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Socio-technical Post-occupany Evaluation : Pilot Study at Robert H Lee Alumni Centre Shaw, Kerry 2017-12-20

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report SOCIO-TECHNICAL POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION [Pilot Study at Robert H Lee Alumni Centre] By Kerry Shaw  University of British Columbia APPP 506 December 20, 2017 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. iiExecutive Summary ....................................................................................................................... iii1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................11.1 Project Background.....................................................................................................................11.2 Project Purpose...........................................................................................................................11.3 Project Objectives .......................................................................................................................22 Post Occupancy Evaluation Overview....................................................................................23 Methodology..........................................................................................................................43.1 POE Template Preparation..........................................................................................................43.2 POE Pilot Study ...........................................................................................................................64 Robert H Lee Alumni Centre POE ...........................................................................................75 POE Pilot Results ....................................................................................................................86 Discussion...............................................................................................................................96.1 Indicative Level POE....................................................................................................................96.2 Integrated Project Design ...........................................................................................................97 Conclusions and Recommendations ....................................................................................128 Bibliography .........................................................................................................................14Appendix A Building Occupant IEQ Survey ..............................................................................17Appendix B Alumni Centre POE Pilot Tasks Overview .............................................................18Appendix C Alumni Centre Post Occupancy Evaluation ..........................................................23iiiExecutive SummaryThe University of British Columbia (UBC) is developing a Green Building Plan to manage futureacademic and residential building projects on campus. Numerous tasks are underway tosupport the Green Building Plan’s development and deliver improved building projects.Currently, campus building projects often have significant performance gaps between designand operation. UBC however, does not have a rigorous process to define these gaps and todisseminate lessons learned for future building projects. Post occupancy evaluation (POE) hasbeen suggested as a potential tool that can provide a systematic and rigorous way tounderstand building performance and communicate project successes and failures.POE is a building performance assessment process completed after the building has beenoccupied for a period. It combines typical performance indices (ex. energy consumption) withoccupant indoor environmental quality (IEQ) satisfaction levels to form a holistic buildingperformance evaluation. POE results can help identify current problems and inform solutionswithin the building studied. POE can also provide valuable information to improve future designprojects.This project examined if POE was a suitable tool for UBC to support the Green Building Plan’sobjective to communicate lessons learned between building projects. A potential POE processfor use in UBC Core buildings was created based on best practices. The POE process was thenpiloted in the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre (Alumni Centre).The pilot study indicated that the POE process is relatively simple to implement and requiresminimal resources. The Occupant IEQ Survey was easy for respondents to use and requiredminimal effort, while still providing data on a diverse range of topics. Even with somewhatlimited survey respondents (N=41), the POE summary report provided a comprehensivebuilding performance summary.The pilot study results indicate that POE is a suitable tool for understanding actual buildingperformance. Additionally, with widespread use POE will become a useful tool for capturingproject lessons and informing future campus building projects. POE is recommended forimplementation at UBC. Moving forward work should focus on adjusting and improving the POEtemplate and execution process, as well as confirming program logistics and ownership.11 Introduction1.1 Project BackgroundThe University of British Columbia (UBC) is developing a Green Building Plan in support of thecampus’ 20 year sustainability strategy (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. a). The plan willguide all future academic and residential building projects on campus towards a net positivedesign focused on human and ecological wellbeing (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. a).Stakeholder workshops held in January 2017 helped develop a task list to support the GreenBuilding Plan (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. a). One workshop sub action was toinvestigate using Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) to help disseminate lessons learned fromcampus building projects.The University of British Columbia’s (UBC’s) core buildings generated 71% of UBC Vancouver’stotal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2016 (White & Einarson, 2017). UBC core buildingsundergo LEED certification, but are insufficiently studied after occupancy. A high level POE isincluded in the Board 4 report delivered to UBC’s board of governors, but this report does notprovide sufficient information to understand the actual building performance.1.2 Project PurposePost occupancy evaluation (POE) is a method for evaluating building performance afterconstruction is completed and the building is occupied (Tookaloo & Smith, 2015). POE focusesnot only on operating resource consumption, but also on occupant satisfaction (Tookaloo &Smith, 2015). Additionally, POE offers a way to compare design with actual performance and indoing so help better inform future building design work (Gocer, Hua, & Gocer, 2015). Despitethe myriad benefits, POEs are infrequently conducted by building stakeholders (Newsham,Mancini, & Birt, 2009).Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a North American green buildingprogram that targets improving building sustainability (Newsham, Mancini, & Birt, 2009). POEsoffer a method for LEED certified building owners and operators to gauge actual buildingperformance versus the predicted performance. This information can be used to help assesshow effective LEED certification is at lowering resource consumption and improving occupantsatisfaction (Newsham, Mancini, & Birt, 2009).LEED Gold certification is mandatory at UBC for all new or heavily renovated core buildings(UBC Sustainability, n.d.). LEED certified buildings are delivering energy savings overconventional designs (Turner & Frankel, 2008). However, for more than 50% of LEED buildings,the energy savings vary more than 25% from the predicted design values (Turner & Frankel,2008). UBC has noted similar variability between actual and predicted energy consumption incampus buildings. Often this discrepancy is caused by a poor accounting of socio technical2factors within the energy model (Summerfield, Oreszczyn, Pathan, & Hong, 2009). Sociotechnical factors are the interactions between the occupants and the building and its services(Summerfield, Oreszczyn, Pathan, & Hong, 2009).This project aims to use POE to understand performance gaps between actual and predictedmetrics, as well as to assess the building holistically and understand how the space isappreciated. The POE can then be used as a communication tool to help disseminate lessonslearned and to improve future building design.1.3 Project ObjectivesThis project will create a systematic method for POEs in core campus buildings to support theGreen Building Plan. This will include developing a POE template for core buildings based onbest practices. The POE template will then be piloted at the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre(Alumni Centre) at UBC’s Vancouver campus. The project is focussed on answering thefollowing questions:1. Is Post Occupancy Evaluation a suitable tool for disseminating actual buildingperformance?2. What are current best practices for POEs?3. What might a POE process look like at UBC?2 Post-­‐Occupancy Evaluation OverviewPOEs systematically assess building performance against various criteria (Preiser, Rabinowitz, &White, 2015). In practice, POE is typically used to support one of the following goals:• Benchmarking• Evaluating building design approach• Problem investigation (Palmer, 2009)POE results also provide various benefits over the short, medium, and long term, which aredenoted in Figure 2 1 below.5Background research was conducted before preparing the POE template. This included aninterview with Ghazal Ebrahimi, a PhD candidate at UBC’s Institute for Resources, Environmentand Sustainability. Additionally, existing POEs were referenced to understand typical processand reporting structure. This included the iiSBE 2014 study of UBC’s CIRS Building (Chu, et al.,2014) and the UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportPOE of UBC’s Aquatic Ecosystem Research Laboratory (Tan, Lei, & Winardi, 2012). Other keyreferences are the Post Occupancy Evaluation for Multi Unit Residential Buildings Guide forAdministrators (Open Green Building Society, 2016) and the Centre for the Built Environment,specifically David Lehrer’s LEED Post Occupancy Evaluation: Taking Responsibility for theOccupants presentation slides (2006).The POE template was prepared based on the background research. This included a summaryreport template, a building performance index table template, and a building occupant survey.The survey covers ten different indoor environmental quality (IEQ) topics, which are listedbelow.1. Overall Satisfaction2. Social Environment3. Layout4. Thermal Comfort5. Air Quality6. Lighting7. Acoustics8. Cleanliness and Maintenance9. Furniture10. TechnologyThese topics, and the questions supporting them, represent a compilation of best practice IEQtopics (ex. thermal comfort, lighting, acoustics), as well as items from UBC InfrastructureDevelopment’s Informal Learning Spaces studies and social environment considerations.The social environment topic is an important inclusion to ensure the POE aligns with UBC’sGreen Building Plan’s holistic themes, which are concerned with more than technical buildingperformance (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. b). The social environment questions arehowever, a novel inclusion within a building occupant survey. This topic was developed throughcollaboration with project mentors and Fiona Jones, a