there any barriers/challenges in attending Arts and Culture District events at UBC? B) What kind of Indigenous-focused event would you like to see on campus?    82 4. Invitation for remuneration; participants were encouraged to take a donut and enter in the draw for one of the two $50 gift cards.   To comply with UBC Ethics Procedures, our group members explained the scope of the project to participants and asked for their oral consent while assuring anonymity in the project. We also had consent forms (see Appendix 2) that participants were welcome to take with them for their personal records. One of our group members asked the organizers of the Lunch and Learn if we could step on stage to announce our presence and to briefly describe the research projects. This proved to be effective as we had a wave of participants following the presentation of the host organization. Over the two and a half hour engagement session we experienced strong contributions from participants.  Our tables were also deliberately ‘attractive.’ We used a brightly coloured blanket to lay over the table with the engagement boards. On the boards themselves, we had some bright colours reading “Ask me about the donuts!” (we supplied donuts to encourage people to participate) as well as two eye-catching medicine wheels in the centre of each board (see photos in Appendix 3).  Purpose of the Medicine Wheel  We wanted to use the medicine wheel (see Figure 1) as a model for our project for two reasons. Our first purpose was to use aspects of it to assist in the coding of answers we received by helping the, ‘coder quickly distinguish codes from each other’ (Guest, MacQueen, & Namey, 2012, p. 56). Because the two key questions were, “informed by the four quadrants of the medicine wheel” (Chilisa, 2012, p. 216), our intention was to categorize the answers received and place them within 1 of 4 different labelled sections of our medicine wheel model representing the four parts of being.  We did this because according to teachings of the medicine wheel, “we have four aspects to our nature: the physical, the mental, the emotional,   83 and the spiritual” (Lane Jr, Brown, Bopp, & Bopp, 2012, p. 12). The second reason for using the medicine wheel was to incorporate Indigenous epistemology as a method of welcoming and acknowledging our Aboriginal participants in a respectful way. The medicine wheel demonstrates, “many different ways in which all things are interconnected. Beyond that, it shows not only things that are, but also things that could be” (p. 32).  At the end of the event, what we discovered was responses were for the most part specific and could be placed within one part of the medicine wheel. However, we also found most answers often crossed over to more than one quadrant of the medicine wheel simultaneously. As a result, we came to the conclusion that we would respect the integrity of the responses and leave them where they were placed without rearranging them. We believe, “it is vital that Indigenous peoples have direct input into developing and defining research practices and projects related to them” (Liamputtong, 2010, p. 42). In this project, we were grateful our participants led the way and informed our group in ways we could not have anticipated. Their answers and presence were very much alive and complete as the living teachings of the medicine wheel.  Figure 17. Medicine Wheel   Wordpress.com    84 4. Findings and Data Analysis   In this section, key findings from the survey and poster boards are presented. First, the respondent demographics will be represented, followed by respondents’ experience with the Arts & Culture District and their suggestions for nighttime events on campus.  The collected data was analyzed through both a qualitative and quantitative lens.  Survey Results and Analysis 38 participants responded to the survey we administered in iPad or paper form. Of these participants, 76% were students at UBC.  Gender Identity  71% of the participants identified as a woman.   Figure 18. Gender identity of respondents    Age  63% of participants were thirty years old or younger.       85 Figure 19. Age of survey respondents    Distance Travelled to UBC  More than 80% of respondents commute from anywhere west of main street, north of the Fraser River, and south of Burrard Inlet (within ten kilometers). It may be interesting to note that no participants commute from the downtown area and that nine participants live on campus.  Figure 20. Distance respondents commute to UBC    Demographic Review Combining the survey data with the map data, there are a number of factors that illuminate a likely cohort within UBC’s Indigenous community: a young population of students who identify as women and live close to - if not on - campus.    86 Though it is a small sample size, and may not be statistically representative of the greater UBC Indigenous population, it does provide helpful insights. The youthfulness of the participants in this engagement is consistent with Indigenous population growth across Canada. Since 2006, the Indigenous population has grown at a rate four times faster than the rest of Canada (Statistics Canada, 2017). Of course, we are aware that this engagement session was conducted in setting that would likely include higher numbers of younger people.   Engagement Boards and Analysis  The pie chart below (Chart 4) shows the percentage of respondents who have or have not attended an Arts & Culture District event. It is worth highlighting that some respondents only answered “yes” after they had one of the researchers explain to them what the Arts & Culture District included (The Museum of Anthropology (MOA), The Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, the Frederic Wood Theatre, and the School of Music). After the respondents had the venues and the type of entertainment they host explained to them, they were then able to answer the question. Overall, the results from survey question #4 suggest that the Indigenous community at UBC is not engaging with the Arts & Culture District.   Figure 21. Participants’ response to survey question #4       87 For the respondents who had attended an event, the following list includes some of the events they attended:  • The Magic Flute • UBC Theatre (Much to do About Nothing) • Symphony  • Tig Notaro at the Chan • Lawrence Paul Yuxwelptuan at MOA • Marianne Nicolson at the Belkin • Opera  To address our second research question, we asked participants to identify any barriers or challenges they may face in attending UBC Arts & Culture District events. They wrote down their answers and placed them on the engagement boards. The barriers were themed into the following categories: cost, programming, venue, timing, and advertising and promotion.       88 Table 1. Themes Related to Barriers for the Indigenous Community in Attending Arts & Culture Events and Night-time Events  THEME BARRIERS Cost Price of tickets Cost of child care Parking Programming Lack of Indigenous content and representation Venue Unwelcoming venues Timing Conflicts with schedule Events do not correspond well with bus times Advertising and Promotion Events are not well advertised or promoted (respondents had never heard of them)   The third research question that participants responded to asked them to get creative in suggesting events that they would like to see at UBC. This was the question that got our team particularly excited because of the interest and ideas shared by participants. This interest highlighted to us that there is a strong desire within the Indigenous community for inclusive events.  The majority of the responses that were shared involved First Nations arts and culture. Pop-culture musicians such as the Snotty Nose Rez Kids and A Tribe Called Red were prominent. Other artistic means were suggested including Indigenous poetry nights, Coast Salish artist displays and Indigenous playwright Kevin Loring. Cultural celebrations such as pow wow,   89 drumming, dancing and singing were all shared. An Indigenous fashion show was suggested multiple times.   5. Limitations  Considering the scope of the research that we wished to undertake, time was a consistent limitation throughout the process of the project. The nature of our topic required that we engage with a very specific community at UBC. At first, we planned to run a focus group in order to engage with participants on a deep and meaningful level. However, given that we only had eight weeks to complete the project, we decided that it would be more effective to survey as many participants as possible. Considering our timeline and our need to survey several people, we decided that a walk-up engagement session would be the most meaningful surveying option. We likely would have faced several logistical challenges in gathering our data and running our engagement session if not for the convenience of the weekly lunches that are hosted at the First Nations House of Learning. We were able to take advantage of this weekly gathering where we knew there would be several members of the Indigenous community at UBC in attendance. Despite the eight-week time constraint of the project, we were able to effectively gather a sufficient amount of data in order to analyze in and make recommendations. Our second limitation was the weather. We had planned to conduct an engagement session on the same day as the UBC snow day. Assuming that most students would not be on campus that day, we predicted that we would not have had much success running an engagement session. As a result, we re-scheduled it at the last minute to the following week. Rescheduling our engagement not only required the research team to rearrange their schedules, but it limited our data gathering to one engagement session rather than two. We were hoping to gather data from a larger sample size.     90 6. Recommendations  Overall, it is clear that if UBC and the Arts & Culture District are to appeal to the UBC Indigenous community, strong considerations should be given to the inclusion of Indigenous artists and cultural celebrations. This will provide an opportunity for an inclusive event that centralizes Indigeneity at a UBC while still welcoming the broader population of UBC to experience the strong cultural identity of First Nations Peoples.  Based off the data collected, UBC’s Indigenous community has strong suggestions and ideas of what they wish to see as part of UBC’s Arts and Culture District programming, and how they wish to participate in UBC nighttime events. Moving forward, it is our recommendation that the Arts and Culture District build relationships with Musqueam First Nation, UBC Indigenous partners and Indigenous staff, students and faculty on campus. To build these relationships, we suggest connecting with the following partners: Musqueam First Nation, First Nations House of Learning, First Nations Indigenous Studies and Indigenous student associations on campus. Building such relationships would allow for important discussions to take place and open doorways to expand UBC’s Arts and Culture district. We also recommend that the UBC Arts and Culture District host an Aboriginal student luncheon or event at the First Nations House of Learning. Hosting a luncheon or event would allow for the UBC Arts & Culture District to inform and engage with the Indigenous community. Finally, we would recommend there be a greater presence from the Arts and Culture District in the Indigenous community through more face to face interactions, posting in the Talking Stick (the First Nations House of Learning newsletter), and through social media (Facebook). An increased presence would help inform the Indigenous community of what and when events are taking place, the price of tickets, and if there are opportunities for free tickets. The Indigenous community at UBC can be an asset moving forward if given the opportunity. As demonstrated in our findings, the Indigenous community has a lot to share and is willing to be a part of the conversation.      91 References  Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. 2012. Validity and Reliability (Credibility and  Dependability) in Qualitative Research and Data Analysis. In G. Guest, K. M. MacQueen, & E. E. Namey, Applied Thematic Analysis.Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc.  Kana’iaupuni, S.M., B. Ledward, & N. Malone. 2017. Mohala i ka wai: Cultural advantage as a framework for Indigenous culture-based education and student outcomes. American Education Research Journal, 54(1S), 311-339.  Lane Jr, P., Brown, L., Bopp, J., & Bopp, M. 2012. The Sacred Tree (Fourth Edition).Twin Lakes: Lotus Press.  Liamputtong, P. 2010. Performing Qualitative Cross-Cultural Research.New York: Cambridge University Press.  Minthorn, R.S., & T.E.J. Marsh. 2016. Centering Indigenous College Student Voices and Perspectives Through Photovoice and Photo-elicitation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 47, 4-10.  Sonn, C., B. Bishop, & R. Humphries. 2000. Encounters with the Dominant Culture: Voices of Indigenous students in mainstream higher education. Australian Psychologist, 35(2), 128-135.  Statistics Canada. 2017. Aboriginal peoples in Canada: Key results from the 2016 Census. The Daily. Ottawa. Accessed: March 2019.  Wexler, L. 2009. The Importance of Identity, History, and Culture in the Wellbeing of Indigenous Youth. The Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, 2(2), 267-276. Chilisa, B. 2012. Indigenous Research Methodologies.Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc.  Image: Medicine Wheel. Wordpress. Accessed from: https://marniej.wordpress.com/medicine-wheel/      92 Appendix 1- Consent Form   Consent Form for studies titled 1. “Campus Nightlife Gap and Opportunity Analysis: Perspectives from UBC’s Indigenous Community” 2. “Campus Animation: UBC Night Life Events: Perspectives from UBC’s Indigenous Community”  Co-investigators:  Ruby Carrico, Arden Streib, Ren Roberts, Chris Cardinal, Jenna Hildebrand, Nicole Cardinal, Phil Climie.  Institution:   University of British Columbia, School of Community and Regional Planning  Purpose:  Campus Night Life Gap and Opportunity Analysis For existing night-life events: What would engage the audience to spend more time before or after events? What is keeping them from doing so now? What would compel the potential audiences to stay on campus after classes/work to attend cultural events? What’s stopping them from doing so now? Campus Animation: UBC Night Life Events 1) What would an inclusive UBC night-time event look like, across all UBC communities? 2) What would make this event uniquely UBC?  Study Procedures:  Walk-up table (intercept table) at the weekly luncheons at the First Nations House of Learning. The table will involve visual elements including a map and poster boards. Participants will be asked to ‘pin’ where they commute from, write ideas on sticky-notes and paste them on charts, and fill out a survey on demographics and a few relevant questions[SOE1]  related to nightlife events. Incentives of food and draw prizes will be offered.  Project Outcomes: The data generated by this research will be used to inform the UBC Arts and Culture District and submitted as a report to the UBC SEEDS Office    93 Potential Benefits:  1) Responding to obstacles keeping members of UBC’s Indigenous community from attending night-time events and 2) Responding to suggestions for an inclusive UBC night-time event for UBC’s Indigenous community.  Potential Risks:  This study focuses on your preferences of night activities. You do not have to answer any of the questions posed in any phase of this study.  You may skip any question.  If you do not wish to answer a question in a personal interview, you may simply say something like, “I’d like to skip that question.”  Confidentiality:  Participants will not be identified by name in any reports of the completed study.    Remuneration/Compensation:  In order to acknowledge the time you have taken to be involved in this project, you will receive the following compensation for participation: -Option to enter a draw for one of two $50 gift cards -Donuts!   Contact for information about the study:  Sara Ortiz Escalante, sara.ortizescalante@ubc.ca 778-989-5164  Contact for concerns or complaints about the study:  If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant, and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598, or, if long distance e-mail to RSIL@ors.ubc.ca or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.   Consent:  Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time.  By signing below, you acknowledge receipt of a copy of this Consent Form, for your own records. Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this stud.  [If you want to take part but do not want to sign, just let the researcher know and you can consent by speaking.] One of the copies is for you to keep.           94   Signature: _____________________________________     Printed Name: _______________________________                                                   Date: ______________________________   [SOE1]                      95 Appendix 2- Survey  Indigenous Perspectives on UBC Events: Survey  1. What gender do you identify with?  ❒   Man       ❒   Woman       ❒   Other:____________       ❒ Prefer not to say  2. How old are you?   ❒   <16     ❒   17-22   ❒   23-30     ❒    31-40    ❒   41-50    ❒   50+   ❒ Prefer not to say  3. How do you engage with UBC?   ❒   Student       ❒   Faculty    ❒   Staff       ❒    Community Member     ❒ Other:_____________  UBC Events:  4. Have you attended a UBC Arts & Culture Event event before?  ❒ Yes     ❒    No     If yes, which one(s)? If no, why not? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________     5. Are there any Indigenous artists/performers that you would like to see at a UBC event? