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Shifting Gears : Stadium Road Neighbourhood as a Leader in Connectivity Aono, Saki; Mah, Chris; Van Stavel, Sasha 2018-04-10

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Sustainability Program  Student Research Report          Shifting Gears: Stadium Road Neighbourhood as a Leader in Connectivity Chris Mah, Saki Aono, Sasha Van Stavel  University of British Columbia PLAN 526 Themes: Community, Land, Transportation April 10, 2018        Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Sustainability Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student research project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore, readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Sustainability Program representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”. SHIFTING GEARSUBC CAMPUS + COMMUNITY PLANNINGREPORT BY IN PARTNERSHIP WITHSAKI AONO CHRIS MAHSASHA VAN STAVELPhoto: UBC Communications & MarketingSTADIUM ROAD NEIGHBOURHOOD AS A LEADER IN CONNECTIVITYSHIFTING GEARS: STADIUM ROAD NEIGHBOURHOOD AS A LEADER IN CONNECTIVITY (2018). Report by Saki Aono, Chris Mah, and Sasha van StavelIn partnership with UBC Campus + Community PlanningACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWe would like to thank the team at UBC Campus + Community Planning for several months of contribution and collaboration on this project — in particular, Neal Lamontagne, Adam Hyslop, Liska Richer, Joanne Proft, Carole Jolly, and Gerry McGeough� This project would also not have been possible without the support, guidance, and leadership of SCARP faculty and instructors Maged Senbel, Clare Mochrie, and Erick Villagomez�i Table of ContentsEXECUTIVE SUMMARYINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 3SITE CONTEXT � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 3SRN LOCATION � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 4OUR INVOLVEMENT � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 5OUR PROJECT APPROACH � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 6OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 10GEOGRAPHIC SCALES � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 11NEEDSBASELINE CONDITIONS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 14TRANSPORTATION TARGETS � � � � � � � � � � � � �15TRAVEL TO, FROM, AND THROUGHOUT CAMPUS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �16PLANNING FOR A GROWING CAMPUS � � � �18CURRENT CHALLENGES � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �19NEEDS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 20STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS AND PLANNING APPROACHESSTRATEGIC DIRECTIONS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 23PLANNING APPROACHES � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 24FOCUS AREASFOCUS AREAS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 26INTERVENTIONS AND EVALUATIONINTERVENTIONS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 28ii EVALUATION  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 28RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDATIONS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 30I� EAST MALL: THE PEOPLE MOVER � � � � � 31CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES � � � � � 32RECOMMENDATION: NORTH-SOUTH SHUTTLE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 33RECOMMENDATION: REDUCED VEHICLE ACCESS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 35RECOMMENDATION: REALLOCATION OF STREET SPACE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 39II� WEST 16TH AVE: THE CONNECTOR � � �43CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES � � � � � 44RECOMMENDATION: DOWNSIZING � � � � � � 45RECOMMENDATION: FROM ROUND TO SQUARE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 48III� PARKING: FUTURE-PROOF DESIGN � �49RECOMMENDATION: REPURPOSABLE SPACE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 50IV� NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGN: HUMANIZED NETWORK � � � � � � �53RECOMMENDATION: (ALMOST) CAR-FREE NEIGHBOURHOOD � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 54GOING FORWARDGOING FORWARD � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 67REFERENCES � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 68iii APPENDICESAPPENDIX A: STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS � �70APPENDIX B: ALTERNATIVE INTERVENTIONS NOT INCLUDED IN RECOMMENDATIONS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 72EAST MALL � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 72EAST MALL � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 73EAST MALL � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 74WEST 16TH AVE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 75WEST 16TH AVE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 76WEST 16TH AVE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 77PARKING � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 78NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGN � � 80APPENDIX C: EVALUATION OF INTERVENTIONS � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 81APPENDIX D: LIMITATIONS � � � � � � � � � � � � �831 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe University of British Columbia is a leading institution in creating a place where students, faculty, and staff can live, work, play, learn, and interact� With their vision of creating a sustainable campus that promotes both community and environmental health, transportation is one of the key elements that needs to be addressed to meet their listed targets and goals� UBC is a proven regional trendsetter in sustainable transportation, which makes the university responsible for moving the agenda forward� As a result, the Shifting Gears provides a prime opportunity to plan a neighbourhood that supports the university’s existing values through a transportation and connectivity lens� Transportation and connectivity in this project entails fostering safe, efficient, and innovative connections that promote active and public modes of transportation to, from, and within the Stadium Road Neighbourhood� As a neighbourhood that is in its initial planning stages, this project was approached in a way to present comprehensive recommendations that respond to the campus’ existing conditions and needs� Therefore, this project includes a thorough review of existing campus policies and existing transportation conditions that led to the creation of a needs assessment to respond to the existing gaps in campus transportation� Given the scope of the project, these needs were addressed in four main focus areas near or within the site where interventions for transportation and connectivity can have the biggest impact� These areas include East Mall, West 16th, parking for the site, and neighbourhood movement design� Several different interventions were evaluated based on the project objectives, and the best performing intervention for each focus area was chosen and presented as our final recommendation� These recommendations support the current transportation values and behaviours of the potential SRN users while also promoting and accommodating a future where innovative and sustainable transportation technologies and designs become the norm at UBC� INTRODUCTIONPhoto: UBC Communications & Marketing3INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONUBC Stadium Road Neighbourhood (SRN) is a redevelopment project on a site where the current Thunderbird Stadium is situated� This redevelopment entails the creation of a new campus neighbourhood, and a redesign and potential relocation of the existing Thunderbird Stadium� SRN presents an opportunity to create a neighbourhood where UBC’s values regarding accessibility, sustainability, health, and adaptability are at the forefront of community and transportation development� Shifting Gears will guide the transportation and connectivity aspects of the SRN neighbourhood plan� As a new development, the neighbourhood is imagined as a place where the current transportation needs on and to/from campus are met, and stand out as a leader of change in the way our campus and region approaches transportation� Therefore, the aim of this project is create interventions that SITE CONTEXTStadium Road Neighbourhood is a proposed neighbourhood development site estimated to house 2,500+ residents, accommodate stadium events, and provide basic services and amenities� The new neighborhood is situated between Hawthorn Place and Wesbrook Village at the south end of UBC campus and links valuable cultural assets on campus such as the UBC Farm and Botanical Gardens� Photo: UBC Communications & Marketingenvision a neighbourhood that prioritizes sustainable and innovative forms of transportation and connectivity designs to help UBC meet and surpass their transportation targets� To best understand the connectivity needs and reflect UBC’s values, these interventions are a result of researching existing transportation conditions and trends at UBC, reviewing relevant transportation and connectivity precedence, and evaluating several interventions against four transportation and connectivity objectives�4INTRODUCTIONTCHANCELLOR BLVDWEST 16TH  AVENUEUNIVERSITY BLVDSW MARINE DRIVESW MARINE DRIVEWEST 16TH AVENUENStadium Road NeighbourhoodSTADIUM ROAD NEIGHBOURHOODCONTEXT MAP Bus LoopUBC Campus BoundaryTSRN LOCATION5INTRODUCTIONOUR INVOLVEMENTCurrently, UBC has ambitious goals and targets towards achieving sustainable transportation that reflect their commitment to create an exceptional learning environment� As a result, the campus has showcased a number of transportation designs and initiatives that promote sustainable modes of transportation within and to/from the Vancouver campus� However, during the most transformative time in urban transportation in over a century, transportation trends and behaviours are changing vastly