UBC Graduate Research

Redescribing the Periphery Frayne, Oliver Forrest 2021-05

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i              Redescribing the Periphery     Oliver Forrest Frayne Bachelor of Environmental Studies, BES in Planning, Honours Co-op University of Waterloo, 2017   Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Architecture in The Faculty of Graduate Studies,  School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,  Architecture Program   Committee: Tijana Vujosevic (Chair) Joash Gambarage Bella Knemeyer   The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada May 2021  © Oliver Frayne   ii              particular place, since this human, which is a compound of other living beings and other species, belongs to all places 0F1 Achille Mbembe, Necropolitics   1 Necropolitics (Durham: Duke University Press), 2019, 187. iii          Figure 1: Understanding the public face of the McMillan Memorial Library, Nairobi, Kenya. Charcoal, red watercolour pencil, whiteout tape on newsprint. Drawing by author, 2020.   iv   red in Asmara, Eritrea, from January 11 to 17, 2000, at the conference titled Against All Odds: African Languages and Literatures into the 21st Century. This is the first conference on African languages and literatures ever to be held on African soil, with participants from east, west, north, Southern Africa and from the diaspora and by writers and scholars from around the world. We examined the state of African languages in literature, scholarship, publishing, education, and administration in Africa and throughout the world. We celebrated the vitality of African languages and literatures and affirmed their potential. We noted with pride that despite all the odds against them, African languages as vehicles of communication and knowledge survive and have a written continuity of thousands of years. Colonialism created some of the most serious obstacles against African languages and literatures. We noted with concern the fact that these colonial obstacles still haunt independent Africa and continue to block the mind of the continent. We identified a profound incongruity in colonial languages speaking for the continent. At the start of a new century and millennium, Africa must firmly reject this incongruity and affirm a new beginning by returning to its languages and heritage. 2   2 The Asmara Declaration on African Languages and Literatures,  University of Pennsylvania African Studies Center, January 2000, https://www.africa.upenn.edu/Govern_Political/asmrlit.html v  Abstract African writers and academics ushered in the 21st century with a mandate for the new millennium: wholeheartedly embrace the languages of the continent to overcome the psychic, social, economic, and environmental dehumanization inflicted by Western  primarily European  imperialists. The Asmara Declaration was a reset for the continent, a proclamation to embrace the multitude of African languages, to rearticulate Afr on  Twenty years later, this thesis, backgrounded by the rapid urbanization the former British Empire as entangled in the ongoing challenges of polyglossic public space. Within this context, I ask how can architecture destabilize master-narratives that subsume the making, expression, and collection of stories? I begin with a brief exploration into the master-narrative3 of a former colonial library in central Nairobi, framing the discussion through general core-periphery binaries. As framed by contemporary decolonial discourse of AbdouMaliq Simone, Edgar Pieterse, Achille Mbembe, and Michel Foucault, the interrogation of these colonial binaries presents an opportunity to examine the continuation of these hierarchies of power in the modern African urban context. The assemblage of historical architectural agendas pokes holes in the seemingly dichotomous metropole-colony relationship, calling into question how the library is defined looking to its future. I then follow with a section on the interlinks  3 n The Selected Works of Edward Said, 1966-2006 (ed. Moustafa Bayoumi and Andrew Rubin). (New York: Vintage Books, 2019), 268.  vi  preeminent authors, , and the writings of the late Kenyan author and journalist Binyavanga Wainaina. In the final section of the thesis, I explore the future of African libraries as an integral part of the sustainable development of African cities, as put forward by the African Library & Information Associations and Institutions (AfLIA). Throughout the thesis I return to the role of architecture in these complex, diverse, and challenging discourses, advocating for a form of knowledge-making assembled from a diverse range of academic research, historical documents, first hand accounts, modern African literature, and art. Engaging and troubleshooting at multiple scales of inquiry, I argue for a new architectural datum which destabilizes a hegemonic master-narrative in favour of linguistically diverse improvisations and socialities: making space for celebrated differentiation and common ground.     vii   Contents Abstract ................................................................................................................ v Contents ............................................................................................................. vii List of Figures ..................................................................................................... ix Acknowledgements ........................................................................................xiii Thesis Statement .............................................................................................. xiv Note on Structure ............................................................................................. xv Folder One ........................................................................................................ xvi Introduction ........................................................................................................ 1 Signposting ....................................................................................................... 6 Positionality ..................................................................................................... 7 The setting ...................................................................................................... 14 Part I: Making stories ....................................................................................... 21 Core-periphery theory ................................................................................. 21 Counter rhythms and improvisation........................................................ 27 Reading across documentary materials .................................................... 31 Multiscalar storytelling ................................................................................ 33 Uninhabitable space ..................................................................................... 38 Part II: Expressing Stories ............................................................................... 47 Cartography of renaming ............................................................................ 47 Citizen of two worlds ................................................................................... 52 The unreliable narrator................................................................................ 56 Liminal fluidity .............................................................................................. 63 Part III: Collecting stories ............................................................................... 67 A driver of development .............................................................................. 67 viii   Polyglossia ...................................................................................................... 69 Conclusion: Towards spaces of storytelling................................................ 81 Folder Two......................................................................................................... 82 Preamble ............................................................................................................ 83 Virtual Desktop ................................................................................................ 84 Navigation ......................................................................................................... 86 Dethroning the piano nobile ......................................................................... 88 Linguistically motivated design transformations ...................................... 93 Through the fireplace ................................................................................... 94 Reversal ........................................................................................................... 99 A new window ............................................................................................ 104 An archival space ....................................................................................... 108 The market space ....................................................................................... 112 People-watching......................................................................................... 