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  6. Is there anything else you would like to share about UBC events or this survey? (optional) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   96 Appendix 3- Photos of the Intercept Table with Engagement Boards   Bristol board engagement: Are there any barriers/challenges for you in attending night time events on campus?  What kind of Indigenous-focused events would you attend?    97                 Map of Vancouver and participants’ commutes to campus         98  Intercept table set-up                                                                                 Participant engagement     99     100 UBC Nightlife Events – Women, Transgender, femme and nonconforming people Kate Davis, Lucie Stepanik, Sydney Rankmore and Kaithlyn Given  1. Literature Review Intersectional Feminist Lens Studies and theories on gender over the years have found that a focus on a person’s gendered experiences must involve a variety of other aspects of identity that contribute to the complexity and uniqueness of experiences such as race, sex, class, and sexuality. Kimberlé Crenshaw was the first to label this convergence of systems of gender, race, sexuality, sex, and class as intersectionality in 1991, which has since become an integral part of feminist studies. The introduction of intersectionality helped the feminist movement support women’s rights for a variety of groups of women rather than the white, middle-class, homogeneous group that second wave feminism was catered to (Claire, 2016). Crenshaw (1991) notes that when it comes to gender-based violence, “intervention strategies based solely on experiences of women who do not share the same class or race backgrounds will be of limited help to women who, because of race and class, face different obstacles.” Thus, feminism’s use of an intersectional lens is necessary to highlight how oppression is created for various identities in the structure of the “white supremacist capitalist patriarchy” in order to properly tackle these inequalities (hooks, 1982).  “Intersectionality-informed Qualitative Research: A Primer” (2014) suggests that an intersectional lens is an especially useful framework for qualitative research because both intersectional and qualitative approaches “share assumptions about the context-bound nature of research, the importance of foregrounding voices of differently situated individuals, and the need to address power imbalances between researchers and those with whom research is conducted.” Qualitative research methods often involve direct engagement with the community that is being studied, which “contribute[s] to an understanding not only of   101 relationships between concepts, but the processes and the meanings that those processes and relationships hold” (Schulz & Mullings, 2006). For example, Nagy Hesse-Biber (2011) discusses that some research conducted from a feminist perspective includes qualitative methods such as “ethnography, in-depth interviewing, focus groups, [and] oral history” to merge the “personal and political” truths of marginalization. Leavy (2011) also examines how the practice of feminist oral history and focus group interviews are employed by feminists to “produce a multivocal narrative” that touches on a variety of social problems. Overall, an intersectional feminist framework to qualitative research allows for a broad and direct examination of social, cultural, and economic complexities of experiences for a diverse range of populations.  Gendered Mediation of Everyday and Everynight Experiences Feminist critiques of urban theory and planning emerged in the 1970s and demonstrated “how urban planners have created gendered environments that are predominantly suited to the needs of men and the heteronormative family” (Beebeejaun, 2016). A look at planning from the lens of gender reveals that genders move around and interact with a variety of spaces and places in different ways. Frisch (2015) suggests that the addition of an intersectional lens to a feminist critique of planning reveals that “planning continues to operate as a technology of heteronormality.” In other words, there is a binary categorization of women and men in society – similar to the initial homogeneous grouping of women in the feminist movement – that is reflected in the built landscape. Our study’s inclusion of women, transgender, femme and gender nonconforming people in our research population attempts to move outside of this binary categorization in order to emphasize the different experiences within genders. Also, our intersectional feminist lens highlights the imbalance of how different identities move around spaces, and thus this lens should be used in research and planning of cities going forward to discover how “inclusivity, access, and safety are dynamically produced through space and negotiated in tandem with other people” (Beebeejaun, 2016). Altogether, inclusivity, access and safety are the main concerns often considered in studies that look at how gendered experiences vary from place to place and time of day.   102 Although there is an increased focus in research on the gendered mediation of everyday experiences in urban spaces, gendered interactions with the night are rarely explored within this research. As the built environment becomes less visible and fewer people are typically out on the streets at night, concerns regarding inclusivity, access and safety become heightened. Gallan and Gibson (2011) argue that in this nighttime environment there is a connection between the oppressive gendered landscape of the city and the night; they state that “marginality finds its spiritual home in or at night” because the “expulsion from day” means “their expulsion from the urban capitalist status quo.” This connection between night and the marginalized highlights the necessity for night to be considered in intersectional feminist research that is often about the people who do not fall into the homogeneous grouping created with the help of the city.  This “night-time economy” involves different working and living patterns than the day (Lovatt & O’Connor, 1995), with activities such as drinking and dancing at clubs often popular at night that bring about a different urban culture than the work-driven day experiences of the urban space. Research on nightlife in Wollongong, Australia by Waitt, Jessop, and Gorman-Murray (2011) finds that women drinking at night to the point of becoming drunk is “a strategy young women deploy to intentionally change their bodily performance” that aligns with masculine drinking culture. This approach is dependent on the space or the specific “scene” of the drinking-related nightlife economy that is “embedded in specific socio-economic, historical and cultural contexts” and is dependent on the space or the specific “scene” (Waitt, Jessop & Gorman-Murray, 2011). Grazian’s (2007) discussion of urban nightlife from the male’s perspective reiterates this idea of gendered performance occurring in the night as he argues that “young heterosexual male students employ the power of collective rituals of homosociality to perform sexual competence and masculine identity by ‘girl hunting’ in the context of urban nightlife.” Overall, the research on nightlife states that the binary categorization of men and women in Western patriarchal society is reproduced in nightlife culture where both men and women put on a performance that reflects heterosexual masculine nighttime culture. This performance by women reproduces cultural norms in order   103 to secure a certain amount of inclusivity, safety, access and safety in urban nightlife activities. Roberts & Eldridge (2007) conducted qualitative research in focus groups on planning for a more inclusive evening economy where participants wanted nightlife planning that does not necessarily involve alternatives to binge drinking venues but “a deeper understanding of the potential range of eating and drinking related activities, particularly those that might be enjoyed by a whole family in the evening and early part of the night.” More qualitative research about the experiences of the marginalized and oppressed is needed to find ways to shift the culture of the night so it is inclusive for a variety of identities.   Existing Approaches to Inclusive Events by Canadian Campuses  North American campuses have a history of reproducing heteronormative, gendered cultural practices with events such as drinking-focused parties created by on-campus groups and residences playing a key role in constructing campus culture. Sororities and fraternities in particular are single-gender clubs that promote a “gender-segregated social life” (Case-Levine, 2016). This social structure reinforces the Vancouver entertainment district’s “actively produced, normalizing space” that maintains the “moral contours of heterosexuality (among other things) within the neoliberal city” for students across campus (Boyd, 2010). Universities have tried to produce a more inclusive campus culture by creating on-campus events for students. For University of British Columbia, university programs such as the SEEDS Sustainability Program and some student run groups such as Bike Kitchen, Totem Park, and the Pride Collective try to provide inclusive events for students. In terms of UBC campus nightlife, most feedback SEEDS received around the nighttime programming is anecdotal. Some information came up in the SEEDS Public Realm Review process in 2017, which was a series of focus groups conducted last year with a variety of campus stakeholders. In the study, a common sentiment that came from the users of the public realm was the desire to “feel more included in campus life” with more seating spaces, more art, feature lighting, and more event communications” as some of the more detailed suggestions (SEEDS, 2017). The Public Realm Plan that resulted from the review focuses on creating outdoor spaces on campus that   104 invite social interactions and connect students, faculty and staff. There was also past UBC SEEDS research in 2016 on accessing outdoor public spaces on campus by Glenn Mendosa that found similar results to the Public Realm Review that includes students’ desire for more connection to campus and support from campus services and events.  Other than the UBC SEEDS research, a look at what other Canadian universities are currently doing to create inclusive events showed that many Canadian universities have “inclusive event checklists” to ensure that different physical, cultural, and accessibility needs are met. Our research population is usually mentioned more in the content portion of events rather than in the accessibility and safety of the spaces in the checklists. For example, Carleton University’s “Inclusive and accessible event planning checklist” (2018) generally mentions “equity, inclusion and accessibility” once in the “Reflection” section at the end with no direct mention of our research population. UBC has a checklist for accessible event planning (2018) for UBC students and staff with disabilities and a “Planning an Inclusive Event” webpage (2019) that includes general and vague discussion of “inclusive, positive, and respectful advertising and messaging.” Overall, how to create an inclusive event for our research population is often mentioned with vague and unclear wording in these checklists and webpages. Checklists and webpages created by universities for inclusive events are only one aspect of the current approaches that universities have for inclusive events but they reveal the need to think more deeply about gendered everyday and night experiences of the landscape from an intersectional feminist lens. References  Beebeejaun, Y. (2017) Gender, urban space, and the right to everyday life. Journal of Urban Affairs, 39(3), 323-334. doi: 10.1080/07352166.2016.1255526 Boyd, J. (2010). Producing Vancouver’s (hetero)normative nightscape. Gender, Place & Culture,  17(2),169-189. doi: 10.1080/09663691003600298  Carleton University. (2018). Inclusive and accessible event planning checklist [PDF file].    105 Retrieved from  https://carleton.ca/equity/wp-content/uploads/Equity-Services-2018-Inclusive-and-Accessible-Event-Planning-Checklist.pdf Case-Levine, J. (2016). Gender-segregated social life is hurting today’s college students.  Retrieved from https://qz.com/776116/harvards-finals-clubs-how-gender-segregated-social-life-is-hurting-todays-college-students/ Claire (2016). Intersectionality – a Definition, History, and Guide. Retrieved from https://sisteroutrider.wordpress.com/2016/07/27/intersectionality-a-definition-history-and-guide/ Crenshaw, K. W. (1991). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence  Against Women of Color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1300. doi: 10.2307/1229039. Frisch, M. (2015). Finding Transformative Planning Practice in the Spaces of Intersectionality.  P.L. Doan (Ed.) Planning and LGBTQ Communities: The Need for Inclusive Queer  Spaces. New York, NY: Routledge. Gallan, B & Gibson, C. (2011). Commentary: New darn or new dusk? Beyond the binary of day  and night. Environment and Planning, 43, 2509-2515. doi: 10.1068/a44386 Gradian, D. (2007).  The Girl Hunt: Urban Nightlife and the Performance of Masculinity as  Collective Activity. Symbolic Interaction, 30(2), 221-243. doi: 10.1525/si.2007.30.2.221 hooks, b. (1982). Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Boston, MA: South End Press. Hunting, G. (2014). Intersectionality-informed Qualitative Research: A Primer. Vancouver, BC:  SFU’s The Institute for Intersectionality Research & Policy. Hesse-Biber, S. N. (2011). Putting it Together: Feminist Research Praxis. S.N. Hesse-Biber &  P.L. Leavy (Eds.), Feminist research practice (pp. 330-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. doi: 10.4135/9781412984270   106 Leavy, P. L. (2011) The Practice of Feminist Oral History and Focus Group Interviews. S.N.  Hesse-Biber & P.L. Leavy (Eds.), Feminist research practice (pp. 149-186). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. doi: 10.4135/9781412984270  Lovatt, A. & O’Connor, J. (1995).  Cities and the Night-time Economy. Planning Practice and  Research, 10(2), 127-133. doi: 10.1080/02697459550036676 Mendosa, G. (2016). Accessing Outdoor Public Space on Campus. UBC SEEDS Student  Report. Vancouver, BC: UBC. Roberts, M & Eldridge, A. (2007). Quieter, Safer, Cheaper: Planning for a More Inclusive  Evening and Night-time Economy. Planning, Practice & Research, 22(2), 253-266. Schulz, A.J. & Mullings, L. (2006). Gender, race, class, and health: Intersectional approaches,  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. SEEDS Sustainability Program. (2017). UBC Public Realm Plan Evaluation: Consultation  Summary. Vancouver, BC: UBC. University of British Columbia. (2018).  Checklist for Accessible and Inclusive Event Planning at  UBC. Retrieved from https://ok-equity.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2015/05/Checklist-Accessible-Events-UBC.pdf University of British Columbia. (2019). Planning an Inclusive event. Retrieved from https://students.ubc.ca/campus-life/organizing-campus-events/event-planning- resources/planning-inclusive-event Waitt, G., Jessop, L., & Gorman-Murray, A. (2011). ‘The Guys in there just expect to be laid’:  Embodied and gendered socio-spatial practices of a ‘night out’ in Wollongong, Australia.  Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 18(2), 255-275. doi: 10.1080/0966369X.2010.551651   107  2. Introduction: Project Focus/Context This research explores what barriers and incentives might exist for women, transgender, femme and gender nonconforming folks to participate in nighttime events (5 to 10pm) on UBC campus. Our main research question to help us think about where women, transgender, femme and gender nonconforming folks want nighttime events is: what prevents and compels women, transgender, femme and gender non-conforming (GNC) folks to attend night-time events on campus?  To respond to these questions, our goal was to understand the following: What areas of campus are seen as being desirable for nighttime events; What barriers exist for women, transgender, femme and gender nonconforming people from participating in nighttime events on campus; and  What would compel women, transgender, femme and gender nonconforming people to participate in nighttime events on campus. This research will add to the growing body of knowledge about what makes inclusive nighttime events on UBC campus.  Framework We utilized an intersectional feminist framework from the literature review that helped us think about how to approach inclusive nightlife events in relation to our research population. We decided to use an overarching intersectional feminist lens to inform our qualitative study to make sure we are not only considering gender but a variety of other aspects of identity that also contribute to the complexity of gendered experiences such as race, sex, class, and sexuality. This lens also helped us think beyond the binary categorization of women and men and made us think about our broader research population. We also focused on the gendered mediation of everyday and everynight experiences in our framework in order to recognize how the binary categorization of women and men in society is   108 reflected in the built landscape. The texts on this topic also looked at the ways different genders move around and interact with a variety of spaces and places. We found that inclusivity, access, and safety are the issues consistently mentioned in the research articles on this topic so we kept these in mind going forward. Methods For this research, we employed a mixed-method qualitative approach. We began by conducting a review of literature on the subjects of gender, nightlife and inclusive spaces. This enabled us to conduct our research through an intersectional feminist lens.  