at a rapid pace� The extent to which transportation will progress in the future remains uncertain� Thus, as newer forms of transportation are being introduced, it is high time to plan for the future to ensure that UBC’s vision is maintained� Given this context, our group aims to provide solutions that follow the existing trends in transportation uses, while also crafting ideas that imagine a transformative change in the transportation behavior on and to/from campus� This transformation entails new and innovative interventions that surpasses existing boundaries and foster sustainable connectivity within and to/from the SRN� Therefore, our role within the SRN planning process is to provide C+CP with a variety of transportation interventions to help plan a resilient neighbourhood that is able to adapt to the ever growing transformation in sustainable technology�FALL 2017 SPRING 2018 FALL 2018 2019-2021Draft Principles and Terms of ReferenceDevelop ideas, options, and indicators for successSRN plan options refinedStadium design and constructionSRN construction begins2023-SCARP StudioUBC CAMPUS + COMMUNITY PLANNING SRN PLAN TIMELINE6INTRODUCTIONOUR PROJECT APPROACHShifting Gears progresses from broad values to specific actions, starting with objectives and culminating in specific recommended interventions for the SRN neighbourhood plan� This comprehensive process is intended to ensure that all values, obstacles, and constraints are considered throughout the project�OBJECTIVESNEEDSSTRATEGIC DIRECTIONSFOCUS AREASINTERVENTIONSEVALUATIONRECOMMENDATIONS1.2.3.4.5.6.7.7INTRODUCTIONA focus area is a specific problem or opportunity area that will be investigated in detail� Given the large quantity of strategic directions identified and limited time for our project, four main focus areas around or within the site were selected that address several strategic directions� These areas were selected based on the ideas that were explored at the design charrette, feedback received from C+CP, and areas that are linked to several of the gaps identified in the needs assessment�4. FOCUS AREASAn objective is a value for transportation and connectivity in SRN� The values are based on the SRN Guiding Principles developed by UBC C+CP� Our team constructed SRN transportation and connectivity objectives by determining how transportation can affect C+CP’s guiding principles� The overarching goal of this project is to make recommendations that achieve these SRN transportation and connectivity objectives�1. OBJECTIVESUsing a needs assessment framework, a need is a component of one or more objectives that is currently lacking� Therefore, needs are the gaps that impede realization of the SRN objectives� These needs were constructed based on existing policy review, baseline conditions analysis, and UBC C+CP SRN community engagement feedback�2. NEEDSA strategic direction is a broad course of action intended to find potential solutions to one or more needs� Strategic directions are not intended to provide specific actions, but rather a general next step� Therefore under each need, a strategic direction was created to reflect the first step needed to overcome the gap between the objectives and reality�3. STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS8INTRODUCTIONAn intervention is a specific solution addressing the challenges and/or opportunities of one of the SRN focus areas� For each focus area, multiple alternative interventions have been designed by our team� A comprehensive list of all interventions can be found in the appendices of this document�5. INTERVENTIONSBased on our evaluation of interventions, the best performing interventions were refined and presented as final recommendations for UBC C+CP�7. RECOMMENDATIONSUsing a multiple account evaluation (MAE) framework, the performance of each intervention was measured qualitatively based on the four SRN connectivity objectives to help formulate our final recommendations� 6. EVALUATIONOBJECTIVESPhoto: Publicdesign�ca10OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVESIn today’s society, mobility is not one-dimensional� The way we move is constantly evolving to accommodate the needs and preferences of a diverse population� As such, it is important for our project to encompass multiple values, as set out in the SRN Guiding Principles by UBC C+CP� In order to have a clear framework for reaching educated and informed connectivity recommendations for the SRN that represent many unique people, there are four key transportation and connectivity objectives to ensure the guiding principles are met� These objectives are comprised of the major areas that can be affected in the SRN through transportation and connectivity solutions�Human MovementLow Impact LinksAccessible NeighbourhoodDynamic ConnectionsEncourage active transportation to promote physical, social, and mental health through movementConnect people and places through transportation modes and infrastructure that minimizes negative environmental impactEnsure people of all ages and abilities are able to get where they want to go, whether their destination is within or outside the SRNCreate adaptable connections that are flexible to changing user groups, weather, technologies, and other factors11OBJECTIVESSCALESLocalNeighbourhoodRegionalSTADIUM ROAD NEIGHBOURHOODUBC VANCOUVER CAMPUSMETRO VANCOUVERConnecting areas within SRN and its immediate surroundingsConnecting SRN with the rest of UBC campusConnecting SRN with areas outside of UBC campusGEOGRAPHIC SCALESTo enable holistic connectivity, it is essential to consider the objectives at multiple geographic scales� Mobility needs are not static and each trip a person makes is unique� People may be moving throughout their neighbourhood, making a quick local trip, or travelling across the region� As such, there are three geographic scales that are important to consider when attempting to achieve the SRN transportation and connectivity objectives�NEEDSPhoto: UBC Communications & Marketing13NEEDSFrom background policy review, baseline conditions analysis, and UBC Campus and Community Planning’s SRN community engagement feedback, a needs assessment was developed� There are several gaps that must be addressed in order for the SRN to meet the defined objectives at each geographic scale� This next section will outline the review of existing policy and baseline conditions, culminating in a needs assessment for the SRN�14NEEDSBASELINE CONDITIONSTo best understand the existing context of the SRN we evaluated guiding policies and plans, baseline conditions of existing transportation systems, and our partner’s SRN community engagement feedback� In order to succinctly categorize relevant transportation data that would provide us a platform to build from we asked four primary questions:1. What are UBC’s transportation targets?2. How do people travel to, from, and throughout UBC? 3. How do we plan for a growing campus?4. What are the current challenges for UBC’s transportation system across each mode?Source: UBC Campus + Community Planning15NEEDSThe University of British Columbia Vancouver Campus Plan part  1   campus plan synopsispart 1  of  3The University of British Columbia UBC Transportation Plan vancouver campusLand Use PlanThe University of British Columbia | Point Grey CampusCrescent RoadLower MallEast MallWest MallHealth Sciences MallOsoyoos CrescentAgronomy RoadThunderbird BoulevardAgricultural RoadMemorial RoadWalter Gage RoadStudent Union BlvdNW Marine DriveMain MallWesbrook MallWest 16th AvenueSW Marine DriveChancellor BoulevardUniversityEndowmentLands (UEL)Pacific Spirit Regional ParkF r as e r R iv e rStadium RoadAmended to June 2, 2015TRANSPORTATION TARGETSTo align our project with UBC’s larger visions, goals, and objectives, we reviewed existing UBC planning policy� Specific focus was on the UBC Land Use Plan, UBC Vancouver Campus Plan, and the UBC Transportation Plan�UBC’s visions and objectives outlined in overarching policy were considered and aligned with throughout Shifting Gears, specifically the transportation targets from the UBC Transportation Plan� By 2040, at least 2/3 of all trips to and from UBC will be made by walking, cycling, or transit� Maintain at least 50% of all trips to and from the campus on public transit�Target 1Reduce single occupant vehicles (SOV) travel to and from campus by 20% from 1996 levels� Maintain at least 30% reduction from 1997 levels in daily SOV trips per person to and from UBC�Target 2Maintain daily private automobile traffic at or less than 1997 levels�Target 316NEEDSTRAVEL TO, FROM, AND THROUGHOUT CAMPUSEVERYDAY TRAVELThe 2016 UBC Transportation Status Report (UBC 2017) proved extremely useful when answering this question and provided us with the following key trends:52% of trips to and from UBC are by public transit88% of on-campus movement is walking trips2% of trips to and from UBC are by cycle or footUBC has achieved a 30% reduction in single occupancy vehicle (SOV) trips per capita in the last 20 yearsTotal SOV trips have increased by 12% over the last 20 yearsvehicle (SOV)Public transitCycleWalkSingle occupant HOVOtherSource: 2016 UBC Transportation Status Report52%1% 1%37%8%1%Weekday mode share to and from campus88%6%3%2% 1%Weekday mode share on campus17NEEDSSTADIUM EVENT TRAVELBecause SRN is home to one of UBC’s largest event venues, it is essential to understand the impact of event travel� Our team conducted a single day travel survey, which interviewed 140 people on a single� The results shows how people were commuting to Thunderbird Stadium for a football game� 91% of visitors came from off campus87% of visitors travelled by some form of automobile (personal vehicle, cab, car-share)Even for trips taking <10 minutes most regional visitors travelled by private automobile4% 2%11%80%3%Gameday mode share to and from campusvehicle (SOV)Public transitCycleWalkSingle occupant OtherVisitorsTrip origin50%100%Off-campus CampusGameday