119 Reflection .........................................................................................................125 Primary Bibliography ....................................................................................126 Secondary Bibliography ................................................................................130 Appendix A .....................................................................................................131 Appendix B ......................................................................................................145  ix  List of Figures Figure 1: Understanding the public face of the McMillan Memorial Library, Nairobi, Kenya. Charcoal, red watercolour pencil, whiteout tape on newsprint. Drawing by author, 2020. .................................................................. iii Figure 2: New Ethiopia-Djibouti standard gauge railway engine. Photograph by Zacharias Abubeker, AFP. ............ 3 Figure 3: Kenyan and Chinese employees prepare to receive a train on the Nairobi to Mombasa railway, built and managed by a Chinese firm. Photograph by Thomas Mukoya, Reuters. ......................................................................... 4 Figure 4: Mohamed Ali, chairman of the Lamu Beach Management Unit, photographed on Nov. 15, 2017, was part of a lawsuit brought by local fishermen against the coal project, claiming cultural and economic damages to their fishing rights. In April 2018, they won the lawsuit and more than $17 million in compensation. Photograph by Dana Ullman for Foreign Policy. .................................................................................................................................................... 5 Figure 5: Relocation of the author, drawn over 1994 tectonic world map, 2020. ............................................................ 9 Figure 6: Part I Loose iambic memory, International School of Kenya 2007. Drawing by author, 2020. ................... 10 Figure 7: Part II Loose iambic memory, International School of Kenya 2007. Drawing by author, 2020. ................. 11 Figure 8: Part III Loose iambic memory, International School of Kenya 2007. Drawing by author, 2020. ................ 12 Figure 9: Dictionary of a child, by author. An exercise in free poetry of the meaning significant non-English words in my life. An exploration of my own identity through language. Words and their description according to an  ........................................................................................................................................................... 13 of photographs Finlay colour, and Infra red photos, taken on a flight with Imperial Airways on a World Trunk route following the Nile from the Delta to the Victoria Nile and the Victoria Lake. Retrieved from Library of Congress. ....................... 16 Figure 11: McMillan Memorial Library, 2018, with street signage, people, and Land Cruiser in the foreground. From Google Earth by author, 2020. ............................................................................................................................................ 17 Figure 12: Banda St looking east, library is off camera left. Taken 2018, from Google Earth by author, 2020. .......... 18 Figure 13: Elevation, unrolled - Al Yusra Nanak Block. Drawn by author, 2020 .......................................................... 18 Figure 14: Looking across Kenyatta Ave, towards the Stanbic Bank Building. Taken 2018, from Google Earth by author, 2020. ......................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Figure 15: Elevation, unrolled - Bank of India Mojo's. Drawn by author, 2020. ........................................................... 19 by author, 2020. .................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Figure 17: Elevation, unrolled - Jamia Mosque Block. Drawn by author, 2020. ............................................................ 20 Figure 18: Tabulation of flows and exchanges relating to the stories of the McMillan Memorial Library. Excel document, drawing by author, 2020. ................................................................................................................................. 24 Figure 19: Title page of Le Frondeur, a Belgian satirical journal with a cartoon by François Maréchal, depicting European sovereigns having a feast with Congo as main course. This refers to the Berlin Conference (also named Congo Conference). The cartoon presents Leopold II prominently in the midst with the Russian and German sovereigns on his sides. There is no signature, but the author has been identified by Frédéric Paques: Avant Hergé. Étude des premières apparitions de bande dessinée en Belgique francophone (1830 1914), pp. 138, 328. .............. 25 Figure 20: A New World, Sixth annual paper on Africa prepared by Mr. William Coppinger, secretary of the American Colonization Society, and published in the Baltimore Sun on November 28, 1885. Retrieved from Library of Congress. .......................................................................................................................................................................... 26 Figure 21: Relational buildings, north to south. Drawing by author, digital, 2020........................................................ 36 Figure 22: First reading of a video of the library, courtesy of Book Bunk. Charcoal drawing on vellum,  video encounter of library space and people. Drawing by author, 2020. .................................................................................. 37 Figure 23: A woman hanging up washing in New Brighton, Port Elizabeth. Red Location Museum by Noero Wolff Architects is just visible in the background. The documenting of the Red Location Museum is understood through x  its context  a reading of the building is positioned in changing environs. Photograph courtesy of Noero Architects. ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 42 Figure 24: Asymmetric pitch roof repetition at two scales, one of the strategies of contextual sensitivity. Photograph courtesy of Noero Architects. ............................................................................................................................................. 43 Figure 25: Red Locaof reflection between memory boxes. Photograph courtesy of Noero Architects. ........................................................ 45 Figure 26: A section Noero Architects. ................................................................................................................................................................. 46 Figure 27: Sheng linguistic operations found in advertisements. Based on research from Annah Kariuki, Fridah Era-246, doi: 10.1080/13696815.2015.1029879 ........ 50 Ethnicity in Kenya, originally used in Annah Kariuki, Fridah Erastus  and 229-246, doi: 10.1080/13696815.2015.1029879 ............................................................................................................... 51 Figure 29: Thomas Gainsborough, Mr and Mrs Andrews, 1750. 69.8 cm × 119.4 cm (27.5 in × 47.0 in), National Gallery, London.................................................................................................................................................................... 54 Figure 30: Yinka Shonibare, 1998, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews without their heads. Two mannequins, Dutch wax printed cotton textile, dog mannequin, painted metal bench, rifle. 165 x 635 x 254 cm with plinth ........................................ 55 Figure 31: Insertion, removal, erasure, Maison Tropicale, Niamey, abandoned concrete pad construction re-drawings, by author, 2020. Conte, graphite, charcoal on vellum. 8.5x11 in. .................................................................. 59 Figure 32: Concrete pad left behind in Niamey, Niger, after the maison was removed. Photograph by Ângela Ferreira, 2007. Light jet print mounted on aluminium 120 x 150 cm. ........................................................................................... 60 Figure 33: Pilotis decapitated, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, after the maison was removed. Photograph by Ângela Ferreira, 2007. Light jet print mounted on aluminium 120 x 150 cm............................................................................. 61 Figure 34: Maison Tropicale, Ângela Ferreira, 2007. Sculpture, wood, aluminium, steel. 1000 x 217 x 257 cm. ....... 62 Figure 35: Fireplace view of Ghost, by Rachel Whiteread, 1990. Plaster on steel frame, 269 x 355.5 x 317.5 cm (105 7/8 x 139 15/16 x 125 in.)..................................................................................................................................................... 66 Figure 36: McMillan Memorial Library, digital assemblage, by author 2020. ............................................................... 73 Figure 37: Facade overlay, detail, 1. Digital collage, drawn by author, 2020. ................................................................. 74 Figure 38: The Asmara Declaration on African Languages and Literatures, originally from January 2000. Print out by author, 2020, retrieved from the University of Pennsylvania African Studies Centre. ............................................ 77 Figure 39: List of languages of Kenya, page 1. Excel document by author, data from SIL, retrieved 2020.................. 78 Figure 40: List of languages of Kenya, page 2. Excel document by author, data from SIL, retrieved 2020.................. 79 Figure 41: List of languages of Kenya, page 3. Excel document by author, data from SIL, retrieved 2020.................. 80 Figure 42: Homepage screen print. Author, 2021. Webpage........................................................................................... 85 Figure 43: Navigation page, composite assemblage, screen capture. Author, 2021. Webpage. ................................... 