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Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric : Final Report Book 1 : UBC Berg, Colin; Bishop, Sarah; Brodsky, Ivan; Chan, Kenny; Chang, Yau Ching (Norain); Chui, Ayishah; Dema-Ala, Jim; DeRoehn, Alex; Du, Allan; Ho, Jane; Hough, Alyx; Huang, Jiahui; Jiang, Iris; Khera, Jivan; Kwun, Elisa; Li, Peiyang (Leo); Li, Esther; Maddison, Teresa; Mbugua, Colin; Nicoletti, Leonardo; Reid, Jennifer; Robertson, Jake; Rodriguez, Sol; Snyder, Eva; Speirs, Chris; Sun, Doris; Tse, Tony; Tu, Emily; Vohra, Sonam; Wang, Wilson; Whiticar, Michelle; Yuen, Yifan 2018-03-16

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UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric Colin Berg, Sarah Bishop, Ivan Brodsky, Kenny Chan, Yau Ching (Norain) Chang, Ayishah Chui, Jim Dema-Ala, Alex DeRoehn, Allan Du, Jane Ho, Alyx Hough, Jiahui Huang, Iris Jiang, Jivan Khera, Elisa Kwun, Peiyang (Leo) Li, Esther Li, Teresa Maddison, Colin Mbugua, Leonardo Nicoletti, Jennifer Reid, Jake Robertson, Sol Rodriguez, Eva Snyder, Chris Speirs, Doris Sun, Tony Tse, Emily Tu, Sonam Vohra, Wilson Wang, Michelle Whiticar, Yifan Yuen University of British Columbia LARC 444/553 Themes: Biodiversity, Land March 16, 2018 Disclaimer: UBC SEEDS provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or the SEEDS Coordinator about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report.LARC444/553 Green Network Planning (Fall 2017)Professor: Cynthia GirlingEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT BOOK 1 - UBCEXECUTIVE SUMMARYThis course introduced a comprehensive, landscape-based approach to long-range planning of the greens-pace structure of cities to enhance both ecosystem and human purposes. Green Networks are an intercon-nected network of green patches and corridors incorporating parks, natural areas, remnant green spaces, street trees, and other vegetated spaces of the city. The course investigated a proactive, long-term planning approach enabling these green networks to be considered in conjunction with growth and development planning. The course was interdisciplinary and included students in the Bachelor of Urban Forestry, Bachelor of Environmental Design, Master of Landscape Architecture, Master of Architecture, and Master of Commu-nity and Regional Planning. Additionally, one professional forester from Switzerland and one student from Simon Fraser University joined the class. The report submitted to SEEDS, entitled “Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric” represents the results from the major term project. The entire UBC campus plus an area covering the UEL and adjacent forest were divided into four study areas. Teams of four students were assigned to each study area. In this exercise the student teams de-laminated the green networks and fabric of their study area to reveal and diagnose its cur-rent order and condition. The class compiled a graphically evocative and informative spatial analysis of the UBC campus that highlights and evaluates important green systems in terms of key greenspace and livability metrics. Maps and diagrams accompanied by photos and other illustrations “tell the urban forest story” of the study area. The analysis method included GIS-based spatial analysis with accompanying metrics derived from the mapping. Spatial mapping of each study included: green vs. grey land cover; vegetative cover (forest, shrub, trees only, herbacious, sparse, water); all tree canopy cover (distinguish forest from urban); tree canopy cate-gorized (deciduous/coniferous); vegetation naturalness (see Vancouver Biodiversity Strategy); habitat hot-spots and habitat sites; habitat types (start with class provided legend); industrial, commercial, mixed use, high density residential, moderate density residential, civic, greenspace, public lands.In response to their findings from this analysis, each student team then made site-wide propositions for how to make significant improvements to the green networks and fabric of their study area, specifically address-ing: improving the quantity and quality of the urban forest; improving the connectivity between the green patches; improving the habitat quantity and quality and connectivity; improving rainwater management us-ing green infrastructure. Additionally, detailed studies more clearly illustrate how the broad site-wide prop-ositions may be implemented.UBC STUDY AREAS & TEAMSArea 1 Jivan Khera, Jennifer Reid, Wilson Wang, Yifan YuenArea 2 Yau Ching (Norain) Chang, Ivan Brodsky, Allan Du, Jane HoArea 3 Colin Mbugua, Eva Snyder, Doris Sun, Tony TseArea 4 Leo Lee, Emily Tu, Jiahui Huang, Jake RobertsonACKNOWLEDGEMENTSWe would like to thank the UBC Sustainability Program (SEEDS) and UBC Campus & Community Planning (C + CP) and all those who have assisted this project: Liska Richer, David Gill, Dean Gregory, Jeff Nulty, John Madden, Doug Justice.We would also like to extend our special thanks to our guest lecturers to the class for sharing their expertise: Nick Page (Vancouver Park Board), Yves Kazemi, Lorien Nesbitt, Cameron Owen (City of Vancouver), Margot Long (PWL Partnership), Patrick Mooney, Bill Stephen (Vancouver Park Board), and Jeff Fitzpatrick (Metro Vancouver).Note: This is student work based on available information. There may be some inaccuracies.1TABLE OF CONTENTS13424426486AcknowledgementsStudy AreasGroup 1 (Jivan Khera, Jennifer Reid, Wilson Wang, Yifan Yuen)Group 2 (Yau Ching (Norain) Chang, Ivan Brodsky, Allan Du, Jane Ho)Group 3 (Colin Mbugua, Eva Snyder, Doris Sun, Tony Tse)Group 4 (Peiyang (Leo) Li, Emily Tu, Jiahui Huang, Jake Robertson)References1234 56789 10 111213LARC 444/553 Green Network PlanningProject 2 Study Areas3Enhancing Green Networksand Fabric FINAL REPORTUBC 1Team Members: Jivan KheraJennifer ReidWilson WangYifan YuanLARC444/553 (Girling) Team 1December, 2017100Zone Analysis: Green vs GreyThis focus area has a relatively high percentage of green space area, most notably within Pacific Spirit Regional Park. However, much of the green area within the campus and residential neighbourhood is composed of turf grass. Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC 12LegendGreen area   57%Grey area   43%Green vs Grey Area - PercentFigure 1: Map illustrating green vs grey land cover witin the focus area tree. Figure 2. Percent area of green and grey land area.Green area Grey area57% 43%57%43%Green vs Grey AreaGreen area Grey area100 m5 l i : r   ris f c s ar a as a r lativ ly ig  rc tag  f gr  s ac  ar a, st ta ly it i  acific S irit gi al ark. v r, c  f t  gr  ar a it i  t  ca s a  r si tial ig r  is c s  f t rf grass. Site 01Green area Grey area57% 43%57%43%Green vs Grey AreaGreen area Grey area 3Land Cover 30%7%7%20%4%32%Land Coverwater sparse vegetation tree shrub forest shore herbaciousFigure 3. Percent  area of land cover types.Land Cover - PercentFigure 4. Map of focus area illustrating land cover typesZone Analysis: Land CoverUBC has various land cover types , with sandy shoreline and forest  of Pacific Spirit Regional Park bordering the university campus and endowment lands. The campus as residential areas are dominated by modified and semi-natural features.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC 1ForestTreesShrubsSparse VegetationHerbaciousShoreWater featuresTrails100m6Zone Analysis: Land Cover UBC has various land cover types , with sandy shoreline and forest of Pacific Spirit Regional Park bordering the university cam-pus and endowment lands. The campus as residential areas are dominated by modified and semi-natural features.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04LegendCultural VegetationAltered Vegetation Semi-Natural Vegetation Mainly Natural Vegetation Natural VegetationFigure: 5. Map illustrating natural to altered and cultural vegetation around UBC 1.UBC 1: Vegetation naturalness1:10,000Zone Analysis: Vegetation TypeEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 01701ne Analysis: Vegetation Type 5Deciduous Canopy Evergreen Canopy Mixed Canopy ForestFigure 6: Tree Canopy Map showing mixed, decidious, and evergreen tree canopy in UBC 1UBC 1: Tree canopy foliage1:10,000LegendZone Analysis: Tree Canopy Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 018Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01Zone Analysis: Tree Canopy 6Tree DiversityFigure 7. Diversity of Tree SpeciesOne of the things that we noticed was that the the percentage of deciduous tree canopy and coniferous tree canopy delivered from i-Tree seems to be equal as it contains all the tree species in our site. The percentage recieved from GIS however only contains street trees. Meaning the forest has been ignored or uncategorized.Figure 8a Overall Tree Canopy  - Figure 8b. Street Tree CanopyDiversity of tree species- Contains 84 tree species-  The number of trees in our study area is 4370Street tree canopy percentageThe total tree canopy in study siteThe study area include both street trees and forest canopyEvergreenEvergreenDeciduousDeciduousZone AnalysisTree Species in UBC 01Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 019ne Analysis 017Attractions Civic BuildingsMixed UseResidential (High Density)Residential  (Medium Density)Figure 9.  