For our data collection, we used three engagement approaches: In-person engagement with sticky notes on engagement boards Informal interviews/conversations with respondents Online survey sent out to specific groups on campus A major component of our research is that respondents were asked to self-identify their gender. We facilitated this element of our research by approaching groups of people walking through the NEST and asking them to participate in our research. If they consented to participate, we directed them to our two engagement boards where we had a list of common “identifiers” printed out. We encouraged people to read through the list and write their own personal identifiers on a sticky note that they could then place on the boards. We did this so as to not assume the gender of any of our participants.  In total, we had thirty-nine people participate in our study and collected over ninety responses. Once all of our data was collected, we compiled it into a spreadsheet and analyzed it line by line to identify common themes and any outliers. Engagement We used three engagement techniques to gather data for our research; (1) mapping exercise, (2) visual exercise, and (3) survey. We set up at a booth in the NEST during peak hours between 10:00am and 1:00pm to be able to intercept as many participants as we could. We   109 primarily approached groups of students with the intention of engaging a diverse range of participants. We were conscious to not assume identities and attempted to gain representation from the target populations. Further, we engaged many students, including groups that were not relevant to our research, with the intention of sharing our data with other research groups. We had two poster boards set up at our booth – the mapping exercise poster and the visual exercise poster. The mapping exercise poster had a large map of campus with the question “where would you like to see a nighttime event” displayed in bold letters at the top (see Figure#). The participants would write whatever identifier they chose to share with us on a post-it. We made a list of common identifiers, including gender, sexuality, and nationality, with the opportunity to add more if they felt like it to give people an idea what we were looking for. They would then place their post-it with their identifier(s) on the map where they thought they would like to see a nighttime event. We were then visually able to see popular locations for events based on participant identifiers. Figure 22: Mapping Exercise Poster     110 Similarly, for the visual exercise, the poster displayed the question “what would draw you to a nighttime event?” As seen in Figure#, there were six categories displayed in a circle: physical activity, food, drinking, music, shopping and learning. There was also a circle around the outside where participants could add their own suggestions. Similar to the mapping exercise, the participants would then place a sticky note with their identifier in the category of what would draw them to a nighttime event. This allowed us to easily see the popular categories and suggestions of activities or events that people would like to see. Figure 23: Visual Exercise Poster  Our final method of engagement was a survey, which was distributed in two forms. First, at our NEST engagement, we would ask people participating with our mapping and visual exercises to answer a few extra questions so we could get a little more detail on what would make a good nighttime event for them. The first three questions were demographic questions: what was their gender, whether they lived on or off campus, and if they were an undergraduate or graduate student. We then asked if they had ever been to a nighttime event on campus and if yes, which one so we could get a sense of what kind of events they are already participating in. They were then asked to talk about the best nighttime event they   111 have ever been to and what elements about it they enjoyed so we could get a sense of examples of what made nighttime events enjoyable for our targeted population. And the final question was what would encourage you to participate in more nighttime events on campus, to help us understand more specifically some of the barriers to participation. Along with the intercept survey method, we also emailed a slightly more detailed survey out to certain queer groups on campus including the Bike Kitchen, the Pride Collective, and Totem Park. This was to ensure that we were able to see representation in our results from all of our desired research populations, while respecting the anonymity of the participants identifier, which allowed them to choose to share with us as much as they liked. 3. Results Engagement Board Results Mapping Exercise  As previously mentioned, one of the methods we used to engage with people about diversifying nighttime events on campus was through pop-up activities. The first engagement board asked students where they would like to see a nighttime event. We had thirty-nine interactions during our engagement period. Of these interactions, thirty-seven self-identified as female (95%). From this exercise we determined that over 50% of the respondents wanted to see a nighttime event in the NEST Area. This area includes the Student Union Boulevard, near Brock Hall and Gage Residence, to the Thunderbird Parkade. As seen on the graphic (Image#), students also wanted to see a nighttime event near the Arts and Culture District, Main Mall (Flagpole Plaza and Martha Piper Plaza), West Mall by the Longhouse, Health Sciences, Wesbrook Village, and near The Barn (between Main Mall and West Mall).       112 Figure 24: Desired Nighttime Event Location on UBC Campus with Identifiers  Visual Exercise From the visual engagement exercise we determined what would draw people to a nighttime event at UBC. We accumulated fifty-four interactions from this exercise and an overwhelming number of participants self-identified as female. It is important to note that we counted where participants placed their sticky-note in the middle of two desired types of nighttime events as two separate interactions. The majority of respondents wanted to see nighttime events with food, music, and opportunity for alcohol consumption (see Chart#). Music was one of the most desired types of nighttime events and this option showed the greatest diversity of identifiers. Of those who wanted to see a music event, the self-identifiers included female, male, straight, gay, queer, off-campus, on-campus, international and domestic students.          113  Figure 25: Desired Types of Nighttime Events   From this exercise we also developed a list of specific desired nighttime events. Some of the suggestions were: night market, longtable dinner, all-night museum, glow-in-the-dark run, dance, karaoke, open mic, parade, or having food trucks. Survey Results  The surveys, both online and in-person, focused on answering what prevents respondents from attending nighttime events at UBC and what would draw them to attend more nighttime events. The online surveys allowed for the analysis of respondents’ statements, which then helped us identify the primary reasons why they did not want to attend nighttime events. The following quote illustrates that the amount of work required of students and UBC’s lack of sports culture has a direct impact on participation in nighttime events. “UBC in general has a higher focus on education and classes than say an American university with a large sports atmosphere. It isn’t part of the UBC culture to do stuff in the evenings, especially during the week.”   114 As shown below, the following quote highlights one of the primary reasons for the lack of participation, identifying the distance of the UBC Vancouver campus to the rest of the City of Vancouver and access to transportation.  “Part of the problem is UBC’s proximity to the rest of the city- it’s kinda a trek to go home then back to campus for a late-night event.” The theme of distance and transportation were prevalent in both the online and in-person survey results, and can be identified as the top two reasons preventing participants from attending nighttime events as illustrated in the chart below (#). The graph also shows that the cost of events, busy schedule and food not being offered or not free were other key factors deterring respondents from attending nighttime events.  Figure 26: Factors Preventing People from Attending Nighttime Events   In addition to the five reasons shown in the graph, the respondents identified that certain nighttime events on campus did not align with their personal interests or that they were looking for a specific type of event. For example, the type of music may dictate who attends or, as 7% of participants expressed, their favourite events were those that incorporated a more spiritual aspect. In regards to safety, majority of our respondents did not explicitly   115 express their concern for safety as a primary concern. However, one respondent stated that she had a deep fear of being taken by someone while attending nighttime events. Respondents also said that they would not want to attend an event unless a friend or someone they knew was attending. From this it can be assumed based on the literature, that the participants were not interested in attending nighttime events due to the safety concerns in attending alone, as well as their desire for socializing at events. Furthermore, the location of events being close to transportation hubs was identified as being important, which could be a part of a larger safety concern.  In addition to identifying the reasons why our participants may not attend nighttime events, we also explored what they believe contributes to a good event. Accessible transportation was identified as one of the main draws to night-time events, addressing the concerns over the distance of UBC campus to the rest of the City of Vancouver. The desire for accessible transportation was specifically of interest for those living off campus. The social aspect of nighttime events was another primary factor as many of our participants were attending only if they knew their friends were also attending. The location, types of activities, as well as the option for alcohol and food were the key factors that drew the respondents to events. In addition to being drawn to nighttime events by these aforementioned factors, respondents expressed that the weather of Vancouver, rainy and cold in the winters, was a key deterrent; therefore, if an event accommodated weather-based needs they would be more likely to attend. Accommodating weather-based needs includes, but is not limited to, offering a coat check, specifically if it is free; and, holding the event in a weather appropriate location.  4. Limitations  A reflection of the results allows for the identification of the limitations. Our limitations fall under three broad categories: timing, representation and method. More time to conduct research and engagement would have allowed for more access to a larger population and   116 ensure a greater representation of those who self-identify as female, transgender, femme and gender non-conforming.  In reflecting on the representations of the respondents, it is evident that there is not an accurate representation of the LGBTQ+ community as only three of the respondents self-identified as queer. In order to increase this representation, a longer project timeline would have provided more opportunities in developing a research method that allowed for more thorough and honest relationship building with this portion of the target research groups. Furthermore, since each of the individuals in the research team self-identify as cis-gender, heterosexual females it added an extra layer of difficulty in the ability to reach out to those who do not self-identify in the same way. Another limitation can be found in conducting the engagement in the NEST. The NEST often has a higher representation of undergraduate students and, as a result, the respondents were largely undergraduate students. Therefore, conducting the engagement in a neutral space that has a more equal representation of undergraduate and graduate students would have created a more diverse range of students. Overall, the results were high-level due to these limitations of timing, representation and method.  5. Recommendations  Considering the results from the mapping exercise, visual exercise, and survey, we have developed several recommendations to allow for more inclusive nighttime events. Central Location for Event Information  A number of students said they were unaware of events happening on campus. They identified a central source for event information as an ideal alternative to the individual and ad hoc system of event marketing that currently exists. We suggest compiling all event information in one location and advertising this to students. It would be beneficial if this central location for event information was also available for download to smartphones and computers. Once per   117 month, students could have the opportunity to download “upcoming events” to their personal calendars.  Free Events Cost seemed to be a barrier for several students from attending nighttime events on campus. To allow for greater involvement at nighttime events we suggest having free or low-cost events. Alternatives to free events may be incentives to attend events including; prizes, free food, or discounted merchandise.  Events Close to Transit  Students identified access to transportation as a main draw to nighttime events. We suggest hosting nighttime events near transit hubs to increase accessibility for students living on and off campus. We would also like to suggest hosting events near transit to ease any concerns regarding safety.  Greater Diversity of Events Many students attend events based on personal preference. To reach a larger audience we suggest hosting a greater variety of nighttime events or nighttime events that include multiple activities. Specifically, we suggest hosting more music-related events with a wide variety of genres. We would also like to suggest hosting a night-market that offers space for shopping, eating, socializing, and drinking.  It may also be beneficial to collaborate with other clubs or groups on campus to ensure a greater diversity of nighttime events.      118     119 UBC Nightlife Events - International Students (Race and Migration) Laura Chow, Hayston Lam, Mark Poskitt, Sean Reisman, Ryah Rondolo, Itzel Sánchez This research addresses the cardinal issue of how to welcome and integrate international students into Canadian campus life at UBC. The findings of this report provide a preliminary starting point about how this may be achieved through the creation of specific events on campus which appeal and are inclusive to a diversity of students - including those from other countries. From here, further research is needed to better understand the differences between undergraduate and graduate students in terms of barriers for engaging with campus social life, as well as a feasibility study for the types of events suggested in our recommendations. 1. Background A key goal of the University of British Columbia’s (UBC) Campus and Community Planning department is to provide community-building programs that bring life and vibrancy to campus (The University of British Columbia, n.d.a). In the past, the UBC Community Development team has leveraged on-campus public and outdoors spaces to deliver programs such as the Harvest Feastival, Chef Challenge, UBC Pride, Kids Takeover UBC, and International Women’s Day Festival: Turn it Up and Disrupt (S. Bouvette, personal communication, January 16, 2019). Most of these events take place during the daytime and early evening with high turnout. However, community feedback has conveyed a desire for night-time events at UBC (S. Bouvette, personal communication, January 16, 2019). For our research project, our group collaborated with UBC’s Community Development team to address the current shortage of night-time programs offered at UBC. The overarching goal of our study was to gain insights on the factors that could contribute to an inclusive and vibrant night-time event on campus, which would engage the entire campus community, especially underserved populations, specifically considering groups under the lens of race and migration; gender and sexuality; disability; and Indigenous.    120 Our group was tasked to focused on race and migration, and decided to accomplish this by reaching out to international students. UBC is recognized for having a large population of international students. In 2018, there were 15,405 international students enrolled at UBC’s Vancouver Campus, constituting 27% of the campus’ student population (Planning and Institutional Research, 2018). Compared to domestic students, international students have greater and different adjustment challenges such as difficulties with communicating in English and adjusting into a new culture (Andrade, 2006). In general, they tend to experience more anxiety, stress, homesickness, loneliness, and have less social support than domestic students (Andrade, 2006). Taking this into consideration, our group held focus groups with international students to hear their perspectives on UBC nightlife and ways the UBC Community Development team can support their personal well-being and social integration through various programming initiatives.  2. Purpose, Objectives, Research Questions and Significance Purpose: To provide recommendations to UBC’s Community Development team for a nightlife event(s) that is inclusive and uniquely UBC. Objectives: ● Gain insight on the types of campus nightlife events that would appeal to international students ● Determine what would make campus nightlife events inclusive for international students ● Develop strategies that would encourage international students to participate in future UBC night events Research Questions: ● What would a UBC night-time event that is inclusive to international students look like? ● What would make this event uniquely UBC?   121 Significance: Our study will help determine strategies to attract international students to inclusive on-campus UBC night events. Overall, our research findings will contribute to night-time vibrancy at UBC and, more generally, social connection and placemaking on campus.  