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UBC Campus Outdoor Lighting : Challenges and Opportunities Khalid, Mustafa; Yong, Melissa; Lin, Tingli Mar 25, 2016

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportMelissa Yong, Mustafa Khalid, Tingli LinUBC Campus Outdoor Lighting: Challenges and OpportunitiesURSY 510March 25, 201614052095University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.         iUBC Campus Outdoor Lighting:  Challenges and OppOrtunitiesMustafa Khalid, Melissa Yong, Tingli Lin ii          iiiacknowledgmentsThis report would not have been possible without the work, dedication, patience, and collaboration of the University of British Columbia (UBC) Campus & Community Planning Department, UBC School of Community and Regional Planning (SCARP), UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Stud-ies (SEEDS) Suitability Program. Our team would like to thank Dr. Jordi Honey-Rosés (URSY 510 Professor, SCARP), Douglas Doyle (UBC Associate Director, Infrastructure + Services Planning Department), and George Benson (SEEDS Coordinator). disclaimerThe information and recommendations provided in this report do not constitute a professional advice and or opinion of the authors; this body of work has been produced by Master of Engineering in Leadership Graduate Students. And should only be used at an academic capacity. iv          vtable of Contents            acknlowlegments                                                                                                                             iii                                                   the team                                                                                                                                            iv                                             Executive Summary                                                                                                                              v                                       1.0       Lighting the Way                                                                                                                                            1                                       2.0       Out of dark                                                                                                                                            33.0       resources                                                                                                                                           104.0       a secure environment                                                                                                                                 135.0       environmental impact                                                                             156.0        health impacts                                                                                     237.0       Benchmarks                                                                                                                                           25 8.0       Ecosystems Impacts                                                                                                                            279.0       Recommendations                                                                                                                            2810.0    Conclusion                                                                                                                                          3011.0    reference                                                                                                                                           3112.0    appendices                                                                                                                                                     33            Appendix A: Additional Resoruces                                                                                                             34 31                                                          the teamThis project has been a collaborative effort that is drawn from 25 years of combined profes-sional experience in the design, and construction industries.Yong, Melissa Project ManagerYears of Experience: 18. Professional Designations: Quantity Surveyor.Professional Membership : Canadian Institute of Quantity Surveyors and Chartered Quantity                                                               Surveyors.Khalid, MustafaProject EngineerYears of Experience: 4.Professional Designations: Engineer-in-Training.Professional Membership : Association of Professional Association and Geoscientist of British                                                              Columbia.Lin, Tingli Junior LeadYears of Experience: 1.Professional Designations: Architect.Professional Membership : N/A. vi          viiExecutive SummaryThe objective of our report is to stimulate discussions with regards to campus outdoor lightings. This report:•	 provides	a	brief	historical	overview	of	the	evolution	of	artificial	light,•	 examines the current technological trends of outdoor lighting,•	 outlines some of the potential negative impacts of outdoor lighting, and•	 provides recommendations for campus stakeholders and future policy makers to implement.The	significance	and	importance	of	light	in	our	lives	is	undeniable.	