Land Use Map Figure 10. Percentages based on Land Use      Legend0.160.090.050.310.38LanduseResidential (Medium Density) Residential (High Density) Attractions Mixed-Use Institutional   Zone AnalysisLand Use Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 0110Zone Analysis Land UseEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 018100m to Nature - 78% Of UBC Zone 01400m to Nature - 100% Of UBC Zone 01Figure 11. Walking Distance MapLegendZone AnalysisWalking Distance to the Urban ForestEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 0111ne Analysis 019Coniferous ForestDeciduous ForestOld FieldUrban Old FieldUrban ParkOpen WaterShore ZoneHabitat Hot SpotsFigure 12. Biodiversity MapLegendZone AnalysisBiodiversity Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 0112Zone AnalysisBiodiversityEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01Increasing BiodiversityOne of three overarching principles identified following our analysis Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 0110GoalsFigure 13 . Potential areas for increased biodiversity Figure 14 . Example of lawns Figure 15 . On campus rain gardenIncreasing biodiversity is one of the key goals to having a healthier and more resilient campus. We aim to improve the genetic diversity of the urban forest, replace areas with more resilient flora, and implement multifunctional interventions. These will take into account the aesthetic and spatial qualities through their implementation.Improving genetic diversity can be achieved by ensuring that we grow from seed and have both varied and aporporiate plant species for the interventions proposed. Replacing lawn areas with more resilient species, such as micro-clover, would require less maintenance. Finally, the multifunctional landscape interventions could take the shape of raingardens, bioswales, water retention ponds, and basins. These would provide stormwater management, new habitat areas, and increased aesthetic appeal of the landscape.100 m301Increasing Green Land CoverOne of three overarching principles identified following our analysis Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 0111GoalsFigure 16. Replaceable existing hardscape Figure 17. Unnecessary hardscape Figure 18.  CIRS UBC - Green RoofThe campus has achieved over 50% green land cover, this however can be improved further and for greater environmental gain. Looking at the present as well as the future allows us to establish long-term and short-term goals. Our current estimates have 13% of the site area being “workable” grey surface. We propose that roughly 5% of the total site area be replaced.Requiring green roofs for new construction would take advantage of the many environmental benefits within that assembly. We also propose removing many surface level parking lots and consolidating them into centralized parkades on campus. This would remove inefficient hardscape throughout the campus. We also propose to increase the volume of the green land cover by replacing less vibrant areas, such as lawns, with denser and richer vegetation.100 m4Increasing Green Land CoverO e of three overarching principles identified following our analysisEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01Improving Storm-water ManagementOne of three overarching principles identified following our analysis 12GoalsFigure 19. Caption, ScaleImproving storm-water management throughout the campus would improve the overall pedestrian experience and reduce the amount of maintenance required. This results in saving labor hours, fuel, and money over time.Identifying problem areas to fix would be the first step. An example of this is the courtyard of the Macmillan Building. This courtyard is impermeable hard surface and accumulates rainwater easily. Granted this isn’t the only area on campus with this occurs, but it is We propose to redirect storm-water into basins, swales, and rain-gardens while also replacing impervious surfaces with permeable alternatives.Figure 20. Macmillian Courtyard Figure 21.  Rain garden on campusEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 01100 m501 Policy ContextThese are policies that we looked at when establishing our goals and propositions. Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 113DetailsFigure 22. Vancouver Campus PlanThe policy that exists at our site was used as a sort of guideline in establish-ing our goals. The policies largely come from the UBC Vancouver’s campus plan (Figure 1). Some strategies in that plan include: 1) creating a sustainable campus by having more greener buildings and infrastructure, 2) providing a campus for globally significant teaching, learning and research, and 3) redis-covering UBC’s sense of place and natural west coast beauty. We also looked at the UBC Land Use Plan (Figure 2) and also Metro Vancouver’s regional growth strategy (Figure 3) to get a wider scope of what Vancouver is doing so that there wouldn’t be a disconnect between UBC and the city of Vancouver. A major goal that the city of Vancouver sets out to achieve is to protect the environment and responding to climate change impacts. Therefore, we took that into consideration as well and integrated their strategies into our goals.Figure []. UBC Land Use PlanFigure 24. Metro Vancouver’s regional growth strategy.Figure 23. UBC Land Use Plan6Policy Context These are policies that we looked at when establishing our goals and propositions.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0114Intervention TypesFigure 25 Map of UBC showing areas for intervention. Basemap modifed from Google EarthImplementationThis map shows where major interventions will be implemented.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC 1Zones for improved biodiversityZones for increased green spaceZones for storm water managementProposed changes would occur at intervals on a small scale, with areas due for renewal to un-dergo treament first. A a period of monitoring and review will follow these changes to ensure that they are functioning appropriatley; inter-ventions may undergo revision if required. Biodiversity will be enhanced by increasing ge-netic-diversity through the planting of seeds rather than propagules, and replacement will occur as stands decline. Turf-grass to be main-tained only in a few select areas and areas which receive less attention year-round will be plant-ed with the low-maintenance drought-resistant species. Porous paving will be installed as some roads or parking lots are replaced. Reduction of effective impervious area will be met by redi-recting storm-water run-off to rain gardens, bio-swales, and storm water detention basins.100 m17ImplementationThis map shows where major interventions will be implemented. Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01 Zoom Study – The Oaks of Main Mall                                                                                                              Wilson WangDesign proposition for a section of Main Mall Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC 115. Figure 26. Platanus x hispanicaDetails:Along Main Mall, a monoculture of Quercus rubra is planted and this is a concern for biodiversity and therefore resilience. If a disturbance such as an insect infestation were to occur, it will travel along Main Mall and therefore will likely kill all the Quercus spp. Furthermore, Quercus rubra is one of listed trees that is discouraged from the UBC’s Vancouver Campus Plan. Therefore, for my zoom study I would like to propose a planting design that is in compliance to the design guidelines set out by the UBC Vancouver Campus Plan. This is a long-term goal and will require time. Some species we recommend would be: Ulmus americana ‘Princeton’ (Figure 29), Acer x freeman ‘Morgan’ and Platanus x hispanica (Figure 30). The trees will have a repeating pattern and will serve to look like a gradient along main mall. A barrier (using Taxus spp.) will surround each tree to aid in their protection from foot traffic and yard maintenance (Figure 28).Figure27: Section of Main Mall.Figure 26: Location of zoom study in red at UBC.Image retrieved from: https://www.google.ca/maps/Figure 28. Barrier planting design around trees and shrubs.Retrieved from: https://i.pinimg.com/736x/0b/d4/7a/0bd47a219121df084b6567c5601ebe2a--priva-cy-landscaping-landscaping-ideas.jpgFigure 29. Ulmus americana ‘Princeton’  Images retrieved from: https://www.google.ca/search?q=tree+images&rlz=1C5CHFA_enCA-557CA557&oq=tree+images&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.3959j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8100 m8Zoom Study – The Oaks of Main Mall ( ilson ang) Design proposition for a section of Main MallEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0116 Zoom Study – The Oaks of Main Mall          Wilson WangDesign proposition for a section of Main Mall Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC 1Details:Figure 31. Ecosystem services categories.Retrieved from: https://www.earthwiseaware.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Ecosys-tem-services.pngFigure 32. Example of a tree corridor Retrieved from: https://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/landscape-corridor-trees-taken-th-july-east-ren-frewshire-56886386.jpgFigure 33  Diverse tree planting design at Low Costa Mill Cottages, EnglandRetrieved from: https://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/09/6c/4e/12/low-costa-mill-cottag-es.jpgIn the end, a nice connected tree corridor should result along Main Mall (an example is shown in Figure 5). The precedent that I have chosen comes from Low Costa Mill Cottages in England (Figure 6). The tree cor-ridor at the Low Costa Mill Cottages offers a linear and uniform space while aiding in shade. Although this design won’t be exactly replicated on my zoom study, it inspired the general idea. The monoculture that is currently at Main Mall will be replaced by a more diverse canopy in order to increase resilience and biodiversity. The canopy is almost con-nected to create a sort of enclosed space which will help to shade the surface from the sun and also provide some shelter from the rain. The ecosystem service that is provided in my zoom study falls under the regulating services category (Figure 7). The trees at this site will provide carbon sequestration as well as to help with climate regulation. 