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Options for Stormwater Management : Suggested infrastructure interventions for stormwater management… Fung, Calvin; Edwards, Cristyn; Shahalami, Hasan Mar 31, 2016

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 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student ReportCalvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards, Hasan ShahalamiOptions for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine DriveURSY 510March 31, 201614042151University of British Columbia Disclaimer: “UBC SEEDS Program provides students with the opportunity to share the findings of their studies, as well as their opinions, conclusions and recommendations with the UBC community. The reader should bear in mind that this is a student project/report and is not an official document of UBC. Furthermore readers should bear in mind that these reports may not reflect the current status of activities at UBC. We urge you to contact the research persons mentioned in a report or a SEEDS team representative about the current status of the subject matter of a project/report”.Options for Stormwater ManagementSuggested infrastructure interventions for stormwater  management at the intersection of Chancellor Blvd. and  NW Marine Drive, UBC in a  100-year storm eventCalvin FungCristyn EdwardsHasan ShahalamiMarch 20162Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiThis report was made possible through the SEEDS Sustainability Program at UBC, and we would like to extend our sincere thanks to Doug Doyle at Campus and Community Planning, UBC for his guidance and vision.We would also like to thank Professor Jordi Honey-Rosés for the opportunity to undertake this project.Finally, we would like to extend special thanks Nehzat Jalalkamali for her contributions to this report.Cover Images: UBC’s University Boulevard Water Feature and Google Earth image of the Point Grey campus. Acknowledgements3Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiThe University of British Columbia’s (UBC) Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (2014) has identified risks of significant flooding at multiple key points on campus in the event of a 100-year storm. In addition to protecting its own assets, UBC’s major concern is to ensure that stormwater runoff will not cause damage or erosion to adjacent land and infrastructure. In particular, the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and Northwest Marine Drive has been identified as an area of high interest due to the close proximity to the University Endowment Lands and Metro Vancouver’s Pacific Spirit Park. The location of the intersection and its proximity to the vulnerable cliffs, as well as the nature of UBC’s aquifers are the key challenges of this report. However, other challenges such as cost effectiveness, practicality, sustainability, feasibility, and policy compliance are also considered and collectively form the objectives of this report.The intent of this report is to provide solutions for possible infrastructure interventions at the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and Northwest Marine Drive in innovative and responsible ways that adhere to the values of UBC. As part of preparing this report, a number of technical studies and planning documents have been reviewed and considered, which are referenced in Appendix C at the end of this report. After careful review of the available resources and a thorough analysis of various stormwater management options, the following strategies emerged as the recommended options for the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and Northwest Marine Drive.A floodable basement at the Mary Bollert Hall that can be utilized as a stormwater detention facility as shown in Section 2.3.A combination of tree trenches and gravel pits to retain and channel stormwater in several key locations shown in Section 2.4.Recommended Options12In addition, this report recognizes the need for a general focus of stormwater management strategies on campus, outside of specific problem areas. Instead, the emphasis should be on using multiple stormwater management initiatives in various locations across campus such that stormwater runoff can be conjointly managed. The following suggestions are included as a part of this report’s final recommendation:Review and revamp policies to ensure future development meet more strin-gent construction codes for stormwater handling.Wherever possible, detain stormwater before runoff congregates into main stormwater infrastructure.Investigate possible ways to work with other parties (such as student body, UBC Botany Department, external consultants, and government bodies) to create innovative solutions and establish opportunities for collaboration.Executive Summary4Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiExecutive Summary 3Section 1 - Context and Scope 61.1 Introduction 61.1.1 Report Goals 61.1.2 Report Objectives 61.2 Context 71.2.1 Geography 71.2.2 Stormwater 81.2.3 Technical 91.2.4 Future Development 101.2.5 Time and Cost Limitations 101.3 Report Methodology 101.3.1 Literature Review 101.3.2 Evaluation 101.3.3 SWOT Analysis 111.3.4 Implementation 111.3.5 Additional Recommendations 11Section 2 - Stormwater Management Options 122.1 Literature Review 122.1.1 UBC Campus Plan 12 2.1.2 UBC’s Draft Integrated Stormwater Management Plan 12 2.1.3 Technical Background Studies 13 2.1.4 Other Sources 132.2 Evaluation Matrix 132.3 Option 1: Detention 162.3.1 Option 1: Description 162.3.2 Option 1: SWOT Analysis  162.3.3 Option 1: Implementation 162.3.4 Option 1: Schematics 172.4 Option 2: Retention and Channelling 182.4.1 Option 2: Description 182.4.2 Option 2: SWOT Analysis  182.4.3 Option 2: Implementation 182.4.4 Option 2: Schematics 19Table of Contents5Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiSection 3 - Additional Recommendations 203.1 Green Infrastructure Options 203.1.1 Porous Asphalt 213.1.2 Rain Barrels and Eavestroughs 213.1.3 Bioswales and Dry Ponds 213.1.4 Blue Roofs and Green Roofs 223.1.5 Roof Farms 223.2 Large-Scale Options 233.2.1 Aquifer Recharge 233.2.2 Upgrading Pipe Sizes and Large Detention Tanks 233.3 Technologially Innovative Options 243.3.1 Flow Management Devices (Vortex Flow Controls) 243.4 Policy Recommendations 24Section 