Light	provides	us	with	more	than	just	an	illumination	in	the	dark.	Its	significance	is	evident	from	history	and	in	modern	day	researches	done	on	the	subject	of	light.	The	white	light	we	see	is	a	combination	of	a	spectrum	of	colours	and	this	spectrum	is	further	reflected	in	the	many	ways	light	affects	people,	nature	and	the	world.	Recent	advancements	in	technology,	from	more	efficient	lighting	components	to	increasingly	sophisticated	controls, offer attractive opportunities for making the most of outdoor lighting systems. Hence, the team makes the case for the University of British Columbia to shift to using LED technology.The	team	recommends	before	determining	what	type	of	lighting	should	be	installed	or	retrofitted,	it	is	impor-tant to ask the basic question: Is Lighting needed? If no reason for lighting can be found, it is more practical to remove the current lighting than replacing it with a new technology. we also recommend the following:1. luminance for all new lights should be equal or less than the maximum value recommended by Il-luminating Engineering Society.   2. integration of bi-level control systems as it is unnecessary to keep the street lighting at maximum illumination	during	periods	of	low	traffic. 3. all new lights installed anywhere on campus to be properly shielded. These shields should ensure that light is directed downwards - not upwards or to the side.  4. a campus lighting strategy to establish a method for assessing future lighting solutions. We rec-ommend combining the individual assessments for each of the four components to determine wheth-er the proposed lighting solution is acceptable. 5. comprehensive integration of CPTED strategies: to improve poor design features such as isola-tion, lack of sight lines, and hiding and entrapment spots, it will contribute to a safer and more ap-pealing campus environment.graphicsList of FiguresFigure 1: Evolution of Artificial Light.                3  Figure 2: LED SWOT Analysis.                                                                                      7                        Figure 3:  Canadian Urban Insisutes Assessment of RIO’s .            9  Figure 4:  Canadian Urban Institutes’s Assessment of LED Payback.            9 =Figure 5: Illustrates the Colouor Temperature Spectrum of Aritifcal Lighting (LED).         16  Figure 6: Visual Comparison: Fluorescent vs. LED Lights.            18    Figure 7: Shows the changes of the night sky as light pollution increases (LED)                21 Figure 8: Various Forms of Light Pollution.                       22List of TablesTable 1: Summary of CPTED Stratgies (CPTED, n.d.).                      14 Table 2: Summary of Key Studies and their Key Findings.                               24          1CrEaTE a safE EnvironMEnT1.0  Lighting the WayToday, we, as a society, are wrestling with competing is-sues	 involved	 in	artificial	 lighting.	Recent	advancements	in	 technology,	 from	more	 efficient	 lighting	 components	to increasingly sophisticated controls, offer attractive opportunities for making the most of outdoor lighting systems.Outdoor lighting has the power to improve urban liv-ability, economic vitality, and the perception of public security.	Therefore,	artificial	lighting	cannot	be	designed	in isolation as its glow affects the greater urban environ-ment; it illuminates dark corners and facilitates the safe passage	 of	 pedestrians;	 artificial	 lighting	 also	 highlights	architecturally	 significant	 structures	 and	 open-spaces.	Artificial	 light	can	transform	an	open	public	space	into	a	canvas of shadow, colour and motion.On academic campuses, for various reasons, lighting has received a great deal of attention over the years. With nighttime activities, it is very important that lighting de-sign provides adequate coverage and brightness levels in order to provide safety and security for students, staff, and campus visitors. The	objective	of	our	report	is	to	stimulate	discussions	in	regard to campus outdoor lightings; the report:•	provides a brief historical overview of the evolu-tion	of	artificial	light,•	examines the current technological trends of outdoor lighting,•	outlines some of the potential negative impacts of outdoor lighting, and•	provides recommendations for campus stake-holders and future policy makers to implement.Outdoor lighting has the power to improve urban livability, economic vitality and the per-ception of public security.This photo is courtesy of microecos.files.wordpress.com 2          32.0  Out of darkThE LED CLEan rEvoLuTionLEDs have been taking the streets since the 1990s, when cities through-out North America and Europe began replacing incandescent-based lights	with	highly	energy-efficient	solid	state	fixtures.		Today’s	LED	Tech-nology is poised to cross the next municipal frontier and tackle the chal-lenge of street lighting.While incandescent light bulbs lit the 20th century, the 21st century will be lit by LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps, as shown in Figure 1. Isamu Akasaki	 and	Hiroshi	Amano,	 from	Nagoya	University,	 Japan,	 and	 Shuji	Nakamura, of University of California - Santa Barbara are the three sci-entists	who	developed	the	first	blue	LED	light	in	1993	(Naik,	2014).	They	transformed lighting technology forever.Blue was the missing link; an accomplishment that had defeated scien-tists for more than 30 years. Red and green (and yellow) LEDs had been in commercial use since the 1960s. But without blue, there could be no white light (2014). So when the elusive blue light from their semi-con-ductors, the bright white LED light was born.   