19Zoo  Study – The Oaks of ain all (Wilson Wang)i  iti  f   ti  f i  ll Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01 fro : https:/ media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/phot -s/09/6c/4e/12 low-costa-mill-cottages.jpgZoom Study: A More Sutainable Right-of-Way        Jennifer ReidLawns continue to be desired by homeowners as it signals a sense of care and pride in one’s neighbourhood, but they come with great ecological costs.  Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC 117Troubled lawn areaThis study focuses on the northern tip of Wesbrook Crescent, a quiet residential street with very little traffic or pedestrian activity. The road verges are planted with turf grass, which has become increasingly diffi-cult to manage due to factors such as chaffer beetle damage and sum-mer water restrictions, and is costly to replace. Futhermore, as lawns require frequent mowing by fossil-fuel powered equipment, they are costly to the environment through releasing the release of carbon emissions into the atmosphere, and also provides few ecological bene-fits. Replacing turf grass with micro-clover based turf could reduce the need for costly maintenance and also increase ecosystem services such as pollination and nitrogen fixation1.Figure 36a & 36b. Before and after photos showing the improved greenquality following replacement with micro-clover based seeding in Port Moody. Images from: http://www.portmoody.ca/index.aspx?page=1426Figure 34. Location of zoom study indicated in red - Wesbrook Cres at S.W Marine Drive. Basemap modified from Arc Map.Figure 35. View looking southward up Wesbrook Cres; drought ridden turf grass is a common occurance in this area.100 m20Zoom Study: A More Sutainable Right-of-Way (Jennifer Reid) Lawns continue to be desired by homeowners as it signals a sense of care and pride in one’s neighbourhood, but they come with great ecological costs.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0118Zoom Study: A More Sutainable Right-of-Way        Jennifer ReidA design proposition for to create a more sustainable right-of-way in  a residental neighbourhood in the University Endowment LandsEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC 1Looking ForwardBeyond simply increasing biodiver-sity and sustainability of vegetation in the area, values such as walkabil-ity and storm water infiltration can also be improved. Porous pavement has been successfully used in resi-dential neighbourhoods and allows storm water to infiltrate through, thus reducing pressure on our drain-age systems and local streams, which face the grunt of excess water flow, especially during the winter. Wid-er sidewalks are a simple amend-ment which will increase pedestrian friendliness in the area, and encour-age residents to walk through their neighbourhood. Figure 38 Pervious paving used in Pringle Creek allows water to percolate through. Image from http://www.ewashtenaw.orgFigure 39. Festuca glauca. Image from https://i.ebayimg.com/imagesFigure 37. Cross section of proposed interventions. Porous pavement would increase storm water infiltration while, and widened sidewalks would increase pedestrian friendliness in the neighbourhood.  Micro-clover would largely replace turf grass, reducing maintenance and increasing ecological benefits. Festuca glauca would in-crease species diversity, as well as provide additional habitat to pollinating insects. Figure 40: Aerial photo of proposed changes21Zoo  Study: A ore Sutainable Right-of- ayA design proposition for to create a more sustainable right-of-way in a residental neighbourhood in the University Endowment Lands Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01Zoom Study: Rain Gardens Along Main Mall         JIvan Khera  Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 0119GoalsFigure 41. Potential areas for rain garden interventions Figure 42. Lawns along Main Mall Figure 43.Rain Garden, Agronomy Rd.Rain-gardens along main mall address all three goals that we have established. They provide denser and richer habitat areas, provide opportunity for varied and resilient plant species, utilize the potential of lawn areas, manage storm-water, and provide aesthetic beauty.There are several areas on the campus that have such interventions, but main mall would pose a few challenges. Mainly, tree roots from the mature trees. This can be avoided however as over time these trees are projected to be replaced. By using a long-term approach to implement rain-gardens as sections of trees are replaced, this issue can be avoided.It is important to note that we do not propose to replace all lawns as students utilize them during fairer weather.100 m22Zoom Study: Rain Gardens Along Main Mall (JIvan Khera) Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0120Zoom Study: Rain Gardens Along Main Mall             Jivan KheraEcosystem ServicesEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 01SummaryBiodiversity is aided by additional terrestrial habitat and plant density. Climate and atmosphere would be affected by reduced urban heat island effect. This would be due to water retention in these interventions as well as the small ammount of carbon sequestration that would occur. Pollination can be affected depending on the types of plants used within the rain-garden interventions. Cultural services would benefit via social cohesion, mental wellbeing, aesthetic, and inspirational spaces being produced. Creating beautiful nature filled places on the campus for people to gather and mingle would be beneficial.Figure 44. Raingarden, Buchanan Figure 45. Buchanan Courtyard Figure 46.Rain Garden, University Boulevard3(Jivan Khera) Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0114     Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 1 Zoom Study: Green bus loop A design proposition for the short term in UBC bus loop   Challenges and solution Area: bus loop that is surrounded by aquatic center and war memorial gym as well as construction sites which are designed as residence buildings (Figure 1) The bus loop consists of concrete. In other words, this area doesn’t look nice and may increase the level of contaminants and storm water run-off due to the lack of green space. To solve this problem, green roof on bus shelter, street trees and shrub hedges can be introduced to UBC bus loop. Green roof will be applied on the bus shelter. Due to the hot, dry summer in Vancouver, plant that are used on green roof must have high drought tolerant and looks nice. As a result, Sedum plant can be a good choice for the green roof on bus shelter. Also, the intensive green roof will be the choice on bus shelter because intensive green roof requires less maintenance and does not need very strong structure to support.        Figure 1 Image retrieved from https://www.google.ca/maps/@49.2675661,-123.2274987,6781m/data=!3m1!1e3   Figure 2 Image retrieved from https://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/transportation/construction-detours   Figure 3    Yifan Yuan24Zoom Study: Green bus loop (Yifan Yuan)A design proposition for the short term in UBC bus loopEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01    Figure 4  Figure 5 Image retrieved from http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/300k-bus-shelter-free-wifi-11929732  Yifan Yuan25Zoom Study: Green bus loop (Yifan Yuan)A design proposition for the short term in UBC bus loop Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 01        LARC444/553 (Girling) Team Chang     Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT Site:  UBC 2     Team Members: Norain Chang, Ivan Brodsky, Allan Du, Jane Ho                          [Ortho-photo of site with red boundary line], 1:27780 December 11, 20171:277802       Land Use Map, Scale 1-7500 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 2 Land Use - Buildings Identifying and categorizing building programs by typology   Legend/ Sub-Title Ucil moluptas necestium as que simpedit quidia que vel eatum mod eaquian danitate rem ut doloriore labo mod eaquian danitate rem ut doloriore labo   land useLAND USE BUILDINGSserviceshigh density residentialmedium density residentialcommunityinstitutionalcivicmixed usegreenerynaturen/aPROJECT NORTH27 s  - Buildingsti l  023       Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 2 Land Use - Fabric Identifying and categorizing fabric by uses Land Use Map, Scale 1:7500   Legend/ Sub-Title Ucil moluptas necestium as que simpedit quidia que vel eatum mod eaquian danitate rem ut doloriore labo mod eaquian danitate rem ut doloriore labo  28Land Use - Fabric Identifying and categorizing fabric by usesEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 024       Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 2 Urban Forest  Analyzing urban forest by vegetation type Different