3. Literature Review Currently, there is limited literature about the participation of international students in university campus nightlife events. Thus, we divided our investigation of the literature into (1) the experience of international students at UBC and (2) the different barriers and opportunities related to international student participation in campus events.  3.1 International Students of UBC UBC’s international student population makes up 27% of the entire student population (Planning and Institutional Research, 2018). As part of its online resources, UBC has provided a digital International Student Guide that is marketed to allow students to “find everything [they] need to know about life as an international student at UBC’s Vancouver campus” (The University of British Columbia, n.d.b). This guide provides students with information regarding immigration, health insurance, work, taxes, taking academic breaks from studies, academic resources, and finances. Embedded in this guide is also a link to an online resource that speaks to adjustment to life in Canada, providing some insight as to Canada’s multiculturalism and making a cultural transition.  UBC international students face a number of pressures, including being away from home and family for the first time, coming to a country where customs are new and foreign to them, and facing social pressures and the sense of needing find a way to fit in. In some cases, UBC’s own community is implicit in contributing to the need to conform. For example, in February 2019, UBC’s co-op office ran an advertisement for an upcoming workshop focusing on professional   122 development; upon further review, the workshop was seen as a way to reduce one’s foreign accent and assimilate into Western culture (Talitha, 2019).  3.2 International Students and Event Participation Commonly identified adjustments challenges faced by international students in a post-secondary academic environment include language barriers, cultural unfamiliarity, homesickness, and social isolation (Slantcheva-Durst and Knaggs, 2019). As such, attending nightlife or community events may be a low priority for international students considering the immense pressures and potential difficulties of adjusting to or succeeding in their post-secondary studies (Owens and Loomes, 2010). For example, Glass and Westmont (2014) note that international students experience pressure to prioritize studying for extended periods of time and neglect leisure time. This consequently limits the development of valuable social networks that may be essential coping mechanisms for loneliness or stress (Glass & Westmont, 2014). These barriers to participation in community events and challenges to succeeding in post-secondary studies amongst international students are further amplified if there is a lack of English fluency and cultural unfamiliarity (Andrade, 2006). Studies have also shown that international students are likely to congregate into culturally-similar social groups to avoid uncomfortable interactions with foreign cultures (Kusek, 2015; Owen and Loomes, 2010). One contributing factor is that international students may face anxiety when interacting in English especially if they lack English proficiency, which can limit their ability to connect with domestic students (Smith and Khawaja, 2011). Similarly, international students may not participate in community events because of aforementioned reasons of cultural and language unfamiliarity (Kusek, 2015). As a result, Andrade (2006) finds that only a minority of international students developed meaningful friendships with domestic students largely due to favouring friendships with culturally-similar individuals; by the same token, building relationships with peers and others on campus can cultivate the opportunity for students to build a strong sense of belonging to the campus (Yao, 2016). A sense of belonging is associated with students' sense of social acceptance (Yao, 2016), and more   123 generally is an important motivator and determinant of overall wellbeing (Seppala et al., 2013). Therefore, the experience of international students on campus and the significance of relationship building in well-being should be considered (Glass and Westmont, 2014; Andrade, 2006;). These commonly identified factors of anxiety, stress, homesickness, and loneliness experienced by international students in conjunction with potentially lower levels of social support contribute to their overall risk of mental health challenges such as depression (Andrade, 2006; Mori, 2000). However, the literature also identifies areas of opportunities in creating events that appeal to international students. Owens and Loomes (2010) find that cross-culture interactions are an essential part of post-secondary learning that is also highly valued by students. For example, these cross-culture interactions can include attending multicultural events or celebrations like Chinese New Year and Indian Independence Day as a chance for international students to proudly share their culture with the community (Owens & Loomes, 2010). This current general understanding of barriers and opportunities for international students to participate in events helped guide our research questions to determine how UBC could create inclusive and appealing nightlife events for international students.  4. Methodology The main methodological framework we used for our research was Community-Based Research (CBR). CBR is an approach driven by key principles, such as being community driven and action oriented.  It emphasizes joining the community as full partners in all phases of the research process. Also, it recognizes the importance of involving members of a study population as active and equal participants. Normally, partners contribute with their expertise to enhance understanding of a given phenomenon and integrate the knowledge gained with action to benefit the community involved (Israel, 2001).    124 According to Israel and Shultz (2003) the main characteristics of CBR are:  1. Recognizing the community as a unit of identity and expertise, 2. Building on the strengths and resources of the community,  3. Promoting co-learning among partners,  4. Achieving a balance between research and action,  5. Emphasizing the relevance of community problems, and   6. Disseminating knowledge gained to and by all involved partners.  We collected data primarily through qualitative methods, namely focus groups and semi-structured interviews. 4.1 Target Population and Research Site: Groups We Worked With: Our group investigated the impact of race and migration status on participation in evening / night-time events hosted on campus. Considering that Canada’s context on race and migration status is a complex and broad topic to approach, we opted to focus specifically on both undergraduate and graduate international students. Site and Where We Focused Our Attention: As our group was tasked to help establish the type of night-life that would be appealing to a variety of students for UBC, we focused our study on the entirety of the UBC campus. 4.2 Outreach Process: We used different methods to reach out to students, including emails, announcements before lectures, and recruiting participants from our acquaintances.  We emailed different international student clubs, residences (e.g. Green College, St. John’s College, Ponderosa Commons, and others) and Student Associations. These outlets helped distribute our invitation by: including it as part of their weekly email newsletters; posting in their social media networks; printing and posting a flyer about our event; and/or sending an email to students with our invitation and a digital copy of our flyer. Members of our team also visited different   125 faculties and classes to reach out to more students. Finally, we reached out to contacts from our personal networks to invite more international students.   We offered four different time slots for students to register for a focus group; we asked students to fill in a registration survey or contact our team by email to register for a focus group. The goal was to have 6-10 people attend each session for a focus group with a strategy to hold interviews if we were unable to recruit enough participants. Due to the time constraints of the research project and "no-show" participants, we did not obtain enough participants to host four focus groups. We adapted our methods to follow this schedule (Table 1):  Table 2: Schedule of events Wednesday, February, 13 Thursday, February 14 Tuesday, February 26 Interview (2 participants) Interview (2 participants) Focus group (7 participants) Interview (1 participant)  4.3 Data Collection Methods As part of our data collection, we decided to conduct focus groups and semi-structured interviews.  We were interested in using the focus group method to provide students with a more comfortable space and atmosphere to share their personal experiences and to obtain more in-depth insights for our research. The usefulness of the focus group format for this purpose has been identified extensively in the literature (Morgan and Spanish, 1984; Stewart and Shamdasani, 2014; Green et al, 2015).   126 ● Focus group (Figure 1): Comprised of seven international students.  The session lasted around 50 minutes. Figure 27: Focus group held on February 14, 2019  ● Interviews (Figure 2): We conducted three different interviews. Two of the interviews had two students participate and lasted around 50 minutes; one interview was conducted with a single individual with a duration of 40 minutes. Figure 28: Interview held on February 13, 2019   Both methods followed the same outline of activities and schedule described below. However, we allowed flexibility in the agenda, to allow participants to direct the discussion as   127 appropriate. As part of the activity, students were asked to sign a consent form [Appendix A] to allow the proper use and dissemination of the information gathered. 1. Introduction / welcoming (5-10mins) When participants first arrived, they were greeted by our team and asked to fill in a brief demographics survey [Appendix B]. Participants were then invited to take a seat, socialize for a few minutes, and have some pizza. To introduce the topic, participants were invited to visualize an event the had attended and enjoyed and consider the qualities of the event that made it enjoyable; participants were asked to share that perspective in the discussion. 2. Focus group/interview discussion (~25mins) Moderators facilitated a discussion around the potential for a night-time social event that is inclusive to international students and what this might look like. Before the exercise, the research team prepared a list of questions to help address the objectives of the research and guide the conversation  [Appendix C].  Since students addressed different issues and topics, we allowed a certain flexibility on the discussion.  At least two members of the team were in charge of notetaking for the interviews and focus group with the objective of recording as many insights and information as possible.  3. Mapping exercise (5-10mins) A mapping exercise (Figure 3) was carried out to determine where participants think would be a good location on campus to hold a night-time event. Students were asked to identify the following spaces: ● Their favourite areas on campus ● Areas on campus that they perceived as posing challenges of safety / concern / barriers to participating in events ● Their preferred locations for evening events Figure 29: Mapping exercise conducted during focus group held on February 14, 2019   128  4. Reflection (10mins) As a closure of the data collection, participants were given time at the end of the session to write down or share their reflections on what they personally would like to see in an inclusive night-time event.  They were also asked to reflect on topics that they thought we had missed during our discussion and other traits about their favourite event that had not been included.  5. Results Analysis We conducted a thematic analysis from the interview notes and transcripts to draw some high-level recommendations with respect to UBC’s nightlife participation from international students. While the sample size was relatively small, there were many common themes across the sample. In general, there were marked differences between the experience of undergraduate and graduate students.  5.1 Participants In total, 12 students participated in data gathering (Table 2), with half of the participants living on campus. Participants ages ranged from 21 to 34 years of age; seven of the participants were 25 years of age or younger (one student preferred not to answer). Students came from a variety of faculties including: Applied Science and Engineering, Arts and Political Science, Arts, and Planning.   129 Table 3. Participants by gender and education level   Graduate Undergraduate Female 1 3 Male 7 1 Total 8 4  Participants came from eight different countries (Figure 4), and half of them expressed that they felt comfortable speaking in English (Figure 5). Two students preferred not to indicate their home country and one student declined to provide their language of comfort. The results provided the research team with a level of comfort in knowing perspectives from around the world were being included as at least 67% of participants represented perspectives from different countries. It is important to note that students were able to select more than one language of comfort. It was important to researchers to have students describe their language of comfort rather than proficiency.  That only 50% of participants considered themselves comfortable communicating in English should be considered with respect to event marketing and making international students feel comfortable at events held on campus.       130 Figure 30: Participants' country of origin   Figure 31: Participants' language of comfort   5.2 Overview of Qualitative Analysis Thematic analysis of the interview and focus group notes illustrated a number of common themes between all students. It also showed similarities and differences across graduate and undergraduate students. These differences will be discussed in greater detail below. Interview and Focus Group Themes 1. Timing / Workload Student schedules were seen were seen as a large barrier to students’ ability to participate in activities that were not related to their academic studies. They stressed that consideration of   131 exam season (typically around weeks six and seven of the semester) is important for them in participation of extra-curricular events. The week before and/or after reading week was suggested as an ideal time to host an event. The fall season was also identified as a good time due to the milder weather, though there was recognition that there are usually many events in September which could make the addition of an event overwhelming. Thursday or Friday nights were identified as the most desirable days and times for evening events. Graduate students in particular stated that they had a lack of free time and felt that they needed to choose how they spent their free time “wisely.” They also stated that they felt that their workload was very heavy and did not have a lot of time to invest in events; therefore, any events that were held would be preferred to be experienced on a shorter timeline or not require significant commitment. 2. Marketing  Graduate students in particular stated that they struggled to obtain information regarding events. They stated that the best way for them to access information was to receive emails, however long, wordy emails were considered ineffective. While Facebook was another platform that was suggested to advertise events, it was made clear that not all students have Facebook or regularly engage in social media and that if it were a “Facebook group” event, students would need to be members of the group. When interviewees described physical signage for Homecoming or Storm the Wall being advertised along Main Mall with lawn signs, some students that stated that they did not always frequent Main Mall and were not aware of the signs. This may be a result of the location of students’ classes, and in particulate graduate students who may take most of their classes in one location on campus. As such, it is necessary to expand beyond physical signage on along Main Mall and consider other locations on campus as well as other mediums such as visually-appealing posters.   132 Undergraduate students did not seem to encounter the same issues as graduate students did when it came to event marketing, as it generally seemed that they were better connected with the overall campus community compared to graduate students.  3. Quality Overall, both undergraduate and graduate students described that event quality was a big factor with respect to whether or not they would attend. Event quality encompassed not only the marketing of the event, but considered whether marketing matched the promise of event, the price of the event, and whether students felt like they received good value for the price paid.  Undergraduate students in particular identified situations where they had paid for events after seeing enticing marketing, but were disappointed once they had actually attended the event. One specific incident involved UBC’s Pit Night where a long line up was created to make it appear that the event was popular; however, once inside the venue, there was actually few people participating in the event.  