Special Projects Researcher at HCMAArchitecture + Design. Additionally, this topic was informed by reviewing the WELL CommunityStandard Pilot (International WELL Building Institute, 2017a), Gehl Studio’s Public Life DiversityToolkit (Gehl Studio SF, 2015), and Colantonio and Dixon’s report on Measuring SociallySustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe (2009). Interestingly, both the WELL CommunityStandard (International WELL Building Institute, 2017a) and WELL Building Standard require9noted in Section 3.1. The average survey completion time was 8 minutes and 22 seconds, with arange from 2 minutes 50 seconds to 57 minutes and 13 seconds. The survey managed tocapture a large amount of data on a wide range of topics in a relatively short period of time.Full historical energy and water consumption data were available on SkySpark for the AlumniCentre. This enabled complete building performance index calculations. Aside from UBC Alumnistaff numbers, no information on building occupancy was available, which limited both the POEperformance and the occupant survey analysis.6 Discussion6.1 Indicative Level POEThe pilot POE demonstrated that an indicative level POE can be useful to gather comprehensivebuilding operations data. Energy and water data is readily available and easy to incorporate intothe POE. The occupant survey was simple to use, while covering a wide range of topics.The limited resources available, in terms of both time and experience, for survey marketing andgathering, limited the total number of responses. Additionally, external factors, such asgraduation week, poster regulations in the building, and waits for unexpected approvalsimpacted the number of building occupant IEQ survey respondents.The Alumni Centre Operations Manager indicated that some staff found some of thedemographic questions clunky. Particularly when asked first if they work in the building andthen asked how many hours a day they spend in the building. The survey logic could beadjusted for better flow for the various respondent types.The Alumni Centre POE summary report (see Appendix C) is somewhat unwieldy to navigate.The report is primarily statistical analysis from the occupancy survey, presented with bar charts.The reporting method could likely be integrated into an online database, perhaps similar instructure to SkySpark, to allow users to better focus on items of interest and to compare resultsbetween buildings, which will help disseminate lessons learned.There is much more data analysis that can be performed with the occupant survey, but due toproject time constraints this was not possible. Additional analysis would provide more clarityand insight in understanding building performance.6.2 Integrated Project DesignIntegrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a building project delivery method focussed on collaborationto optimize the whole project (The American Institute of Architects, California Council [AIACC],2014). IPD projects are characterized by having the following items for all key participants:• Continuous project involvement10• Aligned business interests by sharing risks and rewards• Joint project control• Interlocking or multi party agreements• Limited liability (AIACC, 2014)Figure 6 1 below highlights the IPD approach.Figure 6 1: IPD Project Essentials (AIACC, 2014)A high level comparison between the traditional design process and an IPD project is given inFigure 6 2 below. This figure clearly shows IPD’s collaborative approach with almost all keyteam members contributing to the Conceptualization phase.11Figure 6 2: IPD versus Traditional Design Process (AIACC, 2014)IPD projects have been found to offer statistically significant improvements over traditionalproject methods over a range of considerations, including:• Quality• Schedule• Project changes• Communication• Environmental impacts• Finances (El Asmar, Hanna, & Loh, 2013)IPD projects result in better quality buildings without increasing financial expenditures (ElAsmar, Hanna, & Loh, 2013). Additionally, stakeholders, especially project owners, reportsignificant satisfaction with the IPD approach (Cheng, Allison, Dossick, & Monson, 2015).POE, with its emphasis on feedback (Bordass & Leaman, 2005) and continuous improvement(Waltz, Gouvin, & Forth, n.d.) provides a good compliment to the IPD approach. Shifting148 BibliographyAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE]. (2006).ASHRAE GreenGuide: The design, construction, and operation of sustainable buildings(2nd Edition ed.). Amsterdam: Butterworth Heinemann.Bordass, B., & Leaman, A. (2005). Making feedback and post occupancy evaluation routine 1: Aportfolio of feedback techniques. Building Research & Information, 33(4), 347–352.Campus + Community Planning. (n.d. a). Green Building Plan. Retrieved December 15, 2017,from https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/projects consultations/consultationsengagement/green building planCampus + Community Planning. (n.d. b). Themes & Resources. Retrieved September 23, 2017,from Green Building Plan: https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/projectsconsultations/consultations engagement/green building plan/themes resourcesCheng, R., Allison, M., Dossick, C. S., & Monson, C. (2015). IPD: Performance, Expectations, andFuture Use A Report On Outcomes of a University of Minnesota Survey. University ofMinnesota.Chu, A. M., Ebrahimi, G., Scannell, L., Save, P., Hodgson, M., Bartlett, K., & Cavka, B. T. (2014,January 26). Building Performance Evaluation for the Centre for Interactive Research onSustainability, Vancouver, British Columbia. Retrieved October 12, 2017, fromhttp://iisbecanada.ca/umedia/cms_files/Report_ _CIRS_Final_May_2015.pdfColantonio, A., & Dixon, T. (2009).Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration inEurope. Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development (OISD), School of the BuiltEnvironment, Oxford.El Asmar, M., Hanna, A. S., & Loh, W. Y. (2013, November). Quantifying Performance for theIntegrated Project Delivery System as Compared to Established Delivery Systems.Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139(11).Gehl Studio SF. (2015, April). Public Life Diversity Toolkit. Retrieved October 26, 2017, fromhttps://gehlinstitute.org/wpcontent/uploads/2017/02/Gehl_PublicLifeDiversityToolkit_Pages 1.pdfGocer, O., Hua, Y., & Gocer, K. (2015, July). Completing the missing link in building designprocess: Enhancing post occupancy evaluation method for effective feedback forbuilding performance. Building and Environment, 89, 14 27.International WELL Building Institute. (2017a). The WELL Community Standard Pilot. RetrievedOctober 26, 2017, from15https://www.wellcertified.com/sites/default/files/resources/CommunityStandard_WELL.pdfInternational WELL Building Institute. (2017b). Post Occupancy Surveys. Retrieved October 27,2017, from http://standard.wellcertified.com/mind/post occupancy surveysLehrer, D. (2006, November 1). LEED Post Occupancy Evaluation: Taking Responsibility for theOccupants . Retrieved September 23, 2017, from Center for the Built Environment (CBE):https://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/research/pdf_files/Lehrer2006_BetterBricksPOE.pdfNewsham, G. R., Mancini, S., & Birt, B. J. (2009). Do LEED certified buildings save energy? Yes,but... Energy and Buildings, 41, 897 905.Open Green Building Society. (2016). Post Occupancy Evaluation for Multi Unit ResidentialBuildings Guide for Administrators. Retrieved September 23, 2017, from Post OccupancyEvaluation Tool: http://www.opengreenbuilding.org/portfolio/post occupancyevaluation tool/Palmer, J. (2009). Post Occupancy Evaluation of Buildings. In D. Mumovic, & M. Santamouris, AHandbook of Sustainable Building Design & Engineering: An Integrated Approach toEnergy, Health and Operational Performance (pp. 349 357). London: Earthscan.Preiser, W. F., Rabinowitz, H. Z., & White, E. T. (2015). Post Occupancy Evaluation. New York,NY: Routledge Revivals.Summerfield, A., Oreszczyn, T., Pathan, A., & Hong, S. (2009). Occupant Behaviour and EnergyUse. In D. Mumovic, & M. Santamouris, A Handbook of Sustainable Building Design &Engineering: An Integrated Approach to Energy, Health and Operational Performance(pp. 359 369). London: Earthscan.Tan, S., Lei, Y. Z., & Winardi, A. (2012, April 30). Post Occupancy Evaluation of AquaticEcosystem Research Laboratory. Retrieved September 23, 2017, fromhttps://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/Post%20Occupancy%20Evaluation%20of%20AERL_UP.pdfThe American Institute of Architects, California Council [AIACC]. (2014, July 15). IntegratedProject Delivery: An Updated Working Definition. Retrieved October 23, 2017, fromhttp://www.aiacc.org/wp content/uploads/2014/07/AIACC_IPD.pdfTookaloo, A., & Smith, R. (2015). Post Occupancy Evaluation in Higher Education. ProcediaEngineering, 118, 515 521.Turner, C., & Frankel, M. (2008, March 4). Energy Performance of LEED® for New ConstructionBuildings. Retrieved December 15, 2017, from New Buildings Institute:16https://newbuildings.org/sites/default/files/Energy_Performance_of_LEEDNC_Buildings Final_3 4 08b.pdfUBC Sustainability. (n.d.). LEED @ UBC. Retrieved December 15, 2017, fromhttps://sustain.ubc.ca/campus initiatives/buildings/leed ubcWaltz, K., Gouvin, S. M., & Forth, M. (n.d.). The Project Afterwards: Using Post OccupancyEvaluations to Improve Healthcare Environments. Retrieved December 12, 2017, fromhttp://healtharchitects.org/Documents/Project%20Afterwards%202016%2011%2015.pdfWhite, M., & Einarson, R. (2017, May 30). 2016 Carbon Neutral Action Report. RetrievedSeptember 24, 2017, fromhttps://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/files/2016CarbonNeutralActionReportFINAL.pdf17Appendix A Building Occupant IEQ Survey25	of	26Page	23Thank	You!Are	there	any	other	comments	you	wou d	 ke	to	share	about	your	exper ence	w th	the	Robert	H	Lee	A umn 	Centre?Type	here23Appendix C Alumni Centre Post-­‐Occupancy Evaluationii Table of Contents 1 General Building Information .....................................................................................................1 2 Building Systems & Services Summary ........................................................................................2 2.1 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) .................................................................... 2 2.2 Electrical ....................................................................................................................................... 3 2.3 Lighting ......................................................................................................................................... 3 2.4 Building Management System ..................................................................................................... 3 2.5 Architectural ................................................................................................................................. 3 2.6 Renovation / Retrofit Summary.................................................................................................... 3 3 Findings .....................................................................................................................................3 3.1 Energy ........................................................................................................................................... 3 3.2 Water ............................................................................................................................................ 4 3.3 Indoor Environmental Quality ...................................................................................................... 