visitor point of originSource: 2017 SCARP Studio team UBC Football game survey18NEEDSPLANNING FOR A GROWING CAMPUSBy examining available sources, we were able to piece together a rough population estimate for the next 25 years at UBC� Some of these projections are likely more accurate than others, but all sources pointed to an increasing number of people living, working, and studying at UBC� This increase in population affects the SRN directly, especially residents projected to move to our site�StudentsFaculty/StaffResidents2016 204119,60054,23640,00060,29414,553Source: UBC Facts and Overview, UBC Land Use Planand 2014 UBC Transportation PlanUBC Campus Population26,750Source: UBC Facts and Overview, UBC Land Use Plan, and 2014 UBC Transportation Plan19NEEDSCURRENT CHALLENGESLastly, our team reviewed the transportation system as a whole and investigated the most significant challenges� More specifically, we identified challenges that are relevant to the SRN and factors that must be considered as the neighbourhood is being planned�Public transit to UBC is used heavily, creating overcrowding on busesSouth campus is significantly less served by public transit than central campusRoads near the SRN are major connectors with large traffic volumesUBC campus has no protected bike lanes, including near the SRNWalk time from the UBC bus loop to the SRN is about 20-25 minutesTransit data from South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority 201720NEEDSNEEDSThe needs assessment was created by compiling all of our findings from our baseline conditions resarch� In some cases, a single need is applicable to multiple objectives or geographic scales� A summary of the needs we identified are outlined in the table on the following page�21NEEDSNEEDS ASSESSMENT•  Make cycling a great option for trip between the SRN and the region•  Integration between bike, foot, and public transit, facilitating multi-modal trips•  A transportation system that works in harmony with nature•  A private automobile approach catered toward a sustainable future•  Comfort when travelling by bike or foot, in terms of safety and security•  Integration between bike, foot, and public transit, facilitating multi-modal trips•  A safe, efficient, and legible campus active transportation network•  Good local public transit options on campus•  Make cycling a great option for trip between the SRN and the region•  High connection between the SRN and the region by public transit•  Accessibility throughout the SRN for all ages, abilities, and modes•  Integration between bike, foot, and public transit, facilitating multi-modal trips•  Good connectivity from the SRN to nature, academics, recreation, and other campus destinations•  Make the SRN an accessible destination for people throughout the region•  Create adaptable transportation systems, infrastructure, and amenities for multiple scenarios•  Support campus movement to and from the SRN that considers transportation innovation and new technologies•  Be adaptable to changes to the regional public transit network•  Accommodate an increasing SRN population and user base•  Comfort when travelling by bike or foot, in terms of safety and security•  Animated public realm that encourages human movement•  A safe, efficient, and legible campus active transportation network•  Integration between active transportation and public transit, facilitating multi-modal tripsHuman MovementAccessible NeighbourhoodDynamic ConnectionsLow Impact LinksSTRATEGIC DIRECTIONS AND PLANNING APPROACHESPhoto: UBC Communications & Marketing23STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS AND PLANNING APPROACHESSTRATEGIC DIRECTIONSThe needs assessment provides us with useful general issues that must be addressed� However, the needs provide little direction on next steps� Our team determined that general strategy is necessary to confront the needs of the SRN� For this reason, our team developed strategic directions that address these needs� The strategic directions were developed by compiling planning research and considering how certain precedents could apply to the SRN� The strategic directions kept broad to avoid solidly defining a specific approach, and instead help guide the development of ensuing specific interventions� A comprehensive list of all of the strategic directions are listed in Appendix A� 24STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS AND PLANNING APPROACHESPLANNING APPROACHESBefore getting into interventions, our team developed a spectrum of planning approaches for developing interventions� The spectrum of attitudes represents various different approaches that can be employed when considering how to plan for the SRN� Due to the fact that SRN will not be developed for years to come, there are several different potential planning approaches� Given the precedent UBC has set in its past planning efforts and its policies and principles, certain planning attitudes are more likely to be adopted than others� As such, our team created a spectrum based on two bookend approaches: Progressive Growth and Innovative Shift�Progressive Growth imagines a future where automobiles continue to be a viable mode of transport, but growth still follows UBC’s overarching goals and vision identified in the 2014 UBC Transportation Plan� Therefore, the main aim surrounding the interventions focuses on producing pragmatic solutions that balance out automobile use with sustainable modes of transport (i�e� walking, cycling, and public transit), while being bound by the existing transportation constraints� Innovative Shift encompasses ideas that provide an assertive push towards sustainable and active modes of transport� This scenario imagines a dramatic reduction in automobile use, while placing active and innovative forms of transportation to the forefront of connectivity development� Therefore, innovative shift represents an aggressive shift in culture, focusing heavily on reaching and surpassing UBC’s goals�Given uncertainty for the future, our team has developed interventions that span the spectrum of planning attitudes and consider several different planning mentalities� By doing this, our report adds value regardless of which attitude is taken as planning of the SRN evolves�A pragmatic approach to achieve UBC’s progressive transportation goalsAn aggressive push to challenge existing culture and surpass UBC’s transportation goalsProgressive GrowthInnovative ShiftSPECTRUM OF PLANNING APPROACHESFOCUS AREAS26FOCUS AREASFOCUS AREASGiven the scope of time for this project, our team had to make decisions on the work that was most useful� We developed interventions for four key focus areas� These focus areas were selected through discussions with UBC Campus + Community Planning and critical thinking to identify major issues that would have the greatest impact on transportation on the campus network and for the SRN�INTERVENTIONS AND EVALUATIONPhoto: UBC Communications & Marketing28INTERVENTIONS AND EVALUATIONINTERVENTIONSFor each focus areas, we developed several different interventions that could potentially help meet the SRN transportation and connectivity objectives� We started with a wide range of all possibilities and then narrowed down different actions� These interventions were arrived at by studying the site context, citing relevant case studies, and working through transportation network issues as a group� Given the volume of interventions created, only recommended interventions are included in this report� For a comprehensive discussion of all the considered recommendations, please see Appendix B�EVALUATIONOnce the interventions were developed, our team evaluated the interventions qualitatively using a multiple accounts analysis (MAE) framework� The criteria for evaluation were the four SRN transportation and connectivity objectives� Embedded in each objective was consideration for all relevant geographic scales� Next, we considered feasibility of the interventions� Some interventions followed a Progressive Growth planning approach, while others required an Innovative Shift� Finally, our recommendations were arrived at following the evaluation process�The evaluation process and our team’s measurements are shown in detail in Appendix C�RECOMMENDATIONSPhoto: UBC Communications & Marketing30RECOMMENDATIONSRECOMMENDATIONSOur recommendations consist of the best performing interventions identified for the SRN� Our team was tasked by UBC Campus + Community Planning to think of bold strategies, which challenge the current transportation culture� As such, our recommendations mostly follow the Innovative Shift planning approach� Though some of these recommendations may be logistically or politically difficult, UBC must take on these challenges to continue its leadership in sustainable transportation�Recommendations will include indicators at the bottom of the page showing the main objectives being targeted and where each recommendation falls on the spectrum of planning approaches�Progressive GrowthInnovative ShiftLow Impact LinksHuman MovementAccessible NeighbourhoodDynamic ConnectionsRELEVANT OBJECTIVES BEING TARGETEDSPECTRUM OF PLANNING APPROACHES31RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLI. EAST MALL: THE PEOPLE MOVEREast Mall provides a prime opportunity to create a space that accommodates the existing campus connections, while also addressing the evident gaps� This particular area is a central place for movement between the academic buildings in north campus and the campus neighbourhoods on south campus� Our aim is to preserve Main Mall as a ceremonial space that pedestrians can walk and interact with each other and with their environment freely and safely� The designed interventions reflect a mission to celebrate East Mall as the People Mover, a corridor that fosters the movement of students, faculty, staff, residents and visitors, through walking, cycling, and public transit� Interventions for