Issues with event quality had a negative effect on the overall perspective of certain events and heavily influenced the likelihood of attendees returning to that event or an event of similar nature.  Students described the use of incentives as being a good way to increase participation. Things such as free tickets, free food, or “swag” were identified by participants as being particularly good motivators to attend an event. An aspect of a good quality event that was brought up in each focus group was having food at an event. While food acted as a large motivator for attendance, alcohol was not as important of a characteristic in motivating attendance. There was interest in having alcohol at an event, but not making the event alcohol-centric.  4. Event Requirements Events like Storm the Wall were identified as events with barriers to participation. Storm the Wall was listed as being particularly limiting because for students who self identified as being unathletic; students felt they needed to register with a group of people, which in and of itself was a turn off, because they could not participate by themselves. The fact that some   133 individuals take it very seriously with training as well as needing to perform in front of others also contributed to students' disengagement. On the other hand, some students identified that their faculties were quite active and enjoyed participating in such events. Competition-motivated events resulted in mixed feelings among students. Some students were very interested in having events centered around competition and sport - possibly between students and faculty - whereas other students preferred social and non-competitive events.  5. Price of Tickets and Availability  Generally, when it came to the price of tickets, both undergraduates and graduate students preferred events that were at a low cost or free. Students also identified cost as a barrier in participation, forcing them to often pick the events where they felt they would gain the most benefit Students also voiced that ticket availability for many events was quite limited. Specifically, it was said that the TEDx talk on campus was in high demand, and there were limited amounts of tickets sold for this event.  Graduate Student Barriers 6. Social Isolation Graduate students generally expressed that they found it difficult to feel a sense of social belongingness in the UBC community. Generally, there was a feeling that UBC served an academic purpose and felt like their social needs had to be met off campus. One student stated that they would stay on campus only to work on school-related things and that the remainder of his life occurred off-campus. A general sense that all events are targeted towards undergraduate students was had with most of the graduate students, as they were unable to attest to the experience of attending common UBC events such as Storm the Wall or Block Party.  Graduate students stated that they felt that UBC did not assist them in adjusting to life in Canada; the UBC orientation was very focused on academic and administration aspects, rather than social events and cultural aspects. Students’ ability to understand the orientation was   134 further challenged due to language barriers. A number of students stated that their faculties became responsible for making them feel welcome and having the ability to meet new people; however, this often limited them to meeting people from within their faculty. Others stated that there were significant limitations with respect to learning appropriate Canadian customs and socially-acceptable behaviours, making them feel out of place; this was described as being particularly challenging for individuals moving to a foreign country for the first time and living alone.  With many graduate programs being quite small, many graduate students have difficulty meeting others outside of their programs, as programs also emphasize academics rather than social events. These social barriers were identified as being inhibitors to graduate student participation in events. 7. Department Driven and Networking Events Graduate students listed events run by their own department as being those they attended most often. They stated that while they did not feel particularly supported by UBC as a school, they felt that their department provided opportunities to obtain professional training and network, often through the department’s student association. Graduate students listed that they had much more interest in meeting people either professionally or socially in other departments through fun, social events. Graduate students also seemed to be focused on obtaining employment following completion of their degree, thus focusing their attention on professional networking.  Undergraduate Student Barriers 8. Club Driven Events Undergrad students listed participation in club-driven events rather than UBC-organized events. They stated that clubs appeared to have good coordination among one another, allowing larger events to be held. Other undergrad students identified events that were promoted by the UBC Party Calendar Club as being events that were of most interest to them - UBC Party Calendar provided them with easy access to knowing when and where different   135 events were being held and gave them a list of options to spend their time.  With UBC clubs being heavily influenced by undergraduates, Graduate students felt out of place at many of these events. Undergrads generally had a stronger network within the club community, while graduate students had a stronger network within their program. 9. Fresher “Bucket List” None of the undergraduate participants were first year students; they were all upper level students who were familiar with many of the larger activities that occurred on campus such as Storm the Wall, Homecoming, and Block Party. The undergraduate students described a “Freshman ‘Bucket List’” phenomenon, where students upon arriving to UBC in their first or second year have a desire to attend a number of events; however, by the time they reach their upper division years (third or fourth year) they felt that they had already attended the events and do not feel compelled to the same events again. Students stated that this was not particularly due to event quality, but rather related to the fact that they felt that the events were marketed towards first- or second-year students and they had already experienced the event. Students also described frustration that those who were not of legal drinking age in their first year could not attend many of these events and they then struggled to find friends to re-attend with them in their second year. This led to recommendations from students to have events re-configured to make them more appealing to upper level students or to host events that are targeted towards upper level students while maintaining the existing events, recognizing that they are most appealing to lower level students.  Mapping Exercise 10. Event Locations Students identified a number of locations as their favourite places on campus or areas they felt would be appropriate to host campus-wide events (Figure 6). Some of the top areas for an event were: ● The Nest    136 ● UBC Farm ● Museum of Anthropology (MOA) ● Koerner’s Pub ● Chan Centre ● Nitobe Garden Figure 32: UBC Map with participants' stickers Indicating their favourite places on campus, locations with barriers (e.g. being too far) and their preferred locations for a night-time event   Focus group members identified why these spaces were their preferred locations. The Nest was favored as it had easy access and was close to the bus loop, whereas the Museum of Anthropology and the Chan centre were favored as they were artistic event spaces with attractive facilities. The outdoor event spaces that were chosen were the UBC farm and Nitobe Gardens. These locations were said to be quiet and relaxing. However, the UBC Farm was also noted as an event space that could pose challenges, as it is located far from central campus.    137 With respect to safety for night-time events, overall most interviewees felt safe around campus but one of the focus group members expressed that he felt unsafe when walking alone on campus; his sentiments were attributed to discourse and perception of campus safety.  11. Desired Characteristics for Successful Events With a unique group of individuals, there was a wide range of desired characteristics for successful events on campus. Some of the ideas that were brought up were events that had a social dimension to it, specifically, events that allowed the space to meet new people and catch up with old friends instead of the typical events just geared around partying and dancing. With UBC being such a large campus, many felt that after second year. everyone disperses into their own programs, and it was nice to be able to catch up with old friends at more casual events. These characteristics also resulted in attendees providing suggestions on the types of events that would appeal most to them (Table 2).     138 Table 4. Participants' recommendations for events to be held on campus Arts and Culture Professional Social General ● Canadian Culture (e.g. "welcome to Canada) ● Multicultural events (e.g. cooking and sharing food from different cultures; sharing of dance and art) ● Art events (e.g. music concerts, theatre, dance) ● Professional / education events (e.g. TED talks) ● Networking, "speed-dating"-style event ● Movie nights ● Game nights (e.g. video games, escape rooms, scavenger hunts) ● Sports events ● Night markets  Students emphasized the significance of culture and expressed Interest In attending any type of cultural event, particularly those enabling them to learn more about Canadian culture or a multi-cultural event (e.g. world fair). Students identified these events as ones that could help enhance the social connection between international students and domestic students, as they are able to share about their own cultures, interact with people from the same cultures, as well as learn about new cultures and meet new people. An idea that was proposed was the ‘flipping’ of a space. This takes the traditional uses of an event venue and “flips” the space to another use. An extreme example would be turning the   139 library into a nightclub. Other event ideas that were suggested were smaller and included events like going to see a local UBC student art gallery, or multicultural events that were geared towards foods. It was suggested that many of these smaller events would be in collaboration with UBC clubs.    Events with a central focus on music were also noted to be successful. Currently, many of the music events on campus are at a large scale (e.g. Block Party). Music events with an intimate setting that promoted local UBC artists would be valued by students and would also require less planning than large scale music events. Events like these could be held in many locations on campus, including Koerner’s Pub, MOA, the UBC Farm, the Nest, and one of the many UBC libraries (Flipped Space).  6. Limitations One of the major limitations for this research was the short timeframe we had. This impacted all parts of our research, from project design to data analysis, but put especial pressure on our outreach efforts for potential survey respondents. Ideally, we wanted to have all our data collection completed before mid-February (reading break) to give us sufficient time to conduct our data analysis and prepare our report. However, this only gave us approximately 10 days to reach out to potential survey respondents. Although we did not initially perceive this to be an issue, our primary method of outreach was via email, which produced a lower response rate than we had anticipated. This is not something we fully realized until several days before our first focus group, when it became apparent that we had significantly fewer respondents than we had hoped for, and that we would need to substantially increase our outreach efforts. This made for a frenzied few days leading up to our first focus group.  A consequence of this limitation was that we had a smaller sample size that we were ultimately aiming for. The total number of participants from in the focus group was seven. Initially, we had hoped to have a total of 20-25 participants, with a fairly even male/female graduate/undergraduate split. Although participation for our focus group was sufficient, a   140 greater number of participants could have provided a richer variety of perspectives and insights, potentially resulting in a more informative dataset.  A limitation of our "snowball" / convenience sampling outreach method was that we had little control on the type of international student who would sign up for our focus group. Consequently, some demographics were overly represented in our dataset (e.g. male graduate students), whilst others were significantly underrepresented or not represented at all (e.g. female graduate students, male undergraduate students). The results of this research should, as such, be interpreted with caution: a qualitative analysis of 12 students does not provide an unbiased representation of the wider international student community at UBC.  Were we to repeat this research with more time and fewer resource constraints, we would perhaps have aimed to gain a more representative dataset by targeting specific demographics and groups of international students through a more “segmentation” orientated outreach approach (Morgan, 1997). Working in collaboration with existing UBC international clubs to get specific types of participants may be beneficial for this purpose in the future.  Although the effectiveness of focus groups to provide valuable qualitative data is well documented (Morgan and Spanish, 1984; Stewart and Shamdasani, 2014; Green et al, 2015), the focus-group format does have some inherent limitations. One limitation is that some participants who are more outspoken than others tend to dominate the conversation (Smithson, 2000). In our situation, this was largely mitigated by our facilitators, who would often direct the conversation to allow shyer participants to contribute to the dialogue more easily. However, as part of what makes a focus group unique is letting the interaction and dialogue between participants take shape organically (Liamputtong, 2011), the opinions and thoughts of some dominant respondents are likely overrepresented in our dataset, whilst the voices of others were partially drowned out. We did try to circumnavigate this issue by having a five to ten minute ‘reflection’ period at the end of each focus group or group interview, where participants were able to individually write their thoughts on the matters discussed within the focus group or interview. However, participants were generally reluctant to present   141 their opinions in writing, and appeared to prefer sharing their thoughts orally. Supplementing our focus group and group interviews with additional informal individual interviews before and/or after the focus group takes place would have been a potential way to mitigate this limitation further. Similarly, although our focus group methodology provided us with a rich qualitative dataset, carrying out some complementary quantitative analysis (perhaps through a short survey) could have provided a broader range of insights about what makes a UBC night-time event accessible to international students that would have been inaccessible through a purely qualitative approach (Terrell, 2012).  In addition to limitations in the methodology, there are also limitation in our research findings as the international students expressed an interest in participating in events that resulted in a sharing of culture and experience, with particular interest in learning more about Canadian culture. Unfortunately, as our study looked only at the international student population, it is unclear as to whether domestic students would be open to interacting more with international students or participating in events centered around multiculturalism.  7. Recommendations This qualitative research project indicated that in order to bring about inclusive and uniquely-UBC events, a shift beyond the conventional focus on ‘sports’ and ‘party’ type events should be considered. After hearing the perspectives of international students on UBC nightlife and events, our group has developed the following recommendations: Characteristics of events While the data collected illustrated that event appeal can be a subjective measure, general statements were made that echoed across most study participants: Consider the differences in the student experience for graduate and undergraduate students and what their motivators and interests are • Promote free or low-cost events   142  • Explore hosting cultural events These events might include Canadian-specific and multicultural events such as Chinese New Year and Indian Independence Day events, or a "World Fair" where students can share the food, art, music, etc. of their home country. • Consider new and unique events Re-branding or re-configuring existing events could make them more appealing to upper level students, or consideration of events targeted towards upper level students while maintaining the existing events could mitigate the impact of the "Fresher bucket list" • Ensure venue space meets expected attendance Location UBC has a number of prime locations that were identified as good locations to host campus-wide events; however, each location meets different objectives that should be considered, particularly when organizing night-time events: The Nest MOA Chan Centre Main Mall  Utilize larger spaces for high attendance events Events such as TEDx talks are high demand and could warrant the use of a larger venue to accommodate all students wishing to attend. Marketing The key is to market future UBC night events to both graduates and undergraduates, as opposed to just the latter, to ensure that all students feel included and welcome at the events. To do so, UBC might consider the following recommendations:   143 • Partner with existing clubs The UBC Party Calendar can also increase awareness of UBC night events.  • Use a diverse range of outreach methods Methods could include: social media outlets (e.g. Facebook, Instagram), emails that are concise and include fun pictures, and visually-appealing posters displayed in various locations on campus (e.g. Main Mall, faculty buildings, the Nest, the Graduate Student Society Loft).  • Provide incentives (especially free food) Participants had a positive reaction to the provision of free food at the event and/or social media contests to win free tickets or merchandise.  Timing Students expressed a need to ensure that their academic needs were met, particularly with respect to their schedules and workload. To accommodate this need, successful events could: • Be hosted the week before or after reading week • Be hosted on Thursday, Friday or a weekend night • Be drop-in or 1-2 hour commitments Further Research and Next Steps The results of our focus group and interviews highlight key differences between graduate students and undergraduate students; thus, further exploration as two separate target populations is recommended. As mentioned in the Limitations sections, a larger sample size with more diverse participants (including domestic students) would be helpful in gathering insights from more people, other faculties and year-levels. This could be achieved through in-person recruitment methods (e.g. conducting intercept invitations, utilizing existing international/cultural club networks, visiting international residences) as opposed to email recruitment which was the primary method for this study. Conduct a feasibility analysis of the different types of events suggested in the previous section based on different evaluation criteria (e.g. cost, ease of organizing the event, ability to meet   144 the community’s objectives and feedback, resource and time requirements, and the reach and inclusivity of the event) Continue to collaborate with students during the nightlife event brainstorming and planning process through focus groups, community engagement booths, surveys, etc. This would increase community support and participation in future nightlife events and help ensure that they are inclusive and uniquely UBC.  8. Conclusion Our research has highlighted several barriers faced by international students to engaging with social campus life at UBC. In terms of navigating these barriers, our findings about the characteristics and types of events that would appeal to international students will be useful for UBC’s Community Development team in planning for future campus events. Our research also revealed the divergent experiences of graduate and undergraduate international students at UBC. Future research seeking to better understand international student experience at UBC should endeavour to treat these two groups as separate populations. Welcoming and integrating international students to Canadian campus life at UBC should be a high priority for the university. Providing unique, interesting and quality events which appeal and include international students; keeping the price of events low; and utilizing existing club networks to promote and run campus events provide a framework for how this may be achieved.    145 References Andrade, M. S. (2006). International students in English-speaking universities: Adjustment factors. Journal of Research in International Education, 5(2), 131-154. Bouvette, S. (2019, January 16). Personal communication. Glass, C. R., and Westmont, C. M. (2014). Comparative effects of belongingness on the academic success and cross-cultural interactions of domestic and international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38, 106-119. Green, C. A., Duan, N., Gibbons, R. D., Hoagwood, K. E., Palinkas, L. A., and Wisdom, J. P. (2015). Approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation research: methods, strengths, caveats, and opportunities. 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Addressing the mental health concerns of international students. Journal of Counselling and Development, 78(2), 137-144.   146 Owens, A. R., and Loomes, S. L. (2010). Managing and resourcing a program of social integration initiatives for international university students: What are the benefits? Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 32(3), 275-290. Planning and Institutional Research. (2018). Fact sheet Winter 2018: The University of British Columbia Vancouver campus. Retrieved from https://reports.im.it.ubc.ca/t/PAIR/views/Factsheet/UBCVFactsheetP1?%3Aembed=y&%3AshowAppBanner=false&%3Adisplay_count=no&%3AshowVizHome=no  Seppala, E., Rossomando, T., and Doty, J.R. (2013). Social Connection and Compassion: Important Predictors of Health and Well-Being. Social Research, 80(2), 411-430. Slantcheva-Durst, S. and Knaggs, C. (2019). Community college international students and their campus  involvement. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 43(2), 81-93. Smith, R. A., and Khawaja, N. G. (2011). A Review of the acculturation experiences of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6), 699-713. Smithson, J. (2000). Using and analysing focus groups: Limitations and possibilities. International journal of social research methodology, 3(2), 103-119. Stewart, D. W., and Shamdasani, P. N. (2014). Focus groups: Theory and practice (Vol. 20). Sage publications. Talitha, R. (2019). UBC cancels 'accent reduction' workshop for international students. Retrieved from https://www.ubyssey.ca/news/ubc-cancels-accent-reduction-workshop/ Terrell, S. R. (2012). Mixed-methods research methodologies. The qualitative report, 17(1), 254-280. The University of British Columbia. (n.d.a). Campus + Community Planning. Retrieved from https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver.  The University of British Columbia. (n.d.b) International student guide. Retrieved from https://students.ubc.ca/international-student-guide.   147 Yao, C.W. (2016). Unfulfilled Expectations: Influence of Chinese International Students’ Roommate Relationships on Sense of Belonging. Journal of International Students, 6(3), 762-778.     148 APPENDIX A. Consent Form CONSENT FORM Study for “Campus Nightlife Gap and Opportunity Analysis: Race and Migration Status” Principal Investigator: Sara Ortiz Escalante Co-investigators: Laura Chow, Hayston Lam, Mark Poskitt, Sean Reisman, Ryah Rondolo, and Itzel Sánchez Institution: University of British Columbia, School of Community and Regional Planning Purpose: For the final assignment in PLAN522, students are asked to provide recommendations for an on-campus UBC nightlife event and gain insight on the types of campus nightlife events that would be appealing to and inclusive of international students. Study Procedures: If you agree to participate in this study, you will be discussing your ideas around nightlife events through a focus group or semi-structured interviews. You will be sharing your perspective, interests, and concerns regarding nightlife events within a safe environment. Project Outcomes: The data generated by this research will be used to inform UBC Campus and Community Planning and submitted as a report to the UBC SEEDS Office. You have been chosen to participate in this study because the students who are requesting your participation are interested in your perspective of nightlife at the University of British Columbia. Confidentiality: Participants will not be identified by name in any reports of the completed study. Any notes will only be seen by Sara Ortiz Escalante and the co-investigators. Potential Risks:   149 This study focuses on your preferences of night activities. You do not have to answer any of the questions posed in any phase of this study.  You may skip any question.  If you do not wish to answer a question in a personal interview, you may simply say something like, “I’d like to skip that question.” Remuneration/Compensation:  In order to acknowledge the time you have taken to be involved in this project, you will receive the following compensation for participation: the option to enter a draw for one of two $50 gift cards. Contact for information about the study: If you have any questions, you can contact Sara Ortiz Escalante at sara.ortizescalante@ubc.ca or 778-989-5164. Contact for concerns or complaints about the study:  If you have any concerns or complaints about your rights as a research participant, and/or your experiences while participating in this study, contact the Research Participant Complaint Line in the UBC Office of Research Ethics at 604-822-8598, or, if long distance e-mail to RSIL@ors.ubc.ca or call toll free 1-877-822-8598.  Consent:  Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary and you may refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. By signing below, you acknowledge receipt of a copy of this Consent Form, for your own records. Your signature indicates that you consent to participate in this study, for you to be audio-recorded, and taken pictures of during the focus group session/interview. If you do not want to be included in pictures, please inform a student facilitating the focus group session/interview. Signature: Printed Name: Date:       150  B. Demographics survey questions: ● What is your country of origin / what is your ethnicity? ● Are you a graduate or undergraduate student or other? ● Do you live on campus or off campus? ● What is your language of comfort? ● Gender ● Age (or Age range)  ● What program / faculty are you in?  C. Semi-structured Interview / Focus Group Questions: ● Do you ever stay on campus after class? ● What do you consider to be “late” to stay on campus? ● What would make you want to stay on campus longer? ● Have you been to any UBC events in the afternoon or evening? How were they? How did you learn about it?  (e.g. mention past events) ● What sort of events would you like to see on campus? Would any of these be night-time events?  ● Are there any aspects of events that would strongly encourage you to attend (e.g. food, drinks, music?) Are there any aspects of events that would strongly discourage you to attend (‘dealbreakers’)? ● What do you feel are the biggest barriers to your participation in an event hosted on campus in the evening time?   151 ● Do you feel like there are any current events on campus that are inclusive to international students?  ● What aspects of night events would make you feel excluded? (e.g. alcohol - age restrictions, language barriers?, location of events, etc.) ● Do you feel comfortable on campus? Do you have any safety concerns in participating in events on campus at night-time? ● Think about your favourite event that you attended. What did you like about it? What made it memorable for you? Etc. etc.   ● What would you personally like to see in a UBC on-campus night-time event? Describe the ideal event, including as many details you can think of. What about the event would make it feel inclusive to international students? What would make it uniquely UBC? ● [[Maybe a survey question, listing different types of events, and ask them to select the top three [and describe the reasons for their choices?]] (E.g. movie screening, music concert, night market, silent disco, light festival, talent show, ice skating event, night-time picnic, etc.)  D. Focus Group Agenda: ● Introduction to the topic: ● We are a group of students who have been tasked with looking at UBC’s current nightlife and look at ways that UBC might be able to increase night-time vibrancy on-campus. We generally consider “night-time” as the time after sunset; however, we are interested in knowing what your perception of “night-time” is. ● We have elected to also utilize a map to have individuals: ● Locate their favourite areas on campus ● Areas on campus that pose challenges of safety / concern / barriers to participating in events   152 ● Preferred locations for evening events ● Reflection question: ● What have we missed? What traits about your favourite event have not been included in today’s discussion?  E. Picture From Mapping Exercise:  Legend: ● 🖤 = favourite place on campus ● ★ = ideal place for night event ● 🙁 = locations with barriers to participation (e.g. too far)     153     154   UBC Nightlife Events: Accessibility Andrea Oakunsheyld, Jake Vissers, Jonathan Kew, Alexandra Heinen          1. Introduction An accessible event ought to be one inclusive of everyone. This is the central idea informing our research project, based on the evaluation of accessibility and equity guidelines for event programming at UBC (with a focus on nightlife). Through employing a community-based research methodology, we committed to partnership with members of UBC’s disabled community, and proposed a set of recommendations to address the interconnected physical, social, and environmental barriers that make UBC nightlife inaccessible for many campus users.  Before beginning research, we needed to settle on an interpretation of disability and accessibility. We chose to incorporate an inclusive understanding of disability to conduct our research. To quote from the Canadian Government’s Federal Disability Reference Guide:  “Disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a person’s body and mind and features of the society in which they live. A disability can occur at any time in a person’s life; some people are born with a disability, while others develop a disability later in life. It can be permanent, temporary or episodic. Disability can steadily worsen, remain the same, or improve. It can be very mild to very severe. It can be the cause, as well as the result, of disease, illness, injury, or substance abuse.”   155 We understand “disabled” to be a verb which indicates an environment which is not designed for, and thereby disables individuals through various mental and physical contexts. Disability is not a personal deficit. It is a shared social responsibility: where personal connections, resources, technologies, and other elements can influence social engagement and equality. Disability is associated with health conditions (e.g. arthritis, mental, emotional conditions) or events (e.g. injuries). But disability is also connected to the social and built environment, with peoples’ functioning, health, independence, and engagement in society varying according to several factors: ● Severity of the underlying impairment ● Social, political, and cultural influences and expectations ● Aspects of natural and built surroundings ● Availability of assistive technology and devices ● Family and community support and engagement  The significance of this research project is that accessible design means accessibility for all. When we design for disability, we design better for everyone. Texting was originally created for deaf folks, yet it has shaped our modern communication models and continues to be a ubiquitous influence. By designing events with disability and accessibility in mind, we are planning more inclusive, robust communities, and events that are ultimately more accessible for everyone — disability or otherwise.   2. Literature Review An extensive number of materials related to accessibility were reviewed to understand existing gaps in the literature related to accessible event guidelines. These materials included UBC guidelines, Translink information, the City of Vancouver Accessible Events Checklist, The Ubyssey articles, and other sources.    156 Universities The current UBC event guidelines were an important starting point for analysis. We reviewed the student resources for booking events such as the “Important Event Planning Policies and Guidelines” document and the “Outdoor Booking Request Form” document. While the former document highlights a zero tolerance approach towards discrimination of marginalized groups (including people with physical and mental disability), neither document makes direct reference to ensuring the accessibility of events. The University of Toronto and UBC — being large, well-established universities — offer surprisingly little content regarding disability. Contrarily, York, McGill, Queens, and Dalhousie all feature content on disability and accessibility. York University features an Accessibility Hub website with a variety of resources for tools and resources regarding accessibility. This includes an inventory of assistive technologies that are available for disabilities, disability services, an educators’ resource kit, and guidelines for accessible visual materials. However, the resources do not include guidelines for accessible event standards or planning.  McGill University has full accessibility guides for both of its campuses, including floor plans for all of the buildings. But the accessibility considerations begin and end with wheelchair access and washroom locations. Although this is essential information, a comprehensive approach to accessibility would consider the diversity of disability and corresponding accessibility needs.  Queen’s University also features an Accessibility Hub, which includes an Accessible Event Planning checklist. This checklist is relatively comprehensive, with an expansive scope that goes beyond mobility. Its priorities include the logistics of advertising and outreach, getting to the event, venue features to consider, and distribution of resources. Lessons learned from Queen’s checklist, the Vancouver Accessibility Guidelines, and the content of our interviews, form the basis of our recommendations for campus nightlife accessibility.  While Dalhousie University materials mention disability in only a glancing sense, their Campus Life page features a link to “Dal After Dark.” This initiative offers funding and guidelines for   157 the organization of evening events, and listings of upcoming dates. Although Dalhousie is the only university we researched that differentiates its nighttime events from daytime ones, other universities incorporate event calendars on their campus life sites as well, such as Queen’s, University of Saskatchewan, and York. York’s is especially engaging and an exemplary example.  