Primitive           Wasteful      Innovative       Evolved                      Figure 1: Evolution of Artificial Light.sTuDY, worK, LivE The University of British Columbia (UBC) Vancouver campus has in-creasingly become a place where people study, work, and live. Located 30 minutes from downtown Vancouver, the campus has become one of the must-see destinations. The campus homes more than 40,000 under-graduates and about 10,000 graduate students (UBC Campuses, n.d.). Therefore, they need to be able to circulate safely at all hours of the day and	night.		Consequently,	for	major	transit	hubs	and	key	public	destina-tions,	lighting	needs	to	meet	the	following	key	objectives:	•	 enhance the safety and security for students, staff and the public, •	 contribute to a comfortable night environment, •	 create	a	unified	character,	and		create	inviting	entrances.uBC CaMpus 4          5As the campus and technology evolve, additional lighting needs to be developed. The problems of pedestrian lighting occur with all technolo-gies, but LEDs offer optical options and opportunities the industry has never had before. As LED lights have an ability to respond instantly to on/off instructions there is little concern the correct amount of light not be available when needed; furthermore, in contrast to some of the dimming programs adopted thus far in LED upgrades, the use of adaptive lighting guarantees to provide the same level of service to a motorist, pedestrian or	cyclist	regardless	of	whether	they	are	using	the	city’s	streets	during	an	arbitrarily	determined	‘peak’	or	‘off	peak’	period	(Simpson,	2003).	While completely turning lights off is often unacceptable for various reasons, switching between high and low light levels based on space oc-cupancy,	traffic	patterns,	or	level	of	daylight	maintains	sufficient	light,	re-duces light pollution and maximizes energy savings (Rowh, 2014). Adap-tive lighting uses technology to control the amount of light used to suit the purpose to which it is being applied. One option is using photocells; with	no	regard	for	actual	traffic	patterns	or	occupancy,	this	option	is	used	to control light by photocells. Another option is the use of bi-level dim control; this means lights can be dimmed or turned off when there is no need to provide lighting. The light fixtures	can	be	outfitted	with	motion	sensors,	and	when	the	area	is	unoc-cupied, the lights remain in a dim state with only a 30% to 50% light out-put. Once motion is detected, full brightness is activated; and the light fixture	will	stay	in	this	setting	for	a	pre-set	duration	(Berst,	2013).	  ThE  LED oDYssEYLight has become an integral element of place-mak-ing and energy-saving initiatives alike. Currently, one	of	 the	major	market	 barriers	 to	 LED	 roadway	luminaire adoption is the initial cost of LEDs, which tends to be much higher than HID sources. It is im-portant, however, to understand that economic es-timates of LED implementation is  sensitive to site-specific	 variables	 such	as	maintenance	 and	energy	costs, and to LED luminaire cost; estimates are also dependent on assumptions for LED luminaire life-time, which is a function of the life of all parts of the luminaire.	Manufacturers’	claims	for	 luminaire	 life-times are highly variable (Lighting: The clean revolu-tion, 2012).There is an obvious ability to increase power sav-ings by not running lights at a high output level when they do not have to be. Second, as LED lights operate better at lower temperatures, an LED light operating at a reduced power setting will last lon-ger;	this	means	the	projected	lifespan	of	the	unit	can	be increased thus reducing the capital depreciation (2012).With the emergence of smart cities, some new light-ing technologies are emerging, where the level, inten-sity and impact of light can be controlled and adapted to environmental cues, behaviours or pre-programed schedules. These adaptive lighting environments are already an emerging trend within the buildings in-dustry. At the municipal scale, however, smart light-ing systems are still in their infancy (Rethinking the Shades of Night, 2015). Such systems range from basic sensors that detect vehicular and pedestrian motion and ambient light, to more intelligent autono-mous	 light	controls	controlled	by	complex	Wifi	net-works. 6          7INFOswoT analysisFigure 2: LED SWOT Analysis.  auTonoMous LighT ConTroLUsing a Passive Infra-Red (PIR) sensor attached to each pole, a street light can be turned up from a dimmed setting when motion is detected. After a pre-set duration the street light will return to its dimmed state. What makes the CitySense system unique is that it can enable street lights to be con-figured	in	a	way	that	increases	lighting	outputs	pro-gressively with movement (Walsh et al., 2005). Like more basic systems, it is also capable of report-ing faults. As the system is based on an open plat-form, it can be developed to allow an interface with hardware from other third-party providers. Unlike other systems currently available, the CitySense ap-proach does not require cameras or any other intru-sive mechanism to enable the city to maintain a high level of service in providing street lighting services (2005).Currently, the