this particular focus area are integral to the SRN as it is one of the main access roads for both residents and visitors�STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS ADDRESSED• Cycling and walking infrastructure such as lanes and paths that increase safety and ease of movement for all users• Create a complete and connected pedestrian and cycling network that serves the SRN and other key destinations on campus• Useful, efficient, and accessible public transit that considers on-campus tripsAMS Student NestIrving K. Barber Learning CentreKoerner LibraryBelkin Art GalleryChan Centre UBC BookstoreBeaty Biodiversity MuseumHAWTHORN PLACE NEIGHBOURHOODDoug Mitchell Thunderbird Sports CentreUBC HospitalUBC FarmWESBROOK PLACE NEIGHBOURHOODMAIN MALL32RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLEAST MALLUNIVERSITY BLVDAGRONOMY ROADTHUNDERBIRD BLVDWEST 16TH AVENARROW RIGHT-OF-WAYAs East Mall transects the academic campus, the roadway is just two lanes of vehicle traffic�POOR BIKE FACILITIESEast Mall north of Agronomy Road has no bike lanes and cyclists share the road with automobiles�WIDE RIGHT-OF-WAYSouth of Thunderbird Road, the roadway widens with on-street parking and a large median�HIGH VEHICLE SPEEDSThe wide roadway at the south end of East Mall invites high vehicle speeds along the corridor�CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES33RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLRECOMMENDATION: NORTH-SOUTH SHUTTLEWESBROOK PLACE NEIGHBOURHOODHAWTHORN PLACE NEIGHBOURHOODHAMPTON PLACE NEIGHBOURHOODThe route for an East Mall shuttle, with southern terminus at the SRN or Wesbrook VillageThis recommended intervention is a campus transit route along East Mall� This bus route would be a central connector that bridges the current disconnect between north and south campus� Additionally, this intervention allows capacity for change, as the route may either terminate at Wesbrook Village or at the south end of East Mall� Wesbrook is currently the logical anchor point given its development as a main commercial and residential hub� However, as the SRN develops, the route may become and exclusive East Mall service� Adding dedicated transit will help the SRN thrive by providing visitors, students, residents, faculty, and staff efficient access to the services, amenities, and events offered in the neighbourhood�Low Impact LinksAccessible Neighbourhood Progressive GrowthInnovative Shift34RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLPhoto: Caetano BusDouble-ended bus technology currently exists in many parts of the world, where there is steering capability from each end of the vehicleTECHNOLOGYTo accentuate the pedestrian and cycling prioritized environment in front of the AMS Nest, the bus route ends at University Boulevard� However, this narrow and short trip route calls for cutting-edge transportation technology that allows buses to operate in a safe and efficient manner such as double-ended steering buses� These buses allow the driver to exit the vehicle and enter the other end of the bus and drive in the opposite direction� This is suitable as it allows the bus to change direction without turning at the narrow section at University Boulevard� Therefore, this recommendation not only welcomes but requires forward thinking to incorporate innovative and sustainable technology� 35RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLRECOMMENDATION: REDUCED VEHICLE ACCESSEAST MALLUNIVERSITY BLVDAGRONOMY ROADTHUNDERBIRD BLVDWEST 16TH AVEAGRONOMY ROADNo private vehicle accessThis recommendation proposes to restrict private vehicle access on East Mall between University Boulevard and Thunderbird Boulevard� Limiting private vehicle access on this section of East Mall allows for the street to be focused on sustainable modes transit, cycling, and walking� This would be the first corridor on campus focused on moving people in a safe, efficient, and sustainable manner� Low Impact LinksHuman MovementProgressive GrowthInnovative Shift36RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALL3 mSidewalk2.7 mSidewalk3.5 mDrive lane3.5 mDrive lane2.8 mGrassBoulavard3.3 mGrassBoulavardTotal width: 18.8 m3 mSidewalk3 mSidewalk3.5 mDrive lane3.5 mDrive lane2 mBike Lane2 mBike Lane.5 mBollard.5 mBollardTotal width: 18 mExisting cross sectionRecommendationUSE OF SPACEThe street right-of-way at this section of East Mall is quite narrow� To accommodate the recommended bus route, a design where the existing traffic lanes are converted into dedicated bus lanes is recommended for this section� This design is the most effective way to drive the future of East Mall as the People Mover due to the restriction of private automobiles� Creating a corridor that prioritizes transit, cycling, and walking facilitates active and sustainable transportation as the reliance on private automobiles for travel within the campus is dramatically reduced� Addition of protected bike lanesCurrently, this section of East Mall does not allocate space for transit or cyclists37RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLBUSSTOPBUSSTOPPlan view of a reimagined East Mall between University Blvd and Thunderbird Blvd38RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLA future view of East Mall under the recommended interventionsREIMAGINED CORRIDORIn making minor changes to vehicle access, the East Mall corridor can become an enhanced version of itself� Our team imagines an inviting, human-oriented East Mall, with shuttle buses and cycle tracks moving students, faculty, and staff across UBC’s vast campus� 39RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLRECOMMENDATION: REALLOCATION OF STREET SPACEReconfigured sectionEAST MALLUNIVERSITY BLVDAGRONOMY ROADTHUNDERBIRD BLVDWEST 16TH AVEThe southern section of East Mall between Thunderbird Boulevard and West 16th Avenue could benefit from a reallocation of space� As mentioned in challenges and opportunities, the right-of-way is very wide at this section of the corridor� Our recommendation does not drastically alter the existing conditions for this area, but instead works with what is currently there�Low Impact LinksHuman MovementProgressive GrowthInnovative ShiftDynamic Connections40RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLTotal width: 34 m2.3 mSidewalk2.3 mSidewalk1.5 mGrassBolouvard2.8 mParking2.8 mParking2.6 mLeft Turn Lane3.5 mDrive lane3.5 mDrive lane9.5 mMedian1.5 mBike Lane1.5 mBike LaneTotal width: 35 m2.3 mSidewalk2.3 mSidewalk1.5 mGrassBolouvard2.8 mParking2.8 mParking2.6 mLeft Turn Lane3.5 mDrive lane3.5 mDrive lane9.5 mMedian1.5 mBikeLane1.5 mBikeLane.5 mDivider.5 mDividerExisting cross sectionRecommendationUSE OF SPACEOnce entering the wider section of East Mall between Thunderbird Boulevard and West 16th Avenue, there is opportunity to enhance cycling safety� In switching the positions of on-street parking and the current bike lane, parked cars serve as a buffer for cyclists from vehicle traffic� The recommended street mix is similar to the existing condition as it simply proposes switching the parking and bicycling lane� These bike lanes are also protected by bollards to increase safety when automobiles are being parked in the next lane�Currently, this section of East Mall has on-street parking at the curbBy reorganizing on-street parking, parked cars protect cyclists from traffic41RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLBUSSTOPBUSSTOPCAR PARKCAR PARKPlan view of how bus stops, bike lanes, and car parking can be accommodated on East Mall using the existing spaceAnother design feature that is essential in this intervention is the implementation of bus shelter islands at the dedicated bus stops� These bus shelter islands will create breaks in on-street parking, and crosswalks will be designed to allow pedestrians to cross safely across the bike lane to the bus stop, while indicating cyclists to yield to pedestrians at these areas� This design allows for accessibility to a certain extent as parking close to the SRN site is made available for individuals with accessibility needs� Therefore, this design accommodates the current travel behavior, while also allowing the potential for future changes� This potential realizes our objective of incorporating dynamic connections that provides a variety of possibilities for change that accommodate the future transportation needs at UBC� 42RECOMMENDATIONS - EAST MALLThis illustration is an example of how on-street parking can be used to protect bike lanes, based on design guidelines for transportation (NACTO 2013)�43RECOMMENDATIONS - WEST 16TH AVEII. WEST 16TH AVE: THE CONNECTORWest 16th Avenue is one of the biggest barriers in addressing connectivity to and from the SRN site� As a highway, the current conditions emphasize the presence of private automobiles, heavy trucks, and public buses, with limited consideration for pedestrians and cyclists� West 16th also provides an essential connection for people to travel from the SRN to Wesbrook Village and other assets on south campus� However, this connector is currently a barrier as the heavy vehicle traffic divides the two ends of campus� Therefore, The Connector entails resizing the existing highway to provide spaces for active transportation and complete the active street network� Reallocating spaces to cater to pedestrians and cyclists will improve the perceptions of safety and enhance livability� Narrowing the existing road widths will also help STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS ADDRESSED• Cycling and walking infrastructure such as lanes and paths that increase safety and ease of movement for all users• Create a complete and connected pedestrian and cycling network that serves the SRN and other key destinations on campus• Useful, efficient, and accessible public transit that considers on-campus tripsHAMPTON PLACE NEIGHBOURHOODWESBROOK MALLEAST MALLThunderbird StadiumRopes CourseUBC FarmBotanical