4 3.4 Occupancy .................................................................................................................................. 21 3.5 Building Service Log .................................................................................................................... 22 3.6 Additional Items ......................................................................................................................... 24 4 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 24 Appendix A Building Performance Indicators ............................................................................... 26 Appendix B Supplemental Occupant Satisfaction Survey Results ................................................. 27 Appendix C Building Service Requests List ................................................................................... 313 The heat recovery ventilators provide heating and cooling for the rest of the building. HRV-1 services the basement, Level 1 and Level 2 (except Rooms 221 and 223). HRV-2 services Level 3. The fan coils are located in ceiling spaces throughout the building and are fed from HRV-1 and HRV-2. FC-31 and FC-32 provide cooling to the electrical room. Hot water for heating and for domestic hot water is supplied from a connection to UBC’s Academic District Energy System (ADES). Cold water for cooling is supplied by a temporary, rental chiller. A new permanent chiller will be installed and commissioned soon. The condensing boilers are natural gas fired and provide back-up heat to both the heat exchange system supplying the domestic hot water system and the building heating system. The building thermostats can be adjusted by the occupants between 19oC and 23oC. The average temperature set point is 21.8oC. 2.2 Electrical An emergency generator supplies power to smoke exhaust fans and make-up air door operators. Emergency lighting is serviced by the campus Uninterruptable Power Supply. 2.3 Lighting Sound and motion sensitivity sensors control the lights. The atrium is equipped with LED Lighting, which minimizes light changes in this difficult to access area. 2.4 Building Management System The building systems are all operated and controlled through the Building Management System. 2.5 Architectural The windows are equipped with vertical stripes to reduce bird collisions. 2.6 Renovation / Retrofit Summary An air to water heat pump (ASHP-1) originally supplied hot water for heating and cold water for cooling. ASHP-1 functioned adequately for heating loads, but failed at providing chilled water for cooling. As a result, ASHP-1 was decommissioned. The building was connected to the ADES on June 26, 2017 to hot water for heating loads. A temporary, rental chiller was installed to provide for the cooling loads.  3 Findings 3.1 Energy Energy consumption was obtained for the entire building lifetime through October 2017. The Alumni Centre started reporting the ADES hot water consumption in September 2017. Therefore, there is not sufficient data yet to include the ADES in the energy analysis. The building performance analysis only considers the two-year period between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2017. The energy usage over this period is summarized below. 5 Figure 3-1: Building Occupant Survey Respondent Ages (N=41) Figure 3-2: Building Occupant Survey Respondent Role (N=41) 44% of the survey respondents work in the Alumni Centre, 37% full-time staff and 7% part-time staff. Figure 3-3 below further breaks down where these Alumni Centre employees work. Thirteen Alumni UBC staff responded, which is a 37% response rate for this group. 24%29%17%22%7%0%18 - 2425 - 3435 - 4445 - 5455 - 6565+0%2%15%20%22%41%UBC FacultyVisitorUBC AlumniUBC Graduate StudentUBC Undergraduate StudentUBC Staff7 3.3.1 Overall Impressions The figures below highlight how the building occupant survey respondents use the space. Figure 3-5: Frequency of Visitation (N=41) Figure 3-6: Typical Visit Length (N=41) 54%34%12%0%DailyWeeklyMonthlyLess than once a month10%12%32%46%Under 30 minutes30 - 60 minutes1 - 2 hoursMore than 2 hours8 Figure 3-7: Typical Activity within Space (N=41) Figure 3-8: Most Frequently Used Space (N=41) The overall building satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-9 below. The respondents who reported some level of dissatisfaction attributed this to the physical environment (ex. temperature, air quality, lighting, noise, cleanliness). 5%7%7%10%20%22%29%Other (please specify)SocializingWaiting for classEatingQuiet workWork (employment)Group work / meetings0%0%0%2%2%5%7%12%15%27%29%Main floor meeting roomsSecond floor lounge seatingClassroomsJack Poole Hall (second floor event space)Third Floor Alumni LoungeLoafe Cafee@UBC Accelerator Meeting SpaceMain Floor Office Spacee@UBC Office SpaceThird Floor Office SpaceMain floor lounge seating11 Figure 3-12: Building Layout Satisfaction (N=41) The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-13 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-13: Factors Contributing to Layout Dissatisfaction (N=5) 3.3.4 Thermal Comfort Most respondents (78%) could not or did not know if they could control the temperature of the space. For the 22% indicating they have control, Figure 3-14 below shows how frequently they do control the temperature with a variety of instruments (The remaining responses were ‘Not Applicable’, which are not shown in the figure below). 0%0%12%12%22%34%20%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied40%40%40%60%60%60%Difficult to find facilities (ex.washrooms, water fountains)Insufficient storageInsufficient spaceOther (please specify)Cramped / crowded seating areasLack of privacy14 Figure 3-18: Factors Contributing to Temperature Dissatisfaction (N=13) 3.3.5 Air Quality The building air quality satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-19 below. Figure 3-19: Building Air Quality Satisfaction (N=41) 0%0%8%8%8%8%8%15%15%23%31%38%38%46%54%69%77%Drafts from windowsHeat from cooking equipmentThermostat is adjusted by other peopleAir movement is too highHumidity too high (damp)Heat from office equipmentHot/cold surfaces (ex. floor, windows, walls)Drafts from ventsHumidity too low (dry)Air movement is too lowAir from vents is too hot/coldThermostat is inaccessibleTemperature is too coldTemperature is hotter/colder in my area…Temperature is too hotHeating/cooling system does not respondIncoming sun2%5%5%20%15%29%24%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied15 The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-20 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-20: Factors Contributing to Air Quality Dissatisfaction (N=5) 3.3.6 Lighting Figure 3-21 below indicates the types of lighting controls accessible to the respondent. Figure 3-21: Available Lighting Controls (N=41) 0%0%0%0%0%20%20%20%20%20%40%40%Staining or mould growthAir movement is too lowAir movement is too highCondensation/fogging on insides of windowsHumidity too high (damp)Air is not cleanMouldy / musty smellsOther odoursHumidity too low (dry)Other (please specify)Air is stuffy / staleCooking smells2%12%15%39%46%46%Other (please specify)Window blinds or shadesLight dimmerTask lighting (ex. desk light)Light switchNone of the above17 Figure 3-23: Factors Contributing to Lighting Dissatisfaction (N=9) 3.3.7 Acoustics The building acoustics satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-24 below. Figure 3-24: Building Acoustic Satisfaction (N=41) 0%0%0%11%11%11%11%33%33%44%44%67%Not enough artificial lightFlickering lightsLack of task lightingToo darkToo much daylightArtificial lighting colourShadowsToo brightOther (please specify)Not enough daylightReflections on screensToo much artificial light5%7%5%17%27%24%15%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied18 The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-25 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-25: Factors Contributing to Acoustic Dissatisfaction (N=7) 3.3.8 Cleanliness & Maintenance The building cleanliness and maintenance satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-26 below. 0%14%14%14%14%29%29%29%43%57%57%71%Office equipment noisePlumbing system noiseCooking noiseVibrations (ex. from traffic, doors slamming)Other (please specify)People overhearing my private conversationsExterior noiseWhite NoisePeople talking in neighbouring areasExcessive echoingNoises from other interior spacesMechanical system noise (HVAC)20 3.3.9 Furnishings The building furnishings satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-28 below. Figure 3-28: Building Furnishings Satisfaction (N=41) The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-29 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-29: Factors Contributing to Furnishings Dissatisfaction (N=6) 3.3.10 Technology The building technology satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-30 below. 2%5%7%10%20%41%15%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied0%17%17%17%33%67%83%Poor aestheticsDamaged or stained furnishingsFurnishings unsuited to taskOther (please specify)Poor qualityFurnishings are uncomfortableInsufficient furniture21 Figure 3-30: Building Technology Satisfaction (N=41) The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-31 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-31: Factors Contributing to Technology Dissatisfaction (N=2) 3.4 Occupancy Minimal occupancy information was available for the POE. There are 35 Alumni UBC staff who work in the Alumni Centre.  0%0%5%17%27%24%27%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied0%50%50%50%50%100%Insufficient audio visual equipmentSlow WiFiBroken audio visual equipmentAudio visual equipment is difficult touseOther (please specify)Inconsistent WiFi22 The Alumni Centre’s LEED Submission documentation was prepared assuming an occupancy of 57 full-time equivalents and 189 transients. 3.5 Building Service Log The Alumni Centre Service Log was provided by the Facilities Manager. The log provides an unbiased account of the actual service needs the building has incurred. The log compiles all service calls that have occurred since January 2016. A total of 424 service requests have been made over that period. Figure 3-32 below shows the breakdown by request type.  The two most frequent request types unfortunately do not have clearly described request types (Other Maintenance Request – 48%, and Temperature Adjustment – 13%). Other Maintenance Requests comprises a very broad range of items, from HVAC equipment malfunctions, to soap dispensers falling off the wall. The 73 Customer-Funded Orange Zone items are excluded from Figure 3-32. These are requests funded by external customers, for example film production companies filming in the building, and are not considered service requests. The full list of service requests, showing request type and description, is given in Appendix C  23 Figure 3-32: Alumni Centre Service Log Summary (N=351) 0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.6%0.6%0.6%0.6%1.1%1.7%2.8%3.7%6.3%7.4%10.0%12.5%48.4%SpillGarbage OverflowingMinor building DeficienciesFire Protection ImpairmentBroken fixed seating/table in classroomWashroom Out of Toilet Paper, Hand Paper,SoapPest Control requiredTechnical ServicesAdjust continuous running of toilet/ sink/urinal/ water fountainStuck or malfunctioning elevatorReset tripped circuit in fuse boxRepair leak from plumbing fixtureChange burnt out light bulbRepair lock/door closing mechanismRepair plugged toilet/ sink/ urinalAdjust temperature in room/areaOther Maintenance Request24 3.6 Additional Items There are some additional items to highlight for the Alumni Centre based on discussions with the Facilities Manager. These are briefly discussed below. The air to water heat pump (ASHP-1) failure is the only major concern the building has had. The equipment was gutted and all parts replaced to try to get it functioning. The equipment was sourced from an Italian company and all the manuals were written in Italian. The language barrier also made service calls difficult.  