4 - Conclusion 254.1 Recommended Next Steps 254.1 Recommended Next Steps 25Works Cited 26Appendices 28Appendix A: Mind Map 28Appendix B: UBC facilities scheduled to be replaced by 2030 29Appendix C: Annotated Bibliography 306Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiSection 1 - Context and Scope1.1.1 Report GoalsThe goal of this report is to analyze various stormwater management options and to suggest potential infrastructure interventions that will adequately handle the surplus water flow at the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive in the event of a 100-year storm. The suggested options in this report are intended to mitigate potential risks of flood damage to land and properties that are adjacent to the intersection. In addition, this report aims to offer supplementary recommendations and examples of existing stormwater management options that could be implemented in other areas of campus.The University of British Columbia’s (UBC) unique geography, peninsular topography, and climate, combined with increasing development, create a set of circumstances that could make UBC’s infrastructure and population vulnerable to serious damage in severe storm events. To complicate matters, stormwater from UBC flows through adjacent property, Metro Vancouver’s Pacific Spirit Park and the Province’s University Endowment Lands (UEL), whose land and infrastructure is also at risk in these events, due to stormwater runoff from UBC land. UBC wants to protect its assets, and prevent damage to neighbouring lands in the case of a 100-year storm event, particularly at the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and Northwest (NW) Marine Drive, whose proximity to the cliffs of the peninsula make it very vulnerable. The purpose of this report is to evaluate a range of stormwater management options and to help determine potential infrastructure interventions in this 100-year storm scenario, at this intersection that is particularly susceptible to flooding. Additionally, UBC is focused on developing strategies, best practices, and projects that promote sustainability and innovation.1.1.2 Report ObjectivesThe most suitable options for the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive were chosen according to the objectives outlined below. These objectives specify the priorities of the selection process and also help define the benefits of each potential option. Ultimately, these objectives help align the goals and the outcome of this report. The objectives of this report are to suggest stormwater management options based on the following criteria:Defined as having the lowest maintenance requirements, the smallest impact on the environment and surroundings, and having the highest likelihood to remain in place until the occurrence of a 100-year storm event.Defined as the ability to handle 1,000 cubic meters of stormwater in the event of a 100-year storm.CapacitySustainability1.1 Introduction7Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiDefined as the ability to produce the desired outcome with minimal financial expenditure, both in capital investment and ongoing costs.Defined as having the lowest maintenance requirements, the smallest impact on the environment and surroundings, and having the highest likelihood to remain in place until the occurrence of a 100-year storm event.PracticalityCosteffectivenessDefined as meeting the policy requirements and planning framework that are pertinent to the goals of this report. These include, but are not limited to the UBC Campus Plan and Integrated Stormwater Management Plan.Defined as the ability to accomplish the desired outcome with minimal technical and geographical challenges, policy hurdles, and negative impact on campus activity.FeasibilityCompliancy1.2.1 GeographyThis report is defined by certain aspects of the geography of UBC, stormwater systems, technical requirements and infrastructure, UBC policies and development, and time and cost implications of future stormwater projects.Figure 1.1: Boundaries and outlets of UBC’s four stormwatercatchments (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2012).UBC’s Point Grey campus is located on the end of a peninsula, surrounded by cliffs, and bordered by Metro Vancouver’s Pacific Spirit Park and the UEL. The topography of campus and its stormwater infrastructure create four distinct stormwater catchments, each with its own outlet, through Pacific Spirit Park, into the Strait of Georgia (Figure 1.1). This report examines specifically at how to prevent surface flooding at the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive from reaching the edge of UBC property, flowing north into Pacific Spirit Park and cause major erosion and potential damage to the cliffs, roads and other infrastructure.When it rains, water falling into each of these catchment areas flows through pipes to the outlet points in each catchment. The intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and 1.2 Context8Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiNW Marine Drive is located in the North Catchment, where stormwater drains to the spiral drain that is located in the northwest corner of campus. The spiral drain was built in 1938 to prevent stormwater rushing over the adjacent cliffs and causing erosion. It should be noted that the spiral drain is nearing the end of its productive life and surpasses its capacity even in storm events smaller than a 100-year event (University of British Columbia, 2014).Figure 1.2: Open spaces on UBC Campus (University of Brit-ish Columbia, 2010).Figure 1.2 shows the building footprints and dedicated open spaces on UBC campus. The North Catchment of UBC is approximately 67% impervious surfaces, where water does not penetrate through to the aquifer, but rather creates runoff that must be handled in stormwater pipes (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2012). The increasing development on UBC campus will lead to increased impervious surfaces.1.2.2 StormwaterFigure 1.3: Hydrograph (Rogers, 1997).The hydrograph in Figure 1.3 shows the rate of water flow after a rainfall, where Q is volume of flow. The peak discharge time, which in this case represents when the maximum volume of water is trying to make its way through the North Catchment to the spiral drain, arrives faster