87 Figure 44: Nolli plan showing the library elevated piano nobile (white). The stairs are visible and separated the city from the interior. .................................................................................................................................................................. 89 Figure 45: Nolli plan showing the city (orange) as indistinguishable from the interior of the library......................... 89 Figure 46: Portico, stairs in tact. Author, 2021. ................................................................................................................. 90 Figure 47: Portico, stairs removed, front doors shifted. ................................................................................................... 91 Figure 48: Marble chips in a continuous ground, graphite on paper. Author, 2021. .................................................... 92 Figure 49: The fireplace relocated according to the new ground plane. Photoshopped existing image, by author, 2021. ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 95 Figure 50: The fireplace, prior to removal. Author, 2021. ................................................................................................ 96 Figure 51: New opening, fireplace removed. Opening dimensions preserved. Author, 2021...................................... 97 Figure 52: View to the Syed Abdullah Shah Memorial Library. Author, 2021. ............................................................. 98 xi  Figure 53: Initial drawing of fillet reversal, creating light scoops and a generous central skylight. Drawing by author, 2021, graphite on paper. .................................................................................................................................................... 100 Figure 54: Original section, author, 2021......................................................................................................................... 101 Figure 55: Modified section, author, 2021. ...................................................................................................................... 102 Figure 56: Rendered section. New mezzanine is shown, and insertion of a new language. Author, 2021. ............... 103 Figure 57: Current windows, exterior (left), interior (right). Author, 2021. ................................................................ 105 Figure 58: Modified windows, exterior (left), interior (right). Author, 2021. .............................................................. 106 Figure 59: Rendered modified window openings. Author, 2021. ................................................................................. 107 Figure 60: The stairwell, as a device for seating. Author, 2021, graphite on paper. ..................................................... 109 Figure 61: The mezzanine (left) and the stairwell (right) fragment. Author, 2021. ..................................................... 110 Figure 62: Archive (left) under mezzanine and stairwell (right). The circulation core becomes a childrens reading area, enclosed by the staircase. Author, 2021. ................................................................................................................. 111 Figure 63: Original floor plan, stairs still present. The U-shaped plan is cut off from its central courtyard. Author, 2021. .................................................................................................................................................................................... 113 Figure 64: The wings now open on to the courtyard, the walls dissolved. Author, 2021. ........................................... 114 Figure 65: Market space, awning doors shown in plan. Author, 2021, graphite on paper.......................................... 115 Figure 66: Section sketch showing awning swing and sliding door. Author, 2021, graphite on paper. .................... 116 Figure 67: CAD drawing of interior wall that opens on to market space. Author, 2021............................................. 117 Figure 68: Rendered market space, seen through the wall from the library interior. The market becomes materially  ..................................................................................................... 118 Figure 69: Friday prayers, Wabera St. Video from Mambo Heritage instagram, gif still by author, 2021. ............... 120 Figure 70: New cafe. Existing columns are synthesized into the extension. Author, 2021. ........................................ 121 Figure 71: New cafe, front section. The cut line shows how the existing architectural elements are unified to support the new cafe program. Author, 2021. ............................................................................................................................... 122 Figure 72: Cafe, section render. Author, 2021. ................................................................................................................ 123 Figure 73: Cafe render, author, 2021. ............................................................................................................................... 124 Figure 74: Sketch of McMillan Memorial Library, drawn by author, 2020. Red fineliner, pencil crayon, graphite, whiteout tape, oil pastel on newsprint. An anachronism dialoguing with a grid. ....................................................... 132 author, 2020. ....................................................................................................................................................................... 133 Figure 76: City figure ground, Central Business District. McMillan shown in red. Maxar/ESRI/Open Street Map. Drawing by author, 2020. .................................................................................................................................................. 134 Figure 77: Position in relation to other libraries in the CBD. Maxar/ESRI/Open Street Map. Drawing by author, 2020. .................................................................................................................................................................................... 135 mes are listed. Maxar/ESRI/Open Street Map. Drawing by author, 2020. .................................................................................................................................................. 136 Figure 79: City blocks as seen through elevation. Digital drawing by author, 2020. ................................................... 137 Figure 80: Detail of mosque entrance off Kigali Road. Drawing by author, 2020. ...................................................... 138 Figure 81: Detail of the space between Stanbic Bank and Mojo's on Banda St. Drawing by author, 2020................ 139 Figure 82: Closeup of Stanbic Bank Building on Kenyatta Ave and Avenue House. Drawing by author, 2020. ..... 140 Figure 83: McMillan Memorial Library, digital assemblage, by author 2020. ............................................................. 141 Figure 84: Photographic assemblage of interior space of the McMillan Memorial Library, digital collage by author, 2020. .................................................................................................................................................................................... 142 Figure 85: Plan of McMillan Memorial Library, ground floor. Drawn by author and scanned, 2020. Digital drawing on newsprint and trace paper............................................................................................................................................ 143 Figure 86: Facade of the McMillan Memorial Library. Digital drawing printed on newsprint and tracing paper. Scanned drawing by author, 2020. (Misprints prime the printing surface, rotated plan drawing underlay). .......... 144 Figure 87: Facade original, stairs shown. Author, 2021. ................................................................................................. 146 Figure 88: Facade, stairs removed. Front door now lies co-planar with the city topography. .................................... 147 xii   Figure 89: CAD drawing of continuous ground, interior and exterior. Plan view. Author, 2021. ............................ 148 Figure 90: Collage of concrete floor with marble chips inset. Black and white marble from original portico stairs and landing. Author, 2021. ....................................................................................................................................................... 149 Figure 91: Door section, between interior wing and market. Author, 2021................................................................. 150 Figure 92: Glazed passage between two wings, author 2021. ......................................................................................... 151 Figure 93: Passage material collage, author, 2021. .......................................................................................................... 152 Figure 94: Digitally edited archival photograph, showing stairs removed and openings shifted to ground level. Author, 2021. ...................................................................................................................................................................... 153 Figure 95: Original floor plan. Author, 2021. .................................................................................................................. 154 Figure 96: Ground floor, proposed. Author, 2021. ......................................................................................................... 155 Figure 97: Mezzanine level, proposed. Author, 2021. .................................................................................................... 