The main floor Alumni UBC office is equipped with a large sliding door. The door is very heavy and difficult to open. It has also frequently come off its rails. The initial handle provided with the door was a flush style and did not provide sufficient leverage to open the heavy door. The door was retrofitted with a handle-style pull. The gas fireplace located in the main floor lounge emitted a gas odour last year. The fireplace was disassembled and the supplier replaced a part fixing the problem. Gas odour however, was noted in late October 2017 as well, which the facilities team fixed. The exhaust piping design is believed to somewhat contribute to the odours. 4 Recommendations There is an overall high level of indoor environmental satisfaction with the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre. Therefore, a more detailed POE is not recommended. Additionally, as there are no specific areas that have low satisfaction ratings, no specific field measurements (ex. lumen level, carbon dioxide concentration) are recommended. Energy consumption in the Alumni Centre is significantly higher than the predicted model. An American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Level 1 audit is recommended. The audit will provide more detailed insights into the discrepancy seen between actual and predicted energy usage. According to the LEED Submission documentation (EA credit 5), all nine different end use items are metered. If sub-meters are available, the energy audit should compile this sub-metering information and see which specific end use items do not match their predicted energy consumption. The building hours of operation provided by the operations manager do not match with the HVAC schedule provided by the facilities manager. The energy model used for the LEED Submission assumed Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB) Schedule A occupancy for office space and MNECB Schedule C for all other spaces. A difference between the modelled operating schedule and the actual operating schedule, could partially explain why actual energy consumption is higher than predicted. As part of the recommended Energy Audit, the equipment operating schedule should be verified and compared to that in the predicted energy model. Water consumption in the Alumni Centre is significantly lower than the predicted model. A closer analysis of the predicted water usage given in the LEED Submission documents is recommended to understand if the prediction is based on accurate data. Additionally, the 25 reported actual water consumption data should be confirmed to ensure that it includes all building water uses. 27 Appendix B Supplemental Occupant Satisfaction Survey Results The specified ‘Other’ responses to the Building Occupant Survey are compiled below. Q: Do you work in the Robert H. Lee Alumni Centre? If YES, where do you work in the Robert H. Lee Alumni Centre?• The Calendar• LiuQ: What do you typically use this space for? • I use it for full time work, meetings, eating, socializing, hosting events, networking.• A bit of all of them• Sitting in the roomQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building overall? • NoneQ: Please list any other social environment related issues that are important to you. • Non-recognition for continued respectful use of this space. Always have to validate tomanagement that I have been working here for 2 years.Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building layout? • lack of comfortable seating, lack of tables, open concept workspace• No natural light in work space• lack of natural light in the back office.Q: Please list any other temperature related issues that are important to you. • There have been no end of heating/cooling issues due to equipment failure.• We work in the basement, it used to be either too hot or too cold but that wasn't reallybothersome, what is really bad is the smell.  It always smells like burnt garlic, seems likeevery morning they burn garlic in the building like it's a scented candle - it would begreat if you could do something about the smell.• 3rd floor meeting rooms are more often than not colder than a refrigerator while therest of the building is usually too warm (and in summer too hot).Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building air quality? • strong smell of natural gas on 3rd floor when fireplace is on, horrible smells in JackPoole Hall which seem to come and go without rhyme or reasonQ: Please list any other air quality related issues that are important to you. • No access to fresh/clean air• It smells like Garlic!28 Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building lighting? • My office has no windows, which is pretty depressing• Glare/reflections off all the interior glass in this building is a major issue for me.• No blackout blinds for meetingsQ: Please list any other lighting related issues that are important to you. • The building brightness is completely dependent on the weather outside. When it issunny, it is too bright, when it is cloudy it is too dark.• No daylight in spaceQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building acoustics? • Music from Lobby sometimes intrudes in basement workspaceQ: Please list any other acoustics related issues that are important to you. • Sound echos/travels extensively in the building. Conversations on first floor can beheard on the 3rd floor• Sound travels so easily in this building. The café being an open space concept reallycauses lots of sound transfer. The welcome centre space is very echoey.• The main floor is usually very noisy and sometime they turn on the piano which doesn'treally help.• Events in Koerner lounge can sometimes be very noisyQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building cleanliness and maintenance? • washrooms are very dirty• Inability of maintenance team to dampen excessive ventilation noise above my desk• Lounge areas are sometimes dirty• 3rd floor lounges are not cleaned regularly (stains/food on tables, leftover food ontables, coffee cups, etc.), Sometimes for a couple of days...Q: Please list any other cleanliness and maintenance related issues that are important to you. • Many stains in carpets, holes in walls (unfinished from construction), furniture is wornout, the tile always looks dirty because of the material/pattern chosenQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building furnishings? • The double-width chairs in the public areas are nice from a design point of view, butprobably the most uncomfortable chairs I have ever used.Q: Please list any other furnishings related issues that are important to you. • Building furnishings are great, the only problem is that they have not worn well. All aredamaged from high use. Also not enough furniture/places to sit• Poor ergonomics• Comfort n availability29 Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building technology? • Lack of support for AV systems. Old machines provided for AV for meetings. Lack ofcomms InfrastructureQ: Are there any other comments you would like to share about your experience with the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre? • The building is beautiful but not always practical. The first floor is the only spaceconducive to socializing/meeting, and it is always full with nowhere to sit. This severelylimits the ability for people to enjoy the centre (i.e they don't want to eat at loafebecause there's nowhere to sit on the first floor). It's a building where you pass through,or stay for only a few minutes, unless you're attending a private event.• It is a beautiful building that gets a lot of use.• Can we put up some whiteboards in the rooms downstairs? That would be really helpfulto the teams working in the e@UBC office space• This building has recently become my favourite place to study. The piano is honestly myfavourite part, it helps me focus and relax, and creates a really welcoming atmosphere.If the acoustics were slightly different in the building such that we would be able to hearthe piano in the cafe that would be nice but that's okay! Overall, I love this space,everyone is always very kind, and the ambiance is greate and allows for me toproductive without being stressed. If the Loafe Cafe would allow for UBC card so I canstop spending all my real money on cappuccinos that would be greate :)• I LOVE the self-playing piano; it is one of the best parts of the Alumni Centre!• Yes, would be a great place to gather professional networking events with graduatefrom different departments like Liu, MBA  with companies that want to hire UBCstudents!• Could use more seating but I understand that it's not intended for as much individualwork spaces Could be more lenient about ppl sitting on the floor if they wish to (it oftenfeels better on my back)• You should have more chairs in the lounge area. Also, when they have Toons at Noon,the musician is supposed to talk about the piece, and usually I cant hear what they aresaying.• There should be more outlets to plug into in the lounge areas• There is limited space for socializing. This is unfortunate because in my opinion it is thenicest building on campus and one which I would like to be able to have more meetingsin.• Lack of desktop support for staff and visitors. Inconsistent support from IT for desktopand AV• As an Alumni who came to this space before I was a Masters student I really enjoy thisspace a lot. Especially the piano and natural light. However, I could never actually use it,especially the seating area near the piano, as there where so many students using thespace to study. It would be really nice if there was some available seating where Alumnicould meet and sit down to talk that was not taken up with people on their laptops.30 • The furniture is very comfortable. The building is inviting. Our department has used thebuilding for catered luncheons and I found it very luxurious and well maintained. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report SOCIO-TECHNICAL POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION [Pilot Study at Robert H Lee Alumni Centre] By Kerry Shaw  University of British Columbia APPP 506 December 20, 2017 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. iiExecutive Summary ....................................................................................................................... iii1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................11.1 Project Background.....................................................................................................................11.2 Project Purpose...........................................................................................................................11.3 Project Objectives .......................................................................................................................22 Post Occupancy Evaluation Overview....................................................................................23 Methodology..........................................................................................................................43.1 POE Template Preparation..........................................................................................................43.2 POE Pilot Study ...........................................................................................................................64 Robert H Lee Alumni Centre POE ...........................................................................................75 POE Pilot Results ....................................................................................................................86 Discussion...............................................................................................................................96.1 Indicative Level POE....................................................................................................................96.2 Integrated Project Design ...........................................................................................................97 Conclusions and Recommendations ....................................................................................128 Bibliography .........................................................................................................................14Appendix A Building Occupant IEQ Survey ..............................................................................17Appendix B Alumni Centre POE Pilot Tasks Overview .............................................................18Appendix C Alumni Centre Post Occupancy Evaluation ..........................................................23iiiExecutive SummaryThe University of British Columbia (UBC) is developing a Green Building Plan to manage futureacademic and residential building projects on campus. Numerous tasks are underway tosupport the Green Building Plan’s development and deliver improved building projects.Currently, campus building projects often have significant performance gaps between designand operation. UBC however, does not have a rigorous process to define these gaps and todisseminate lessons learned for future building projects. Post occupancy evaluation (POE) hasbeen suggested as a potential tool that can provide a systematic and rigorous way tounderstand building performance and communicate project successes and failures.POE is a building performance assessment process completed after the building has beenoccupied for a period. It combines typical performance indices (ex. energy consumption) withoccupant indoor environmental quality (IEQ) satisfaction levels to form a holistic buildingperformance evaluation. POE results can help identify current problems and inform solutionswithin the building studied. POE can also provide valuable information to improve future designprojects.This project examined if POE was a suitable tool for UBC to support the Green Building Plan’sobjective to communicate lessons learned between building projects. A potential POE processfor use in UBC Core buildings was created based on best practices. The POE process was thenpiloted in the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre (Alumni Centre).The pilot study indicated that the POE process is relatively simple to implement and requiresminimal resources. The Occupant IEQ Survey was easy for respondents to use and requiredminimal effort, while still providing data on a diverse range of topics. Even with somewhatlimited survey respondents (N=41), the POE summary report provided a comprehensivebuilding performance summary.The pilot study results indicate that POE is a suitable tool for understanding actual buildingperformance. Additionally, with widespread use POE will become a useful tool for capturingproject lessons and informing future campus building projects. POE is recommended forimplementation at UBC. Moving forward work should focus on adjusting and improving the POEtemplate and execution process, as well as confirming program logistics and ownership.11 Introduction1.1 Project BackgroundThe University of British Columbia (UBC) is developing a Green Building Plan in support of thecampus’ 20 year sustainability strategy (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. a). The plan willguide all future academic and residential building projects on campus towards a net positivedesign focused on human and ecological wellbeing (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. a).Stakeholder workshops held in January 2017 helped develop a task list to support the GreenBuilding Plan (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. a). One workshop sub action was toinvestigate using Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) to help disseminate lessons learned fromcampus building projects.The University of British Columbia’s (UBC’s) core buildings generated 71% of UBC Vancouver’stotal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2016 (White & Einarson, 2017). UBC core buildingsundergo LEED certification, but are insufficiently studied after occupancy. A high level POE isincluded in the Board 4 report delivered to UBC’s board of governors, but this report does notprovide sufficient information to understand the actual building performance.1.2 Project PurposePost occupancy evaluation (POE) is a method for evaluating building performance afterconstruction is completed and the building is occupied (Tookaloo & Smith, 2015). POE focusesnot only on operating resource consumption, but also on occupant satisfaction (Tookaloo &Smith, 2015). Additionally, POE offers a way to compare design with actual performance and indoing so help better inform future building design work (Gocer, Hua, & Gocer, 2015). Despitethe myriad benefits, POEs are infrequently conducted by building stakeholders (Newsham,Mancini, & Birt, 2009).Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a North American green buildingprogram that targets improving building sustainability (Newsham, Mancini, & Birt, 2009). POEsoffer a method for LEED certified building owners and operators to gauge actual buildingperformance versus the predicted performance. This information can be used to help assesshow effective LEED certification is at lowering resource consumption and improving occupantsatisfaction (Newsham, Mancini, & Birt, 2009).LEED Gold certification is mandatory at UBC for all new or heavily renovated core buildings(UBC Sustainability, n.d.). LEED certified buildings are delivering energy savings overconventional designs (Turner & Frankel, 2008). However, for more than 50% of LEED buildings,the energy savings vary more than 25% from the predicted design values (Turner & Frankel,2008). UBC has noted similar variability between actual and predicted energy consumption incampus buildings. Often this discrepancy is caused by a poor accounting of socio technical2factors within the energy model (Summerfield, Oreszczyn, Pathan, & Hong, 2009). Sociotechnical factors are the interactions between the occupants and the building and its services(Summerfield, Oreszczyn, Pathan, & Hong, 2009).This project aims to use POE to understand performance gaps between actual and predictedmetrics, as well as to assess the building holistically and understand how the space isappreciated. The POE can then be used as a communication tool to help disseminate lessonslearned and to improve future building design.1.3 Project ObjectivesThis project will create a systematic method for POEs in core campus buildings to support theGreen Building Plan. This will include developing a POE template for core buildings based onbest practices. The POE template will then be piloted at the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre(Alumni Centre) at UBC’s Vancouver campus. The project is focussed on answering thefollowing questions:1. Is Post Occupancy Evaluation a suitable tool for disseminating actual buildingperformance?2. What are current best practices for POEs?3. What might a POE process look like at UBC?2 Post-­‐Occupancy Evaluation OverviewPOEs systematically assess building performance against various criteria (Preiser, Rabinowitz, &White, 2015). In practice, POE is typically used to support one of the following goals:• Benchmarking• Evaluating building design approach• Problem investigation (Palmer, 2009)POE results also provide various benefits over the short, medium, and long term, which aredenoted in Figure 2 1 below.5Background research was conducted before preparing the POE template. This included aninterview with Ghazal Ebrahimi, a PhD candidate at UBC’s Institute for Resources, Environmentand Sustainability. Additionally, existing POEs were referenced to understand typical processand reporting structure. This included the iiSBE 2014 study of UBC’s CIRS Building (Chu, et al.,2014) and the UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportPOE of UBC’s Aquatic Ecosystem Research Laboratory (Tan, Lei, & Winardi, 2012). Other keyreferences are the Post Occupancy Evaluation for Multi Unit Residential Buildings Guide forAdministrators (Open Green Building Society, 2016) and the Centre for the Built Environment,specifically David Lehrer’s LEED Post Occupancy Evaluation: Taking Responsibility for theOccupants presentation slides (2006).The POE template was prepared based on the background research. This included a summaryreport template, a building performance index table template, and a building occupant survey.The survey covers ten different indoor environmental quality (IEQ) topics, which are listedbelow.1. Overall Satisfaction2. Social Environment3. Layout4. Thermal Comfort5. Air Quality6. Lighting7. Acoustics8. Cleanliness and Maintenance9. Furniture10. TechnologyThese topics, and the questions supporting them, represent a compilation of best practice IEQtopics (ex. thermal comfort, lighting, acoustics), as well as items from UBC InfrastructureDevelopment’s Informal Learning Spaces studies and social environment considerations.The social environment topic is an important inclusion to ensure the POE aligns with UBC’sGreen Building Plan’s holistic themes, which are concerned with more than technical buildingperformance (Campus + Community Planning, n.d. b). The social environment questions arehowever, a novel inclusion within a building occupant survey. This topic was developed throughcollaboration with project mentors and Fiona Jones, a Special Projects Researcher at HCMAArchitecture + Design. Additionally, this topic was informed by reviewing the WELL CommunityStandard Pilot (International WELL Building Institute, 2017a), Gehl Studio’s Public Life DiversityToolkit (Gehl Studio SF, 2015), and Colantonio and Dixon’s report on Measuring SociallySustainable Urban Regeneration in Europe (2009). Interestingly, both the WELL CommunityStandard (International WELL Building Institute, 2017a) and WELL Building Standard require9noted in Section 3.1. The average survey completion time was 8 minutes and 22 seconds, with arange from 2 minutes 50 seconds to 57 minutes and 13 seconds. The survey managed tocapture a large amount of data on a wide range of topics in a relatively short period of time.Full historical energy and water consumption data were available on SkySpark for the AlumniCentre. This enabled complete building performance index calculations. Aside from UBC Alumnistaff numbers, no information on building occupancy was available, which limited both the POEperformance and the occupant survey analysis.6 Discussion6.1 Indicative Level POEThe pilot POE demonstrated that an indicative level POE can be useful to gather comprehensivebuilding operations data. Energy and water data is readily available and easy to incorporate intothe POE. The occupant survey was simple to use, while covering a wide range of topics.The limited resources available, in terms of