and more intensely in urban environments with greater impervious surfaces. The increase in impervious surfaces in urban areas means more runoff and less infiltration, so the hydrograph curve is steeper, higher, and quicker, as more water enters the stormwater system faster. Stormwater management and infrastructure interventions, such as will be proposed in this report, are attempts to delay and decrease the peak discharge to the point where it can be adequately handled by the system. Many small changes, such as policies mandating stormwater management systems on new developments, can accumulate and contribute to reducing to the peak discharge rate (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2013).9Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiUBC campus is covered by approximately half a metre of topsoil over 30 metres of glacial till, as seen in Figure 1.4. The soil unit below, composed of glacial deposits known as the Quadra Sands, extends down to sea level and contains the upper and a lower aquifer. Groundwater seeping out of the upper aquifer, roughly 18 metres above sea level, can lead to erosion of the cliff face (AECOM, 2013).Figure 1.4: UBC’s soil layers and aquifers (AECOM, 2013).1.2.3 TechnicalFigure 1.5 shows the extent and directionality of the stormwater pipe network in the North Catchment. The specific intersection, Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive, has been identified with a high risk of flooding in a 100-year storm. The surface overflow from the identified node is estimated to be 1,016 cubic meters, where the stormwater water flows primarily from the UBC neighbourhood to the east (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2012). As shown in Figure 1.5, the primary area in which the stormwater originates from is this residential neighbourhood with very limited open space to implement stormwater management options. The minimal area that is available presents one of the key challenges of this report.Figure 1.5: Water mains and manholes near the intersection of NW Marine Drive and Chancellor Blvd and the spiral drain(GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 10Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami1.2.4 Future DevelopmentCurrently the North Catchment is approximately 67% impervious surface, and one model suggests that in this catchment there could be around 884 metres per hectare of runoff from these impervious surfaces (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2012). The required floor space on UBC campus was expected to grow by about 436,620 gross square metres between 2008 and 2030, and UBC policies promote infill on existing sites wherever possible. When investigating possible synergies with future development, this report considered only the facilities identified in the Campus Plan as scheduled to be replaced by 2030 or shortly thereafter (University of British Columbia, 2010).1.2.5 Time and Cost LimitationsA 100-year flood has the statistical chance of occurring once every hundred years, however this gives no indication of if or when it may occur. This provides an incentive to install any infrastructure interventions as soon as possible, in case the event should occur in the immediate future. The counter-argument to this is that spending large amounts of money on an event that may not happen in the foreseeable future, or at all, is a poor appropriation of funds. For the purposes of this report, it is assumed that UBC recognizes the financial and physical risk posed by a 100-year storm event, and is prepared to fund any infrastructure interventions to a limited degree, proportional to the observable risk. It is also assumed that UBC recognizes that climate change is linked to an increase in severe storm events. However, this report assumes that UBC will prefer a cost-effective strategy, with more expensive options being considered where they also speak to other aspects of UBC’s goals and visions, such as providing learning opportunities. This report also assumes that a reasonable timeline for the installation of any major infrastructure interventions would be in the next five to fifteen years, while smaller interventions that could provide minor relief to the system in large storm events should be implemented as soon as possible. 1.3.1 Literature ReviewThe following methodology was employed in order to propose and refine stormwater management solutions suitable for the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive. This methodology aims to ensure that the goals and objectives of this report are met through a clear and fair selection process.A number of technical, policy, and planning reports have been extensively reviewed in order to identify any constraints relevant to the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive and UBC campus. The findings of these reports are discussed in Section 2.1 of this report.1.3 Report Methodology11Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami1.3.3 SWOT AnalysisThe top strategies from the evaluation matrix have been further analyzed with a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats). This tool aims to identify how to best utilize the top strategies as well as reveal any barriers to achieving the objectives of this report. The SWOT analyses can be found in Sections 2.3.2 and 2.4.2 of this report.1.3.4 ImplementationThe top strategies in the SWOT analysis undergo a conceptual design stage to investigate their integration at the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive. Potential areas in which the strategy can be implemented are identified.1.3.5 Additional RecommendationsThe additional recommendations will include any stormwater management options that have been identified as effective strategies but cannot be suitably implemented at the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive. These recommended options are highlighted in Section 3 of this report due to their opportunity of being able to be implemented in other areas of the UBC campus.1.3.2 EvaluationBased on the literature review and an extensive mind mapping exercise (Appendix A), an evaluation matrix was constructed in order to objectively evaluate stormwater management strategies for the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive. The evaluation was based