GardensWESBROOK PLACE NEIGHBOURHOODWest 16th Avenue passes SRN on the southdecrease vehicle speeds and break down the barrier of West 16th�44RECOMMENDATIONS - WEST 16TH AVEWEST 16TH AVEEAST MALLSW MARINE DRWESBROOK MALLROUNDABOUTSW 16th has two large two-lane roundabouts, which are difficult for pedestrians and cyclists to navigate�POOR SIDEWALKSOn West 16th south of  East Mall, sidewalks and bus stops are in poor condition�HIGH VEHICLE SPEEDSThe roundabouts and wide right-of-way encourage high vehicle speed�WIDE RIGHT-OF-WAYThe entire street right-of-way is very wide, providing ample space for movement�CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES45RECOMMENDATIONS - WEST 16TH AVERECOMMENDATION: DOWNSIZINGA major challenge for West 16th Avenue is its wide right-of-way and heavy vehicle usage� Essentially, West 16th Avenue is a highway that transects an urban campus, public school, and residential neighbourhood� As such, it is necessary for this road to be reimagined in order to meet UBC’s transportation goals� As SRN interfaces with West 16th Avenue, the development of the neighbourhood presents an excellent opportunity to address the issues UBC faces with West 16th Avenue�Our team is proposing to create a narrow roadway on West 16thBUSSTOPBUSSTOPLow Impact LinksHuman MovementProgressive GrowthInnovative Shift46RECOMMENDATIONS - WEST 16TH AVEUSE OF SPACEIn taking away a vehicle lane in each direction, there is a significant amount of road space that can be repurposed� The addition of protected bike lanes and excellent transit infrastructure will help West 16th become a place for transit and cyclists�Total width: 34.4 m3 mSidewalk1.8 mBikelane1.8 mBikelane4.1 mDrive lane4.1 mDrive lane4.1 mDrive lane4.1 mDrive lane3 mMedian3 mSidewalk2.8 mGrassBoulavard2.8 mGrassBoulavardExistingCurrently, West 16th Avenue has two vehicle lanes travelling in each direction through UBC campusTotal width: 25.6 m3.6 mSidewalk3.6 mSidewalk2.2 mBikelane2.2 mBikelane4 mDrive lane4 mDrive lane3 mBus StopMedian3 mBus StopMedianRecommendationBy reducing the amount of space allocated for cars, vehicle traffic can be minimized47RECOMMENDATIONS - WEST 16TH AVEThe potential future of West 16th Avenue48RECOMMENDATIONS - WEST 16TH AVERECOMMENDATION: FROM ROUND TO SQUAREThe intervention for the roundabout at West 16th recognizes the necessity to transform the existing highway to a pedestrian- and cyclist-friendly environment, especially for residents of the SRN to access the services and amenities offered in Wesbrook Village� The recommended interventions were designed in a way so it can be applied to both or either of the roundabouts at East Mall and Wesbrook Mall� The solution is to transform the roundabout into a normalized, four-way intersection� However, to improve access across and on West 16th for cyclists, separated bike lanes are included, which also is harmonious to the previous recommendation� With these normalized intersections, we also have the opportunity to input bus prioritized turn signals� This will help enhance transit on campus and maintain route reliability and efficiency�A plan view of a normalized intersection as West 16th, which is designed for pedestrians and cyclistsLow Impact LinksHuman MovementAccessible Neighbourhood Progressive GrowthInnovative Shift49RECOMMENDATIONS - PARKINGParking in general is one of the largest transportation issues that the campus and region are facing today� As a site that is yet to be developed, the SRN provides several possibilities for parking solutions that can both accommodate the current use of automobiles, while also preparing for a future where parking will not be a necessity to the neighbourhood� Therefore, our team utilized this project as a way to reshape the perspective and culture around parking through innovate solutions� As a result, Future-Proof Design entails a parking strategy that minimizes the possibility of parking becoming an underutilized space through adaptable designs� Therefore, the chosen parking intervention reflects the present and future of transportation behaviors and habits� It will accommodate the current demand for parking while also creating an opportunity for a car-free neighbourhood in the future� Given the uncertainty regarding building type and design in the SRN, these parking interventions are intended to provide general guidelines and ideas that can later be specified by C+CP once building type, design, and location are determined� Additionally, these interventions focus primarily on residential parking as visitor parking for gaming and other events at the Thunderbird Stadium will most likely be accommodated by the existing Thunderbird Parkade�Photo: UBC Student ServicesThunderbird Parkade has the ability to provide parking for events at Thunderbird StadiumIII. PARKING: FUTURE-PROOF DESIGNSTRATEGIC DIRECTIONS ADDRESSED• Anticipating changes in private vehicle technology, developing innovative solutions towards parking, vehicle pick-up/drop-off, the sharing economy, and carbon intensive technologies• Parking infrastructure that can be repurposed for other uses• Enhance existing and potential sharing programs (bikes, cars, ride, etc�)• Multipurpose spaces/paths that can function for a variety of activities/modes of play and movement (plaza’s with seating sports areas, play areas, etc�)50RECOMMENDATIONS - PARKINGRECOMMENDATION: REPURPOSABLE SPACEThis intervention emphasizes retrofittable parking spaces by proposing ground level parking spaces for both residential and commercial uses on the SRN site� These designs were inspired by existing parking structures on certain commercial strips, where ground level parking is located behind shop fronts� Our proposal entails attaching parking lots behind shop fronts or residential lobbies, which may be multi-level depending on the parking needs of the building� Multi-level parking will be designed using flat floors with ramps that can be later removed� This will simplify the redesign and retrofit of these parking spaces for alternative and sustainable uses in the future� These level-ground parking surfaces have the potential to be retrofitted into commercial, office, and residential spaces if no longer required for cars� A transition away from parking can create a more interesting building frontage, which can help activate alleyways in the neighbourhood� Possibilities for accommodating parking within buildings to be converted to better uses in the futureAccessible Neighbourhood Progressive GrowthInnovative ShiftDynamic Connections51RECOMMENDATIONS - PARKINGPhoto: Ozarch�comThe World Trade Center of Denver campus being constructed provides precedence for convertible parking space� It includes 700 above ground parking spaces, designed to be converted to other uses if parking is no longer required in the future (Denver Post 2016)�52RECOMMENDATIONS - PARKINGSHARING ECONOMYGiven these retrofittable parking spaces, this intervention envisions a neighbourhood that embraces the transformation towards an environment where sustainable and active transportation modes are valued as the primary mode of travel� Instead, renters who require a parking space will be required to purchase a parking permit for their building� A small surface parking lot will be available near the stadium to accommodate for stadium visitors with accessibility needs� Lastly, to further reduce the reliance on automobiles, car-sharing parking spaces will be available at mixed-use buildings to incentivize both residents and visitors to cultivate a sharing economy�Evo and car2go car-share are well established on UBC campus, creating an opportunity to leverage within development in the SRNVeemo is a new electric-assist recumbent tricycle sharing program on campus� This program is a prime opportunity to encourage more people to use active transportation modesPhoto: Velometro�comPhoto: Sam Barringer, UbysseyPhoto: Sam Barringer, Ubyssey53RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNIV. NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGN: HUMANIZED NETWORKThe recommended interventions in this report have provided several areas and designs that will help foster connections to the site� Following these interventions, the final recommendation focuses on neighbourhood movement design which is the the core concept that activity within the SRN will rely on� As a site that is not constrained to pre-existing street grids or movement patterns, the SRN provides an opportunity to design the neighbourhood in a way that pushes the boundaries of the shapes and forms that movement can take place in� To align with the listed objectives, the recommended intervention entails street designs and components that embrace human movement� As a result, Humanized Network represents a neighbourhood that builds a relationship between the users of the SRN and their surrounding community through safe and playful movements�STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS ADDRESSED• Incorporate universal designs and accessibility features into streets and transit/transportation infrastructure • Amenities and infrastructure that can be utilized during any season or time of day (rain covers, heating, lighting, etc�)• Multipurpose spaces/paths that can function for a variety of activities/modes of play and movement (plaza’s with seating sports areas, play areas, etc�)• Anticipating changes in private vehicle technology, developing innovative solutions towards parking, vehicle pick-up/drop-off, the sharing economy, and carbon-intensive technologies• Creation of destinations within and near the SRN that are connected and catered to human movement• Cycling and walking infrastructure such as lanes and paths that increase safety and ease of movement for all users54RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNRECOMMENDATION: (ALMOST) CAR-FREE NEIGHBOURHOODThe interventions for neighbourhood movement design entails concepts that prioritize pedestrians