high initial cost of LED street lights has been a challenge for the economic case, but en-ergy	 savings	 and	 projected	maintenance	 cost	 sav-ings throughout the luminaire lifetime have both improved LED street light economics. However, intelligent features combined with the potential for high-energy savings has given the LED technol-ogy the following advantages: substantial operating energy and cost reductions, longer life, and lower overall heat generation. Another feature that allows for	 dramatic	 appearance	 and	 productivity	 benefits	now and in the future, involves the color tempera-ture (Robert S. Simpson, 2003). This photo is courtesy of  http://www.tvilight.com 8          9   figurE 3:  CanaDian urban insTiTuTE’s assEssMEnT of roi   The B.C. Climate Change Secretariat has developed a comprehensive business model that enables the user to calculate cost savings, return on investment (ROI), and the simple payback period for invest-ments	in	LED	street	lighting	retrofits.	The	model incorporates granular information on street lighting assets, unit and volume pricing of LED replacements for seven categories of lighting assets, ballast losses for the baseline lamps, and inputs for elec-tricity	rates,	discount	rate,	inflation,	incen-tives, and carbon pricing that can be set by the user.   figurE 4: CanaDian urban insTiTuTE’s assEssMEnT of LED PaYbaCK In terms of simple payback, the analysis indicates	that	investment	in	LED	retrofits	can achieve simple payback between two and eight years, depending on the elec-tricity rate, which varies between $0.03 and $0.10 in the analysis. In terms of ROI, the annual return on the same investment varies between 12 percent and 33 per-cent, again depending on the same range of electricity prices- Source: Canadian Urban InstituteExhIbITLED PErforManCE assEssMEnTExhIbITCoMParison: sTrEET LighTing TEChoLogiEs (LED, 2015) It is important, however, to understand that economic estimates of LED implemen-tation is  sensitive to site-specific variables such as maintenance and energy costs, and to LED luminaire cost; estimates are also dependent on assumptions for LED luminaire lifetime, which is a function of the life of all parts of the luminaire. Manu-facturers’ claims for luminaire lifetimes are highly variable. 10          11CANADIAN URbAN INSTITUTECities may also look to the following resources for additional guid-ance. The Urban Institute works in partnership with members of our extensive networks in the private, public, academic and civil society on projects in the following themes:•	 Infrastructure Optimization•	 Good Density•	 Vital Places•	 Enabled Teams.EChELON WhITE PAPERS “Echelon offers a sophisticated, comprehensive, open standards-based approach to outdoor lighting control that makes it easy and affordable for lighting owners to increase the efficiency, safety, and versatility of their municipal and commercial lighting systems.”3.0  resourcesaMEriCan assoCiaTion of sTaTE highwaY anD Trans-PorTaTion offiCiaLs (aashTo) “The American Association of State highway and Transportation Of-ficials (AAShTO) provides guidelines for street lighting based on traf-fic volumes and other criteria, as well as for luminaire design and construction. Its primary publication is the Roadway Lighting De-sign Guide (2005), an update to the 1984 An Informational Guide for Roadway Lighting. Cities may also look to the following resources for additional guidance.” iLLuMinaTing EnginEEring soCiETY of norTh aMEriCa (iEsna) “The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) has two publications: the 10th edition Lighting handbook (2011) and American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting.” U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL hIGh-WAy ADMINISTRATION (FhWA)“The United States Federal highway Administration’s (FhWA) study on lighting design concepts is the Roadway Lighting handbook.” INTERNATIONAL DARK-SKIES ASSOCIATION (IDA) “The non-profit advocacy organization International Dark-Skies Association (IDA) has several free publications including Municipal Guidelines for Lighting in the Right-of-Way (2008) and Outdoor Lighting Code handbook (version 1.14, 2002). The IDA and the Illumi-nating Engineering Society (IES) recently.”ASSOCIATION OF OUTDOOR LIGhTING PROFESSIONALS“The Association of Outdoor Lighting Professionals’ mission is to promote and advance the landscape and architectural lighting in-dustry for lighting designers and installers, distributors and business-to-business manufacturers.” 12          13LighTing as a DETErrEnT4.0  a secure environmentA	brightly	lit	area	makes	it	more	difficult	for	a	crime	to go unnoticed because gives no shadows for a criminal to hide in. Proper lighting has the potential to inhibit crime and may have an intimidation effect on a would be perpetrator. Criminal activities tend to focus on areas which are dark, isolated and un-protected. The following design features have been identified	as	unsafe:	•	 inadequate lighting,•	 poor sightlines (not being visible to others due to corners and other barriers),•	 no access to help,•	 hiding and entrapment spots, or•	 poor security. As	 a	 major	 obstacle	 to	 criminals	 and	 potential	 in-truders, lighting is one of the most economical and efficient	 crime	 prevention	 tools.	 	 