UBC Graduate Research

UBC Botanical Gardens Mapping Manual Leslie, Amanda; Cunningham, Emma; Pinneo, Gary; Tekano, Lauren; Gallipeau, Liz; Hacker, Paul; Joshi, Priya 2018-04-12

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program Student Research Report UBC Botanical Gardens Mapping Manual Amanda Leslie, Emma Cunningham, Gary Pinneo, Lauren Tekano, Liz Gallipeau, Paul Hacker, Priya Joshi  University of British Columbia VOL 500Themes: Biodiversity, Land April 12, 2018 Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.UBC BOTANICAL GARDENS MAPPING MANUAL Image Source: Google Earth (​https://earth.google.com/​)  1  Executive Summary The UBC Botanical Garden (UBCBG) plays an integral role in maintaining biodiversity across                         campus, acting as a hub of ecological interactions for thousands of plant, bird and insect                             species. To ensure continued success in this unique ecosystem, it is necessary to accurately                           map the location of each plant. Through the use of field measurements and GIS, this                             project aims to create a fully delineated representation of the UBCBG that can act as the                               basemap for long-term database project of plant species inventory.  The goals of this project are to: 1. Map the features within the UBCBG in order to: a. Accurately delineate garden boundaries. b. Track/update plant inventories at the garden bed level. 2. Create point-lines that represent the pathways and other features of interest throughout the Gardens using highly accurate GPS equipment.  Equipment  The follow equipments are required in order to successfully execute this project: 1. Ashtech FAST Survey GPS Receiver unit * 2. Rangefinder* 3. Total Station (for highly accurate elevation change detection)** 4. Garmin handheld GPS units** 5. ArcGIS Software*** * available from the Integrated Remote Sensing Studio (IRSS) lab in the Faculty of Forestry, 2424 Main Mall, contact: Nicholas Coops (​nicholas.coops@ubc.ca​)  ** available from the UBCBG Facility, contact: Egan Davis (​egan.davis@ubc.ca​) *** for inquiries regarding ArcGIS licences, contact: Susan Hunt (​susan.hunt@ubc.ca​)     2  Methodology Data Collection 1. Establish a naming convention for features, and plan a route to ensure points are                           consistently taken.  2. Calibrate all GPS units being used, to ensure that they are using the same                           coordinate systems. 3. Use a highly accurate GPS to collect GCPs for other relevant features, such as the                             food garden to verify accuracy of digitization (refer to appendix). Data Processing  1. Load GPS points into ArcMap.  2. Import GPS points into the “Botanical Garden.gdb” a. Note: this geodatabase already includes a sub-1m resolution georeferenced                 tiff of the Northern Garden obtained from Google Earth (July 28, 2017) and a                           mosaic of vancouver orthophotos (summer 2015) with a spatial resolution of                     7.5cm. b. The GPS points can be used to further enhance and validate digitized                       features. 3. Digitize desired features based on the georeferenced images in combination with                     collected point features using the “Drawing” or “Editor” toolbars in ArcMap.  a. Current feature layers can be updated, adjusted, and added to using Editor.   b. New feature layers can be added using the Draw toolbar. c. Update metadata in Attribute Table of created features as needed. Follow                     current Garden nomenclature when adding bed number, path names etc.          3  Advantages and Limitations of Current Methodology  Advantages 1. Ashtech GPS units are highly accurate. 2. Rangefinder and Total Station allow for accurate measurement of non-local                   features. 3. ArcGIS allows for easy and consistent methods of creating, editing and delineating                       features.   Disadvantages 1. Ashtech GPS unit can not be used in rain or snow. 2. Metallic objects near Garmin and Ashtech GPS units can cause error (i.e. glasses, cell                           phone, pen, etc.). 3. Measurement and mapping complexity increases when working in areas of high                     tree cover. 4. Garmin handheld GPS units are highly inaccurate (see Figure 1.).  5. Digitizing cannot delineate areas under tree cover or areas that have been changed                         since last the last image was taken.     4   Figure 1. ​GPS points taken directly above the corners of each raised bed in the UBCBG                               Food Garden (shown in green triangles). The majority of the measured points are                         inaccurate.    