and cyclists� Automobile vehicle access is considered to the extent that it will be allowed in the neighbourhood, however, the designs will naturally discourage accessing and navigating neighbourhood spaces with automobiles� Although Wesbrook Village provides a strong precedent for pedestrian and cyclist prioritized design, the goal with the SRN is to create a neighbourhood that takes this prioritization further� Therefore, recommended interventions reimagines the concept of a neighbourhood as a space where people are not confined to the sidewalk� Instead, fosters a degree of informality in structure, where human movement is allowed anywhere in any form� As a result, the SRN will be a leading neighbourhood that redefines and reshapes safety as a concept that is car-free for pedestrians and cyclists�Low Impact LinksHuman MovementAccessible Neighbourhood Progressive GrowthInnovative ShiftPhoto: General Growth PropertiesA rendering of a connected neighbourhood without cars in Utah55RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNThrough auto trafficPedestrian movementCyclist movementENGAGED NEIGHBOURThe SRN neighbours many important destinations on UBC campus� As such, our team wants to ensure connection with those immediate areas� The UBC Land Use Plan designates Main Mall to continue through the SRN and connect to Wesbrook Village� We also want to connect pedestrian greenways to UBC Farm, Thunderbird Park, and the UBC Botanical Gardens� For cycling, East Mall, West 16th, and Stadium Road are the ideal areas for safe and efficient movement� Lastly, to afford the SRN the benefits that come with minimal auto traffic, cars will be kept to East Mall, West 16th Ave, and SW Marine Drive, with through access only on Stadium Road, while vehicles will not be allowed within the heart of the SRN�56RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNLarge blocks with no pedestrian permeability, creating long walk distancesPedestrian permeability through block face for more direct walking pathsPEDESTRIAN PERMEABILITYBelow, we see two examples� To the right of this page, the top grid shows large block faces, which force pedestrians to walk along the outside of the block� On the bottom, there is greater pedestrian permeability, through building cut-throughs, pathways, pocket parks, and other pedestrian-oriented connections� This permeability is what we want to achieve in the SRN, as it creates enormous benefits for walking trips� An example of a pedestrian pathway through buildings in Wesbrook Village at UBC57RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNFROM PRIVATE TO PUBLICBy restricting vehicle access in the SRN, valuable public and street spaces are freed up for people� Streets can be less regulated and allow activity within private buildings to spill out into the street� In doing this, the interface between buildings and public realm is less of a barrier�Without needed regulation for vehicles, patios, benches, and public life consume the street58RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNIRREGULARITYWithout heavy vehicle traffic, street regulation is not a point of emphasis� As such, we are allowed to become playful with how we design our streets� Irregularity can create a vibrant pedestrian realm and shape places where people want to be�Photo: Methleys-headstogether�orgWithout cars, heavy street regulation is not required, making “woonerfs” possible as displayed in a neighbourhood in the UK59RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNINFORMAL SPACEWithout the danger that cars create for pedestrians and cyclists, streets can become informal spaces, where uses change over time� One day, the corridor could host a festival� The next, it might be a public market�Photo: Marek SlusarcyzkAbove, a rendering of an informal space� Below, a street market in DublinPhoto: Parsons Brinckerhoff60RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNALL WEATHER STREETSWith an emphasis on active transportation, the SRN has an opportunity to plan for changes in weather and climate� With the often wet Metro Vancouver climate, the SRN will be a place where people can go outside in rain or shine�Photo: Dreamstime�comPhoto: Thestar�comIn Japan, covered shopping streets are common, creating pedestrian refuge from weather� Below show’s a covered street in Kuching� 61RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNPICK-UP AND DROP-OFF AREASWith the possibility of autonomous vehicles gaining use in our society, pick-up and drop-off locations will become what parking used to be� In the SRN, we want to ensure we have places for pick-up and drop-off that may be prevalent in the future�We have maintained these areas to the exterior of the neighbourhood to limit vehicles in pedestrian areas� Planning pick-up and drop-off locations creates a dynamic neighbourhood that is able to respond to technological changes�Pick-up/drop-off area62RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNSUSTAINABLE SURFACESStormwater run-off is an environmental issue caused by an excess of rain water flowing on paved surfaces into sewers and immediately back into bodies of water� There are ways we can mitigate these adverse effects, including through the infrastructure we choose for transportation�Our team envisions an SRN that uses surfaces that minimize environmental impact� Methods for this include permeable surfaces, or paving that allows water to penetrate through and reach the soil beneath� Bioswales are another way to reduce stormwater run-off�Photo: LID Permeable PavingAn example of permeable paving surfaces, which are designed to allow water to drain through the surfacePhoto: Urbantoronto�caBioswales capture storm water and filter the water through soil before the water returns to natural water bodies63RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNVIBRANT STREETSSomething often taken for granted in urban planning is very simple design� Places that are animated, safe, green, and inviting persuade people to move and get out into the neighbourhood�Our aim is to create a vivid environment in the SRN that is integrated into the transportation infrastructure�Photo: Dezeen�comCross-walks can double as public art, as seen in LondonPhoto: HOKVibrant places with activity attract pedestrians to move about the spaceExamples of green bus shelters and heated bus shelters, which could be incorporated on East Mall, West 16th Ave, and within the SRNPhoto: Ditoka�com Photo: Creativity-online�comPhoto: Inhabitat�com64RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNLooking into Main Mall from Stadium RoadMain Mall through Hawthorn Place, approaching Stadium RoadLEGIBILITYAs currently designed, Main Mall is not legible through to Stadium Road� It is a narrow path without any landmarks, wayfinding, or significant signage� As the SRN develops, it is important to Main Mall connects to the SRN and is an identifiable corridor for pedestrians� Main Mall could become the promenade into the SRN�65RECOMMENDATIONS - NEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNCONNECTING TO WEST 16TH AVEThere is a significant grade change from the SRN down to West 16th Avenue to the south of the site� Currently, there is no connection for people down the hill to the street, where transit is located� In planning the SRN, our team wants to ensure that people have access to the road and transit�Photo: Carole OsterinkStairs and ramps can be used to connect people of all abilities down from the SRN to West 16th Avenue� Given that this area is forested, ample lighting is necessary� A design similar to the one shown above would work well for the SRN�This photo shows the grade change as you walk down from a pathway on the edge of the SRN to the bus stop at West 16th Avenue� As seen, the hill is an accessibility challenge and the current walkways and bus stop are not in good state�GOING FORWARDPhoto: UBC Communications & Marketing67GOING FORWARDGOING FORWARDUBC as a leading institution has the potential to shift the culture of transportation to both meet their own transportation targets as well as set the bar for those to follow� Perhaps most importantly, this project begins the discussion of UBC beginning on a new transportation trajectory and culture�This project has helped realize this potential with specific design solutions that can be applied as the SRN develops into a complete community� Through a detailed and comprehensive approach, our team considered several interventions that address Human Movement, Low Impact Links, Accessible Neighbourhood, and Dynamic Connections to various degrees� As a result, the consistent theme across the final recommended interventions is a neighbourhood that is responsive to the current connectivity needs on campus and creates a change in transportation culture where innovation and sustainability align with one another� To supplement the recommendations and further characterize SRN as this leader of change, programs and policies that complement these design-based interventions should be implemented� To achieve the envisioned future that has been illustrated through our interventions, extensive data collection of travel trends and behaviors within and to/from UBC is essential� Understanding the current and recent gaps between UBC’s transportation targets and current transportation behaviours by students, residents, faculty, and staff is integral to further identify the current connectivity needs and forecast the future of transportation on campus� These collective efforts will help develop Stadium Road Neighbourhood as a resilient, adaptable, and sustainable neighbourhood that transcends the current transportation targets and reaches new avenues of forward-looking transportation approaches� 68REFERENCESREFERENCESNational Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO)� (2013)� Urban Street Design Guide. Washington: Island Press�Rusch, E� (2016)� “Denver developers have seen the