Research	 has	shown that a lighting system that optimizes visibility and visual comfort after dark can promote a sense of safety and improve security (CPTED ontario | crime prevention through environmental design.). Traditionally, however, street lighting has been de-signed for the driver, rather than the pedestrian; as a result, a shift to using a proactive design philoso-phy can lead to a pedestrian friendly environment. Studies have shown, a pedestrian inviting environ-ment needs to:•	 minimize the risk for tripping/falling,•	 reduce the risk for being hit by vehicles, bi-cycles, or skateboarders,•	 minimize unwanted light in residential win-dows, and•	 minimize glare that causes discomfort, is dis-abling, or affects viewer adaptation levelAccording to CPTED, their strategies can be applied to identify and remove potential problems by cor-recting issues in the physical environment that may invite crime; for example, UBC can improve the per-ception of security and safety by:•	 maximizing the pedestrians (staff, students, visitors) ability to view public spaces,•	 designing roadways to discourage through-traffic,•	 providing appropriate lighting for streets, paths, alleys, and parks,•	 encouraging residents to watch over each other, and•	 avoiding placing dark, and or hidden areas near activity nodes.INFOubC CaMPus PLan – ouTDoor LighTing sPECifiCaTions 14          155.0 environmental impact   “In order to understand lighting in cities you need to understand the city in gen-eral.”  However, excessive light will cause negative impacts on the surrounding environment: ecosystems, astronomy, and human. Thus, the color composition of the illumina-tion can make a considerable difference in how well we see	 (Paskovic,	 ).	When	we	 start	 to	 look	at	how	artificial	light	 interacts	with	the	rest	of	our	environment,	we	find	even greater variations, based on the spectral properties of the light created by the various light sources we use. To achieve the most effective outdoor illumination and to minimize harmful side effects from that lighting, we need to have an understanding of the nature of light, the ef-fects of various types of light, and the light sources we use.This section will provide an overview on:1. colour temperature,2. colour rendering index (CRI),3. aesthetic value, and4. light pollution.LightingSight linesIsolation Activity generators•  Provide adequate visibility for the area intended for night time use•  Fence off the paths or spaces which is not intended for night use to avoid       mislead users that the place is safe and being used•  Keep consistency of lighting to avoid excessive glare cause by contrast between illuminated are areas and shadows•  Specifically design outdoor spaces and lighting for night time use•  Protect light fixtures•  Light fixtures should be designed for ease of maintenance and operation to provide visibility•  Design visibility in the built environment; avoid isolated or hidden places•  Special consideration for the visibility of problematic spaces•  Take into consideration future sight line impediments of plants•  Encourage natural surveillance of isolated routes and public spaces•  Provide parking for problematic routes to create natural surveillance from residents of surrounding areas•   Indicate telephones, emergency telephones, or panic alarm by signs to provide surveillance  •  Increase activities to incorporate visibility by users•  Introduce complementary uses to conduct surveillance•  Reinforce activity generators, such as food vendors or street vendors•  Plan and design for programming activity mix•  Encourage ground-level activity  CPTED sTraTEgiEssTraTEgiEs                  ExPLanaTionTable 1 Summary of CPTED Stratgies (CPTED, n.d.) 16          17ExhIbIT360o: 24-hour Colour TemperatureThis photo is courtesy of  LED Magazine  CoLour TEMPEraTurEIf you’ve ever tried to match white paint, you know that there are actually many different shades of white.Colour temperature describes the shade of white light emitted. While incandescent,	fluorescent,	LED,	and	other	light	sources	all	emit	White	light, they can look very different from one another. This colour ap-pearance of light sources is described by the lighting industry in terms of colour temperature and is measured in terms of degrees Kelvin.  As shown in Figure 2, the higher the colour temperature, the cooler or more blue the light source appears. Studies have even shown that light colour affects our daily sleep cycles. Cooler colours promote wakefulness and productivity, while warmer colours tend to promote relaxation; section 7 provides more details (Color temperature, n.d.).Figure 5: Illustrates the Colouor Temperature Spectrum of Aritifcal Lighting (LED) 18          19  aEsThETiC vaLuELight has become an integral element of place-making and energy-saving initiatives alike. The appearance of a university or college campus can make lasting impres-sions	by	creating	a	unique	personality	differentiating	it	from	others;	visitors’	opinions about the educational institution may form based on its grounds and the functionality of its structures. Also, with economic development and the	accelerated	pace	of	life,	night	work	has	become	a	modern	urban	people’s	way of life. Since	more	and	more	people	enjoy	night	life,	aesthetic	requirements	for	a	vi-brant night light environment is greatly increasing. As the meaning of modern artificial	lighting	has	already	surpassed	the	traditional	scope	of	a	mean	of	illu-mination, light design has become an integrated discipline which is combined with architecture, physiology, psychology, and aesthetic. To ensure the creation of a bright road lighting for the campus area and an elegant atmosphere for the district during the day, lamp type should be se-lected to be coordinated with the architecture and atmosphere of the univer-sity; and strive to make “light and shadow” combination melodic. Not all white light is the same.  