vegetation types, Scale 1:7500                                              29Urban ForestAnalyzing urban forest by vegetation type Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 025       Pie chart of tree breakdown, NTS Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 2 Canopy Cover  Identifying diversity in tree canopy                                                             Canopy layers, Scale 1:750030Canopy Cover Identifying diversity in tree canopyEnhancing Gre n Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 026       Habitat types, Scale 1:7500 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC 2 Habitat Types Identifying habitat types    7       Biodiversity hotspots and connections, Scale 1:7500 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC 2 Biodiversity   Analyzing biodiversity and connective patterns      31 esti- Site 027       Biodiversity hotspots and connections, Scale 1:7500 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC 2 Biodiversity   Analyzing biodiversity and connective patterns      32Biodiversity Analyzing biodiversity and connective patternsE hancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 08       Land Cover Distribution, NTS Land cover types, Scale 1:7500 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC 2 Land Cover Type Coding types of land cover by density   Diagram Title / Sub-Title                    Diagram Title / Sub-Title33 r Type- Site 029       Access to large green spaces by distance, Scale 1:7500 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC 2 Distance to Nature Mapping proximity to nature   Diagram Title / Sub-Title                   34Distance to Nature Mapping proximity to natureE hancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 010       Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC-2 Big Idea Given our analysis of our site through different metrics and the observation that it is arguably one of the busier zones of UBC, we wanted to address the ecosystem services of the site, and more specifically the cultural side to it. So through green interventions, we wanted to consider how we can encourage a healthy, green and sustainable lifestyle comprehensively from the moment a person intereacts with the zone from the outside and the inside.  35Big IdeaGiven our analysis of our site through different metrics and the observation that it is arguably one of the busier zones of UBC, we wanted to address the ecosystem services of the site, and more specifically the cultural side to it. So through green inter-ventions, we wanted to consider how we can enc urage a healthy, green a d sustainable lifestyle comprehensively from the moment a person intereacts with the zone from the outside and the inside.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0211       Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC-2 City Goals We based our interventions on three city goals. Although it can be argued that the second goal is already met, we wanted to enhance pedestrian and biker experience.                         36City Goals We based our interventions on three city goals. Although it can be argued that the second goal is already met, we wanted to enhance pedestrian and biker experience.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0212       Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC-2 Interventions Based on our identified places of dwelling and paths of connections, we decided that each area has particular aspects that could be improved or enhanced.  Thus, we examined each area into greater detail and proposed interventions that would work towards meeting our big idea and city goals.  Scale 1:7500 Scale 1:7500                        The aspects that could be improved in our site are biker and pedestrian experience, multifunctional spaces, improving the sustainable operations of buildings, and increase in tree canopy. 13       Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC-2 Location of Zoom Studies  Scale 1:7500                        37InterventionsBased on our identified places of dwelling and paths of connections, we deci ed that each area has particul r aspec s that could be improved or enhanced. Thus, we examined each area into greater detail and proposed interventions that would work towards meeting our big idea and city goals. Enha cing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0213       Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC-2 Location of Zoom Studies  Scale 1:7500                        38Location of Zoom StudiesEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0214       Existing and proposed circulation paths,  Scale 1:1500 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC-2 Zoom Study 1 Focus: Bike lanes            Norain Chang This is a quick collage of what the intervention could allow. By using non-invasive strategies such as painting the existing pathway, and placing planters to distinctly separate the two different functions, this can ensure safety and clear definition of the two means of getting across campus. By having strategic breaks in the planning of planters, this can allow for an “AAA cycling” an all ages and abilities cycling paths across the Main Mall as well as allow for safe crossroads.  Main Mall Being one of the major arteries on campus, this section of main mall receives a ton of traffic especially at peak hours. We noticed that pedestrian traffic and their circulatory paths are governed but the landscape design that exists on the main mall, however what is lacking and a potential hazard if users increase is the potential collision that can happen between pedestrians and cyclists. Remembering one the city goals being to increase trips by foot, cycling, and public traffic, an effective and non-invasive strategy should be implemented. Using the currently pedestrian movement patterns governed by landscape design, we intend to parallel cyclist’s traffic with the existing pattern on the inside of the existing pathway adjacent to green fabrics running down the center of main mall.                             39Zoom Study 1 : Bike Lanes (Norain Chang) Main MallBei g one of the major arteries on campus, this section of main mall receives a ton of traffic especially at peak hours. We noticed that pedestrian traffic and their circulatory paths are governed but the landscape design that exists on the main mall, however what is lacking and a potential hazard if users increase is the potential collision that can happen between pedestrians and cyclists. Remembering one the city goals being to increase trips by foot, cycling, and public traffic, an effective and non-in-vasive strategy should be implemented. Using the currently pedestrian movement patterns governed by landscape design, we intend to parallel cyclist’s traffic with the existing pattern on the inside of the existing pathway adjacent to green fabrics run-ning down the center of main mall. Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0215        Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT – Site UBC-2 Zoom Study 2 Focus: Land use change Ivan Brosky                         Thunderbird Crescent  I chose this area for my zoom study as this area is currently a ~400m^2 concrete slab of pavement. This is unnecessary gray land cover and is a great opportunity to increase green land cover and work towards Vancouver’s 22% canopy cover goal. I would leave area on the sides as a reliable walkway and redo area outlined in green as small park with picnic tables surrounded by coniferous trees leaving a view of the reconciliation totem pole. The brown rectangles represent the three picnic tables made of wood or recycled plastic. The six green circles represent native coniferous trees along each side of the picnic tables. Some considerations when implementing this design would be making sure the trees have enough space to grow as to not encroach on the walkways by planting them appropriately and selecting the proper species. An appropriate species could be a set of six western red cedar, and a possible management option would be removing the middle two in 30 years to make room for the other four. This will add about 210m^2 of green land cover that will help increase infiltration and create a more complete green corridor down main mall.  40Zoom Study 2: Land Use Change (Ivan Brosky) Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0216       Future location of the Chan Gunn Sports Medicine Pavilion, Scale 1:16.5 Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC-2 Zoom Study 3 Focus: Green Buildings    Jane Ho   Chan Gunn Sports Medicine Pavilion  Currently, this area is one of the places within our site that has lowest tree canopy. If more vegetation could be incorporated into the new building design, this could create additional benefits such as cooling and providing wildlife habitat. This would be ideal because it builds habitat connections and corridors for which animals can move through. The new building is also east of a biodiversity hotspot located in Pacific Spirit Park as well as other existing habitat sites. This is a design proposal that can serve as reference for future buildings. The figure below shows the design propositions that could be taken into consideration to make the future Chan Gunn Medicine Pavilion a sustainable operating building.                     