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GNAM Global Network Week University of British Columbia : Critical Infrastructure Interdependencies Flores, Edgardo; Garg, Yogesh; Howell, Jillian 2018-05-23

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report GNAM Global Network Week University of British Columbia:  Critical Infrastructure Interdependencies Edgardo Flores, Yogesh Garg, Jillian Howell  University of British Columbia BA 532 Themes: Community, Energy, Water May 23, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.As part of the GNAM Global Network Week: Urban Resilience and Inclusive Prosperity, the team ofEdgardo Flores of Tecnologico Monterrey, Yogesh Garg of the Indian Institute of Management atBangalore, and Jillian Howell of the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studiesinvestigated critical infrastructure interdependencies at the University of British ColumbiaVancouver. They sought to identify the components of UBC’s critical infrastructure system thatshould be prioritized moving forward to make UBC more resilient in the face of potential acuteshocks and longer term impacts. Using benchmark cities as case studies to identify relevantresponses to shocks, the team recommended prioritizing electricity and water systems, and alsoimplementing a resilience fund to address standard maintenance and repairs of infrastructure aswell as disaster mitigation/preparation and responses/rebuilding efforts in the aftermath of a shockevent.Executive Summary:Critical Infrastructure Interdependencies GNAM Global Network WeekUniversity of British ColumbiaCritical Infrastructure InterdependenciesEdgardo Flores - Tecnologico de MonterreyYogesh Garg - Indian Institute of Management at Bangalore Jillian Howell - Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies • Purpose and Methods• UBC Background and Context• Critical Infrastructure• Interdependencies• Acute Shocks and Other Potential Impacts• Benchmark Cities and Responses• Strategies and Recommendations• Q & AOutlinePurpose and Methods• Objective: Identify the infrastructure area(s) of greatest need/importance o Which system, should it be disrupted, would have the greatest impact on the other infrastructure pieces and the UBC population? • How?o Understand Governance Structure and Stakeholders of UBCo Use Benchmark Cities to identify responses that could be replicated at UBCo Our team’s greatest asset is diversity in experience, background and knowledgeUBC ContextCritical Infrastructure: Electricity• Electricity provided by BC Hydro via 2 transmission lines• UBC owns & operates 2 sub-stations:o North Campus sub-stationo South Campus sub-station• Stakeholders: UBC staff and students, neighborhood residents, BC HydroCritical Infrastructure: Electr. Back-Up• Diesel-Fueled Back-Up Generators o 50,000 Liters of accessible diesel fuelo 300,000 Liters near former steam planto Power capability range depends on the time of year E.g., Temperature, campus capacityo Deep storageo Seismically vulnerableo No mechanism of distributiono Supply chain problemCritical Infrastructure: Buildings• Residential Housing• Institutional Buildingso Facilities include major structures such as the UBC library, Museum of Anthropology, Beaty Biodiversity Museum, Thunderbird Sports Centre • Stakeholderso UBCo Students, faculty, researcherso Residentso Donors Infrastructure: Transportation• Transportationo Roads: limited access into and out of UBC via bus or personal vehicleso Sea: Coast guard and sea evacuation cited as a possible route of evacuation in case of emergenciesCritical Infrastructure: Comms• Emergency Communication Systems o Two systems of notification of incidents using voice messaging, email and text messaging to Electoral Area A.  1. University of British Columbia operates an emergency notification system available to the residents of the Campus and University Neighborhood2. Both systems are voluntary, require residents to provide contact infoCritical Infrastructure: Water• Potable water provided by Metro Vancouver via 2water lines from a reservoir in Pacific Spirit Park:o University Boulevard suppliesUBC’s pumping stations which distributes to thehigh pressure zoneo West 16th Avenue (supplies lowo pressure zone only)• UBC owns and operate the campus-wide water system and is responsiblefor maintenance• Risk in terms of redundancyCritical Infrastructure: Sanitary SewerResponsibility Own and OperatesCustomers Academic, NeighborhoodFunding Academic - UBC pays commodityNeighborhood - 85% of metered water