Many of the incandescent and halogen “replacement” LED lights currently on the market use less energy but are not true replace-ments as the white light they emit is of relatively poor quality.   CoLour rEnDEring inDEx  The measurement of light’s ability to properly render colours is called the Colour Rendering Index or CRI.Colour Rendering Index (CRI) rates the ability of the light to accurately portray colours in the area being lit. It involves measuring the extent to which a series of eight standardized colour samples differ in appearance when illuminated under a given light source. The highest possible score is	100,	defined	as	the	CRI	of	standard	incandescent	lamps	and	the	sun.	Figure 6: Visual Comparison: Fluorescent vs. LED Lights. 20          21  LighT PoLLuTionUrban landscape lighting has rapidly developed, especially the widely used high power and high-intensity discharge lamps in architectural landscape and road lighting. This rapid development is inevitably followed with	 increased	 light	 pollution	 and	 a	 likelihood	of	 inefficient	 use	of	 resources	 and	energy.	 Light	 pollution	results from lighting above the level required from the task, or by inappropriate lighting practices such as: lighting	when	not	needed,	insufficient	control,	and	using	inappropriate	spectral	(Light	pollution2016).As shown in Figure 5, There are different forms of light pollution: sky glow, glare, light intrusion, and the over brightness of buildings.  Light pollution not only disrupts ecosystems and astronomy, but also has nega-tive impacts on human health.  More details on the health impacts are provided in section 7 of the report.Figure 7: Shows the changes of the night sky as light pollution increases (LED)Light pollution not only disrupts ecosystems and astronomy, but also has negative impacts on human health.  More details on the health impacts are provided in section Six of the report.INFOIntegration of Light: People, Technology, Space, and Process 22          236.0  health impactsThere has been increasing number of studies sug-gThere has been increasing number of studies sug-gesting	 that	 artificial	 light	has	 adverse	effects	on	human health; for example, it has been well estab-lished that the circadian rhythm in our bodies plays a critical role in maintaining our health. Our body reacts to external stimuli. And light, in fact, is the main factor that can advance or delay the circadian rhythm. The Sun is responsible for regulating this mechanism and serves as the basis for our circadi-an rhythms. Researchers have found that there is a positive	correlation	between	artificial	lighting	and	the suppression of Melatonin production in our bodies. Melatonin, also known as the “hormone of darkness”, is mainly controlled by light (Chepesiuk, 2009).Additionally, studies suggest that light has a con-siderable	 effect	 on	 people’s	 feelings.	 The	 direct	psychological impact is caused by the physical stimulation from the colour of lighting. For exam-ple, the reaction of brainwave to red is alert, but to blue is relax. Therefore, red lighting environment induces an elevated blood pressure; and it makes people become more excited; in contrast, blue lighting environment can slow pulse and calm emo-tions (Implications.).Furthermore,	 artificial	 lighting	 can	 shape	 our	 be-haviour.  According to Ginthner, if two paths have equal illumination, 69% of the people chose the right; however, if the level of illumination of the path to left was increased to a higher level, 75% people changed their decision and chose the left (Implications). Additionally, warm tone colours, such as orange and yellow, give people a warm feel-ing. Whereas cold tone colours, such as blue and green, make people feel cold. Moreover, bright co-lour creates a space which makes people feel pleas-ant, spacious, and relaxed, but dim colours produc-es	an	unpleasant,	unrefined,	and	tense	impression.	 Sky glow occurs from both natural and human-made sources.Light trespass is light being cast where it is not wanted or needed.Over-illumination is the excessive use of light.Glare	can	be	thought	of	as	objectionable	brightness.Light clutter is the redundant lighting found in many urban centres results in a clutter of lights that contributes to sky glow, trespass, and glare while destroying the ambiance of our night-time environment.As shown in Figure 8, There are different forms of light pollution: sky glow, glare, light intrusion, and the over brightness of buildings. Figure 8: Various Forms of Light Pollution. 24          257.0  BenchmarksNext-generation lighting demands a combination of exceptional The world	of	artificial	 lighting	 is	undergoing	an	evolution.	Next-generation	lighting demands a combination of exceptional color rendering, high brightness, high reliability, long life, and energy conservation. LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) deliver – and also offer a number of design ad-vantages	over	 incandescent,	 halogen,	 or	fluorescent	 light	 sources.	 