Recommendations  1. Integration into ArcGIS Pro. 2. Potential continued cooperation with the IRSS lab for loaning Rangefinder and                     Ashtech GPS unit (MGEM students should have access to equipment upon request). 3. Create a more fine-tuned methodology for working in tree-covered areas (by                     creating tie-points in open areas etc.), as we only tested this methodology in                         open-canopy areas.   4. Create a methodology for updating and delineating areas that have changed                     beyond available Google Earth imagery (i.e. the alpine garden). 5. Ensure a consistent and standardized framework is used when formatting and                     sharing data throughout the Botanical Gardens databases.  6. Use a highly accurate GPS to get GCPs for property boundary delineation (at Beryl’s                           discretion).  7. Better define level of detailed desired within the attribute tables and the features to                           be mapped in order to build next-steps.    5  Appendix   Map 1. ​High-detail map of the Food Garden (shown in green polygons) in relation to the                               location of other Garden assets in close proximity. 2015 Orthophoto obtained from                       Vancouver’s open data catalogue.   (​http://data.vancouver.ca/datacatalogue/2015orthoPhotos.htm​)    6   Map 2. ​Mapped features of the UBC Botanical Garden area.                 7  Using the Ashtech GPS unit Prepared by: Alex Graham, IRSS Lab (alexgraham@shaw.ca)  Link to Fast Survey Manual https://ashgps.com/mirror/master/FAST%20Survey/Manuals/FAST%20Survey_RM_D_en.pdf  1.      Set up the stake (pole) in the ground with antenna screwed into place and cable attached to antenna.  Raise the antenna to desired height.  You may wish to also set up the GPS unit holder, which clamps to the pole. Connect the antenna cable to the GPS unit.  Do your best to ensure that the pole is straight up and down using judgement and the small level on the pole.  ​Please keep the antenna cable end from contacting dirt!!   2.      Hold power button on left side of the unit to turn on. (May have to carefully peel the cover and use something pointy to get at the button). Tap Fast Survey and wait for load   3.      “Continue last job” will default to the last point file opened, alternatively, you can create a “new job” which will create a new .crd file equivalent to a blank job with no points and you will be prompted for job settings (coordinate system, tolerances, pole height). These settings can be changed at any time under FILE > JOB SETTINGS.   4.      When you are happy with the selected job file and settings go to ​EQUIP > Monitor Skyplot​ and ensure that ‘external antenna’ is showing.  Wait for the HRMS and VRMS to stabilize (may take a few minutes depending on sky field of view and weather).  If ‘internal antenna’ is showing, you may need to reconnect the antenna cable or try restarting Fast Survey or both.   5.      Go to ​EQUIP > Tolerances​.  Tolerances: HRMS – horizontal error (x, y) VRMS – vertical error (z) From your ‘MONITOR SKYPLOT’ and RMS values to decide what you will set tolerances. When measuring points, if the RMS values go above tolerances, readings will not be counted as valid.   6.      Go to ​EQUIP > GPS Rover > Receiver.​  The first drop down is the antenna model number.  Match the Antenna model with the number found on the bottom of the antenna (should be done by default).  Choose ‘vertical’, and set the antenna height (the value you have chosen for the pole height).  Elevation mask = 15.  ​See manual for details on any of these.   7.      Go to ​SURVEY > Store Points​.  By default the cursor is on the DESC (description) of point about to be measured.  Put a thorough description of what this point means to you so you can recognize it later.  Now click the ‘A’ (averaging).  Use the ‘By Time in min’ which will take 1 reading/sec.  The point stored will be an average of all those measurements.  8  Anything above 2 min (120 readings) should provide you with accurate estimate of the point.    8.      Repeat 7 for more points!   9.      Go to ​FILE > Points ​to see a list of collected points in your .crd file.   10.   Go to ​FILE > Import/Export ​to export and ASCII text file of your points.  This will be saved on the the SD card.                        Acknowledgements:  This project was a volunteer initiative carried out by the following individuals:  Beryl Zhuang, Curatorial Curator, UBC Botanical Gardens Sarah Eshpeter, SEEDS Biodiversity Coordinator Gary Pinneo, MGEM Student Paul Hacker, MGEM Student Amanda Leslie, MGEM Student Lauren Tekano, MGEM Student Liz Gallipeau, MGEM Student Emma Cunningham, Natural Resources Conservation Student Priya Divya Joshi, Forestry Graduate  9 

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