on each strategy’s ability to meet the objectives of this report. The evaluation matrix and a detailed explanation can be found in Section 2.2 of this report.order to identify any constraints relevant to the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive and UBC campus. The findings of these reports are discussed in Section 2.1 of this report.12Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiSection 2 - Stormwater Management Options2.1.1 UBC Campus PlanThe UBC Campus Plan focuses on five strategies, which provide insight to the types of interventions that the University might be open to:Create a sustainable campusProvide a campus for world class teaching, learning, and researchNurture a more vibrant and interesting campus for UBC’s community of scholarsRediscover UBC’s sense of place and natural west coast beautyEnsure a well-connected and accessible campusThe relevant policies from the Campus Plan (Part 2) considered relevant to this report are the following:“UBC will use its land resource sustainably and develop a denser, compact form through infill and taller buildings to avoid sprawl, improve walkability, strengthen social connections and reserve land for open space and future academic needs” (p. 12).Policy 2:“To the extent that the unique hydrogeology and cliff-erosion concerns of UBC’s Vancouver Campus allow, stormwater management strategies will incorporate a natural systems approach in managing runoff volume to mitigate downstream impacts.” (p. 40).Policy 39:The Campus Plan also provides the list of facilities to be replaced by 2030, and those recommended to be replaced shortly after. This list provided direction to potential cost-sharing interventions. This list can be found in Appendix B. 2.1.2 UBC’s Draft Integrated Stormwater Management PlanThe Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (ISMP), still in a final draft form at this time, provided background information and direction for this report. The ISMP highlighted the main components of stormwater management on campus, the key challenges, and provided guidelines for the forward-thinking direction UBC would like to take stormwater management in the future. The ISMP was informed greatly by the technical background studies. The objectives of the ISMP are as follows (p. 3):Protection from flooding and prevention of overland flooding across the cliffsProvide a campus for world class teaching, learning, and research2.1 Literature Review13Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiProtect the campus environmental values and minimize the impact of cam-pus discharge on neighbouring watercoursesImprove the quality of the stormwater that leaves the campusIncorporate the natural hydrologic cycle into the stormwater systemThese objectives were incorporated into the methodology of this report. Additionally, the ISMP provided the important scoping policy that “infiltration is not to be used within 300m of the top of the cliffs” (University of British Columbia, 2014, p. 5). 2.1.3 Technical Background StudiesUBC has already completed several technical studies that were used to inform this report. This report does not look to re-do any of the thorough technical studies that have already been completed, but to investigate the possibility of innovative and new ideas in line with these studies. The following background studies were consulted for this report:Hydrogeologic Stormwater Management Strategy - Phase 1UBC Stormwater Collection System - Technical Memo 2UBC’s Stormwater Model System Analysis, Detention Analysis and System OptimizationBest Management Practices for Stormwater SystemsStormwater Quality at UBC 2.1.4 Other SourcesAn annotated list of all additional sources consulted for this report can be found in Ap-pendix C. An evaluation matrix, Figure 2.1 on the following page, was devised to assess the potential stormwater management options that could be implemented at the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive. These options are grouped into three separate strategies (Channelling, Detention, and Retention), which are defined as follows:Channelling strategies include options that are implemented primarily to control or divert the flow of stormwater.ChannellingDetention strategies include options that are able to hold and release a volume of stormwater at a specific time.DetentionRetention strategies include passive options that retain a volume of stormwater and emulate a natural hydrological cycle.Retention2.2 Evaluation Matrix14Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami15Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiEach stormwater management option is evaluated against its ability to fulfill the objectives of this report and is then given a high, medium, or low rating based on this evaluation. The criteria of the evaluation are based on several critical questions where a high (H) rated option fully satisfies the questions, a medium (M) rated option partially satisfies the questions, and a low (L) rated option does not satisfy the questions. The evaluation criteria is as outlined below:Does the option have the opportunity to be constructed in conjunction with other known or potential projects?Is the option able to adequately handle the required volume and flow of a 100-year storm event?CapacitySustainabilityDoes the option require frequent and ongoing maintenance?Are the construction, capital, and maintenance costs of the option rea-sonable?Does the option have the opportunity to be used for a different purpose (multi-purpose) until required to handle stormwater?PracticalityCosteffectivenessDoes the option adhere to all policies pertinent to the intersection? (i.e. UBC campus plan, Cliff Erosion Mitigation Plan, ISMP, etc.)Are there any technical and policy barriers to implementing the option?FeasibilityCompliancyWould the construction of the option interfere with campus life and UBC operations?Does the option go above and beyond existing policies?Subsequently, the highest scoring option in each strategy (Channelling, Detention, and Retention) underwent a SWOT analysis. The selected options, along with the chosen location, will be discussed in detail in Sections 2.3 and 2.4 of this report below.16Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami2.3.2 Option 1: SWOT Analysis 2.3.3 Option 1: ImplementationA