consumptionDecision Maker Metro Vancouver decides on supply and commodity costStakeholders Metro Vancouver,Academic, NeighborhoodRisks • Uncertainty over cost• Uncertainty over infrastructure ownershipFacts❑ Total Consumption 85% of water ❑ Neighborhood Consumption 85% of water ❑ Total Commodity Cost $1.46m ❑ Commodity Cost Recovery ❑ $1.48m ($0.45m from neighborhoods) Sanitary sewer is discharged into Metro Vancouver sewer system. Campus-wide sanitary and storm sewer systems are completely separate. Critical Infrastructure: StormwaterResponsibility Own and OperatesCustomers Academic, NeighborhoodFunding AcademicUBC funds operation and maintenance. Infrastructure Impact Charges fund new infraNeighborhood UNA’s pays for operations and maintenanceDecision Maker Metro Vancouver decides on supply and commodity costStakeholders Metro Vancouver, Academic, NeighborhoodRisks • Uncertainty over long-term replacement costs• Metro Vancouver contribution to ‘spiral drain’ storm infrastructure• Cliff erosion • Lack of regulatory frameworkFacts❑ Total Pipe Length: 185,808 meters (incl 56,009m of field/building drain tile)❑ Neighborhood Pipe Length:11,603 meters❑ Spiral Drain System 70-80 years oldStormwater discharges into 4 catchment areas which then drain into the ocean. Campus-wide sanitary and storm sewer systems are separate. Critical Infrastructure: Natural GasResponsibility DistributionCustomers Academic, Neighborhood( 3 areas)Fortis BC provides natural gas to 3 other neighborhood areasFunding AcademicUBC funds operation, maintenance and long-term replacement costsNeighborhood Residents pay UBC at Fortis BC market ratesDecision Maker Fortis BC decides on supply and commodity costSupplier Shell Energy North AmericaRisks • UBC’s system is also reaching supply capacityFacts❑ Total Consumption (where UBC provides service) 247,648 GJ❑ Neighborhood Consumption (where UBC provides service) 14,250 cu ft❑ Total Commodity Cost: $1.72m❑ Commodity Cost Recovery $1.37m ($0.16m from neighborhoods)Critical Infrastructure: Finance$315M❑ Major building projects ($135M)❑ Building renovations/additions($96M)❑ Equipment and furnishings($73M)❑ Capital infrastructure ($12M)InterdependenciesDrainage System❑ StormDrainage❑ Sanitary Sewerage Finance❑ Tuition Fees❑ In-campus ServicesEnergy❑ Electricity❑ Natural GasWater Supply❑ Hot Water❑ Drinking WaterEmergency Services❑ Security❑ Fire FightingCommunication❑ UBC❑ Electoral Area ATransportation❑ Bus Service❑ Coast Guard Pickup❑ Private Vehicles❑ MetroHousing❑ UBC❑ NeighborhoodResponses from Benchmark Cities • Examined responses from other cities during times of acute shocksand other impactso City Criteria: chosen locations have already suffered an acuteshock and are contexts we are familiar witho Draw conclusions and co-opt relevant, successful responses• Mexico City, Mexico• Surat, India• Boston, USA• Acute Shock: Earthquakeo Densely populated urban areao Damage to infrastructure, loss of life• Mexico City law and guidance for naturaldisasters○ “Ley del Sistema de Protección Civil delDistrito Federal” Guidelines Public organizations Responsibilities ActionsBenchmark City: Mexico City, Mexico • Acute Shock: Flooding • Affected nearly 90% of households• Crippled the economyResilience Strategy Pillars• Connectivity/mobility services & regulations• Affordable housing• Water availability and quality• Employment and economic dependency• Ecosystem and environmental regulations• Upscaling of public health• Social cohesionBenchmark Cities: Surat, India • Acute Shock: Terrorism and Security Threats o Boston Marathon Bombing April 2013• Response to the event was well-coordinated and organized, with local and state authorities taking the lead and federal agencies providing support and resourcesBenchmark Cities: Boston, USAAcute & Long Term Shocks• Acute Shockso Natural Disaster  Wildfire, storm eventso Financial Breakdown o Cyber Attack o Security Threats/Terrorism • Long Term Impacts from Climate Changeo Sea Level Riseo Water Shortage o FloodingStrategies and Recommendations 1) Energy and Electricity: Critical to essential UBC functions2) Water: Lack of redundancy and necessary for sustaining the population3) Resilience Fund: Identify channels to divert resources for standardmaintenance and repair, but also mitigation/preparation efforts anddisaster response4) Create detailed, event specific evacuation and emergency plan: Focus on detailed logistics, identify most vulnerable populations, look at exit/entry strategies and safe UBC locations5) Use resilience lens for all campus Improvements and developments6) Create social cohesion: many distinct populations within the UBC community, focus on commonalities7) Reinforce Cyber Security/IT Infrastructure√Questions?Resources❑ UBC Energy and Water Departament – Energy Annual Usage Story.