156 Figure 98: Second floor, proposed. Author, 2021. .......................................................................................................... 157 Figure 99: English Breakfast, Al-Yusra, author, 2021. .................................................................................................... 158 Figure 100: Receipt for English Breakfast, author, 2021. ................................................................................................ 159 Figure 101: Swahili Breakfast, Al-Yusra, author, 2021. .................................................................................................. 160 Figure 102: Receipt for Swahili Breakfast, author, 2021. ................................................................................................ 161 Figure 103: Somali Breakfast, Al-Yusra, author, 2021. ................................................................................................... 162 Figure 104: Receipt for Somali Breakfast, author, 2021. ................................................................................................. 163 Figure 105: Early collage, digital and hand drawing. Author, 2021. ............................................................................. 164 Figure 106: Early collage, digital and hand drawing. Author, 2021. ............................................................................. 165 Figure 107: Early sketch exploring linguistic operations. Portico cafe. Author, 2021. ................................................ 166 Figure 108: Early sketch exploring linguistic operations. Decapitated column. Author, 2021. ................................. 167 Figure 109: Early sketch exploring linguistic operations. Spatial programming borrowed from Al-Yusra active frontage. Author, 2021....................................................................................................................................................... 168 Figure 110: Early programmatic diagram for library. Collage and text, drawn from Instagram tags. Digital CAD drawing and hand paper collage. Author, 2021. ............................................................................................................. 169    xiii   Acknowledgements Thank you to my Chair, Tijana Vujosevic, and my committee members Dr. Joash Gambarage from UBC Language Sciences and Bella Knemeyer from the African Centre for Cities at the University of Cape Town, in South Africa. I would like to thank Angela Wachuka and Wanjiru Koinange, Syokau Mutonga, and Sahar McTough from Book Bunk, Nairobi, and Balmoi Abe from Mambo Heritage, Nairobi. I am very grateful for your assistance, questions, support, and encouragement. This thesis is a privilege. Thank you to my friends and family. Meredith for being by my side. Nicholas Frayne, for being a wonderful brother. Alison and Bruce Frayne, my parents, thank you for showing me the world. My grandparents, in Cape Town, Keetmanshoop, and KwaZulu-Natal, for Sunday roasts, bakkie rides, and time for stories.  xiv   Thesis Statement  This thesis positions a former colonial library as an architecturally transfigurable terminus in ongoing core-periphery relationships of power. This investigation into the architecture assembles disparate documentary material to understand how space can destabilize master-narratives that subsume the making, expression, and collection of stories. From this understanding, I argue that architecture can enable the improvisational resilience-building socialities and networks that are vital to our urban futures.   xv  Note on Structure This thesis is grouped in Graduate Project I, loosely the research phase; two, Graduate Project II, loosely a corresponding demonstrative design exploration. The majority of the thesis framework is formulated in Folder One, connecting lines of inquiry to a core-periphery research superstructure, establishing the research purpose and significance. Folder Two contains a concise description of the final thesis presentation and rationale. The design is intended as one of many possibilities, a proof of concept of research thinking. Both folders should be read together. Research and design are synthetic. The outcome is both a product of the methodology and the methodology itself.   xvi               Folder One    1  Introduction Though Kenya gained independence from Britain in 1963, there is evidence of new poli-economic power transactions at play, and this is not a situation unique to Kenya. In East Africa high profile projects include ss-border railway between Addis Ababa and Djibouti4, The Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport Corridor (LAPSSET) deep water harbor port and coal plant5, the Kenya Standard 6, and the tenuous transformation of Baga ports, 7. Literature frames these relationships as transfigurations of the historic metropole-colony manipulation and subjugation, a neocolonial enterprise with new cores yet same peripheries.8 With the intense urbanization of African metropolises already in motion, this thesis revisits the residual colonial architecture as sites of potential transformation enabling improvisational and resilience-building socialities and networks. This research paper hypothesizes that imperial debris9 is an opportune venue for a destabilization of power imbalances that appear to persist between Africa and various global state-sponsored agencies. The library as an architectural public anchor sits at a nexus of political, socio-economic, and cultural discussions and agendas. It is also a space that traditionally houses works of writing and languages, expression of identity and memory and, inversely, the control and amnesia of both. This research  4 Ismail Einashe. 2019, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-49580863 5 Dana Ullman, When Coal C https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/06/09/when-coal-came-to-paradise-china-coal-kenya-lamu-pollution-africa-chinese-industry-bri/ 6 David Herbling and Dandan Li. lt a road to nowhehttps://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-07-19/china-s-belt-and-road-leaves-kenya-with-a-railroad-to-nowhere 7 Nick Van Mead. China in Africa: win-win development, or new rdian, 31 July, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2018/jul/31/china-in-africa-win-win-development-or-a-new-colonialism 8 Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009). 9 Ann Laura Stoler, Imperial Debris: On Ruins and Ruination (Durham: Duke University Press, 2013).  2  therefore examines architecture of power as relating to language, identity, and memory, connecting the library into a broader framework of new core-periphery relationships.   3           Figure 2: New Ethiopia-Djibouti standard gauge railway engine. Photograph by Zacharias Abubeker, AFP.   Image removed 4             Figure 3: Kenyan and Chinese employees prepare to receive a train on the Nairobi to Mombasa railway, built and managed by a Chinese firm. Photograph by Thomas Mukoya, Reuters.   Image removed 5          Figure 4: Mohamed Ali, chairman of the Lamu Beach Management Unit, photographed on Nov. 15, 2017, was part of a lawsuit brought by local fishermen against the coal project, claiming cultural and economic damages to their fishing rights. In April 2018, they won the lawsuit and more than $17 million in compensation. Photograph by Dana Ullman for Foreign Policy.   Image removed 6  S I G N P O S T I N G   Who A thesis for anyone who desires to move beyond a surface reading of the world, anyone interested in the multiplicity of stories that exist in a given space and/or body.   What The thesis centers a residual colonial product at the core of a prototypical experiment into the ideological, socio-cultural flows and exchanges that shape architecture. Inscribing stories and their telling into an architectural transformation. Inscribing socio-cultural latencies into an ideological artifact of colonial master-narrative.  How Through archival assemblage multithread storytelling is foregrounded in a split screen reading and experience of a colonial master-narrative. The destabilization of a static given reveals and legitimizes the improvisational transactions and rhythms already in motion.    Where The McMillan Memorial Library in Nairobi, Kenya, located in the Central Business District, serves as a proxy through which bigger questions are asked. It is the hope of the thesis that these questions prompt questioning of architecture, cities, spaces, stories, of anywhere not our apparently our own, revealing latent commonalities and affinities as opposed to driving division and othering.   Why With the increasing urbanization of African metropolises, like Nairobi, former colonial library spaces are hotbeds for the debate around access to information and literacy and in turn an important aspect of development. The former colonial library is a spatio-temporal convergence of new identities, ideas, movement, and the architectural residue of Eurocentric colonial ideologies.  7  P O S I T I O N A L I T Y  The thesis process is a reflexive endeavour, one in which I come to learn more about the world and in so doing learn more about myself. It is valuable and necessary to give some of myself to the process and to the subject matter I am investigating. This is not necessarily comfortable nor an easy task but, in a thesis searching for common ground and collaborating to shape a better world, how can my own identities not be prefaced? I, like many of my fellow citizens, am multiple identities. As celebrated Kenyan author and journalist Binyavanga Wainaina wrote in h  bout being what you are not in Kenya  just be it successfully. Almost every Kenyan joke is about somebody who thought they had mastered a new persona and ended up ridiculous. For us, life is about having a fluid disposition. You can have as many as you wa 1F10 My position in and outlook on the world is an accumulation of encounters, stories, memories, and retellings: a set of relationalities both tangible and intangible.  