Figure 33. York University interactive event calendar   City of Vancouver + Translink Similar to Queen’s University, the City of Vancouver has an Accessible Events Checklist that is standardized for civic functions and available for public use. This checklist is extensive and considerate, seeking to encompass as many logistical considerations as possible in responding to disability needs. It touches on diverse voices in the planning of an event, sensory input,   158 mobility needs, ASL, venue requirements, venue features for accessibility, staff and volunteer training, and much more.  The breadth and depth of accessibility considerations is a great start. However, this checklist uses outdated language with reference to transgender communities that needs to be updated. Furthermore, the nature of a checklist is not conducive to meaningful inclusion. Enforcing compulsory accessibility considerations for events and emphasizing the humanity behind those intentions is a difficult balance to strike. A checklist reduces accessibility considerations. complex identities, and lived experiences into boxes that can be checked before being put aside. But meaningful inclusion requires a rethinking of how diverse bodies experience events and necessitates an ongoing conversation and partnership. Furthermore, despite how thorough the City of Vancouver’s checklist is, there are missing aspects: including attention to pathways leading to exits, adequate seating, a lack of paid staff to assist in accessibility, providing presentation materials ahead of time for disabled folks, and integrating open-ended accessibility requests into the registration process.  The universal accessibility guidelines set by Translink outline the physical barriers faced by those trying to access transportation and informed our understanding of the potential challenges of getting people to and from campus safely. Unsurprisingly, many of the accessibility barriers from the guidelines were echoed from participants during our interviews. Media Coverage In addition to the extensive literature review on existing accessibility guidelines, we reviewed articles relating to nightlife barriers that disabled folks face. These articles also informed the production of our research questions: allowing us to understand the research subject in terms of what has already been covered, and directing us to go further in terms of our questioning.  Ubyssey articles make clear the challenges endemic to UBC’s campus, including frequent and unannounced barriers according to new construction. Sophie Sutcliffe's "Bare minimum" feature cited one instance where a residence’s doorway was closed for repairs — with the alternative entrance being too narrow to accommodate wheelchair users. Many of the   159 buildings on-campus (including WMAX, where the School of Community and Regional Planning is based) do not provide elevators or other accessibility technology. Sutcliffe’s article also makes clear the stigma associated with many conditions, including invisible disability, which is often cast into doubt and inconsideration. The themes of campus obstruction and stigma were echoed throughout our interviews. We also reviewed podcasts from the CiTR 101.9FM Accessibility Collective — one of our partners in the outreach process. A common theme across the podcast episodes in general note the prevalence with which attitudes, stigmatization, or “outdated ideas of what disability is” informs the exclusivity of events, more than simply physical barriers. The “Access to Nightlife in Vancouver” episode features a panel recording of accessibility advocates discussing the notion of belonging: and how decorations, advertisements, and framing can do much to make disabled folk feel unwelcome. To quote one panelist, “what do you have in your space that will let me see myself in your space?”  In an interview with Anika Vervecken of the PuSh Festival, she notes that a good practice is to ensure that accessibility information is brought to the forefront, without requiring the potential attendee to request information: that a show with little visuals, appropriate for those with vision-loss, make that accessibility feature prominent in its promotional materials. Taking the prerogative for outreach and partnership-building essential for a community-based approach.   3. Research Methodology Our literature review allowed us to come up with strategic methods to analyze the current gaps in inclusive and accessible nighttime events at UBC. Our process was designed to answer the following research questions: ● What are the largest barriers campus users with disabilities currently experience in engaging with campus nightlife? ● What guidelines can be implemented to make UBC campus nightlife events more accessible to campus users with disabilities.    160 ● What resources need to be made available to engage campus users with disabilities in UBC campus nightlife?   To answer the listed research questions, our team developed a communication strategy to reach out to our target audience. We designed a poster that was widely distributed to our accessibility contacts on campus and distributed through strategic sites such as relevant social media groups (See Appendix 1). Printed copies were widely posted throughout campus including accessible Library washrooms and UBC Accessibility Shuttle bus stops.  However, word-of-mouth and social media proved much more effective as means of recruiting participants. Only one participant was recruited through the postering method.  Due to accessibility considerations (such as the difficulty of coordinating a joint focus group during a period of heavy snow), we chose to conduct one-on-one interviews. This was additionally favourable due to the diversity of accessibility challenges, as we were able to go further into detail. Participants were able to identify their prefered interview method. Wandering tours were held with two participants who wanted to demonstrate their particular considerations of the built environment at UBC. While we allowed interviews to flow, and for participants to direct portions of each interview according to their knowledge-base and interests, our default interview question sheet can be seen in Appendix 2. The interviews were recorded for further transcription, coding, and further analysis. In the course of coding, we gathered common themes which are apparent in the Insights section below. We then analyzed individual meaning units and common themes to make specific and broad recommendations for accessible nighttime events at UBC. To compliment the interviews, we also created a survey on Qualtrics, promoting it around campus and through multiple media streams. This survey contained a series of open-ended questions designed to give people with disabilities a platform to describe their lived experiences. Unfortunately, the survey had a very limited response, highlighting the difficulty of targeting a specific audience through broad-based approaches like postering.   161  4. Findings Survey Our survey was unsuccessful, receiving only one response. Additionally, this single response was submitted incomplete. As such, we did not take the results of this survey into consideration. Interviews With a total of six in-depth personal interviews, we gained a well-rounded (though incomplete) understanding of the intersection between disability, accessibility, and UBC campus nightlife. A key concept that was shared with us by Participant 1 is the distinction between physical and attitudinal barriers surrounding disability. Physical barriers include physical aspects of campus (and the world) which are inaccessible in a variety of ways to different bodies. These barriers are most commonly conceived of as accessibility barriers: including obstructions such as a lack of wheelchair ramps, digital content that is incompatible with visual impairment software, and intense lighting.  In contrast — and more subtle than physical barriers — attitudinal barriers include obstructions such as personal or collective attitudes. Attitudinal barriers can include feeling like a burden in event spaces, undefined accessibility information, and biases against invisible disabilities.  Both of these types of barriers are crucial to understand. In creating more accessible, inviting spaces and events that include people with disabilities, a built environment that is universally accessible (or close to) and that is welcoming to all bodies is essential. Some of the quotes that resonated with our team during interviews about the importance of attitudinal barriers are showcased below:  “I should be an advocate for myself but I feel like a burden.”  “A little thing like a note in the registration really can make a big difference… it’s saying ‘you belong here.”   162  Speaking about asking for a hearing aid microphone to be used: “How much do I need them?”  “I felt like I had to be responsible for my lack of ability as the world wasn’t going to accommodate it.”  “I don’t want to feel like a burden”  In moving forward with these findings, we will unpack and discuss both attitudinal and physical aspects of disability and events. Furthermore, we will make recommendations that pertain to both categories of barrier. Ultimately, what our informed recommendations have the capacity to do, is to transform an experience of being an unexpected burden at an event into the experience of being a welcomed guest.   5. Insights Visual Impairment  At night, people with visual impairments have an especially hard time navigating spaces. For example, it is difficult for someone with visual impairments to find an unfamiliar entrance to a building if the main entrance is locked in the evening. Night also means there are less people around to ask for help.  Patterned tiles, like those by the Nest, can be difficult for people with visual impairments because they will often use contrast to navigate obstacles and drops. Strips at the end of each stair are useful for people with visual impairments. The staircase shown below at the UBC Nest lacks them even though it is relatively new. The drop off zone outside the nest is another problematic space for the visually impaired, as pedestrian and vehicle zones are not specifically demarcated.    163  Many sites and resources are not accessible for visual impairment readers and software, particularly PDFs and images that contain important text information. Event organization platforms are not always accessible to those with visual impairments, which obstructs people with these disabilities from organizing events themselves.  Figure 34. Patterned tiles by Nest Figure 35. Staircase in the Nest   Mobility Maneuvering through built environments can be difficult, as they are not designed with all bodies in mind. Barriers include uneven surfaces and steep grades, which are difficult for manual wheelchair users and campus users with conditions like arthritis. Events which require navigating uneven ground or a steep grade without assistance are events that potential participants will avoid if they have mobility issues.  There are many who have mobility disabilities but are still ambulatory. That is to say, that not all those who have a mobility disability are solely confined to a wheelchair. This can include individuals with conditions like arthritis or those who are able to mobilize themselves for short amounts of time but require the regular use of a wheelchair.   164  A lack of easily available seating options can further exacerbate accessibility concerns for those with mobility disabilities. Even for those who require a wheelchair all the time, seating is an issue when it comes to not having enough wheelchair accessible seating and openings. Finally, many participants spoke to the importance of staging an event with multiple transportation options available — to the event, and back.  Organizing Structures, Communications, and Platforms Accessibility details for events are often unknown and/or not integrated into promotional materials. This is an additional barrier if an individual does not have time or is unsure with whom to connect about accessibility needs. Participants spoke to the need for advanced notice of logistics. This would reduce the feeling being unwelcome. There are currently no comprehensive platforms that enables potential attendees to see all events on-campus. This can make it difficult to find out about events with sufficient time to confirm with designated point persons (when there is one) about the accessibility of events.  Social Dynamic Insights  The planning of events should design for all users. While this is most relevant when we speak about accessibility related to mobility challenges, it is not limited to physical space. Segregated wheelchair-only areas separate event participants which can contribute to making events less welcoming and less inclusive.  Logistics  As mentioned time and again thus far, the spectrum of accessibility needs is extremely diverse. With that being said, it difficult to accomodate all needs. While Night-time and darkness exacerbates accessibility concerns, it is difficult to determine an event time of day   165 that works for everyone. Poor wayfinding contributes to this issue especially at night. In addition, it is important to consider and make emergency plans known and available for the participants. This would help to manage the concerns such as not being able to hear alarms.  Hearing Impairment and Nonverbal  Without a mic on the podium or a sound system that includes hearing aids, participants with hearing impairments are not able to hear. Hearing impairment is extremely common and often unnoticed. Communicating nonverbally is difficult.  Light and Sound Sensitive Insights  While wheelchair accessibility is often well understood, the area of light and sound sensitivity accessibility challenges is rarely addressed and poorly understood. Certain types of light and sound can cause migraines and other complications. The lack of shaded areas is another barrier to attending outdoor events.  6. Limitations Length and Timing The brief timeline of the research was non-negotiable: something unfortunate, but that we were given space to work around. Nonetheless, it did produce some challenges for our project given our research focus.  Much of our interviews were sourced through interpersonal connections. While this did not hamper the interviews in and of themselves, it speaks to the difficulty of networking with the subject community as a whole. On-campus resources, collectives, and organizations are not as prominent as with other groups — nor is the subject of disability something you can presume to base a spot-interview on. Moreover, the seasonal challenges of Winter — with heavy   166 snowfall in February — made organizing with interviewees challenging in some cases. For people who already deal with mobility issues, a walking interview is out of the question.   Data and Representation While we are confident with our findings, our recommendations are based on six interviews, and additional participants could have certainly improved our recommendations. The majority of our interview subjects were postgraduate students who already have a limited amount of time for convivial activity — let alone campus nightlife activity. Many of our interviewees outright excluded UBC as a space for nightlife, and it took some deliberate questions to get recommendations that specifically pertained to UBC at night.  While these interviews yielded valuable data, the difficulty of sourcing interviews given the challenges of our subject and time should be a paramount consideration for future groups tackling accessibility research. It is not necessarily representative that the majority of our research participants were graduate students, when the majority of campus users at UBC are undergraduates.   Outreach and Promotion We had success doing our own promotions through Social Media groups, but it is hard to say whether our postering and collaborations (Centre for Access + CiTR Accessibility Collective) yielded any response. This particular research subject would lend itself to having organizational contacts lined up, and aware in advance. We would recommend ongoing relationship building and outreach so that more diverse pool of participants can be sourced.  The Survey Constraint Our survey was unsuccessful, with one (incomplete) submission being our sole piece of survey-data. We chose not to incorporate this response in our data. Future research groups should consider a synthesized survey which allows the groups to network their responses.   167 Furthermore, it may be worth boiling the survey down to something as simple as a comments field: especially if a research is meant to provide a qualitative analysis.   7. Recommendations Based on the common themes analyzed in each of our interviews, we are able to provide recommendations on inclusive (nighttime) event planning on UBC campus. While our recommendations have been carefully thought out, it is only the start of a process of planning for accessible events. Meaningful inclusion requires an ongoing, participatory dialogue and the representation of diverse bodies and perspectives in decision-making roles. These recommendations should be re-evaluated and expanded regularly to ensure that campus users with disabilities are being meaningfully considered in campus nightlife.    Visual Impairment  Visual impairment requires a considerable amount of planning across many contexts. Careful consideration of floor materials is imperative. In the case of one of our research participants, they shared that the large art installation, “The Shadow,” in the stonework outside of the Nest looks like uneven ground for people with visual impairments. This participant also noted that high contrast (usually yellow) strips at the edge of stairs assists in safely navigating stairs. Consistent ways of accessing buildings helps to streamline campus navigation, as those with visual impairments may rely heavily upon memory for wayfinding and entering buildings.  