Figure Caption, Scale17        Scale 1:1333  Southarm Park Richmond BC, Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC-2  Zoom Study 4 Focus: Tree canopy cover   Allan Du   UBC Baseball Turf For our fourth zoom study we focused on increasing canopy cover. The sports field has a lot of empty space where appropriately planted trees could be placed to increase the areas canopy cover. Given the location and the area of the sport field, the field has the potential to strengthen greenway corridors which serve as travel ways between the two ends of Pacific Spirit Park, as well as habitat for wildlife. Increasing canopy cover will increase ecosystem benefits such as wildlife habitat and connectivity between habitats, as well as enhancing the experience of being in the sport field by providing shade in the summer, and connecting people further with nature.  As well, by planting a diverse canopy, with different species, we can support greater biodiversity.41Zoom Study 3: Green Buildings (Jane Ho) Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0217        Scale 1:1333  Southarm Park Richmond BC, Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site UBC-2  Zoom Study 4 Focus: Tree canopy cover   Allan Du   UBC Baseball Turf For our fourth zoom study we focused on increasing canopy cover. The sports field has a lot of empty space where appropriately planted trees could be placed to increase the areas canopy cover. Given the location and the area of the sport field, the field has the potential to strengthen greenway corridors which serve as travel ways between the two ends of Pacific Spirit Park, as well as habitat for wildlife. Increasing canopy cover will increase ecosystem benefits such as wildlife habitat and connectivity between habitats, as well as enhancing the experience of being in the sport field by providing shade in the summer, and connecting people further with nature.  As well, by planting a diverse canopy, with different species, we can support greater biodiversity.42Zoom Study 4: Tree Canopy Cover (Allan Du)  E hancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0Enhancing Green Networksand FabricWesbrook Village - Site 03Team Members: Colin MbuguaEva SnyderDoris SunTony TseLARC444/553 (Girling) Team 03December, 2017[Orthophoto of site with red boundary line].vColin,  Doris,  Eva, TonyUBC 32Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 03 GREY versus GREEN Figure 2. Map of grey versus green area of the study site. Figure 1. Map of grey versus green area of the study site. The majority of the site is green.Percent area of grey versus green areaAround 72% of the site is composed of greenways (i.e. Scholar’s Greenway), greenspaces (i.e. Mundell Park) and green edges (i.e. the buffer between Pacific Spirit Park and the residential zones). 28% of the site are grey areas including buildings, parking space, and roads (Figures 1 & 2).Note. Grey lines represent the centre of roads. Roads are wider in reality than on map.Green vs. GreyPaved circulation and stracturesForestRecreational green spaceGreen paths45 r  t r   ri  I   - it  3Figure 3. Map of the land covers of the study site. Figure 4. The forest and sparse vegetation land cover above, and the water and buildings land cover below. LAND COVER Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03A melange of different land types.Wesbrook Village has a mix of different lands types (fig-ure 3). The west side of the Village is dominated by resi-dential buildings, transitioning into a more commercial setting, and transitioning residential and institutional buildings in the east. Land CoverSparse vegetationHerbaceousBuildingsForestShrubsWater 0                   200             400mN46Enhancing Gree  Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT4Legend/ Sub-TitleUcil moluptas necestium as que simpedit quidia que vel eatum inis mo blam est, te essinvellia eatio incipsam, sim hitatur am alitis nosame voloria doles nitem qui re-mod eaquian danitate rem ut doloriore labo. Nam ipitio bla consercil eium fugiassi coratio nseritatas ium resto dolutatia dit aut venis quatur?mod eaquian danitate rem ut doloriore labo.Diagram Title / Sub-TitleEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03 VEGETATION NATURALNESS Figure 5. Map of natural and cultural vegetation of the study site. Figure 4. Maple, Locust, and Cherry are the dominant species while Douglas-fir and Cedar are few.Most of the vegetation is ornamental.Tree species proportionsThe majority of species in Wesbrook Village are orna-mental alien species. The native species in our site (in-cluding Thuja plicata, and Pseudotsuga menzisii, two prominent native species) are in the minority at 2% and 4% respectively (Figure 4). While tree species di-versity is high, the West coast native species presence is weak (Figure 5). Patches of native trees exist but they are not well connected to their surroundings and the trees are in declining health.Vegetation NaturalnessCultural vegetationAltered vegetationSemi-natural vegetationMainly natural vegetationNatural vegetation 0                   200             400mN47 r  t r   ri  FINAL REPORT - Site 035Figure 7. Tree canopy cover in the Village is very low. Figure 6. Map of tree canopy cover of the study site. TREE CANOPY COVEREnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03Discontinuous canopy coverWesbrook Village has a mix of different lands types and their associated canopy covers (Figure 6). The west side of the Village is dominated by residential build-ings, transitioning into a more commercial setting, and transitioning residential and institutional buildings in the east. Most of the sites trees are younger and so have smaller canopies, additionally, several large green areas are open to the sky, without trees. This accounts for the low overall canopy cover recorded (Figure 7).Tree canopy coverageTree Canopy Foliage TypeDeciduous CanopyEvergreen CanopyMixed CanopyForestiWreck BeachLibraryGardenTotemFieldRhododendronWoodTotem ParkThunderbirdParkadeHealthSciencesParkadeWestParkadeRoseGarden ParkadeFraserRiverParkadeNorthParkadeMap prepared by Campus + Community Planning, September 20170 400200 mN48Enhancing Gree  Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT6Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03 LAND USE Figure 9. Map of land use of the study site. Figure 8. Multiple land uses like homes, stores, schools, and greenspaces can be found in a 5 minute walk.One scene, many land usesLand UseMixed residential comercial low riseResidential town houseResidential highrise appartmentAgricultureInstitutional Undeveloped and unclassifiedCirculation green spaceRecreational, Open space and protected natural access49 r  t r   ri  FINAL REPORT - Site 037Figure 11. Multi-story buildings dominante the site and increase overall walkabilityFigure 10. Map of 100m and 400m walking distances in the study site. WALKING DISTANCE TO URBAN FORESTEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03Walking from home to the urban forest is quick and convenient.Vegetation NaturalnessCultural VegetationAltered VegetationSemi-Natural VegetationMainly Natural VegetationNatural VegetationiWreck BeachLibraryGardenTotemFieldRhododendronWoodTotem ParkThunderbirdParkadeHealthSciencesParkadeWestParkadeRoseGarden ParkadeFraserRiverParkadeNorthParkadeMap prepared by Campus + Community Planning, September 20170 400200 mNMap base modified from Campus + Community Planning, September 20170 02 0 04 0 mXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX50Enhancing Gree  Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT8Conventional urban plantingDiagram Title / Sub-TitleBiodiversity of the site is dominated by non-native spe-cies (see vegetation naturalness section).  The variety and selection of these terrestrial vegetation species is typical for urban areas in Vancouver, and far more reflective of anthropogenic forces than the nearby PCP which reflects biogeoclimatic conditions.  This is a point of interest. Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03 BIODIVERSITY Figure 13. Map of habitat types and habitat connectivi-ty of the study site. Figure 12. Map of habitat types and habitat connectivity of the study site. 51 r  t r   ri  FINAL REPORT - Site 039Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 03Native plants, green connections, flora/faunaDue to the spatial proximity and strong connections of Wesbrook Village to UBC Vancouver, we also considered the Vancouver Campus Plan (2010) with the Wesbrook Place Neighbourhood Plan (WPNP, 2016).Firstly, we considered the Vancouver Campus Plan, Sec-tion 3, Campus Plan Strategy to “rediscover UBC’s sense of place and natural west coast beauty” and Wesbrook Place Neighbourhood Plan (WPNP) Section 3.5.10. However, both plans do not go into detail about the plant specifics and only WPNP briefly touches on plant requirements.Secondly, WPNP Sections 1.4.2 and 3.3.6 states to have streets and lanes considered as extension of park and greenway systems. In the present state, greener streets can be achieved, especially in the commercial sectors of Wesbrook Village.Lastly, in the Vancouver Campus Plan, habitat is not considered. In the WPNP, bird habitats are emphasized with various strategies to increase habitats in trees and with nest boxes for certain species. We aim to further improve the quality of terrestrial habitats, and we hope that our zoom studies can increase the usability of greenspaces for not only birds, but other fauna and people as well.Figure 14. Two plans examined in context of this study.Project goals:1. Reintroduce native vegetation into Wesbrook Village2. Strengthen connections to the neighbouring Pacific Spirit Park and internal greenways3. Strengthen flora and fauna connections between Wesbrook and the surrounding forestPOLICY CONTEXTThe Vancouver Campus Plan (2010)Wesbrook Place Neighbourhood Plan (2016) 5210Figure Caption, Scale Figure Caption, ScaleImage taken from Google Earth15. A grove of Thuja plicata and some ferns near UHILL Secondary.  