I have made a simple diagram tracing where I have considered home at various points in my life. South African and British through my parents, American according to my birth certificate, and Canadian through naturalization, my upbringing was very much a pattern of relocation across the Atlantic. My lived experiences of South Africa, Namibia, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Mozambique are always present and likely it is their presence that constitute a semblance of rootedness for me. These lived experiences also continue to press me to inquire about the world beyond my immediate surrounds and first readings. This is the motivation for undertaking a thesis exploration that asks  10 Binyavanga Wainaina. Twenty Years of the Caine Prize for African Writing (Northampton: Interlink, 2020), 66. 8  questions of an architecture that is part of stories of global exchange and flows of ideology. I would also like to acknowledgement that the thesis process is a privilege and an opportunity to contribute to making the world a better place for everything in it. This thesis ultimately stems from questions about my own position in the world, driven by memories and stories I have learnt throughout my life thus far. As such, this thesis does not attempt to posit finite solutions. Rather it aims to disrupt dominant narrative thinking and insert potential for expression of stories overwritten, erased, dislocated, and yet to be told. Over the term I engaged with improvised writing as a method of exploring my own identity as related to this thesis. I have included some of this writing (see Figures 6-9), some of which is intentionally disorienting, obfuscating my own mother tongue (English). In so doing I elicit multiple readings of the writing, exploring incompleteness, a critical take on the familiar through narrative prose. These memories are personal and, as a citizen of two worlds, situate my own posture to redescribing the periphery.  9         Figure 5: Relocation of the author, drawn over 1994 tectonic world map, 2020. 10        Figure 6: Part I Loose iambic memory, International School of Kenya 2007. Drawing by author, 2020.   11        Figure 7: Part II Loose iambic memory, International School of Kenya 2007. Drawing by author, 2020.   12        Figure 8: Part III Loose iambic memory, International School of Kenya 2007. Drawing by author, 2020.   13          Figure 9: Dictionary of a child, by author. An exercise in free poetry of the meaning significant non-English words in my life. An exploration of my own identity through language. Words and their description accord      14  T H E  S E T T I N G  The overarching story of the McMillan Memorial Library is fairly straightforward; the story that dominates news articles, expositions, and descriptions of the library. Established by Lady Lucie McMillan after the death of her husband Lord William Northrup McMillan, the library was opened in 1931. It was a whites-Street in the Nairobi Central Business District. Around the time of dependence from the United Kingdom some 30 years later, the library was opened to all. Since then, the library has slowly fallen into a state of dereliction, a result of funding difficulties and stretched resources. Today, the library is being restored by Book Bunk, a trust founded by two Kenyan women, Wanjiru Koinange and Angela Wachuka, an author and highly regarded publisher respectively. Digging further, one learns that the McMillan Library was a reference library that acted as the lynchpin depot for a network of circulating libraries in East Africa, part of the Carnegie library scheme. 2F11 The McMillan Library sits at a curious confluence of correspondence of ideologies and financial soliciting, a colonial worldview and identifying of the colonial periphery deeply embedded in the story of its conception and operation. The neoclassical structure that sits in the Central Business District today is a product of this history. The library pre-independence, for example, was not free from fiscal challenges, nor did the internal politics of library administration run smoothly 3F12. Crucially, through diving into the past of the building, one learns that the relationship between the library as peripheral architecture of the British colonial and the core metropolitan administrative apparatus was not binary. Rather,  reveals a multi-threaded web of  11 Anthony, Olden. Libraries in Africa: Pioneers, Policies, Problems (Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1995).  12 Ibid.  15  transnational relationships: the colonial story has many accomplices and intriguing adjacencies and overlaps.  In its present state, many transnational actors still orbit the library, and Book Bunk is actively engaging with a diverse body of stakeholders. These include the British Council, Goethe Institut, Dubai Cares, Sigrid Rausing Trust and the Nairobi City Council, The Textbook Centre, and the National Bank of Kenya. 4F13 Evidently, the McMillan Library is alive, and the conversations around this library and its future are active. Through an architectural lens I am interested in the opportunities that lie in this former colonial public building. In 2015, Wanjiru Koinange, one of the Book Bunk founders, wrote of the McMillan Memorial Library, in the dynamic way that urban centres all do. Unfortunately, the city moved on and fo 5F14 By reading through documents surrounding the McMillan Memorial Library and the future for libraries in Africa more generally, I position the colonial architecture of the library at the heart of discussions around the futu cities.    13  https://www.bookbunk.org/ 14  Library: The past, present and future of  Commonwealth Writers, 2015, https://www.commonwealthwriters.org/lady-mcmillan-the-library/ 16         Figure 10: McMillan Memorson, American Colony Photo Dept. Monotone, Finlay colour, and Infra red photos, taken on a flight with Imperial Airways on a World Trunk route following the Nile from the Delta to the Victoria Nile and the Victoria Lake. Retrieved from Library of Congress.   17        Figure 11: McMillan Memorial Library, 2018, with street signage, people, and Land Cruiser in the foreground. From Google Earth by author, 2020.   18        Figure 12: Banda St looking east, library is off camera left. Taken 2018, from Google Earth by author, 2020.  Figure 13: Elevation, unrolled - Al Yusra Nanak Block. Drawn by author, 2020.  19        Figure 14: Looking across Kenyatta Ave, towards the Stanbic Bank Building. Taken 2018, from Google Earth by author, 2020.   Figure 15: Elevation, unrolled - Bank of India Mojo's. Drawn by author, 2020.   20        Figure 16: Banda St, in front of Jamia Mosque, t. Taken 2018, from Google Earth by author, 2020.  Figure 17: Elevation, unrolled - Jamia Mosque Block. Drawn by author, 2020.   21  Part I: Making stories  Underpinning this thesis is an exploration into the formation of stories and knowledge of space. I examine the positioning of the McMillan Memorial Library, as a product of colonial ideology, in the genealogy of British-Kenyan core-periphery flows and exchanges. My research has found that the library is triangulated between numerous transnational flows, since its formation as a whites-only library to present-day renaissance. This section situates the library as one of the many European colonial projects that were backdated metropolitan architectural remixes of ideological dominance that proliferated the subjugated African continent. What is the story of this space that is told: what are the insistences, the protestations, the stories deliberately excluded? In assembling the documents that relate to the McMillan Memorial Library, what fragmented knowledge of the space emerges and how is architecture inscribed with these new knowledges? C O R E - P E R I P H E R Y  T H E O R Y  Sociologist and economic historian Immanuel core-periphery theory parses a world economy into three structural positions. The core-periphery is one form of identifying the relationship between the Global North (core) and Global South (periphery) connected by a bridge or flow (the semi- th running of the world econ 6F15 Within the context of this thesis, the core-periphery relationshof the world-market economy  industrial capitalist production of the mid-18th century which kicked off in Britain and quickly encompassed most of the globe in search of raw materials. 7F16 At the end of the 19th century the African periphery is divided between major European core  15 concepts for comparaComparative Studies in Society and History, 16, no. 4 (1974), 387-415. 16 Ibid., 310. 22  -1885. Newly drawn territories became European colonies, the periphery playground for outsiders, its mineral wealth as a resource for the outside world not for Africans and its fate as a matter not to be left to Africans. 17  Conceptually, I relate Wall -periphery to Georg bridge 9F18.  Broadly, Simm  but in defining a connectedness one distinguishes the differences and separation, spatially as well as ontologically.19 The core and the periphery are intimately bound in a hierarchical relationship of power, which this thesis acknowledges. The periphery is also therefore separated, as a world map will illustrate. This thesis explores the essential reciprocal nature between the core and the periphery, defined by its connectedness. Colonial architecture can be conceptualized as one of the termini or in their respective architecture in the periphery, a channel through which ideologies of the metropole can propagate. In this way, the residual architecture that this thesis examines is a tool of the oppressor but also the fabricated outcome, both the press and the propaganda, not clandestine but full frontal. Investigating the history of the colonial architectural projects reveals interesting and sometimes surprising global flows and exchanges. 