Outside of physical design, it is crucial for all university materials to be accessible as well. This includes ensuring that online booking forms and event guidelines are compatible with accessibility software and all images include readable descriptions. This makes sure that folks with visual impairments can access all of the information and textual resources they need in order to be fully engaged community members and organizers. We recommend that all RSVP processes and event advertisements are compatible with accessibility software as well.    168   Mobility  Mobility disabilities are relatively the most considered when planning for accessibility. However, many accessibility gaps exist. One participant recommended that automatic doors be considered over push-to-open doors: especially in the tight entryways of UBC buildings.   Uneven ground (e.g. grass, steep grades) is ubiquitous. Even ground is by far the most accessible for anyone with mobility aids, manual wheelchairs, and arthritis. Because of the diversity of mobility disabilities, multiple seating options can create more dynamic social interaction for participants. By having one empty space at each table, tables at appropriate heights for wheelchair users, and ample seating throughout the venue, folks with mobility disabilities can fully integrated into an event’s social landscape.  Finally, transit can be a core variable in whether or not people with mobility disabilities will attend an event. This variable is only increased in the evening and nighttime hours. We recommend having nighttime events directly adjacent to transit hubs (e.g. bus loops) or to arrange additional transit services, like a shuttle. If additional services are required they should be well-communicated to participants so getting to and from events is as seamless as possible.   Organizing Structures, Communications, and Platforms It is clear that there is room to improve the organizational structures, communications, and platforms for events. Posting all known accessibility information in all event advertisement channels ensures that potential participants can make informed decisions about whether or not they would like to attend an event and prepare themselves accordingly. Including these details should be as compulsory as clearly stating the time and location of an event.  We recommend auditing the entire process of booking an event to find barriers and inefficiencies for folks with various disabilities (e.g. visual, cognitive, and so on) so that they can take leadership positions in event planning. In addition to this, supports, like a set of   169 guidelines, can empower campus users to plan and execute accessible events. By integrating accessibility into the logistical requirements of events, the need for individuals to spend energy advocating for themselves will be limited and they will feel more welcome.  Most importantly, campus events should require the presence of a paid and trained staff person on site with first aid who is committed to the safety and wellbeing of event participants. When this support person is a volunteer, responsibilities can be shirked in a first aid emergency. We believe that having a paid support person with training will generate accountability toward health and safety.   Social Dynamics Physical and logistical barriers are critical to understand. People with disabilities can face barriers getting to events, experience sensory overload, or cannot access the content. But an even wider set of factors play into the event’s social dynamic. Many events that boast wheelchair accessibility have a limited scope of what this means. Wheelchair accessible seating for events like concerts can involve a level of social segregation that able-bodied attendees do not experience. There is typically a specific space that is designed for wheelchair accessibility with room for one friend to sit beside or behind, which is not conducive to quality time and leaves those in wheelchairs unable to share group experiences. We recommend that events find creative solutions to spatially integrate all attendees.  Logistics  Event logistics events are central to an enjoyable experience for all participants, but have a higher impact on disabled folks. Although this research project sought to gather data about campus nighttime events, participants encouraged holding events at various times of the day due to busy schedules and the accessibility issues that nighttime exacerbates.     170 First, we would recommend that UBC undertake an exhaustive accessibility and disability audit of every space on campus and create user-friendly floor plans and space guides that can be referenced for all uses of campus spaces. The practicality of this project would go far beyond nighttime activities. This serious investment would benefit all bodies that navigate campus and gather in UBC spaces. Taking the time to fully audit campus will create a collection of reliable information that can be used on an ongoing basis.  Those who spoke directly about nighttime events shared a sense that their vulnerability was heightened in darkness and that late-night timing would impact their attendance. If a nighttime event were to be held in the early evening into the night between the spring, summer, and early fall months of the year when there is light for longer, this would help keep people on campus longer. Location is key due to the physical variables that are listed above. Thoughtful location selection will minimize accessibility barriers and maximize placemaking.  Because UBC is a large campus, most campus users are acquainted with only specific areas of campus. We recommend using wayfinding signs on campus and posting wayfinding maps for reference ahead of time so that attendees can acquaint themselves with their best path from their location at the end of their day to the event location. Consideration of all the means through which participants may arrive on-campus for wayfinding signs is essential. Clearly identify all accessible washrooms within the vicinity, as this is a primary concern for folks with physical disabilities. Although it takes time and labour, being diligent in posting signage and maps is an impactful step in helping campus users with disabilities to participate in an event. We also recommend that emergency procedures are designed with diverse disabilities in mind and that these materials be posted well in advance of the event. Because emergencies are particularly fraught for people with disabilities, the worry of one can weigh heavily on event participants who don’t know what will happen should one arise. By posting an emergency protocol, participants can enter an event and plan for what they will need.    171 Advanced notice of events will also aid in planning travel routes as well as other personal logistics like bringing equipment and medications. Because campus users will sometimes require equipment and medications, having a free and secure area or lockers in which to store items (with access during the event) will enable them to fully participate without worrying about the security of their belongings and needs.  We recommend that all disability services are offered proactively and stated explicitly in all event advertisements and descriptions. Accessibility requirements can be integrated into registration processes to ensure that needs are being met at the event. This can also include using a known or newly-UBC-created accessibility logo (Figure 4) which can be used to signify that an event has met a specific set of accessibility requirements. When people view an event advertisement that features this logo, they will know that there is a certain level of accessibility accommodation included in the event.  Figure 36: Example of a universal accessibility logo (Apple’s Universal Access)  In order to consistently advertise all of these details and the wide variety of events at UBC campus, we recommend using a centralized calendar system which will feature all of our communications recommendations.   Hearing Impairment and Nonverbal  Hearing impairment is an extremely common experience that often goes unnoticed. We recommend using live or closed captioning services for all events. Captioning is a service that benefits those who are hard of hearing as well as a wide variety of other disabilities such as audio processing disorders and autism. Although these disabilities are very distinct from one   172 another, captioning events is one of the solutions which specifically benefits all of these. We also highly recommend that UBC invests in Loop technology for as many shared venues as possible. Loop technology is an audio system, visualized below, which can connect to hearing aid frequencies and allow those who use hearing aids to fully hear everything within the space. This would also make the dissemination and archival of event audio easier.  Nonverbal disabilities are wide ranging from a physical inability to talk to symptoms on the autism spectrum. It is challenging to communicate at events for people who are nonverbal, and accessing basics like washroom directions or refreshments can be arduous. Lower volume at events would help those who physically struggle to talk but may be able to whisper, as well as including icons alongside basic necessities, such as food and drink menus, that can be pointed at. Training staff to be willing and patient to help interpret gestures is highly recommended.  Figure 37:. Loop technology into which hearing aids can tune (hearinglink.org)   Light- and Sound-Sensitive Light- and  sound-sensitivity, along with other sensory disabilities, are some of the least acknowledged accessibility concerns. They can be difficult to accommodate and, like all disabilities, are best approached as a partnership with those affected. Providing as much   173 venue information as possible in event descriptions, including sensory details like strobe lighting, is essential in allowing potential participants an informed choice. Although not all intense sensory input can be managed, event descriptions can remind folks that they are encouraged to bring sunglasses and other equipment that is suitable. Other small and proactive considerations like having ear plugs on hand for events with loud music demonstrates community empathy and lets participants know that they being considered.  We recommend providing covered social areas to protect an event from rain, as well as creating shade from intense lights and the sun. Further, having respite areas where guests can take a break from the event and its sensory stimulants is beneficial to both those with and without disabilities. Even those with no disabilities may prefer to be able to come in and out of the event, or take a break in a calmer area.   8. Conclusion The literature review and data gathered from interviews in collaboration with research participants inform recommendations for hosting accessible nighttime events on UBC campus. Our proposals attempt to address both physical and attitudinal barriers by looking at inaccessible infrastructure, potential obstructions, and opportunities for improved outreach and empowerment. Understanding that those affected by accessibility challenges are extremely diverse and can be impacted in a variety of ways, we based our recommendations on the following themes: ● Visual Impairment ● Mobility ● Organizing Structures, Communications, and Platforms ● Social Dynamics ● Logistics ● Hearing and Nonverbal   174 ● Light- and Sound-Sensitivity  When we design accessible events, we are designing events for all. The guidelines proposed in this report provide UBC with the tools to lead by ensuring its built and lived environment is universally accessible. While we have developed a thorough and comprehensive list of recommendations, all guidelines are not static, and should be treated as a living documents that require constant adaptation for the changing needs of this diverse community. As one interviewee stated, engaging the UBC disability community must be an ongoing process as opposed to a tokenistic gesture. We hope that our recommendations, community-based research, and partnership development will support an ongoing practice of collaborative design for accessibility.         175 Bibliography Access to Nightlife in Vancouver [podcast episode]. (n.d.). In All Access Pass. Vancouver: CITR. Retrieved from https://www.citr.ca/radio/all-access-pass/episode/20151203/ Accessibility Guidelines – Centre for Teaching Support & Innovation. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://teaching.utoronto.ca/ed-tech/online-learning/toolkit/accessibility-guidelines/ Accessibility Hub, York University. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://accessibilityhub.info.yorku.ca/tools-resources/ Accessibility, University of Toronto. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.utoronto.ca/accessibility Accessible events checklist and resources. City of Vancouver, Retrieved on March 27, 2019 from https://vancouver.ca/people-programs/accessible-events-checklist-and-resources.aspx.  Accessible Event Planning Checklist, Queens University. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.queensu.ca/accessibility/sites/webpublish.queensu.ca.qahwww/files/files/howto/events/Accessible-Event-Planning-Checklist.pdf Autism in Universities and the Music World [podcast series episode]. (n.d.). In All Access Pass. Vancouver: CITR. Retrieved from https://www.citr.ca/radio/all-access-pass/episode/20151119/ Campus access guides, McGill University. (2018, August 31). Retrieved from https://mcgill.ca/osd/accessibility/campus-access-guides Dal After Dark, Dalhousie University. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.dal.ca/campus_life/get-involved/dal-after-dark.html Events Calendar, Queens University. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.queensu.ca/eventscalendar/ Events Calendar, University of Saskatchewan. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.usask.ca/events/month.php Events Calendar, York University. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://events.yorku.ca/   176  Federal Disability Reference Guide. Government of Canada. Retrieved on March 27, 2019 from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/esdc-edsc/migration/documents/eng/disability/arc/reference_guide.pdf.  Human Rights, Dalhousie University. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.dal.ca/dept/hres/human_rights_discrimination.html Interview with Anika from PUSH Festival [podcast episode]. (n.d.). In All Access Pass. Vancouver: CITR. Retrieved from https://www.citr.ca/radio/all-access-pass/episode/20170406/ Important Event Planning Policies and Guidelines. (n. d.)The University of British Columbia. Retrieved on March 26, 2019 from https://students.ubc.ca/campus-life/organizing-campus-events/event-planning-resources/important-event-planning-policies-guidelines Living With a Disability in BC [podcast episode]. (n.d.). In All Access Pass. Vancouver: CITR. Retrieved from https://www.citr.ca/radio/all-access-pass/episode/20161121/ Mental Health & Music Venues [podcast episode]. (n.d.). In All Access Pass. Vancouver: CITR. Retrieved from https://www.citr.ca/radio/all-access-pass/episode/20151112/ Outdoor Event Booking. (n. d.) The University of British Columbia. Retrieved on March 26, 2019 from https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/news-events/outdoor-event-booking Safety & Respect, Dalhousie University. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.dal.ca/campus_life/safety-respect.html Sutcliffe, S. (2017, October 23). "Bare Minimum": How students with disabilities navigate UBC. The Ubyssey. UNIVERSAL ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSLINK FLEET & FACILITIES(Tech.). (2007, May). Retrieved https://www.translink.ca/-/media/Documents/rider_guide/access_transit/Universal-Accessibility-Guidelines-for-TransLink-Fleet-and-Facilities.pdf    177 University Life, University of Toronto. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.utoronto.ca/university-life What is a hearing loop?, Hearing Link. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.hearinglink.org/living/loops-equipment/hearing-loops/what-is-a-hearing-loop/          178 Appendix Appendix 1. Recruitment Poster     179  Appendix 2. Interview Questions  What is your relationship with UBC?  What would be some ideal location for outdoor events on campus? What gender do you identify with? If you self-identify as disabled, do you feel comfortable sharing the disability/disabilities you identify with?  Do you have any experience attending or organizing events on-campus?  What is the biggest obstacle to attending nightlife on-campus?  What is an accessibility feature for events on-campus that is actually not very effective? Is there a very positive experience with accessibility you have had during an on-campus event? Follow-up: How could on-campus events better make sure that your experiences remain positive? Is there a very negative experience with accessibility you have had during an on-campus event that you would like to share? Follow-up: What measures would be necessary for you to believe that future on-campus events would not be similarly unaccessible in the future?  Would you be more inclined to attend events if there some some kind of mail-out, student club, or other community service that connected people with accessibility concerns?  What would you say is most missing from the conversation about accessibility and disability on-campus? How have you been navigating campus in bad weather? 

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