❑ The University of British Columbia – 2016/17 UBC Annual Report❑ Forbes México - ¿Por qué el costo de los sismos de 2017 no se compara al de 1985?.❑ UBC Point Grey Campus Service Delivery, July 2016❑ UBC Financial Report 2016 and 2017❑ Surat Resilience Strategy -❑❑❑ Walls RM, Zinner MJ. The Boston Marathon response – why did it work so well? JAMA (2013) 309(23):2441–2. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.5965 Biddinger PD, Baggish A, Harrington L, d’Hemecourt P, Hooley J, Jones J, et al. Be prepared –the Boston Marathon and mass casualty events. N Engl J Med (2013) 368:1958–60. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1305480 Hanfling D (2014) Boston bombings and resilience – what do we mean by this? Front. Public Health 2:25. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00025 following slides include additional research into Benchmark Cities not included within the March 16, 2018, presentation.• Acute Shock: Earthquakeo The earthquakes are principals problems of the city that combined with overpopulation and without control in development infrastructure have high risko 1985: 8.1 earthquake in the Richter scaleo 2017: 7.1 earthquake in the Richter scale• Consequenceso Cost lives (more than 10 thousand – 355)o Infrastructure (4 – 1.6 billions of dollars)o Damage in houses and buildings (757 – 38 buildings)o Psychological damageBenchmark City: Mexico City• 100 Resilient Cities: Released its Resilience Strategy on July 13, 2017. • Population: 672,840, greater Boston 4.8 millionBenchmark City: Boston• 48.4 square miles land situated on the Atlantic Ocean• Official elevation is 19 ft (5.8 m) above sea level.• The highest point 330 feet (100 m) above sea level, and the lowest point is at sea level.• Academic institutions, transportation and cultural hub• Why? Emergency response and climate are locatedLong Term Shock: Climate Change• Boston is a coastal city: climate change presents significant shocks andstresses, including flooding• In 2013, the Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development(OECD) ranked Boston the eighth-highest metropolitan area worldwide inexpected annual economic losses due to coastal flooding.• Major impact potential to critical infrastructure such as Logan InternationalAirport, MBTA stations, the Boston Convention and Exhibition Center, andthe Seaport World Trade Center, primary data center, central fleetmaintenance, six neighborhood emergency shelters, and Boston PoliceDepartment’s telephone and computer communications.• Boston has experienced 21 weather-related events that triggered federalor state disaster declarations since 1991.Benchmark City: Boston• The Surat city released its Resilience Strategy on April 18, 2017. • Population: 4,467,797(4.4 million)• Area: 326.515 km2, • Density: 14,000/km2• On the banks of the river Tapi • Serves as a trade link between India and the Gulf countries• Altitude: 13 meters (m.) above mean sea level• Highest growth rates in the country and a 10-fold population riseBenchmark City: Surat, IndiaBenchmark City: SuratAcute Shock: Sea level rise and flooding• Nearly 90 per cent of the households were affected• Crippled the economyBenchmark City: Surat, IndiaResilience Strategy - Organized around seven key pillars1. CONNECTIVITY & MOBILITY SERVICES AND REGULATIONImplement an efficient traffic management system and move towards ensuring an adequate public transport system2. AFFORDABLE HOUSINGImprove outlook and maintenance of affordable housing, and use engineering and technology to better provide it3. WATER AVAILABILITY AND QUALITYWith a growing population, Surat must act to meet future water demandBenchmark City: Surat, IndiaResilience Strategy - Organized around seven key pillars4. DOMINANT SECTORS OF EMPLOYMENT & ECONOMIC DEPENDENCYDiversify Surat's industryand develop skills to strengthen the city’s economy.5. ECOSYSTEM & ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONGrowth in industry and population density threatens to harm Surat’s natural ecosystem and its people7. UPSCALING OF PUBLIC HEALTHSupport healthier citizens to create a healthier city6. SOCIAL COHESIONA city vulnerable to floods and other challenges must have strong social capital


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