possible location to implement this option is at the Mary Bollert Hall site, adjacent to the intersection of Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive, as shown in the schematic on the page below. The Mary Bollert Hall is identified in the UBC Campus Plan as a future infill site post year 2030 (University of British Columbia, 2010). Due to the close proximity to the intersection of interest and the already existing plans for replacement in the future, the Mary Bollert Hall is a strong candidate to be implemented with the underground storage option. However, some channelling would have to be constructed in order to direct the overflowing stormwater into the building from the intersection of interest or from the nearby spiral drain.Suitable for large detention volumesCan be used as parking/storage   when not floodedGood peak rate controlStrengths WeaknessesPoor water quality treatment and sediment removal performanceNot in the perfect location, must direct the flow to the buildingHigh costMust be drained post floodingOpportunities ThreatsInnovative ways to direct flow from intersection, including art pieces and green infrastructurePotential damage to building and contentsUBC electing not to infill the Mary Bollert Hall site in a reasonable time frame2.3.1 Option 1: DescriptionFrom the evaluation matrix in Section 2.2, underground storage/flooded basement has the highest score for the Detention strategy. This solution can provide a large storage capacity that is able to temporarily contain a volume of stormwater, which can be drained at a predetermined rate after the storm has subsided. This option differs from a large detention tank, because, when not being used to detain stormwater, it has the opportunity to be used for other applications. The implementation of this option can be combined with the planned infill of the current Mary Bollert Hall site and would have a low impact on campus activity. An example of this option is depicted on the follow page.2.3 Option 1: Detention17Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami2.3.4 Option 1: SchematicsFigure 2.3: Design for a floodable under-ground parking facility in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (National Mall Coalition, 2015).Figure 2.6: Toronto’s Sherbourne Common stormwater channelling system (GBSS, 2014).Source of surface floodingFigure 2.5: Calgary artwork Outflow channelling water to the Bow River from stormwater system (Wood, 2015).Figure 2.2: Mary Bottert Hall, UBC (Google Earth).Figure 2.4: Intersection of Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive with potential location of Option 1 infrastructure (Google Earth).18Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami2.4.2 Option 2: SWOT Analysis 2.4.3 Option 2: ImplementationThe red lines in the schematic found on the page below correspond to the potential locations for tree trenches at the intersection. As the intersection itself may be redesigned in the near future, additional places for tree trenches could be added at that time. Due to the enhanced volume required for gravel pits, it is likely that several of these locations would have to be used. As was the case for Option 1, there could be small runoff channelling requirements to ensure the runoff reaches the tree trenches. Some examples of innovative channelling infrastructure can be found below in Section 3.Channels water flowGravel removes sedimentMinimal maintenanceStrengths WeaknessesHigh area and volume demand (~1.5x water volume)Opportunities ThreatsMay require cooperation from Metro Vancouver and Province2.4.1 Option 2: DescriptionIn this option, a combination of tree trenches and gravel pits can provide temporary retention of stormwater and can slowly release accumulated runoff at a predetermined rate until empty. The basis of this option is that a series of tree trenches can retain and channel stormwater until it reaches capacity, where a perforated pipe can then channel excess stormwater into a gravel pit layered with a non-permeable membrane. The gravel pit can control the discharge rate as well as promote filtration prior to channelling stormwater back into the drainage system. The images on the page below are examples of tree trenches and gravel pits.High urban design potential at UBC entranceCan be installed when the intersection is redesigned2.4 Option 2: Retention and Channelling19Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami2.4.4 Option 2: SchematicsFigure 2.9: Design for a French Drain system, inspiration for the gravel pit with perforated pipe for this option (Lawn and Pool, 2016).Source of surface floodingFigure 2.8: Design for a tree trench system in Philadelphia (Philadelphia Water, 2016).Figure 2.7: Intersection of Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive with potential location of Option 2 infrastructure (Google Earth).20Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiSection 3 - Additional RecommendationsIn the process of analyzing the most suitable method to handle the required volume in a 100-year storm event, several other stormwater management options have been considered worthy of mention. Though these options may not be able to handle the total volume or flow of the 100-year storm event if implemented individually, they can be combined with other stormwater management options to collectively handle stormwater in all areas on campus. By decreasing the stormwater runoff at upstream locations, the pressures on the stormwater system at vulnerable locations such as the intersection of NW Marine Drive and Chancellor Boulevard will be lessened. This section will provide examples of such additional recommendations.Smaller interventions, such as porous asphalt, and small green infrastructure interventions such as planters, rain gardens, and green roofs, can be combined to be very effective stormwater management techniques. Figure 14 demonstrates how they may all be used in the same location, and each contributes to slow the flow of stormwater into the system.Figure 3.1: A vision of many small green infrastructure interventions (Philadelphia Water, 2016).3.1 Green Infrastructure Options21Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami3.1.1 Porous AsphaltFigure 3.2: Demonstrated difference between standard asphalt and porous asphalt (RCL Consulting