both time and experience, for survey marketing andgathering, limited the total number of responses. Additionally, external factors, such asgraduation week, poster regulations in the building, and waits for unexpected approvalsimpacted the number of building occupant IEQ survey respondents.The Alumni Centre Operations Manager indicated that some staff found some of thedemographic questions clunky. Particularly when asked first if they work in the building andthen asked how many hours a day they spend in the building. The survey logic could beadjusted for better flow for the various respondent types.The Alumni Centre POE summary report (see Appendix C) is somewhat unwieldy to navigate.The report is primarily statistical analysis from the occupancy survey, presented with bar charts.The reporting method could likely be integrated into an online database, perhaps similar instructure to SkySpark, to allow users to better focus on items of interest and to compare resultsbetween buildings, which will help disseminate lessons learned.There is much more data analysis that can be performed with the occupant survey, but due toproject time constraints this was not possible. Additional analysis would provide more clarityand insight in understanding building performance.6.2 Integrated Project DesignIntegrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a building project delivery method focussed on collaborationto optimize the whole project (The American Institute of Architects, California Council [AIACC],2014). IPD projects are characterized by having the following items for all key participants:• Continuous project involvement10• Aligned business interests by sharing risks and rewards• Joint project control• Interlocking or multi party agreements• Limited liability (AIACC, 2014)Figure 6 1 below highlights the IPD approach.Figure 6 1: IPD Project Essentials (AIACC, 2014)A high level comparison between the traditional design process and an IPD project is given inFigure 6 2 below. This figure clearly shows IPD’s collaborative approach with almost all keyteam members contributing to the Conceptualization phase.11Figure 6 2: IPD versus Traditional Design Process (AIACC, 2014)IPD projects have been found to offer statistically significant improvements over traditionalproject methods over a range of considerations, including:• Quality• Schedule• Project changes• Communication• Environmental impacts• Finances (El Asmar, Hanna, & Loh, 2013)IPD projects result in better quality buildings without increasing financial expenditures (ElAsmar, Hanna, & Loh, 2013). Additionally, stakeholders, especially project owners, reportsignificant satisfaction with the IPD approach (Cheng, Allison, Dossick, & Monson, 2015).POE, with its emphasis on feedback (Bordass & Leaman, 2005) and continuous improvement(Waltz, Gouvin, & Forth, n.d.) provides a good compliment to the IPD approach. Shifting148 BibliographyAmerican Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers [ASHRAE]. (2006).ASHRAE GreenGuide: The design, construction, and operation of sustainable buildings(2nd Edition ed.). Amsterdam: Butterworth Heinemann.Bordass, B., & Leaman, A. (2005). Making feedback and post occupancy evaluation routine 1: Aportfolio of feedback techniques. Building Research & Information, 33(4), 347–352.Campus + Community Planning. (n.d. a). Green Building Plan. Retrieved December 15, 2017,from https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/projects consultations/consultationsengagement/green building planCampus + Community Planning. (n.d. b). Themes & Resources. Retrieved September 23, 2017,from Green Building Plan: https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/projectsconsultations/consultations engagement/green building plan/themes resourcesCheng, R., Allison, M., Dossick, C. S., & Monson, C. (2015). IPD: Performance, Expectations, andFuture Use A Report On Outcomes of a University of Minnesota Survey. University ofMinnesota.Chu, A. M., Ebrahimi, G., Scannell, L., Save, P., Hodgson, M., Bartlett, K., & Cavka, B. T. (2014,January 26). Building Performance Evaluation for the Centre for Interactive Research onSustainability, Vancouver, British Columbia. Retrieved October 12, 2017, fromhttp://iisbecanada.ca/umedia/cms_files/Report_ _CIRS_Final_May_2015.pdfColantonio, A., & Dixon, T. (2009).Measuring Socially Sustainable Urban Regeneration inEurope. Oxford Institute for Sustainable Development (OISD), School of the BuiltEnvironment, Oxford.El Asmar, M., Hanna, A. S., & Loh, W. Y. (2013, November). Quantifying Performance for theIntegrated Project Delivery System as Compared to Established Delivery Systems.Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139(11).Gehl Studio SF. (2015, April). Public Life Diversity Toolkit. Retrieved October 26, 2017, fromhttps://gehlinstitute.org/wpcontent/uploads/2017/02/Gehl_PublicLifeDiversityToolkit_Pages 1.pdfGocer, O., Hua, Y., & Gocer, K. (2015, July). Completing the missing link in building designprocess: Enhancing post occupancy evaluation method for effective feedback forbuilding performance. Building and Environment, 89, 14 27.International WELL Building Institute. (2017a). The WELL Community Standard Pilot. RetrievedOctober 26, 2017, from15https://www.wellcertified.com/sites/default/files/resources/CommunityStandard_WELL.pdfInternational WELL Building Institute. (2017b). Post Occupancy Surveys. Retrieved October 27,2017, from http://standard.wellcertified.com/mind/post occupancy surveysLehrer, D. (2006, November 1). LEED Post Occupancy Evaluation: Taking Responsibility for theOccupants . Retrieved September 23, 2017, from Center for the Built Environment (CBE):https://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/research/pdf_files/Lehrer2006_BetterBricksPOE.pdfNewsham, G. R., Mancini, S., & Birt, B. J. (2009). Do LEED certified buildings save energy? Yes,but... Energy and Buildings, 41, 897 905.Open Green Building Society. (2016). Post Occupancy Evaluation for Multi Unit ResidentialBuildings Guide for Administrators. Retrieved September 23, 2017, from Post OccupancyEvaluation Tool: http://www.opengreenbuilding.org/portfolio/post occupancyevaluation tool/Palmer, J. (2009). Post Occupancy Evaluation of Buildings. In D. Mumovic, & M. Santamouris, AHandbook of Sustainable Building Design & Engineering: An Integrated Approach toEnergy, Health and Operational Performance (pp. 349 357). London: Earthscan.Preiser, W. F., Rabinowitz, H. Z., & White, E. T. (2015). Post Occupancy Evaluation. New York,NY: Routledge Revivals.Summerfield, A., Oreszczyn, T., Pathan, A., & Hong, S. (2009). Occupant Behaviour and EnergyUse. In D. Mumovic, & M. Santamouris, A Handbook of Sustainable Building Design &Engineering: An Integrated Approach to Energy, Health and Operational Performance(pp. 359 369). London: Earthscan.Tan, S., Lei, Y. Z., & Winardi, A. (2012, April 30). Post Occupancy Evaluation of AquaticEcosystem Research Laboratory. Retrieved September 23, 2017, fromhttps://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/Post%20Occupancy%20Evaluation%20of%20AERL_UP.pdfThe American Institute of Architects, California Council [AIACC]. (2014, July 15). IntegratedProject Delivery: An Updated Working Definition. Retrieved October 23, 2017, fromhttp://www.aiacc.org/wp content/uploads/2014/07/AIACC_IPD.pdfTookaloo, A., & Smith, R. (2015). Post Occupancy Evaluation in Higher Education. ProcediaEngineering, 118, 515 521.Turner, C., & Frankel, M. (2008, March 4). Energy Performance of LEED® for New ConstructionBuildings. Retrieved December 15, 2017, from New Buildings Institute:16https://newbuildings.org/sites/default/files/Energy_Performance_of_LEEDNC_Buildings Final_3 4 08b.pdfUBC Sustainability. (n.d.). LEED @ UBC. Retrieved December 15, 2017, fromhttps://sustain.ubc.ca/campus initiatives/buildings/leed ubcWaltz, K., Gouvin, S. M., & Forth, M. (n.d.). The Project Afterwards: Using Post OccupancyEvaluations to Improve Healthcare Environments. Retrieved December 12, 2017, fromhttp://healtharchitects.org/Documents/Project%20Afterwards%202016%2011%2015.pdfWhite, M., & Einarson, R. (2017, May 30). 2016 Carbon Neutral Action Report. RetrievedSeptember 24, 2017, fromhttps://sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/files/2016CarbonNeutralActionReportFINAL.pdf17Appendix A Building Occupant IEQ Survey25	of	26Page	23Thank	You!Are	there	any	other	comments	you	wou d	 ke	to	share	about	your	exper ence	w th	the	Robert	H	Lee	A umn 	Centre?Type	here23Appendix C Alumni Centre Post-­‐Occupancy Evaluationii Table of Contents 1 General Building Information .....................................................................................................1 2 Building Systems & Services Summary ........................................................................................2 2.1 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) .................................................................... 2 2.2 Electrical ....................................................................................................................................... 3 2.3 Lighting ......................................................................................................................................... 3 2.4 Building Management System ..................................................................................................... 3 2.5 Architectural ................................................................................................................................. 3 2.6 Renovation / Retrofit Summary.................................................................................................... 3 3 Findings .....................................................................................................................................3 3.1 Energy ........................................................................................................................................... 3 3.2 Water ............................................................................................................................................ 4 3.3 Indoor Environmental Quality ...................................................................................................... 4 3.4 Occupancy .................................................................................................................................. 21 3.5 Building Service Log .................................................................................................................... 22 3.6 Additional Items ......................................................................................................................... 24 4 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 24 Appendix A Building Performance Indicators ............................................................................... 26 Appendix B Supplemental Occupant Satisfaction Survey Results ................................................. 27 Appendix C Building Service Requests List ................................................................................... 