future of parking, and it is no parking at all�” The Denver Post. Retrieved from  https://www�denverpost�com/2016/10/15/denver-developers-future-parking-self-driving-cars/�  South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority� (2017)� Update to Phase One of the 10-Year Vision: 2017-2026 Investment Plan. Retrieved from https://tenyearvision�translink�ca/downloads/Final%2020170727%20Investment%20Plan_Phase%20One%20of%20the%2010Year%20Vision�pdf�South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority� (2017)� 2016 Transit Service Performance Review. Retrieved from https://www�translink�ca/Plans-and-Projects/Managing-the-Transit-Network/Transit-Service-Performance-Review�aspx� University of British Columbia� (2017)� UBC Overview & Facts� Retrieved from https://www�ubc�ca/about/facts�html� UBC Campus and Community Planning� (2010)� Vancouver Campus Plan. Retrieved from https://planning�ubc�ca/vancouver/planning/policies-plans/land-use-governance-documents/vancouver-campus-plan� UBC Campus and Community Planning� (2014)� UBC Transportation Plan. Retrieved from https://planning�ubc�ca/sites/planning�ubc�ca/files/documents/transportation/plans/UBC-Transportation-Plan-2014_Oct�pdf�UBC Campus and Community Planning� (2015)� Land Use Plan. Retrieved from https://planning�ubc�ca/vancouver/planning/policies-plans/land-use-governance-documents/land-use-plan� UBC Campus and Community Planning� (2017)� UBC Vancouver Transportation Status Report Fall 2016. Retrieved from https://planning�ubc�ca/sites/planning�ubc�ca/files/documents/transportation/reports/UBC2016-TransportationStatusReport-FINAL�pdf�APPENDICES70APPENDIX AAPPENDIX A: STRATEGIC DIRECTIONSACTIVE TRANSPORTATION• Education, training, and incentive programs to help SRN residents and users want to cycle and walk• Safe bike storage facilities for all bike types• Cycling and walking infrastructure such as lanes and paths that increase safety and ease of movement for all users• Creation of destinations within and near the SRN that are connected and catered to human movement• Create a complete and connected pedestrian and cycling network that serves the SRN and other key destinations on campus• Develop a campus-wide bike share program that is well connected to public transit and is useful• Connect the active transportation network to the public transit network• Implement programs for walking, cycling, and public transit options near the neighbourhood that promote affordability and familiarity PUBLIC TRANSIT• Public transit amenities like bus shelters that encourage transit usage• Useful, efficient, and accessible public transit that considers on-campus trips• Ensure sufficient coverage and frequency of available transit routes that connect off-campus areas to the south campus where the SRN is locatedNATURAL SYSTEMS• Incorporate nature into neighbourhood transportation and connectivity• Through transportation infrastructure minimize negative environmental effects, such as air and noise pollution, stormwater runoff, and ecosystem disruption• Create direct and safe cycling and pedestrian paths to nature, including the UBC Botanical Gardens71APPENDIX AGENERAL INFRASTRUCTURE, PROGRAMS, AND POLICIES• Anticipating changes in private vehicle technology, developing innovative solutions towards parking, vehicle pick-up/drop-off, the sharing economy, and carbon-intensive technologies• Parking infrastructure that can be repurposed for other uses• Incorporate universal designs and accessibility features into streets and transit/transportation infrastructure• Transportation infrastructure within the SRN that can be connected/reconfigured to future changes in the regional transportation network• Create amenities/infrastructure that are able to service larger numbers of residents, students, faculty/staff, and visitors • Enhance existing and potential sharing programs (bikes, cars, ride, etc�)• As transportation evolves, maintain connection for multi-modal trips• Amenities and infrastructure that can be utilized during any season or time of day (rain covers, heating, lighting, etc�)• Amenities and infrastructure that can be reconfigured in case of environmental changes (ie� flooding, climate change, earthquakes)• Multipurpose spaces/paths that can function for a variety of activities/modes of play and movement (plaza’s with seating sports areas, play areas, etc�)72APPENDIX BAPPENDIX B: ALTERNATIVE INTERVENTIONS NOT INCLUDED IN RECOMMENDATIONSEAST MALLCOMMUNITY TRANSIT ROUTEIntervention 1A: Connection to bus loopThis intervention explores the possibility to extend the trolley buses that currently terminates at University Boulevard to run through East Mall and terminate at either SRN or Wesbrook Village� This intervention will utilize the existing bus services operated by TransLink and simply be an extension of an existing route� With this extension, a redesign of the intersection at University Boulevard and East Mall is required, where it is currently a dedicated space for on-street parking as shown in the images below� Therefore, this redesign would entail the road at University Boulevard bus loop to connect to the current parking area on East Mall�Plan view of East Mall at University Boulevard, with a connection to the bus loop73APPENDIX BEAST MALLBETWEEN UNIVERSITY BLVD AND THUNDERBIRD BLVDIntervention 2A: One lane traffic lane that accommodates both cars and buses This intervention is the same as our recommendation for this section of East Mall, except for one difference� In intervention 2A, private vehicles would be allowed on this section of East Mall, while in our recommendation, private vehicles were restricted�BETWEEN THUNDERBIRD BLVD AND WEST 16TH AVEIntervention 3A: Bus lane with boarding islands, one traffic lane, and separated bike lanes In this intervention, the dedicated bus lanes and its accommodating bus shelter islands are centralized in the available road space� Therefore, the vehicle traffic lane is designed next to the bike lane� However, to ensure cyclist and automobile safety, the bike lanes will be separated and protected with bollards along this section of East Mall� The rationale for this option is to allow for centralized bus service in the middle of the road that mimics a streetcar and prioritizes transit� This may pose challenges in terms of accessibility as pedestrians must cross a bike lane and vehicle traffic lane to reach the bus shelter islands� BUSSTOPBUSSTOPBUSLANEBUSLANESOVLANESOVLANEPlan view of Intervention 3A for East Mall74APPENDIX BEAST MALLBETWEEN THUNDERBIRD BLVD AND WEST 16TH AVEIntervention 3B: Removal of on-street parking and create a bus lane This intervention takes a parking-free approach to dedicate the available road space to sustainable modes of transportation, primarily, public transit and bicycling� Therefore, the following design guidelines include creating one bus lane and one traffic lane for each direction� This bus lane would be dedicated to campus shuttles to help them run efficiently between University Boulevard and Wesbrook Village� Moreover, the vehicle traffic will be terminated at Hospital Lane in order to prioritize buses in the narrower section of East Mall� It should be noted that this particular intervention proposes a difficulty when East Mall transitions from being a wide to narrow right-of-way, since the buses will have to transfer lanes to continue all the way to University Boulevard, while the vehicle traffic will have to turn at Hospital Lane� To enhance safety and comfort for active transportation modes, a separated bike lane will be implemented that is protected from vehicle traffic by the bus shelter islands� Thus, with this dedicated bus lane and a separated bike lane, bus shelter islands are required where bus shelters can be built and accessed from the sidewalk�BUSSTOPBUSSTOPBUSLANEBUSLANESOVLANESOVLANEPlan view of Intervention 3B for East Mall75APPENDIX BWEST 16TH AVEROAD AND STREET DESIGNIntervention 4A: Two lane vehicle traffic with bike lanesThs intervention maintains much of the existing infrastructure on W� 16th� Currently, West 16th does not have protected bike lanes or good transit facilities, which compromises pedestrian and cyclist safety and comfort� To remedy these issues, this intervention proposes the addition of bus shelter islands to accommodate buses running on W� 16th and provide the bike lane with some protection from vehicle traffic� Additionally, the bike lanes are slightly widened to provide cyclists more space and comfort when riding along this heavy traffic road� BUSSTOPBUSSTOPBUSLANEBUSLANESOVLANESOVLANEIntervention 4A for West 16th Ave76APPENDIX BWEST 16TH AVEROUNDABOUTIntervention 5A: One lane roundabout with separated bike lanes As mentioned in the existing challenges and opportunities of this particular area, the current roundabout is highly auto-centric with two lanes of vehicle traffic in each direction� Pedestrians are currently required to cross two lanes of traffic with no proper traffic signals which contributes to its high perceived safety risk� In response, this intervention incorporates pedestrians and cyclists to the roundabout by creating dedicated spaces that are highly visible to automobiles� To foster a smooth connection through this roundabout for cyclists, this intervention proposes a separated bike lane that is visible to other road users by its paint, and is protected from vehicle traffic� This recommendation is inspired by the National Association of City Trnasportation Officals Urban Street Design Guide (NACTO 2013)�A plan view of a pedestrian and cycle friendly roundabout77APPENDIX BWEST 16TH AVEROUNDABOUTIntervention 5B: Elevated roundabout This intervention proposes an addition to the existing infrastructure that allows cyclists and pedestrians to cross West 16th in any direction in a safe and convenient manner� The design entails building a suspended roundabout that is dedicated for pedestrian and cyclist use over the existing