10F20 Figure 18 begins to track the McMillan appearances in events, ideologies, financial tensions. This tabulation reads between relationships of relationships and stories of the core-periphery emerge from a new form of documentary material. An assemblage of stories is generated, operating at various scales, from  17 Berlin 1884: Remembering the conference that divided Africa Al Jazeera online, November 15, 2019, https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2019/11/15/berlin-1884-remembering-the-conference-that-divided-africa/ 18 Theory, Culture & Society, 11, (1994), 5-10. 19 Ibid. 20 olonial East African Les Cahiers  , 51 (2016). 23  the transnational to the dimensions of a writing pad. New links are made visible through such a document, and the library begins to take on fluid identities. These associative identities operate through the connection to , in reciprocity with the other terminus. The architecture of the periphery exists between multiple spaces and times, and the documentary material is therefore a spatio-temporal assemblage. This thesis posits that this is the expansion of the terms by which we come to define the residual architecture, new names, and words, which, as demonstrated, fill in gaps and expand an understanding of a built space. The challenge of this thesis is to make this fluid, liminal reciprocity architectural  at the behest of existing documentary materials and interpretations. Incompleteness, bias, subjectivity, are inherent in this process, but the radiative incorporations of matrices of timelines, details, fragments, censorship, translations, non-translations is a multi-thread series of evolving and resolving pictures, always accepting of new inputs. 24     Figure 18: Tabulation of flows and exchanges relating to the stories of the McMillan Memorial Library. Excel document, drawing by author, 2020. 25         Figure 19: Title page of Le Frondeur, a Belgian satirical journal with a cartoon by François Maréchal, depicting European sovereigns having a feast with Congo as main course. This refers to the Berlin Conference (also named Congo Conference). The cartoon presents Leopold II prominently in the midst with the Russian and German sovereigns on his sides. There is no signature, but the author has been identified by Frédéric Paques: Avant Hergé. Étude des premières apparitions de bande dessinée en Belgique francophone (1830 1914), pp. 138, 328. 26    Figure 20: A New World, Sixth annual paper on Africa prepared by Mr. William Coppinger, secretary of the American Colonization Society, and published in the Baltimore Sun on November 28, 1885. Retrieved from Library of Congress.   27  C O U N T E R  R H Y T H M S  A N D  I M P R O V I S A T I O N  This colonial architecture, a constant to which one can always return. Language and improvisational socialities work cut across the ground rhythm, sometimes dissonant, out of time, offbeat, sometimes meeting up, a constructive interference.  This section considers a musical structure in the breakdown of stories and their assemblage; a bassline (also beat) keeping time and providing the underpinning root note progression, with melodies, counter-rhythms, and improvised solos on top. In this metaphor, what is the role of the colonial architecture? Physically, it provides amplification, modulation, compression, expansion. This constant, is potentialrmer is evanescent, the latter is 11F21 Potential, this thesis argues, resides in the documentary materials of place, that is, the stories of space. From the process of knowledge-making of space, potential is revealed or made evident. These encompass a wide variety of document types and various scales and can be produced by various individuals. This position raises important questions therefore around subjectivity, cross-reading, and translation, or the interpretation and exchange of stories. What to explore. Returning to musical analogy, Wynton Marsalis expounds on music (specifically jazz) as a metaphor for collaboration and the balance between the individual and the collective. His title for his multi-part  21 Paolo Virno. Déjà Vu and the End of History. (London: Verso, 2015), 70. 28  12F22 he states: egotiate. The act of swinging is a metaphor for finding value in and nourishing common ground. To swing is to give individual choose not to have your way, so we can find our swing forces them to play together on every beat. The great rhythm sections teach us how to embrace the process of compromise, so that the only win is one that satisfies the deepest roup feels the motion and is inspired to chase the direction of deepest t moment of aggression and acceptance. It makes the most powerful seek and stayi 13F23 In :8 Rhythm tand the ensemble demonstrate two rhythms playing simultaneously on the drums: beat in two on the bass drum, and rhythm in six the cymbal, segueing into the American shuffle. A two-beat groove, the time of the human step, cut with a top rhythm syncing up intermittently. Simone speaks of the city, specifically those of the Global South, or even more precisely, the uninhabitable periphery, in similar terms: ons that require the rhythmic oscillations of contradictory orientations and needs, to navigate the relationships with always partly withdrawn, always proceeding in different  22 Wynton Marsalis. Wynton at Harvard, Chapter 13: The Meaning of Swing, Jazz at Lincoln Centre, 2017, YouTube video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NmiRyRZDhQ0&list=RDXi27zn7YNFo&index=14  23 Wynton Marsalis. Wynton at Harvard, Chapter 10: From the African 6:8 rhythm to the American shuffle, Jazz at Lincoln Centre, 2017, YouTube video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkyOFkBAMDg 29  directions simultaneously, amplifies that need for inscription. Or, they need at least the belief that inscription and legibility are 14F24 This thesis attempts to understand or reveal these rhythms of endurance, or transactional relationalities, through an exemplar of residual colonial architecture of the so-called periphery. The thesis takes the position that the former colonial, but still present, architecture of the McMillan Memorial Library, remains, for the most part, unmoved in its recognition of these oscillations. A discussion of language, translation, interpretation, implied mearly life in Freetown, Sierra Leone: s cousin had built for residents of nearby Congo Town, whose clapboard houses were beyond repair or who aspired to a more modern life beyond the patter of ghosts, heavy rains, constant rumors, and 15F25 As Sierra Leone moves closer to independence (from the British), Simone describes the jazz of Ornette Coleman and John Coltrane, music he has brought to West Africa from summer trips to Detroit, set to this ushering in of new Salonean era: ght back Ornette Col The Shape of Jazz to Come, which, along with Giant Steps, promised a sea change in music as eventful as the wave of new nations coming into being across West . shadowed by harmony. Within the quartet   24 AbdouMaliq Simone, Improvised Lives. (Cambridge: Polity, 2019), 31. 25 Ibid, 40. 30  Don Cherry on trumpet, Charlie Haden on bass, Billy Higgins on drums, there was a real democracy; each player could deliver the melody in his own configuration of rhythm and chord changes, make a claim to lead the way. As I mentioned earlier, Ornette would call this harmelodics, where the same notes were written in different clefs for the same or different instruments, thus a ground on which different ways of playing were based. You could play the game in your own way as long as you recognized the tune, as long as you charted out a path that everyone else could potentially follow  so, no disjuncture, antagonisms, just 16F26 From here, Simone recounts how he became a message runner of sorts for the neighborhood, a makeshift minister, ombudsman, bailiff, in which verbatim became embellished, emphasized, exaggerated, twisted, massaged, uncooperative, improvised but decipherable, the core remaining intact. These improvisations are a form of self-preservation, survival, insurance, a constant bargaining. These rhythms of push and pull, give and take, the balance of swinging socialities working in tandem with the built environment. Later, Simone further discusses these socialities of negotiation, in the context of the Haitian writings of Frankétienne, Jean-Claude Fignolé, and René Philoctète, founders of the literary movement Spiralism. In works such as Fignolé Les Possédés de la pleine lune (1987) and Aube tranquille (1990), the residents of Les could still go 17F27 The present is a collection or assemblage of potential readings and interpretations of multiple unresolved times.   26 Ibid, 41. 27 AbdouMaliq Simone, Improvised Lives. (Cambridge: Polity, 2019), 55.  31  R E A D I N G  A C R O S S  D O C U M E N T A R Y  M A T E R I A L S   Foucauldian historical document. Foucault writes that history can no longer be thought of as continuous and that the document of history is no longer a reconstitution of an unbroken defining of positions of facts or events. 