313 The heat recovery ventilators provide heating and cooling for the rest of the building. HRV-1 services the basement, Level 1 and Level 2 (except Rooms 221 and 223). HRV-2 services Level 3. The fan coils are located in ceiling spaces throughout the building and are fed from HRV-1 and HRV-2. FC-31 and FC-32 provide cooling to the electrical room. Hot water for heating and for domestic hot water is supplied from a connection to UBC’s Academic District Energy System (ADES). Cold water for cooling is supplied by a temporary, rental chiller. A new permanent chiller will be installed and commissioned soon. The condensing boilers are natural gas fired and provide back-up heat to both the heat exchange system supplying the domestic hot water system and the building heating system. The building thermostats can be adjusted by the occupants between 19oC and 23oC. The average temperature set point is 21.8oC. 2.2 Electrical An emergency generator supplies power to smoke exhaust fans and make-up air door operators. Emergency lighting is serviced by the campus Uninterruptable Power Supply. 2.3 Lighting Sound and motion sensitivity sensors control the lights. The atrium is equipped with LED Lighting, which minimizes light changes in this difficult to access area. 2.4 Building Management System The building systems are all operated and controlled through the Building Management System. 2.5 Architectural The windows are equipped with vertical stripes to reduce bird collisions. 2.6 Renovation / Retrofit Summary An air to water heat pump (ASHP-1) originally supplied hot water for heating and cold water for cooling. ASHP-1 functioned adequately for heating loads, but failed at providing chilled water for cooling. As a result, ASHP-1 was decommissioned. The building was connected to the ADES on June 26, 2017 to hot water for heating loads. A temporary, rental chiller was installed to provide for the cooling loads.  3 Findings 3.1 Energy Energy consumption was obtained for the entire building lifetime through October 2017. The Alumni Centre started reporting the ADES hot water consumption in September 2017. Therefore, there is not sufficient data yet to include the ADES in the energy analysis. The building performance analysis only considers the two-year period between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2017. The energy usage over this period is summarized below. 5 Figure 3-1: Building Occupant Survey Respondent Ages (N=41) Figure 3-2: Building Occupant Survey Respondent Role (N=41) 44% of the survey respondents work in the Alumni Centre, 37% full-time staff and 7% part-time staff. Figure 3-3 below further breaks down where these Alumni Centre employees work. Thirteen Alumni UBC staff responded, which is a 37% response rate for this group. 24%29%17%22%7%0%18 - 2425 - 3435 - 4445 - 5455 - 6565+0%2%15%20%22%41%UBC FacultyVisitorUBC AlumniUBC Graduate StudentUBC Undergraduate StudentUBC Staff7 3.3.1 Overall Impressions The figures below highlight how the building occupant survey respondents use the space. Figure 3-5: Frequency of Visitation (N=41) Figure 3-6: Typical Visit Length (N=41) 54%34%12%0%DailyWeeklyMonthlyLess than once a month10%12%32%46%Under 30 minutes30 - 60 minutes1 - 2 hoursMore than 2 hours8 Figure 3-7: Typical Activity within Space (N=41) Figure 3-8: Most Frequently Used Space (N=41) The overall building satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-9 below. The respondents who reported some level of dissatisfaction attributed this to the physical environment (ex. temperature, air quality, lighting, noise, cleanliness). 5%7%7%10%20%22%29%Other (please specify)SocializingWaiting for classEatingQuiet workWork (employment)Group work / meetings0%0%0%2%2%5%7%12%15%27%29%Main floor meeting roomsSecond floor lounge seatingClassroomsJack Poole Hall (second floor event space)Third Floor Alumni LoungeLoafe Cafee@UBC Accelerator Meeting SpaceMain Floor Office Spacee@UBC Office SpaceThird Floor Office SpaceMain floor lounge seating11 Figure 3-12: Building Layout Satisfaction (N=41) The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-13 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-13: Factors Contributing to Layout Dissatisfaction (N=5) 3.3.4 Thermal Comfort Most respondents (78%) could not or did not know if they could control the temperature of the space. For the 22% indicating they have control, Figure 3-14 below shows how frequently they do control the temperature with a variety of instruments (The remaining responses were ‘Not Applicable’, which are not shown in the figure below). 0%0%12%12%22%34%20%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied40%40%40%60%60%60%Difficult to find facilities (ex.washrooms, water fountains)Insufficient storageInsufficient spaceOther (please specify)Cramped / crowded seating areasLack of privacy14 Figure 3-18: Factors Contributing to Temperature Dissatisfaction (N=13) 3.3.5 Air Quality The building air quality satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-19 below. Figure 3-19: Building Air Quality Satisfaction (N=41) 0%0%8%8%8%8%8%15%15%23%31%38%38%46%54%69%77%Drafts from windowsHeat from cooking equipmentThermostat is adjusted by other peopleAir movement is too highHumidity too high (damp)Heat from office equipmentHot/cold surfaces (ex. floor, windows, walls)Drafts from ventsHumidity too low (dry)Air movement is too lowAir from vents is too hot/coldThermostat is inaccessibleTemperature is too coldTemperature is hotter/colder in my area…Temperature is too hotHeating/cooling system does not respondIncoming sun2%5%5%20%15%29%24%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied15 The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-20 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-20: Factors Contributing to Air Quality Dissatisfaction (N=5) 3.3.6 Lighting Figure 3-21 below indicates the types of lighting controls accessible to the respondent. Figure 3-21: Available Lighting Controls (N=41) 0%0%0%0%0%20%20%20%20%20%40%40%Staining or mould growthAir movement is too lowAir movement is too highCondensation/fogging on insides of windowsHumidity too high (damp)Air is not cleanMouldy / musty smellsOther odoursHumidity too low (dry)Other (please specify)Air is stuffy / staleCooking smells2%12%15%39%46%46%Other (please specify)Window blinds or shadesLight dimmerTask lighting (ex. desk light)Light switchNone of the above17 Figure 3-23: Factors Contributing to Lighting Dissatisfaction (N=9) 3.3.7 Acoustics The building acoustics satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-24 below. Figure 3-24: Building Acoustic Satisfaction (N=41) 0%0%0%11%11%11%11%33%33%44%44%67%Not enough artificial lightFlickering lightsLack of task lightingToo darkToo much daylightArtificial lighting colourShadowsToo brightOther (please specify)Not enough daylightReflections on screensToo much artificial light5%7%5%17%27%24%15%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied18 The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-25 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-25: Factors Contributing to Acoustic Dissatisfaction (N=7) 3.3.8 Cleanliness & Maintenance The building cleanliness and maintenance satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-26 below. 0%14%14%14%14%29%29%29%43%57%57%71%Office equipment noisePlumbing system noiseCooking noiseVibrations (ex. from traffic, doors slamming)Other (please specify)People overhearing my private conversationsExterior noiseWhite NoisePeople talking in neighbouring areasExcessive echoingNoises from other interior spacesMechanical system noise (HVAC)20 3.3.9 Furnishings The building furnishings satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-28 below. Figure 3-28: Building Furnishings Satisfaction (N=41) The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-29 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-29: Factors Contributing to Furnishings Dissatisfaction (N=6) 3.3.10 Technology The building technology satisfaction levels are given in Figure 3-30 below. 2%5%7%10%20%41%15%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied0%17%17%17%33%67%83%Poor aestheticsDamaged or stained furnishingsFurnishings unsuited to taskOther (please specify)Poor qualityFurnishings are uncomfortableInsufficient furniture21 Figure 3-30: Building Technology Satisfaction (N=41) The factors contributing to dissatisfactory responses are summarized in Figure 3-31 below. NOTE: Respondents could choose as many responses as applied. Figure 3-31: Factors Contributing to Technology Dissatisfaction (N=2) 3.4 Occupancy Minimal occupancy information was available for the POE. There are 35 Alumni UBC staff who work in the Alumni Centre.  0%0%5%17%27%24%27%Very UnsatisfiedModerately UnsatisfiedSlightly UnsatisfiedNeutralSlightly SatisfiedModerately SatisfiedVery Satisfied0%50%50%50%50%100%Insufficient audio visual equipmentSlow WiFiBroken audio visual equipmentAudio visual equipment is difficult touseOther (please specify)Inconsistent WiFi22 The Alumni Centre’s LEED Submission documentation was prepared assuming an occupancy of 57 full-time equivalents and 189 transients. 3.5 Building Service Log The Alumni Centre Service Log was provided by the Facilities Manager. The log provides an unbiased account of the actual service needs the building has incurred. The log compiles all service calls that have occurred since January 2016. A total of 424 service requests have been made over that period. Figure 3-32 below shows the breakdown by request type.  The two most frequent request types unfortunately do not have clearly described request types (Other Maintenance Request – 48%, and Temperature Adjustment – 13%). Other Maintenance Requests comprises a very broad range of items, from HVAC equipment malfunctions, to soap dispensers falling off the wall. The 73 Customer-Funded Orange Zone items are excluded from Figure 3-32. These are requests funded by external customers, for example film production companies filming in the building, and are not considered service requests. The full list of service requests, showing request type and description, is given in Appendix C  23 Figure 3-32: Alumni Centre Service Log Summary (N=351) 0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.6%0.6%0.6%0.6%1.1%1.7%2.8%3.7%6.3%7.4%10.0%12.5%48.4%SpillGarbage OverflowingMinor building DeficienciesFire Protection ImpairmentBroken fixed seating/table in classroomWashroom Out of Toilet Paper, Hand Paper,SoapPest Control requiredTechnical ServicesAdjust continuous running of toilet/ sink/urinal/ water fountainStuck or malfunctioning elevatorReset tripped circuit in fuse boxRepair leak from plumbing fixtureChange burnt out light bulbRepair lock/door closing mechanismRepair plugged toilet/ sink/ urinalAdjust temperature in room/areaOther Maintenance Request24 3.6 Additional Items There are some additional items to highlight for the Alumni Centre based on discussions with the Facilities Manager. These are briefly discussed below. The air to water heat pump (ASHP-1) failure is the only major concern the building has had. The equipment was gutted and all parts replaced to try to get it functioning. The equipment was sourced from an Italian company and all the manuals were written in Italian. The language barrier also made service calls difficult.  The main floor Alumni UBC office is equipped with a large sliding door. The door is very heavy and difficult to open. It has also frequently come off its rails. The initial handle provided with the door was a flush style and did not provide sufficient leverage to open the heavy door. The door was retrofitted with a handle-style pull. The gas fireplace located in the main floor lounge emitted a gas odour last year. The fireplace was disassembled and the supplier replaced a part fixing the problem. Gas odour however, was noted in late October 2017 as well, which the facilities team fixed. The exhaust piping design is believed to somewhat contribute to the odours. 