Ltd., 2004).Porous asphalt is considered a best stormwater management practice as it increases the total permeable surface and promotes infiltration (UBC Campus and Community Planning). When used in place of standard impervious paving material, it can reduce peak 3.1.2 Rain Barrels and EavestroughsThe combined use of tailored eavestroughs, downspouts, planters, rain gardens and rain barrels can slow down the flow of rainwater to the stormwater system. Downspouts can be altered to incorporate planters, take a zigzag route, and direct water into rain barrels to delay and spread out the flow into pipes, as seen in Figure 3.3. These designs can be aesthetic and also be built into other channelling infrastructure or rain gardens, however, their capacity is not sufficient to handle severe storm events.stormwater velocity and volume. However, the use of porous asphalt should be limited to pedestrian walkways due to its weaker material properties and high maintenance requirements. Porous asphalt used on major roadways will become packed with dirt and dust unless vacuumed or swept frequently, reducing its efficiency as a stormwater management tool (National Ready Mixed Concrete Association, 2011). Nonetheless, porous asphalt is an excellent option that should be extensively used in the interior of campus in order to promote infiltration and achieve the greatest impact in stormwater management.Figure 3.3: Left: Rain barrel sculpture by artist Buster Simpson (IBI Group, 2015), Right: Downspouts in Seattle double as art pieces and functional parts of the stormwater management system (Stafford & Stafford, 2013).3.1.3 Bioswales and Dry PondsBioswales and dry ponds are designed to detain stormwater and promote infiltration. The low trough shape of the bioswale channels stormwater through a tract of vegetation designed to remove sediment and filter the stormwater prior to entering stormwater pipes. Often integrated into road medians, ditches, and parking lots, bioswales are efficient channeling systems (Program for Resource Efficient Communities, 2008). 22Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiDry ponds, like the one shown below in Figure 3.4, are a form of bioretention, which provide a location to hold the surplus of water in the case of a storm event and permit a gradual infiltration, often through a gravel lined base (Toronto Water, 2015).Figure 3.4: Dry pond in Charlotte, North Carolina (Metrolina Landscape, 2015).3.1.4 Blue Roofs and Green RoofsGreen roofs are used to detain stormwater in a soil layer on rooftops to nurture or irrigate vegetation, which can deal with stormwater through uptake and evapotranspiration. Excess stormwater can be drained through piping in severe storm events. Alternatively, blue roofs are temporary storage places for stormwater to slow down and control the flow into the stormwater system. While blue roofs can have a greater water storage capacity than green roofs, they are not multi-purpose. Both blue and green roofs reduce the urban heat island effect and help cool buildings and reduce utility bills in the hotter months (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2015). Examples of both blue and green roofs can be seen below in Figures 3.5 and 3.6.Figure 3.6: 2.5 acre green roof of Morgan Mail Processing Fa-cility, the green roof largest in New York City (Meinhold, 2009).Figure 3.5: Blue roof detention system in New York City (The City of New York, 2016).3.1.5 Roof FarmsRoof farms present a unique opportunity for UBC to handle stormwater in an attractive and useful way. One of Lufa Farms’ rooftop greenhouses, as shown above in Figure 3.7, is an example of such innovations that can both re-use stormwater for irrigation as well as provide food that is sustainably farmed (Lufa Farms Inc., 2014). With help from the existing Botany department on campus, UBC can investigate how roof farms can reuse stormwater via drip irrigation, reduce storm-Figure 3.7: Lufa Farms rooftop greenhous-es, Montreal (Lufa Farms Inc., 2014)23Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami3.2.1 Aquifer RechargeSimilar to the Middle Eastern qanat, aquifer recharge is the notion of managing stormwater by moving it directly into the lower aquifer through a series of wells. The ground has a high capacity for water storage, however these wells may not have the capacity to handle large storm events, particularly if the stormwater is treated prior to injection. Wells like this have already been investigated on UBC campus and are determined to contaminate the pristine groundwater of the lower aquifer and require too much maintenance to be worthwhile (University of British Columbia, 2014). However, they are used extensively in the United States, Australia, and other parts of the world.3.2.2 Upgrading Pipe Sizes and Large Detention TanksUpgrading the pipe sizes in UBC’s stormwater system to be able to handle a 100-year storm event has been thoroughly investigated in the technical background study, UBC’s Stormwater Model System Analysis, Detention Analysis and System Optimization (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2012). Oversized pipes can serve as both a detention and channelling system, but in this case, they must be used in conjunction with detention tanks to handle the total flow of the 100-year storm due to the limited capacity of the spiral drain and the sheer quantity of stormwater. This technical background study also investigated where and what size detention tanks would be required on campus, in combination with upgrading the pipe size in certain locations, which can be seen below in Figure 3.8 (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2012). There are some concerns that building Figure 3.7: Lufa Farms rooftop greenhous-es, Montreal (Lufa Farms Inc., 2014)water runoff, as well as provide food on campus (University of British Columbia, 2014). If successfully implemented, it would be an additional feature that can distinguish UBC as a centre for innovation and sustainability.Figure 3.8: Page from UBC UBC’s Stormwater Model System Analysis, Detention Analysis and System Optimization study indicating the location and size of deten-tion tanks required to handle surplus water (GeoAdvice Engineering Inc., 2013).3.2 Large-Scale Options24Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan Shahalami3.3.1 Flow Management Devices (Vortex Flow Controls)Stormwater flow management devices, such as the Hydro-Brake Optimum, depicted above in Figures 3.10 and 3.11, can be used to control stormwater flow in existing infrastructure (Faram, Stephenson, & Andoh, 2010) (Hydro International, 2016). They are self-activating devices that have no moving parts and do not require power. If implemented at strategic locations on campus, they can be used to direct and limit flooding to specific areas on campus and to alleviate flooding in high-risk areas. Although they are not long-term solutions for stormwater management, they can be exceptionally useful tools for controlling flooding in particularly vulnerable locations. Hence, it is recommended that more studies should be done to determine the potential use at UBC.Figure 3.9: Left: Schematic of a flow management device in operation (Hydro International, 2016).Right: The Hydro-Brake Optimum, a vortex flow control device from the UK (ACO, 2010).In addition to infrastructure interventions, there are several policy recommendations that UBC could implement to enforce and uphold good stormwater management practices.Promote and require smaller, less expensive interventions wherever new development occurs, such as blue roofs or green roofs, planters, and rain gardens.Promote use of porous pavement on all pedestrian pathways, sidewalks, and parking lots.Restrict future development on what is currently open space, particularly in the interior of the campus where infiltration techniques should be promoted.3.3 Technologically Innovative Options3.4 Policy Recommendations25Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiSection 4 - ConclusionIn addition to infrastructure interventions, there are several policy recommendations that UBC could implement to enforce and uphold good stormwater management practices.Host a UBC student design competition where design aspects are required for detention, channelling infrastructure, or green infrastructure interventions.Conduct a more in-depth analysis and modeling of how the alternative and innovative stormwater management options recommended in this report could handle stormwater in a 100-year storm event.Explore cost sharing solutions with Metro Vancouver and the provincial government.These suggestions are intended to gather the collective creativity of UBC, to identify the most technically and financially feasible solution, and in the process create a sense of community between students, the University, and its neighbours.This report has found that the most viable structural interventions for handling the stormwater runoff at Chancellor Boulevard and NW Marine Drive to be:A floodable basement at the Mary Bollert Hall that can be utilized as a stormwater detention facility as shown in Section 2.3.A combination of tree trenches and gravel pits to retain and channel stormwater in several key locations shown in Section 2.4.12These options are most in line with development on UBC campus and can be used to mitigate flooding risks to the neighbouring Pacific Spirit Park and University Endowment Land and erosion of the nearby cliffs. However, in order to effectively manage stormwater across campus, this report recommends taking a comprehensive approach to reduce impervious surfaces, and retain and recycle stormwater. This includes implementing multiple structural stormwater management interventions across campus as well as enforcing policies that can help shape the campus into a more sustainable, interactive, and educational neighbourhood.As UBC has plans to increase the density of the Point Grey campus over the coming years, new buildings and walkways will gradually increase the amount of impervious area. Therefore, it is imperative that stormwater management strategies are included in the planning of campus development. A prompt and proactive approach to stormwater management is needed to protect people and properties at UBC and to uphold the ecological and social integrity of the Point Grey campus.4.1 Recommended Next Steps4.2 Conclusion26Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiACO. (2010). Q-Brake Vortex. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from ACO Products: http:// www.aco.co.uk/product_detail.php?id=53AECOM. (2013). Hydrogeologic Stormwater Management Strategy - Phase 1 Desktop Assessment. UBC: University of British Columbia, Campus and Community Planning.Aplin & Martin Consultants Ltd. (2005). A Sustainable Drainage Strategy for the South Campus Neighbourhood. UBC Properties Trust.Faram, M., Stephenson, A. G., & Andoh, R. Y. (2010). Vortex flow controls: state of the art review and application (from the catchbasin to the dam). Novatech.GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. (2012). Model Update and Calibration of the University of British Columbia Stormwater Collection System: Technical Memorandum 2 (Draft). Vancouver: University of British Columbia.GeoAdvice Engineering Inc. (2013). UBC Stormwater Model System Analysis, Deten-tion Analysis and System Optimization. UBC.Green Building Advisor. (2015). Stormwater Management. Retrieved from Green Build-ing Advisor: http://www.greenbuildingadvisor.com/green-basics/stormwater-managementHydro International. (2016). Hydro-Brake Optimum. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from Products: http://www.hydro-int.com/uk/products/hydro-brake-optimumIBI Group. (2015, March 18). Idea for Developers: Sustainability and Public Art. Re-trieved March 23, 2016, from IBI Group Public Art Master Plan for West Palm Beach: https://ibiartwestpalm.wordpress.com/tag/environmental-art/Lufa Farms Inc. (2014). Our Farms. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from Lufa Farms: http://lufa.com/en/our-farms.htmlMeinhold, B. (2009, July 27). US Postal Service Delivers Plan for Huge Green Roof in NYC. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from inhabit: http://inhabitat.com/us-postal-service-plants-biggest-green-roof-in-nation/Metrolina Landscape. (2015). Pond / BMP / Wetland. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from Metrolina Landscape: http://www.metrolinalandscape.com/landscape/commer-cial/pond-bmp-wetland/#!N.B. West Contracting Co. (2015). Porous Pavement. Retrieved from West Contracting: https://nbwest.com/porous-pavement/National Mall Coalition. (2015). Examples and Precedents: Underground Parking. Re-trieved from National Mall Underground: http://www.nationalmallunderground.org/examples-precedents/National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. (2011). Inspection. Retrieved March 20, 2016, from Pervious Pavement: http://www.perviouspavement.org/inspection.htmlPhiladelphia Water. (2016). Green Stormwater Infrastructure Tools. Retrieved from Philly Watersheds: http://www.phillywatersheds.org/what_were_doing/green_infra-structure/toolsWorks Cited27Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiProgram for Resource Efficient Communities. (2008). Bioswales/Vegetated Swales. (U. o. Florida, Producer) Retrieved March 20, 2016, from Build Green: http://build-green.ufl.edu/Fact_sheet_bioswales_Vegetated_Swales.pdfRCL Consulting Ltd. (2004). Integrated Stormwater Management Plan. University of Victoria.Rogers, J. D. (1997, April 16). Flood Damage: Evolving laws and policies for an ever-present risk. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from University of Minesota Rochester: http://web.mst.edu/~rogersda/umrcourses/ge301/Evolving%20Laws%20for%20Flood%20damage%20Litigation.htmlStafford, E., & Stafford, S. (2013, April 8). Give your Downspouts a Makeover - Buster Simpson. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from Live and Play Twin Cities: http://live-andplaytwincities.blogspot.ca/2013/04/give-your-downspouts-makeover.htmlThe City of New York. (2016). Types of Green Infrastructure. Retrieved March 23, 2016, from NYC Environmental Protection: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/storm-water/combined_sewer_overflow_bmps.shtmlToronto Water. (2015). Landscape Design Guidelines for Stormwater Management Ponds. City of Toronto.UBC Campus and Community Planning. Best Management Practices for Stormwater Systems. UBC.University of British Columbia. (2014). UBC Integrated Stormwater Management Plan (Draft). Vancouver: UBC.University of British Columbia. (2010). Vancouver Campus Plan: Part 2. UBC.US Environmental Protection Agency. (2015, September 22). Using Green Roofs to Reduce Heat Islands. Retrieved March 20, 2016, from United States Environ-mental Protection Agency: https://www.epa.gov/heat-islands/using-green-roofs-28Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiAppendix A: Mind MapAppendices29Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiAppendix B: UBC facilities scheduled to be replaced by 2030Figure B: List of UBC facilities scheduled to for infill before and after 2030 (University of British Columbia, 2010).30Options for Stormwater Management at Chancellor Blvd and NW Marine Drive, UBC March 2016Calvin Fung, Cristyn Edwards & Hasan ShahalamiAppendix C: Annotated BibliographySource NameAuthorLocationURLDateTopicMain PointsResilient Design InstituteAlex WilsonVT, USAhttp://www.resilientdesign.org/fundamentals-­‐of-­‐resilient-­‐design-­‐wet-­‐floodproofing/15-04-20Flooded basementSafe methods for building flooding, floodproofing graphics, cost estimates for floodproofingGuidelines for the design and construction of stormwater managment systemNew York City Department of Environmental ProtectionNew York City, NY, USAhttp://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/green_infrastructure/stormwater_guidelines_2012_final.pdf12-07-01Stormwater systemsEfficiency and capacity of systems and interventions, sizing and volume reduction, sizing stormwater management systemsClimate Tech Wiki: Flood-proofingMatthew M. Linham & Robert J. NichollsUSAhttp://www.climatetechwiki.org/content/flood-­‐proofing-FloodproofingWet Floodproofing Cost EstimationA Sustainable Drainage Strategy for the South Campus NeighbourhoodAplin & Martin Consultants Ltd. & Holland Barrs Planning Group Inc.UBChttp://planning.ubc.ca/sites/planning.ubc.ca/files/documents/planning-­‐services/policies-­‐plans/SC_StormwaterMgmtStrategy.pdf05-01-01Stormwater and flooding analysis and proposed solutions for the South Catchment of UBC campusAdding Creativity to Urban Stormwater Treatment Design - "Rainwater Art"Bruce Phillips, PACE Advanced Water EngineeringCA, USAhttps://www.casqa.org/asca/adding-­‐creativity-­‐urban-­‐stormwater-­‐treatment-­‐design-­‐rainwater-­‐art14-12-15Creative DesignsExamples of creative stormwater treatment designsStormwater Management Tools - Ideas and Innovative TechniquesTom Ballestero, University of New Hampshire Stormwater CenterNH, USAhttp://www.lakesrpc.org/stormwater/Ballestero.pdf13-03-29Creative DesignsExamples of creative stormwater treatment designsBuster Simpson's Environmental Projects websiteBuster SimpsonGlobalhttp://www.bustersimpson.net/workinprogress/-Art and EnvironmentUsing artwork to increase environmental awareness, global examples of rainwater collection artworkRotterdam: the water city of the futureLinnie MackenzieRotterdam, the Netherlandshttp://www.waterworld.com/articles/wwi/print/volume-­‐25/issue-­‐5/editorial-­‐focus/rainwater-­‐harvesting/rotterdam-­‐the-­‐water-­‐city-­‐of-­‐the-­‐future.html2010Innovative stormwater management practicesUnderground storage, sunken recreation facilities, incentives for installing green roofsArtful Rainwater Design in the Urban LandscapeStuart Echolshttps://stuckeman.psu.edu/sites/default/files/facultycontent/jgb_fall07_b00_echols_-­‐_artful_rainwater_design_in_the_urban_landscape.pdf15-05-01Evaluation CriteriaValues and attributes of sustainable stormwater treatment designsStormwater Management Report - Jacob's Trail Phase 2 Subdivision, Township of WoolwichMeritechCambridge, ON, CAhttp://www.woolwich.ca/en/resourcesGeneral/Planning_Documents/Valleyview_Subdivision/Meritech_SWM_Report_March_2014.pdf14-02-01Evaluation CriteriaValues and attributes of sustainable stormwater treatment designsUniversity of Victoria Integrated Stormwater Management PlanRCL Consultanting LtdVictoria, BC, CAhttps://www.uvic.ca/sustainability/assets/docs/policy/integrated-­‐stormwater-­‐management-­‐plan.pdf04-05-01University of Victoria stormwater management strategiesBioswales and porous asphaltWater Management at UBCDaniel R. Klein, Ghazal Ebrahimi, Lucas Navilloz, and Boris ThurmUBChttps://watergovernance.ca/wp-­‐content/uploads/2014/08/UBC-­‐IRM-­‐Strategy-­‐with-­‐a-­‐Water-­‐Lens-­‐FINAL-­‐Aug-­‐2014.pdf14-08-01

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