So,	why not make the switch?  CanaDian CiTiEsThere are many Canadian cities that have begun the transition to LED streetlights. In the lower mainland, the City of Vancouver and Surrey have	become	one	of	the	first	Canadian	cities	to	embark	on	a	full	con-version of street lighting to LED lights. Moving East, Ottawa is looking to fully convert all of its streetlights to LEDs.		LEDs	have	been	used	in	several	of	their	pilot	projects.  aCaDEMiC insTiTuTEsSo what are other campuses in North America are doing? Like the Uni-versity of British Columbia, other academic institutes have been consis-tently implementing plans to reduce operating and maintenance costs, reduce carbon emissions and increase the number of sustainability ini-tiatives. This section outlines some of the initiatives that other academia has taken: INFOTable 2: Summary of Key Studies and their Key Findings. 26          27Artificial light in the wrong places has defi-nite, harmful effects on the natural world around us. For	example,	one	nocturnal	activity	which	artifi-cial lighting has been shown to disrupt is migra-tion.	This	effect	is	frequently	seen	in	night-flying	birds.	The	unnatural	glow	from	artificial	sources,	whether they are individual lights, bright build-ings, or entire towns or cities, can overwhelm a creature’s	 senses,	 and	 send	 it	 off	 course.	 If	 the	migrator does not get to where it was heading, it will not complete the natural cycle, whether the destination was a place to feed, spend a season, or reproduce (Light pollution effects on wildlife and ecosystems, n.d.).  That same light, spreading from unfortunately all-too-common wasteful lighting installations, also represents the wasteful consumption of huge amounts of electricity. The generation of that electricity creates its own, massive load on our environment.harMfuL To wiLDLifE8.0 Ecosystems ImpactsThis photo is courtesy of  www.tvilight.comThis photo is courtesy of  www.bbc.co.ukThis photo is courtesy of images.northrup.org aCaDEMiC insTiTuTEs“PrinCETon univErsiTY has initiated The Facilities	 Organization	 Project,	 which	 could	 con-tribute as much as 15 percent toward the Princ-eton Sustainability Plan of reducing carbon emis-sions. According to the Director of Sustainability, Shana	Weber,	 “[t]his	 project	 has	 the	 potential	 to	make this approach more accessible to other col-lege	campuses,	and	may	even	influence	the	choic-es our University community members make at home”	(Lillja,	2014).” - Source: Princeton University“NEW MExICO STATE UNIVERSITy, Carls-bad,	improved	lighting	performance	by	retrofitting	outdated	HPS	luminaries	to	LED.	The	retrofitting	created cost savings due to reduced maintenance and re‐lamping; it also improved nighttime visibil-ity and enhanced campus safety (Kennal, 2013).”- Source: New Mexico State University“UNIVERSITy OF CALGARy: the move is on to replace over 1,200 outdoor lights on campus to improve safety and sustainability. Buildings, road-ways, pathways and planter lights are being up-graded now, with parking lot and residence light-ing to be improved as funds become available.  “The	drivers	for	this	project	were	the	safety	of	our	students, faculty, staff and visitors, the replace-ment	of	our	fixtures	 that	had	 reached	 the	end	of	their life and the energy savings potential of new LED	fixtures,”	 says	Mike	Rogers,	 director,	Capital	Renewal, Facilities Development.”- Source:  University of Calgary“At STANFORD UNIVERSITy, the lessons drawn from the Stanford pedestrian mock-ups showed that users cared about the daytime ap-pearance of the luminaire. At night, they found lower illuminances than delivered by their existing post-top lights to be acceptable, providing there was little glare, a soft-edged distribution of light, and a warm color (2,700K to 3,000K) with CRI of 70 or higher. Diffusion was an important charac-teristic of optical systems that were deemed less glaring. LEDs or clear metal halide arc tubes exhib-it an extreme spatial gradient of luminance. That is, the maximum luminance is very high over a very small	 visual	 angle,	 flanked	by	a	 sharp-edged	drop	to much lower luminance. Diffusion that smoothed out that luminance transition was described as less glaring.”- Source: Stanford University 28          29   rECoMMEnDaTions  for ubCAs	for	UBC,	there	are	five	areas	where	we	think	the	artificial	lighting	requires	attention.	We	have	classified	all	five	of	these	areas	as	having	the	highest	priority	need	for	improvement.	The	areas are as follows: •	 the Irving Barber Tower Garden (low lghting level),•	 the pedestrian pathway along Agriculture Road (low lghting level),•	 the Michael Smith Laboratory (low lighting level), •	 the Gerald McGavin Building (Togo Cars Parking, no lghts) ,and •	 Lower Mall Street (too bright)In addition to the above, we also recommend the following:1. luminance for all new lights should be equal or less than the maximum value recom-mended by Illuminating Engineering Society.   2. integration of bi-level control systems as it is unnecessary to keep the street lighting at	maximum	illumination	during	periods	of	low	traffic. 3. all new lights installed anywhere on campus to be properly shielded. These shields should ensure that light is directed downwards - not upwards or to the side.  4. a campus lighting strategy to establish a method for assessing future lighting solu-tions. We recommend combining the individual assessments for each of the four compo-nents to determine whether the proposed lighting solution is acceptable. 