4 Recommendations There is an overall high level of indoor environmental satisfaction with the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre. Therefore, a more detailed POE is not recommended. Additionally, as there are no specific areas that have low satisfaction ratings, no specific field measurements (ex. lumen level, carbon dioxide concentration) are recommended. Energy consumption in the Alumni Centre is significantly higher than the predicted model. An American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Level 1 audit is recommended. The audit will provide more detailed insights into the discrepancy seen between actual and predicted energy usage. According to the LEED Submission documentation (EA credit 5), all nine different end use items are metered. If sub-meters are available, the energy audit should compile this sub-metering information and see which specific end use items do not match their predicted energy consumption. The building hours of operation provided by the operations manager do not match with the HVAC schedule provided by the facilities manager. The energy model used for the LEED Submission assumed Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB) Schedule A occupancy for office space and MNECB Schedule C for all other spaces. A difference between the modelled operating schedule and the actual operating schedule, could partially explain why actual energy consumption is higher than predicted. As part of the recommended Energy Audit, the equipment operating schedule should be verified and compared to that in the predicted energy model. Water consumption in the Alumni Centre is significantly lower than the predicted model. A closer analysis of the predicted water usage given in the LEED Submission documents is recommended to understand if the prediction is based on accurate data. Additionally, the 25 reported actual water consumption data should be confirmed to ensure that it includes all building water uses. 27 Appendix B Supplemental Occupant Satisfaction Survey Results The specified ‘Other’ responses to the Building Occupant Survey are compiled below. Q: Do you work in the Robert H. Lee Alumni Centre? If YES, where do you work in the Robert H. Lee Alumni Centre?• The Calendar• LiuQ: What do you typically use this space for? • I use it for full time work, meetings, eating, socializing, hosting events, networking.• A bit of all of them• Sitting in the roomQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building overall? • NoneQ: Please list any other social environment related issues that are important to you. • Non-recognition for continued respectful use of this space. Always have to validate tomanagement that I have been working here for 2 years.Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building layout? • lack of comfortable seating, lack of tables, open concept workspace• No natural light in work space• lack of natural light in the back office.Q: Please list any other temperature related issues that are important to you. • There have been no end of heating/cooling issues due to equipment failure.• We work in the basement, it used to be either too hot or too cold but that wasn't reallybothersome, what is really bad is the smell.  It always smells like burnt garlic, seems likeevery morning they burn garlic in the building like it's a scented candle - it would begreat if you could do something about the smell.• 3rd floor meeting rooms are more often than not colder than a refrigerator while therest of the building is usually too warm (and in summer too hot).Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building air quality? • strong smell of natural gas on 3rd floor when fireplace is on, horrible smells in JackPoole Hall which seem to come and go without rhyme or reasonQ: Please list any other air quality related issues that are important to you. • No access to fresh/clean air• It smells like Garlic!28 Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building lighting? • My office has no windows, which is pretty depressing• Glare/reflections off all the interior glass in this building is a major issue for me.• No blackout blinds for meetingsQ: Please list any other lighting related issues that are important to you. • The building brightness is completely dependent on the weather outside. When it issunny, it is too bright, when it is cloudy it is too dark.• No daylight in spaceQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building acoustics? • Music from Lobby sometimes intrudes in basement workspaceQ: Please list any other acoustics related issues that are important to you. • Sound echos/travels extensively in the building. Conversations on first floor can beheard on the 3rd floor• Sound travels so easily in this building. The café being an open space concept reallycauses lots of sound transfer. The welcome centre space is very echoey.• The main floor is usually very noisy and sometime they turn on the piano which doesn'treally help.• Events in Koerner lounge can sometimes be very noisyQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building cleanliness and maintenance? • washrooms are very dirty• Inability of maintenance team to dampen excessive ventilation noise above my desk• Lounge areas are sometimes dirty• 3rd floor lounges are not cleaned regularly (stains/food on tables, leftover food ontables, coffee cups, etc.), Sometimes for a couple of days...Q: Please list any other cleanliness and maintenance related issues that are important to you. • Many stains in carpets, holes in walls (unfinished from construction), furniture is wornout, the tile always looks dirty because of the material/pattern chosenQ: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building furnishings? • The double-width chairs in the public areas are nice from a design point of view, butprobably the most uncomfortable chairs I have ever used.Q: Please list any other furnishings related issues that are important to you. • Building furnishings are great, the only problem is that they have not worn well. All aredamaged from high use. Also not enough furniture/places to sit• Poor ergonomics• Comfort n availability29 Q: What factors contribute to your dissatisfaction with the building technology? • Lack of support for AV systems. Old machines provided for AV for meetings. Lack ofcomms InfrastructureQ: Are there any other comments you would like to share about your experience with the Robert H Lee Alumni Centre? • The building is beautiful but not always practical. The first floor is the only spaceconducive to socializing/meeting, and it is always full with nowhere to sit. This severelylimits the ability for people to enjoy the centre (i.e they don't want to eat at loafebecause there's nowhere to sit on the first floor). It's a building where you pass through,or stay for only a few minutes, unless you're attending a private event.• It is a beautiful building that gets a lot of use.• Can we put up some whiteboards in the rooms downstairs? That would be really helpfulto the teams working in the e@UBC office space• This building has recently become my favourite place to study. The piano is honestly myfavourite part, it helps me focus and relax, and creates a really welcoming atmosphere.If the acoustics were slightly different in the building such that we would be able to hearthe piano in the cafe that would be nice but that's okay! Overall, I love this space,everyone is always very kind, and the ambiance is greate and allows for me toproductive without being stressed. If the Loafe Cafe would allow for UBC card so I canstop spending all my real money on cappuccinos that would be greate :)• I LOVE the self-playing piano; it is one of the best parts of the Alumni Centre!• Yes, would be a great place to gather professional networking events with graduatefrom different departments like Liu, MBA  with companies that want to hire UBCstudents!• Could use more seating but I understand that it's not intended for as much individualwork spaces Could be more lenient about ppl sitting on the floor if they wish to (it oftenfeels better on my back)• You should have more chairs in the lounge area. Also, when they have Toons at Noon,the musician is supposed to talk about the piece, and usually I cant hear what they aresaying.• There should be more outlets to plug into in the lounge areas• There is limited space for socializing. This is unfortunate because in my opinion it is thenicest building on campus and one which I would like to be able to have more meetingsin.• Lack of desktop support for staff and visitors. Inconsistent support from IT for desktopand AV• As an Alumni who came to this space before I was a Masters student I really enjoy thisspace a lot. Especially the piano and natural light. However, I could never actually use it,especially the seating area near the piano, as there where so many students using thespace to study. It would be really nice if there was some available seating where Alumnicould meet and sit down to talk that was not taken up with people on their laptops.30 • The furniture is very comfortable. The building is inviting. Our department has used thebuilding for catered luncheons and I found it very luxurious and well maintained. SOCIO-TECHNICAL POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATIONROBERT H LEE ALUMNI CENTRE PILOTKERRY SHAW • APPP 506DECEMBER 13, 2017Agenda▷ UBC’s Green Building Plan▷ Why Post-Occupancy Evaluation?▷ Project Objectives▷ What is Post-Occupancy Evaluation?▷ Methodology▷ POE Pilot - Alumni Centre▷ Overall Project – Results, Discussion, Recommendations▷ AcknowledgementsWhy Post-Occupancy Evaluation?▷ Net Positive Building Goals▷ Comfortable environment▷ Incorporate Lessons Learned▷ Current Post-Occupant Process▷ Lessons are not passed along to future projects▷ Mistakes repeated▷ Design brief goals never verified▷ Certification is not enough▷ Energy use is often significantly higher than predicted Project Objectives▷ Determine if POE is a suitable tool▷ What are best practices?▷ What might process look like at UBC?What is Post-Occupancy Evaluation?▷ Understand building performance after it has been inhabited▷ Consumption analysis (Energy + Water)▷ Occupant Survey – Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ)Methodology▷ Make survey broadly applicable▷ Minimal resources required▷ Incorporate current best practices▷ Incorporate social environment▷ Incorporate elements of Informal Learning Spaces POESocial Environment Elements▷ Not typically included in POE▷ WELL Building Standard as reference▷ Key to ensuring Green Building Plan goals are met▷ Human wellbeing▷ Place-makingPOE Pilot Results - EnergyREFERENCEPREDICTED ACTUAL% DIFF vsREF.% DIFF vs PRED.EUI (kWh/m2.year) 351 132 197 -44% +50%ECI ($/m2.year) 19.15 10.25 15.23 -20% +49%POE Pilot Recommendations▷ More detailed IEQ analysis NOT required▷ No specific field testing▷ No investigative level POE▷ Energy Audit recommended▷ Examine sub-meters to highlight specific deviations from predicted energy model▷ Compare model assumptions to actual operations (ex. operating hours)POE Occupant Survey Statistics▷ Open for ~3 weeks▷ 71 Questions covering 10 IEQ topics▷ 41 completed responses▷ 37% of Alumni UBC Staff completed▷ 71% completion rate▷ Completion Time: 8 min 22 s▷ Response spike with emails▷ In-Person survey >50% of responsesOther Considerations▷ How to really achieve high performance buildings?▷ How to introduce accountability to design team?▷ Integrated Project Design (IPD)Recommendations▷ Indicative POEs useful, simple tool for UBC▷ Work Needed:▷ Easy way to add in occupancy information▷ Social factors should be improved by expert▷ Define logistics & departmental ownership▷ Secure funding & resources▷ Explore IPD for future building projects▷ Tie compensation to POE results

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