18F28 Rather, history is the disjointed organization and development of documentary material; reflexively, the construction of the document is a spontaneous or organized construction of history. The interrogation of how the document came to be concerns itself with ways of thinking and ways of making. Documentary material, as defined by Foucault, is, but not limited to, texts, maps, customs, traditions, techniques, laws, and architecture. This thesis takes the position that a building, as a documentary material, is not passive, but an active agent in the formation and influencing of world history epistemology, for good and bad; a world history taken to no longer be an unchallenged continuous serializing of facts, but a fractured individualized collection of materi one another, follow one another, overlap and intersect, without being able to reduce them to a linear 19F29 Lisa Lowe, Samuel Knight Professor of American Studies and Professor of Ethnicity, Race, and Migration, Director of American Studies Graduate Studies at Yale University, uses similar language when describing the cross-referencing between the documentary material of the former British Empire, ech ional differentiation. She consults and interrogates the papers of the British Colonial Office, Foreign Office, the Slave Trade and African Department, the War and Colonial Department, and the Records of the Treaty and Royal Letter Department and remarks:  28 Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge (New York: Vintage Books, 2010), 7. 29 Ibid, 8. 32  I notice the aporia in the archives, often belied by discrepant tone or insistent repetitions, and remark the rhetorical anomalies that obscure omissions, tensions, or outright illogic. While such reading materials deeply respect the primacy of material conditions, they often defy or disrupt accepted historical chronologi 20F30 This synthetic re-reading, an intimate reading, calls into question the widely propagated ideological underpinnings of the modern freedoms of liberalism in North America and Europe. This method of tracing and cross-examining genealogies of the ideologies of architecture is what I employ in this thesis, tracking the global and local prongs of the n. As Lowe n  captured in the documentary materials are as important as the absences revealed by such an interrogation.  Andreas Huyssen, professor of German and Comparative Literature at Columbia University,  between remembrance of the past and the defining of the identities of the present and the future: embrance shapes our links to the past, and the ways we remember to define us in the present. As individuals and societies, we need the past to construct and anchor our identities and to nurture a vision of the future. In the wake of Freud and Nietzsche, however, we know how slippery and unreliable personal memory can be; always affected by forgetting and denial, repression and trauma, it, more often than not, serves as a need to rationalize and maintai 30 Lisa Lowe, The Intimacies of Four Continents (Durham: Duke University Press, 2015), 6.  33  contingent, no less unstable, its shape by no means permanent. It is always subject to subtle and not 31 Architecture can be the spatial mechanism for this remembrance, and thus have an important role to play in acting as a mediator (at least) for discussions of a shared future. I argue that because of this the library is an opportune physical setting through which an individual is better empowered and equipped to contribute positive change for the benefit of the collective. The library operates in a literal and figurative sense in that is a repository of written language  ink on paper or pixels on a screen  but also kitchen table, board room, kinyozi (barbershop), soap box  a space of discourse, debate, dissent, consensus. Thus far, much of the discussion around the future of the McMillan Memorial Library has been focused on the  existing collection and with an eye on future acquisitions of material that better reflects the user group. However, this thesis takes the privileged opportunity to examine architectural potential that is latent in the existing residual colonial space aligning with the macrogoals of organizations such as the African Library & Information Associations and Institutions regarding the role of library infrastructure in the direction of development in  M U L T I S C A L A R  S T O R Y T E L L I N G  The genealogy of the McMillan Memorial Library exists at various scales, that is we can find traces of its presence at both a macrolevel and a microlevel. At the macrolevel, the library tells a story of ideologies, financial flows, transatlantic correspondences, and can even be read in relation to the repercussive change associated with megainfrastructure projects such as the Lamu Port-South Sudan-Ethiopia Transport  31 Twilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia. (New York: Routledge, 1995), 249.  34  Corridor (LAPSSET) and the Thika Superhighway project between Nairobi and Thika, funded in part by the Export-Import Bank of China, itself subordinated to the State Council, the primary administrative apparatus of the Communist Party of China.32 dependency on philanthropic organizations also has a global story, ever since its inception: from records of correspondence with the Carnegie Corporation of New York from 1927 to video messaging expressing the support of Sharjah UNESCO World Book Capital program33 and Dubai Cares, the latter of which was founded in 2007 by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the United Arab Emirates.34 If McMillan Memorial is conceptualized as an anchor point or vessel through which these relationships find a footing in the architecture of the former colonial periphery, the libracan reciprocally be understood in relation to the multiple other termini pulled into it  associative orbit. This can be used to architecturally trace a genealogy of form and space, ideologies from which the library is a descendant. Through my research I have identified several examples of architecture which are distant forebears or more immediate members of  to the library through programmatic affinity, physical adjacency, or some form of benefaction. In this way, the library sits at a confluence of relationships of relationships, imbued with a multiplicity of identities.  At a micro-scale, the library is a point in the city about which the lives of individuals converge, across space and time: from the memory of Northrup McMillan and Lucie McMillan in 1925; to trade unionist, founder of the Kenya African National Union (KANU) and statesman  32 AfDB-  - President Mwai KibakiDevelopment Bank Group, November 12, 2012, https://www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/afdb-funded-thika-superhighway-a-masterpiece-for-east-africa-a-national-pride-president-mwai-kibaki-9986 33 Sharjah World Book Capital Program Backs Kenyan Library Restorationhttps://publishingperspectives.com/2019/12/sharjah-world-book-capital-program-backs-kenya-mcmillan-library-restoration/ 34  35  Tom Mboya (assassinated at age 39, July 1969)35; to Angela Wachuka and Wanjiru Koinange, founders of Book Bunk; to countless others, many unnamed. The library is revealed as a product of an emergent assemblage of stories: global core-periphery ideologies, collective oscillations of composition and refusal36, and individual endeavours of persistence and endurance (for example the young girl selling bananas on the steps of the McMillan Library, or parking attendants using the portico for shade and storage of wheel clamps)37. I contend that despite the McMillan Memorial Library sitting in central Nairobi as a monumental relic of colonial power, unchanged by the passage of time, 38 the prevalence of a master-narrative over other subsumed narratives, a theoretical transformation of its architecture is an opportunity to span all these stories, and those still to be told. An architectural transfiguration of the neoclassical Nairobi bluestone imperial residue39 into a fluid space of storytelling.  35 The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Instit Mboya, Thomas Joseph Stanford University, n.d., https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/mboya-thomas-joseph 36 AbdouMaliq Simone, Improvised Lives. (Cambridge: Polity, 2019). 37  and future of NairoCommonwealth Writers, 2015, https://www.commonwealthwriters.org/lady-mcmillan-the-library/ 38 Ibid. 39 Ann Laura Stoler, Imperial Debris: On Ruins and Ruination (Durham: Duke University Press, 2013).  36     Figure 21: Relational buildings, north to south. Drawing by author, digital, 2020. 37         Figure 22: First reading of a video of the library, courtesy of Book Bunk. Charcoal drawing on vellum, video encounter of library space and people. Drawing by author, 2020.   38  U N I N H A B I T A B L E  S P A C E  Part of the initial conceptualization of the core-periphery relationship between the library as an ideological output of the Colonial Office was coupled the notion of what AbdouMaliq Simone, visiting professor of sociology at Goldsmiths College, University of London, terms as the uninhabitable, phraseology he credits to Katherine McKittrick, a leading Gender Studie research focus on black feminist geography. Simone defines the uninhabitable as the counter to the colonial metrop s that embodied inferiority and, once appropriated and settled through colonization, were further specified as the exclusive purview of those whose emplacement was 40 The core-periphery binary can also be framed as metropole-colony or the habitable-uninhabitable. It is in the grey zone between the habitable and uninhabitable that we find the McMillan Memorial Library; the library as an apparatus of empire sought to further accentuate the race-based laminations of colonial life in British Kenya.  