5. comprehensive integration of CPTED strategies: to improve poor design features such as isolation, lack of sight lines, and hiding and entrapment spots, it will contribute to a safer and more appealing campus environment.Finally, we believe that there is an opportunity for a Capstone-design type competition where students perform a comprehensive design of the campus lighting.9.0 RecommendationsThe best solutions will vary from one project to another depending on the client’s needs, user needs and site specific needs. We can only provide recommendations which are meant to stimulate discussion.  rECoMMEnDaTionsBefore determining what type of lighting should be	installed	or	retrofitted,	it	is	important	to	ask	the	basic question: Is Lighting needed? If no reason for lighting can be found, it is more practical to remove the current lighting than replacing it with a new technology. Therefore, it is important to:1.  take all negative aspects of arti-ficial	 lighting	 into	 consideration:	 so-cial,	 environmental,	 and	 financials, 2. equire that lighting standards to have provision of light at an intensity no great-er than the minimum necessary to de-liver	 the	 intended	 benefits	 and	 that	 the	light should be directed at only those ar-eas which are intended to be illuminated. 3. continue the research, and monitor-ing of the biological effects of light pol-lution on human wellbeing and natural ecosystems are desirable, this may not be an issue which requires greater scien-tific	 confidence	 to	 justify	 corrective	 action. 4. establish recommendations based on a multi-year implementation plan for ef-fective long-term solutions that address security, safety, appearance, economy and pollution; and to integrate a light ing	strategy	that	is	not	only	justifiable,	but	also, in the long term economically, feasible. 5. minimize light pollution by adopting best practices suggested by bodies such as the International Dark-Sky Association., 6. 	 provide	 sufficient	 levels	 of	 illumina-tion at building entrances and along routes between campus buildings, parking lots, bike racks, bus stops, campus entrances, and isolated ar-eas so users can travel safely at night. 7. establish a lighting selection criteria that	 balances	 energy	 efficiency	with	 se-curity, appearance, economy, and light pollution.  30          3111.  referenceAmerican National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting, 2000. ANSI/IES Recommended Practice 8 (RP-  8-00). Illuminating Engineering Society, New York.Boyce P, C Hunter, and C Inclan. 2003. “Overhead glare and visual discomfort,” Journal of the Illuminating   Engineering Society, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY.Boosma, C., and Steg, L., The effect of information and values on acceptability of reduced street lighting,   Journal of Environmental Psychology, 2013.Chepesiuk, R. (2009). Missing the dark: Health effects of light pollution. Environmental Health Perspec  tives, 117(1), A20. Retrieved from http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2627884/Color temperature. Retrieved from http://www.westinghouselighting.com/color-temperature.aspxCPTED ontario | Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. Retrieved from http://cptedontario.ca/Dick, R. (2012). Environmental impact of light pollution and its abatement. Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, , 18-22. Retrieved from  	 http://www.rasc.ca/sites/default/files/LPA_Special_Issue_LR.pdfImplications. InformeDesign,	Volume	2(Issue	2),	1-5.	Retrieved	from	http://www.informedesign.org/_news/ 	 feb_v02-p.pdfLED Application Series: Outdoor Area Lighting. USDOE Building Technologies Program. PNNL-SA 60645.  June 2008.Light pollution effects on wildlife and ecosystems. Retrieved from http://darksky.org/light-pollution/wild  life/Ngai P and P Boyce. 2000. “The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort,” Journal of the Illuminating   Engineering Society, Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, NY.10.0  Conclusion The digital era of street lighting offers many opportunities for campuses and mu-nicipalities to maximize the capability of their street lighting network. Therefore, the era to keep the lights running all night has gone because of a number of reasons such as:	 energy	 inefficiency,	 ecological	 disruption,	 health	 concerns…	 etc.	 To	 increase	 the	 perception	 of	safety, be safer, we need to review what makes a public space on campus a target; and address those issues. 32          3312.  appendicesLighting:	The	clean	revolution.	(2012,	Leds	Magazine,	Retrieved	from	http://www.theclimategroup.org/_ 	 assets/files/LED_report_web1.pdfNaik, G. (2014, October 7). Nobel prize in physics awarded for invention of new light source. Wall Street  	 Journal	Retrieved	from	http://www.wsj.com/articles/nobel-prize-in-physics-awarded-for-inven  tion-of-new-light-source-1412677155Paskovic, A. (n.d.). Urban lighting: Planning for public spaces. Retrieved from http://spacing.ca/vancou  ver/2012/10/22/urban-lighting-planning-for-public-spaces/UBC Campuses. (n.d.). Retrieved March 24, 2016, from https://www.ubc.ca/our-campuses. 34 appendix a:  Additional Resoureses 

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