More native trees can be planted and managed to better achieve a west coast atmosphere.Figure 16. An example of poor and rich understory plants along the east forest buffer and along Wes-brook Mall.The west coast characteristics of Wesbrook Village has been described in the plans via architecture and land-scape views. This shaping with plants, and moreover native plants, is lacking in the policies. In the site, the few patches of native vegetation are disconnected and un-healthy (Figure 15). An example of the different understoriesGOAL 1 - Reintroduce native vegetation into Wesbrook VillageEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0353 r  t r   ri  I   - it  re 15. A grove of Thuja plicata and some ferns near UHILL Secondary. More nativ trees can be planted nd managed to better achiev  a west coast atmosphere.11Figure Caption, ScaleDiagram Title / Sub-TitleFigure Caption, ScaleDiagram Title / Sub-TitleFigure Caption, ScaleEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0317. G ogle Earth images of current (dark green) and potential (light gr en) greenspaces.Figure 18. Along Berton Ave, there is  potential to in-crease canopy cover and vertical stratification.The Vancouver Campus Plan land the WPNP lay out maps for green networks open space context map.  In both maps, the greenspaces of the lanes are not men-tioned. In addition to networks, grey or “dead” spaces are also potential sites for increasing the canopy and vege-tation cover. In the Wesbook Village context, the com-mercial zone has the most traffic but the least amount of greenspaces, as seen in Figure 17. There is strong poten-tial to increase canopy cover with native trees and shrubs (Figure 18). Strong potential for additional greeneryGOAL 2 - Strengthen connections between neighbouring Pacific Spirit Park and internal greenways54i r  . o le Earth images of current (dark green) and potential (light green) greens-pac s.12Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 03Figure 20. Dead space outside the local community centre and the miniature school field can be revitalised with vegetation and thus wildlife. The WPNP has a focus on terrestrial habitat that we wish to work with. Wesbrook Village already has exam-ples of pre-existing habitats sites, especially along the south of Wesbrook Mall near TRIUMPH and the Centre for Comparative Medicine. Within the residential and school areas however, we would like to see an increase in habitat sites and hab-itat connections along roads adjacent to the homes. These sites will aim to encourage wildlife and human engagement at an educational level.Figure 19. Dense thickets attract birds and other wild-life as shelter and safe corridors.GOAL 3 - Strengthening flora and fauna connections between Wesbrook Village and the surrounding for-est 55 r  t r   ri  I   - it  13Wesbrook Village Zoom sitesEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03Figure 21. Areas which we plan to conduct zoom studies to carry out the goals listed.Project goals1. Reintroduce native vegetation into Wesbrook Village2. Strengthen connections to the neighbouring Pa-cific Spirit Park and internal greenways3. Strengthen flora and fauna connections between Wesbrook and the surrounding forestImplementing and monitoringActions presented in the zoom studies within Wesbrook Village (2 to 4) will be implemented at a smaller scale for convenience of implementation, monitoring, and management. Regarding monitoring and management, the local residents and in particular the students from UHILL secondary and UBC can be invited as volunteers or interns to help manage and look after the pilot plots. This arrangement will also allow for more community engagement, student interactions with the community, and stronger connections and knowledge with their sur-rounding environment.IMPLEMENTING GOALSLARC444/553 (Girling) UBC site 3Enhancing Green Networksand Fabric FINAL REPORTSite 3Content:Strategy 1. Connecting the Pacific Spirit Region-al Park using the W 16th Ave. Strategy 2. Connecting the Pacific Spirit Region-al Park using Westbrook Mall residential street.Strategy 3. Connecting the Pacific Spirit Region-al Park to the Westbrook residential area.Strategy 4. Connecting the Pacific Spirit Region-al Park by overcoming the SW Marine drive road .Team Members:  Strategy 1:Colin Mbugua Strategy 2. Doris SunStrategy 3. Eva SnyderStrategy 4. Tony 1243Site 3 Map 1:50056Enhancing Gree  Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORTFigure 21. Areas which we plan to conduct zoom studies to carry out the goals listed.West 16th Plan 1:100Cycle path Bioswale Pedestrian path2.5m 2m 2mStreet treesBioswale2.5m 2.5mRoad4mStrategy 1. ZOOM 1 - W 16th and SW Marine Drive rainwater filtration / habitat connectivity                  ColinEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0357ZOO  1 -  16th and S  arine Drive rain ater filtration / habitat connectivity (Colin Mbugua)Strategy 1. West 16th Plan 1:100 i  r  t r   ri  I   - it  Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03Road Cycle pathStreet treesBioswale Bioswale Pedestrian path2.5m 2.5m 4m 2.5m 2m 2mWest 16th Half road section 1:100Existing cliff sepa-rating the sidewalk from the bioswaleThe Bioswale helps fil-ter runoff from the road.The Bioswale helps fil-ter runoff from the road.Strength-ening the green con-nection using trees and shrubsWith increased street trees and shrubs on either side of the street help in tightening the green fabric and in-creasing the aesthetic perspective view for the road userIncreasing the di-mension of the cy-cle path and paint-ing the cycle path to ensure safety and aesthetics.ZOOM 1 - W 16th and SW Marine Drive rainwater filtration / habitat connectivity                  Colin58ZOOM 1 - W 16th and SW Marine Drive rainwater filtration / habitat connectivity (Colin Mbugua) West 16th Half road section 1:100Enhancing Gree  Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORTZOOM 2 - Climate resiliency in the urban landscape                  EvaEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 0316OverviewForest ecosystems are naturally adapted to drought and flood, stresses predicted to intensify due to climate change, through their mycorrhizal associations. These associations allow plants to access otherwise inaccessi-ble nutrients in the soil as well as transfer carbon, water and defense signals belowground, strengthening the plant community as a whole. These principles could be applied to an urban landscape in order to understand urban ecosystems and resiliency.Wesbrook Village is a leader in sustainable design, both on the community planning and infrastructure level. However, plantings are discontinuous with Pacific Spirit Park, within which the Wesbrook is nested. This is not an issue per say, it may however be an opportunity for im-provement: urban plantings are known to face a range of challenges, particularly as climate change threatens their future resiliency.ProposedWesbrook village could be the site of an ‘enhanced ur-ban ecosystem’ demonstration, wherein restoration of belowground symbiotic fungal associations in urban areas is studied and used to understand resilience to climate change. The design concept is based on idea of succession—a mosaic of native plantings, within which some parts will thrive, and other parts will change as plants adapt or succumb. The composition and dynam-ics of the native Pacific Spirit Park (PCP) can be used as a guide. For this study, comprehensive vegetation surveys were conducted in three locations in PCP near Wesbrook.The field of belowground ecology is relatively young, and there is much to learn about applications of this science for urban areas.  Figure 23. Birney ave. currently Figure 24. Birney ave. trial visualizationFigure 22. Location of pro-posed trial59ZOOM 2 - Climate resiliency in the urban landscape (Eva Snyder)  r  t r   ri  FINAL REPORT - Site 0317ZOOM 2 - Climate resiliency in the urban landscape                    EvaEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03ProposedPlantingsSpecies indicated on plan (Figure 25) with abbreviations indicated in this list.sources: personal reconnaissance; Native plant alliance, 1997All sites:Fd - Pseudotsuga menziesii(Douglas-fir) Ts - Tsuga heterophylla(hemlock)Tp - Thuja plicata(cedar)Sa - Symphoricarpos albus(snowberry)Aa - Amelanchier alnifolia(saskatoon)Au -  Arctostaphylos uva-ursi(kinnikinnick)Pm - Polystichum munitum(sword fern)South facing sites additionally:Sc - Shepherdia canadensis(soopolallie)Gs - Gaultheria shallon(salal)Pm - Paxistima myrsinites(falsebox)Ma - Mahonia aquifolium(oregon grape)North facing sites additionally:Rs - Ribes sanguineum(red currant)Cc - Cornus canadensis(bunchberry)Lb - Linnaea borealis(twinflower)Figure 25. Planting plan for Birney AveNative Plant Alliance (1997). A manual of native plants for urban areas of the Pacific Northwesr. Retrieved online from: http://www.wnps.org/landscaping/herbarium/native_alli-60Native Plant Alliance (1997). A manual of native plants for urban areas of the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved online from: http://www.wnps.org/landscaping/her-barium/native_alliance_urban_complete.pdfZOOM 2 - Climate resiliency in the urban landscape (Eva Snyder)Enhancing Gree  Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORTFigure 25. Planting plan for Birney AveZOOM 3 - Strengthening internal greenways and connections to neighbouring PSP                  DorisEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 0318Current conditionsFig 27. The marked difference in canopy cover in the east and west of Berton Ave. The native forest can be extended from east to west.  