roundabout� This design intervention is practiced in the Netherlands, where a suspended roundabout for cyclists was built over a vehicle traffic roundabout� Therefore, this design fosters a free-flow condition for cyclists and pedestrians by avoiding vehicle traffic entirely� It should be noted that although this intervention fosters active transportation, it also maintains the current vehicle traffic levels on West 16th� A rendering of what an elevated roundabout could look like at West 16th Ave and East Mall78APPENDIX BPARKINGIntervention 6A: Underground residential parking with small surface lot for visitors This intervention follows a similar approach to what is currently implemented in other UBC campus neighbourhoods where underground parking is the primary parking strategy used to accommodate residents� Following these existing designs, this intervention proposes underground parking for most residential buildings� However, to minimize the space needed for underground parking, market rental buildings will have shared underground parking spaces� Therefore, this intervention requires the allocation of rental buildings on the site to be close together to allow for these shared parking spaces� Moreover, to promote car-sharing as a viable and convenient mode of transport for residents, car-share parking will be designated within these shared underground parking spaces� Lastly, all of the underground parking structures will be designed as flat-floor parking that utilizes ramps to travel between levels� This will help maximize the potential of retrofitting these parking spaces in the future as these ramps can later be removed to utilize these spaces for other uses if necessary� In regards to visitor parking, there will be a small parking lot near the Thunderbird Stadium for visitors which will primarily be designated for individuals with accessibility needs� Given the available capacity of Thunderbird Parkade to accommodate visitors for gaming events at Thunderbird Stadium, a small parking lot is allocated for the site� Intervention 6B: Underground residential parking below new Thunderbird StadiumThis intervention also utilizes underground parking as the primary solution, however, proposes one large underground parking structure for both visitors and residents under the new Thunderbird Stadium� This intervention is deemed suitable as it can be planned and constructed with the new Thunderbird Stadium� Moreover, this will reduce the need to build different parking structures and designs to accommodate different residential buildings as parking will strictly be located in this one area� In regards to parking design, the entry and exit of this parking will be located off of 16th Avenue to utilize the existing grade change�Therefore, this intervention requires the new Thunderbird Stadium to be located near West 16th on the site� Moreover, similar to intervention 5A, the multi-level underground parking structure will be designed with ramps that can later be removed for retrofit for alternative uses in the future� In terms of parking space allocation, the majority of the parking 79APPENDIX Bspaces will be geared towards residents� Rental units in the SRN will not have a parking minimum, instead, a number of spaces will be allocated to renters who purchase a parking permit� Additionally, similar to Intervention 5A, another set of spaces will be designated for car-sharing services to reduce the need for private automobiles when travelling to and from the SRN� To ensure accommodation for residents with accessibility needs, a limited number of surface parking lots will be available near the residential buildings� Lastly, visitor parking will be limited in this underground parking structure as Thunderbird Parkade will be advertised as the main visitor parking area for gaming and other stadium events� Intervention 6C: Heavy vehicle restrictions in the neighbourhood This particular intervention aligns with the assertive push towards an active and sustainable transportation culture represented in the Innovative Shift scenario by imagining a neighbourhood that is able to heavily restrict automobile movement� Therefore, the underlying assumption and requirement of this intervention is that the SRN site is located in close proximity to a SkyTrain station, allowing residents to travel more frequently by public transit� As a result, parking is restricted to the exterior of the residential area� This then creates a neighbourhood that centers around pedestrians and cyclists� As an intervention that significantly limits parking availability and prioritizes sustainable transportation modes, the parking on the exterior will be surface parking lots that can be retrofitted to other uses if necessary� However, it is important to note that there will be a number of surface parking lots scattered within the neighbourhood for individuals with accessibility needs� Moreover, car-sharing services will be available at Thunderbird Parkade or nearby parking areas to provide car-sharing as an accessible service for SRN residents� 80APPENDIX BNEIGHBOURHOOD MOVEMENT DESIGNIntervention 7A: Neighbourhood movement oriented to carsThis intervention explores how to facilitate and navigate the movement of automobiles, cyclists, and pedestrians in the safest way possible� Although automobiles are permitted in the neighbourhood under this intervention, the aim is to create an environment where residents and visitors feel safe walking and cycling in and around the neighbourhood through creative design solutions�81APPENDIX CAPPENDIX C: EVALUATION OF INTERVENTIONSEach of these interventions were evaluated by the four main objectives of Human Movement, Low Impact Links, Accessible Neighbourhood, and Dynamic Connections� The evaluation was conducted qualitatively by estimating the performance of each intervention and the extent to which they would achieve the four objectives on a scale from low to high� The performances of each intervention was compared to the existing baseline conditions� Therefore, a low rating indicates the intervention does not meet the objectives or provide any improvement from the existing conditions� Meanwhile, a high rating indicates significant progress to achieve the objectives compared to its current conditions�82APPENDIX CHuman Movement Low Impact Links Accessible Neighbourhood Dynamic Connections East Mall 1A: Connection to bus loop Medium High High Medium 1B: Without connection to bus loop Medium High High High 2A: One lane traffic lane that accommodates both cars and buses High Medium Medium Low 2B: One lane traffic only for buses and service vehicles High High Medium Low 3A: Bus lane with boarding islands, one traffic lane, and separated bike lanes High High Low Low 3B: Removal of on-street parking and create a bus lane High Medium Low Low 3C: One traffic lane with street parking and protected bike lanes High Medium Medium High West 16th Avenue 4A: Two lane vehicle traffic with bike lanes High Low Low Low 4B: One lane vehicle traffic with bike lanes High High Medium Medium 5A: One lane roundabout with separated bike lanes Medium Medium Medium Low 5B: Elevated roundabout High Low Medium Low 5C: Normalized intersection Medium Medium Medium Medium Parking 6A: Underground residential parking Low Low High Low 6B: Underground residential parking below new Thunderbird Stadium Medium Low Medium Medium 6C: Heavy vehicle restrictions in neighbourhood High High High Medium 6D: Ground level parking behind shop fronts and residential lobbies Low Medium High High Neighbourhood Movement Design 7A: Neighbourhood movement that prioritizes cars Medium Medium Medium Medium 7B: Neighbourhood movement that prioritizes walking/cycling High High High Medium 83APPENDIX DAPPENDIX D: LIMITATIONSDATA GAPSWhile addressing baseline conditions around transportation trends, our team encountered certain data gaps, especially in terms of active transportation usage to/from and within the UBC campus� Therefore, a supplemental recommendation is to create opportunities to conduct further research on campus that capture transportation behaviours of students, staff, and faculty and potential influencing factors such as age, gender, and seasons� This will also provide crucial data on changes in transportation trends within and to/from campus from the anticipated additions in transportation options on campus such as the e-bike and bike share program� UNCERTAINTY As the planning processes for the SRN began in the fall of 2017 with four phases planned over the next two years, our strategic directions and interventions relied on our team’s assumptions regarding the vision and future development of the neighbourhood to a certain extent� Of note, our transportation and connectivity vision, objectives, and actions are based on the draft guiding principles currently in place from Campus and Community Planning, which we understand are subject to change� In order to ensure these assumptions are feasible given the uncertainty of the future conditions and decisions regarding housing types, transit developments, and stadium location, assumptions have been based on the relevant literature and developed with advisors at C+CP� Additionally, regional transit plans are not yet solidified or funded, which is just one of several variables that will be undetermined� TIME Given the scope of the project, there has been certain time constraints as this has been an eight-month project that is part of a bigger project that is intended to take place over two years� Therefore, our background research, alternatives, and recommendations have somewhat been limited to what is achievable within a 6-credit course� Given that the SRN neighbourhood planning process will continue after this project, there may be changes necessary to the recommendations proposed within Shifting Gears to complement the new developments for the neighbourhood� 

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