Fig 26. Berton Ave in Wesbrook Village.While the dramatic transition can be a pleasant walking experience, the amount of the West coast forest declines significantly as one heads west. In fact, if the avenue is split into East and West halves, around 48% of the East is forested while around 8.5% of the West is forested. With this large gap in mind, we seek to achieve two goals with Berton Ave:1. To increase canopy cover in the west 2. To better link east and west bufferThere is strong potential to introduce native trees in the East half as well as the ability to convert gray landscapes into green ones by reduce parking space to the Village periphery (UBC Vancouver Campus Plan, 2010).61ZOOM 3 - Strengthening internal greenways and connections to neighbouring PSP (Doris Sun) r  t r   ri  FINAL REPORT - Site 0319ZOOM 3 - Strengthening internal greenways and connections to neighbouring PSP                   DorisEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03Proposed conditions1. Using Google Earth to map polygons of potential new greenspa-ces, It is possible to double the current canopy cover to around 17% by increasing the amount of soft surfaces and planting vegetation. In the field in front of UHILL secondary, a bioswale can be added on the field along with extending the existing patch of native plants. This not only provides an educational feature at hand, but also adds interest to the otherwise underused field.2. Regarding Berton Ave, two design options are possible on the grey network: a boxed parklet or a garden patch directly on the ground. Par-klets have built-in pots or tree trenches with adequate soil volume to sustain tree growth. Shrubs can be grown on the ground level spaces or in pots.Fig 28a. Berton Ave before pro-posal. Dark green is existing vege-Fig 28b. Berton Ave after propos-al. Light green is new vegetation.Fig 29. Berton Ave after adding native shrubs and trees. Two designs are possible: raised parklet or a ground-level garden. Plant list above.62ZOOM 3 - Strengthening internal greenways and connections to neighbouring PSP (Doris Sun) Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0320Figure 30. The new trail connects the Wesbrook Mall all the way to the trail near the ocean. Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03ZOOM 4 - Tunnelling between Wesbrook Village & Pacific Spirit ParkTony Connect the power line trail all the way to west side of the SW Marine DrFigure 31. The sky bridge will be better for the wildlife to get across.Figure 32. Animals living in the habitats separate by a man made open corridor could lead to a possible In order to maximize the community’s accessibility to nature and to allow them to access various type of nature, we want to expend the power line trail across the south side of Wesbrook to the other side of Marine Drive. It is key for us to ensure the safety of the community when crossing the highway. Hence, we decide to build a tunnel for pedestrian and cyclists to get across. This trail/tunnel will extend the trail for walkers, joggers, and bikers. 63ZOOM 4 - Tunnelling between Wesbrook Village & Pacific Spirit Park (Tony Tse) r  t r   ri  FINAL REPORT - Site 0321Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric - Site 03ZOOM 4 - Tunnelling between Wesbrook Village & Pacific Spirit ParkTonyBenefits on WildlifeWe should also focus on the design to make residents more comfort-able going through the tunnel. Not only to benefit the residents but also to enhance the ecological cycle. Forest fragmentation by the separation of highway could cause edge effect in ecosystems, which may fasten the elimination of some species. The tunnel allows animals to get across which weakens the of edge effect and reduce roadkill of animal.Figure 33. Animals living in the habitats separate by a man made open corridor could lead to a possible limitation of certain spe-Figure 35. This is an existing tunnel in the UBC botanical garden. Figure 34. A cross section of the tunnel and its proportions.64ZOOM 4 - Tunnelling between Wesbrook Village & Pacific Spirit Park (Tony Tse) Enhancing Gree  Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORTEnhancing Green Networksand Fabric FINAL REPORTSite 04Team Members: Peiyang (Leo) LiEmily TuJiahui HuangJake RobertsonSite AnalysisSite 4 is a part of the University Endowment Land and the highly forested Pacific Spirit Park takes about 2/3 of the site.67Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0430    50   100         200                                          500Master PlanThough the site is highly forested, there are still many problems we identified and tried to improve the quality of green space on the site by this proposal.Goals- Make the streets pedestrian and biker friendly- Improve storm water management- Create denser housing for more green space- Improve the connection and accessability of green    space- Restore the forest- Mke our city more beautiful- Improve the green infrausetructure Master plan with 2016 otho photo as base map68Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0440    50   100         200                                          500Forest RestorationHistorical clearings happened in 1900s damaged the forest in the Pacific Spirit Park a lot. Invasive plants from residential areas  are also threatening the health of the forest. Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Common PeriwinkleEnglish HollyEnglish IvyHimalayan BlackberryYellow LamniumOtherForest Restoration MethodsCurrent Canopy Types, main restoration area is circled Invasive Plant SpiecesLegendDeciduous CanopyEvergreen CanopyMixed CanopyHerbaceousFor invasive plants:- Plant for competition- Education- Contain and restrict- Mechanical, manual and cultural controlFor deciduous trees:- Plant conifer trees to re-place unhealthy and dying deciduous trees695LegendCity GoalsProposed Canopy TypesForest RestorationDying deciduous trees should be replaced by coniferous trees to create a healthier forest. Mixed forest will increate largely after restoration.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Deciduous CanopyEvergreen CanopyMixed CanopyHerbaceous0    50   100         200                                          500Our AccomplishmentUnhealthy deciduous trees are moved35.3% (995 square meters) increase in mixed forest“The Biodiversity action plan will restore or enhance an additional 25 hectares of natural areas by 2020.”706Zoom Study (Jiahui Huang) - University VillageUniversity Village is near the main entrance of UBC, and University Boulevard in front of it is always busy with cars, bikers and pedestrians. Something has to be done to improve the walkability and aethetic value of it.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Goals- Improve walkability:       - Move storefront to the second floor, build a bridge next to the storefront for pedestrians and bikers      - Ground floor for buses, parking and good delivery- Make the city more beautiful:      - More space for vegetation on and under the bridge      - Create roof and rain gardens to reduce greenhouse effect and manage storm waterProposed AreaSite Location and Condition photos, Not to ScaleLegendBridgeRoof Garden0    50   100         200                                          5000    50   100         200                                          50071- University Village (Jiahui Huang) 7Section Drawing, Not to ScaleZoom Study (Jiahui Huang) - University Village ProposalImprove regulating services: more vegetation to reduce heat island effect in city and improve air quality.Improve cultural services: pedestrian path and street are decorated with plants for better landscape.Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Concept Images72Zoom Study - University Village Proposal (Jiahui Huang) Improve regulating services: more vegetation to reduce heat island effect in city and improve air quality.Improve cultural services: pedestrian path and street are decorated with plants for better landscape.Proposition: Increase DensityLocation: Along Chancellor Blvd., between Allison and Acadia Rd.  Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04 - Jake Robertson4• The	area	is	currently	 low	density,	 single	family	home	suburban	sprawl	with	most	homes	spread	far	from	nearest	grocery	stores,	causing	a	dependence	of	personal	vehicles.• Green	median	dividing	lanes	on	Chancellor	Blvd.	catches	some	rainwater.• Curbs	limit	the	amount	of	storm	water	runoff	that	could	be	managed.	Design	would	include	pathways	to	allow	run	off	to	enter	median.Goal- Increase density - Increase biophilla - Improve storm water run-off management - Increasing connectivityZoom Study AreaGoogle Street View and Google Map ViewBefore873 (Jake Robertson)ation: Along Chancellor Blvd., betwee Allison and Acadia Rd. i   t rks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 045AfterProposalArea size: 150m x 150m Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04  - Jake RobertsonHow to Achieve Goal- Designated bike lane to encourage healthier lifestyles and sustainable transportation.- Functional and aesthetic rain gardens mitigate storm water runoff and reduce runoff pollution.- Medium and high density buildings to increase density. Example of a city cross section.Design by Tipton-Associates974Proposal (Jake Robertson)Area size: 150m x 150mEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Final ImageWhat this site could look like with the developments.  Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04 - Jake Robertson6Alterations- Bike lane that is clearly marked for safety and connec-tivity.- Functional Rain garden with a diversity of plants- Mixed density housing to add more residents and shops.- Higher density siteAfterSite Changed1075i l I  (Jake Robertson)hat this site could look like ith the develop ents. Enhancing r  t   i   T - Site 047Dwelling units: - Originally 18- Revised 39 - 52Ecosystem Services: - Cultural: increase in aesthetically pleasing location with increase in connectivity to connect communities. - Regulating: storm water run-off management has been increased because of the access rain water has to the functional rain gardens. Increase in vegetation also im-proves CO2 sequestration and air purification.  Side by Side ComparisonAccomplishmentsEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04 - Jake Robertson1176Accomplishments (Jake Robertson) Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Proposition: Renovated Community Peiyang LiLocation: The community in the cross of Chancellor Blvd and Western PkwyEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 042Goal- Promote connection between communities- Enhance stormwater management- Introduce green infrastructure- Improve biophiliaZoom Study Area   Google Street view and Google Map areaRenovation Plan Draft1277(Peiyang Li)Location: The community in the cross of Chancellor Blvd and Western Pkwy 3Community Renovation Plan  ProposalPeiyang LiArea Size: 120m x 140mEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04-  Community garden-  Children playground-  Mixed-use building -  Green roof garden-  Pedestrain friendly trail-  Seating area1378Proposal (Peiyang Li)Area Size: 120m x 140m4ComparePeiyang LiEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Before- Low-density single family house- Absent urban stormwater management - Isolated close community- Vehicle-use streetAfter- Mixed-use medium-density building - Enhanced ecological roof garden - Connected open community- Pedestrian, elders and children friendly street14ComparePeiyang LiEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0479 (Peiyang Li) AccomplishmentPeiyang Li Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 045Policy ContextThe Greenest City 2020 Action Plan Improving access to green spaces—like parks, community gar-dens, and greenways—builds the community and improves the health of residents.Integrated Stormwater Management Plan Capture and local treatment of roof rainwater can provide water for irrigation, toilet and urinal flushing, and other non-potable uses, and reduce the city’s reliance on potable water. Ecosystem ServiceProvisioning: Bring production of food.Regulating: Decrease runoff pollution. Cultural: Promote connections between people and nature, enhance health well-being. Achievement22.4% increase in green spaceIncreased human connectivity with 7 adjacent com-munity13200 square meters increased in the study area which is within 100 meters of nature. 15AccomplishmentPeiyang LiEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0480Accomplishment (Peiyang Li) Improving Green Space AccessibilityEmily TuEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC - 4 14Map 1 - Our site before the development and improvements are made “Our targets: Ensure that every person lives within a 5 minute walk of a park, greenway, or other green space by 2020; restore or enhance 25 ha of natural areas be-tween 2010 and 2020”- City of Vancouver; Greenest City Action PlanGoals:- To promote access to and maintenance of naturalareas, by creating new innovative public green spaces- To foster public interest and education in theappreciation and study of nature- To protect improtant natural areas to contribute toregional liveability and enhance connectionsDeciduous CanopyPark SpaceWaterWithin 100m of NatureWithin 400m of NatureLEGEND16Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 0481I r ving Green Space Ac es ibility (Emily Tu) 15Zoom  Site: Pacific Spirit Park Emily TuEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC - 4Before ImprovemntsWithin 100 metres of Nautre  36.4%Wihtin 400 metres of Nature   63.6%After ImprovementsWithin 100 metres of Nature   68.4%Within 400 metres of Nature   31.6%Map 2 - Our site after the development and improvements are madeEvergreen CanopyGreen SpaceWaterWithin 100m of NatureWithin 400m of NaturePlaygroundEducation CentreMixed CanopyHerbaceous LEGEND7Enhancing ree  et orks and Fabric FI L E  - Site 082Zoom Site: Pacific Spirit Park (Emily Tu) Zoom Site: Pacific Spirit Park Emily TuEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - UBC - 416“Plant 150,000 new trees by 2020” - City of Vancouver; Greenest City Action PlanLike the Greenest City Action Plan, our goals are comparable. We want to promote access to nat-ural areas and public green spaces, as well as fos-ter Public interest and eduction in the apprecia-tion and stuyd of nature. We hope to achieve these goals, while at the same time, protect the import-ant natural areas that not only contribute to the regional liveability, but also enhance connections. 8 r  t r   ri  I   - Site 0483 ite: ific Spirit Park (Emily Tu)17“Work to aquire new parks in priority neighbourhoods: - City of Vancouver; Greenest City Action PlanThis zoom study is part of Pacific Spirit Park, that bor-ders the neighbourhood. In order to promote other people, such as families, to use this space, we will cre-ate two dynamic playground and picnic areas that are surrounded by wildlife and nature. We will also include an education centre, as well as increase the amount of educational signage along trails and around the park. We can work closely with other assocations like Pacif-ic Spirit Park Society and nearby schools, to organize a tree planting. In order to conserve the natural resources around the zoom site, we won’t clear cut the site, instead we will build around the environment and work with it. 9Enhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 048420ConclusionEnhancing Green Networks and Fabric FINAL REPORT - Site 04Forest RestorationSustainable StreetsStorm Water ManagementRenovated CommunityGreen Space AccessibilityPark Renovation35.3% (995 m2) increase in mixed canopybetter cityscape with sustainable urban transportation4.5 km rain gardens along the streets22.4% increase in green space32.0% increase in areas within 100 meters of natureimprove space in nature for activities85REFERENCES86City of Vancouver. (2012). Greenest City 2020 Action Plan. Retrieved from http://vancouver.ca/files/cov/Greenest-city-action-  plan.pdfDyck, Caylee. (2016). Mapping the biodiversity potential on the University of British Columbia Campus. Retrieved from https://  sustain.ubc.ca/sites/sustain.ubc.ca/files/seedslibrary/Habitat%20Mapping%20Report_Caylee%20Dyck_Apr%207_0.pdf Girling, C., Gocova, A., Goldgrub, V., & Sylvia, N. (2015). Wesbrook Place : University of British Columbia : a case study in sus-  tainable neighbourhood design. Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/undergraduatere  search/18861/items/1.0224431Metro Vancouver. (2017). Metro Vancouver 2040 Shaping Our Future. Retrieved from http://www.metrovancouver.org/ser-  vices/regional-planning/PlanningPublications/RGSAdoptedbyGVRDBoard.pdfNative Plant Alliance (1997). A manual of native plants for urban areas of the Pacific Northwest. Retrieved online from: http://  www.wnps.org/landscaping/herbarium/ native_alliance_urban_complete.pdfUniversity of British Columbia (UBC). (2009). UBC Public Realm Plan for the Vancouver Campus. http://planning.ubc.ca/sites/  planning.ubc.ca/files/documents/planning-services/policies-plans/PublicRealmPlanFinal_0.pdfUniversity of British Columbia (UBC). (2010). UBC Vancouver Campus Plan – Parts 1, 2, 3. http://planning.ubc.ca/vancouver/  planning/policies-plans/land-use-governance-documents/vancouver-campus-planUniversity of British Columbia (UBC). (2014). UBC Integrated Stormwater Management Plan – Draft. UBC Campus and Com  munity Planning. http://planning.ubc.ca/sites/planning.ubc.ca/files/documents/projects-consultations/consultations/  UBC%20Draft%20ISMPv4_April%202014.pdfUniversity of British Columbia (UBC). (2015). Land Use Plan for the University of British Columbia Point Grey Campus. http://  planning.ubc.ca/sites/planning.ubc.ca/files/documents/planning-services/policies-plans/01-Land%20Use%20Plan-2015. 87pdfUniversity of British Columia (UBC). (2016). Wesbrook Place Neighbourhood Plan. Retrieved from http://vsp.sala.ubc.ca/up loads/7/9/7/3/79735244/wesbrook_neighbourhood_plan-apr2016.pdfVancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. (2016). Biodiversity Strategy. Retrieved from http://parkboardmeetings.vancouver. ca/reports/REPORT-BiodiversityStrategy2016-FINAL.pdf

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