In early correspondence with Dr. F.P. Keppel, president at the time of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, there is evidence of some support of a library open to all races, although it is not clear how widespread this support may have been. Carolyn Cox (also noted as Mrs. J. Raffles Cox), Mr. Orr, the Church of Scotland minister, and Mr. Shaw, the manager of to be set up, every consideration must be given, not only to the European 41 The Carnegie Corporation was swayed by the strong-willed Ailsa Turner, head of the Overseas Settlement of British Women was established to advocate the  40 AbdouMaliq Simone, Improvised Lives. (Cambridge: Polity, 2019), 1. 41 Anthony Olden, Libraries in Africa: Pioneers, Policies, Problems (Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1995), 33. 39  right to vote for women settlers in the British colonies. As a result, the first 30 yeexclusively for white settlers. The library delineated a space which was considered habitable, ideological walls that shut out the uninhabitable, a boundary that neutralized the creative improvisa seeds of the downfall of the whit 42 The McMillan Memorial Library established a border, one that negated a possibility of a shared future and made a common humanity unconscionable.43 I posit that the architecture of the library, as a public urban space with a important role to play in the future of the city, is in need of perforation or a transforbe discerned.44 Through residual colonial architecture of the former periphery, I frame resonances  improvisational social transactions capable of innovation45  within spaces of polyglossic encounter and exchange, aligning with the Asmara Declaration and the development trajectory put forth by AfLIA.   42 Anthony Olden, Libraries in Africa: Pioneers, Policies, Problems (Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1995), 34. 43 Achille Mbembe, Necropolitics (Durham: Duke University Press, 2019), 99.  44 AbdouMaliq Simone and Edgar Pieterse, New Urban Worlds: Inhabiting Dissonant Times. (Cambridge: Polity, 2017). 45 Ibid. 40  The Red Location Museum in the Eastern Cape is an example of public architecture that dissolves the delineation between its exterior and interior. Situated in the New Brighton township, Port Elizabeth, the Red Location Museum is an ongoing work by South African Noero Wolff Architects (since separated into Noero Architects and Wolff Architects) which challenges conventional museum design, specifically how it engages with history and memory. The site itself is one of multiple stories: barrack architecture of the Boer concentration camps became the dwell ack township, which then became a site of struggle against the Apartheid regime.46 The museum threads together these periods of South African history, presenting the complicated multiplicity of South African identities and their struggles for freedom. Originally the winning scheme of a competition entry for a town center precinct, as part of a post-Apartheid effort to attract tourists Context sensitivity; 2. Material language of the architecture; and 3. Spatial strategy addressing challenges of memorialization as put forward by Andreas Huyssen, Jean Baudrillard, and Henri Bergson.47 As part of a greater precinct development strategy, the museum programmatically facilitates the vital life of the surrounding township community: socializing, informal trade, and taxi and bus ranks. The architecture of the museum extends beyond interpretation of frozen historical events. Through scale (through repetition as can be read on the original competition boards48), proportion, and programmatic consideration, learning about the turbulent past of modern South Africa is made more relevant and poignant while active, everyday adjacencies unfold about it. This acknowledgement of the improvisational socialities  46 https://www.wolffarchitects.co.za/projects/all/inkwenkwenzi/ 47 Places Journal (online), February 4, 2011, https://placesjournal.org/article/red-and-gold-a-tale-of-two-apartheid-museums/ 48  Location  Competit Noero Architects, https://www.noeroarchitects.com/project/red-location-competition-entry/ 41  and spaces that encircle the museum site extends to its material considerations. The name of the museum refers to the rusted red corrugated metal sheets of New Brighton, originally from the Boer concentration camps established by the British in the second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902)49, a highly versatile modest building material reused in the establishment of the New Brighton Township in 1902, a racially segregated Black area of Port Elizabeth.50 No stranger to materials such as cement board, breezeblocks, and corrugated tin (see House Nxumalo, 1988; House Nkwe, 1983; Alexandra Housing, 1985), the architects utilized a locally procured material palette resonates with the life and history of citizens of Red Location, a counterpoint to the language of the majority o 51    49 https://www.wolffarchitects.co.za/projects/all/inkwenkwenzi/ 50 th African History Online (SAHO), 2011, https://www.sahistory.org.za/place/new-brighton-location 51 Places Journal (online), February 4, 2011, https://placesjournal.org/article/red-and-gold-a-tale-of-two-apartheid-museums/ 42          Figure 23: A woman hanging up washing in New Brighton, Port Elizabeth. Red Location Museum by Noero Wolff Architects is just visible in the background. The documenting of the Red Location Museum is understood through its context  a reading of the building is positioned in changing environs. Photograph courtesy of Noero Architects.   43         Figure 24: Asymmetric pitch roof repetition at two scales, one of the strategies of contextual sensitivity. Photograph courtesy of Noero Architects.   44  single narrative (implied victim-victimized) retelling of South African y centres on memory boxes, 6 x 6 x 12 m tall, rusted spaces of prized possessions (stories) separated by spaces of 52 Encountering the boxes through single entries, one learns of the plurality of experiences of South  hope for the nation, spanning its varied history. In the words of the architects, the lesson of the Museum is that freedom should never come at the expense of any other group of people. 53 Red Location Museum is not without serious contention and controversy, which should not be overlooked. The indefinite closure of the cultural precinct highlights the deeply entrenched legacies of Apartheid intertwined with competing interests of local community economy, adequate housing and service delivery, and the optics of such an internationally visible project.54 Despite the tkin Prize, and the Dedalo Minosse International Prize, the project continues be at the centre of fraught negotiations around the development of the Red Location Cultural Precinct, a site of protestation and more recently vandalism.55     52  Architects, https://www.wolffarchitects.co.za/projects/all/inkwenkwenzi/ 53 Ibid. 54 Naomi Roux. Social & Cultural Geography,19, no.4 (2018): 407-428, DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2017. 55 PE's vandalised Red Location Museum could reopen soon Sowetan Live, 2019, https://www.sowetanlive.co.za/news/south-africa/2019-11-27-pes-vandalised-red-location-museum-could-reopen-soon/ 45      Figure 25: Red Location Museum, Port Elizabeth, Noero Wolff Architects, opened 2006. ection between memory boxes. Photograph courtesy of Noero Architects.   46       Figure 26: A section model of one of Red Location Muse graph courtesy of Noero Architects.   47  Part II: Expressing Stories C A R T O G R A P H Y  O F  R E N A M I N G  An etymological hegemony defines the terms of the uncritical narrative, a vocabulary of power. Grammar underlies the articulation of a dominant world history. This thesis takes the position that language plays a critical role in the disjuncture of how the world is identified and differentiated, and inversely that the control of language homogenizes, others, and subjugates.56 pping, hastened post-Berlin Conference of 1884, as an act of memory dislocation, destabilizing a foundation of identity, displacing of peoples: ew marker of geographical identity, covering up an older memory, or more strictly speaking, 32F57 If a denial of language is an intentional method of forced amnesia, questioning how documentary material is communicated, the terms and syntax through which is does so is a valid exploration in how something comes to be known and understood but also erased. Taking architecture to be one of many documentary materials, a form of tectonic epistemological critique is valuable in interrogating identity and memory in the urban environment. The superimposition of colonial architecture was another means through which the European power subsumed and constructed an unreliable narrative of world history  an architecture still very much present in modern African city today. Through making and remaking, hierarchies can be revealed and dismantled, theoretically transforming architectures of power for a more improvisational and differentiated future. This process of critical re- 56 AbdouMaliq Simone and Edgar Pieterse, New Urban Worlds: Inhabiting Dissonant Times (Cambridge: Polity, 2017). 57 Something Torn and New: An African Renaissance (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2009), 8. 48  seeing as a methodology of this thesis is somewhat of a mirroring of, as tes, "the use of language in the deconstruction of a sovereign African and his reconstruction as a colonial subject."  The colonial object and colonial subject converge, Achille Mbembe describes, as an artificial second identity is imprinted (in many cases literally) on the individual; a fundamental psychic hollowing of memory 22F58,23F59, the dismemberment and control of a now branded commodity. This is the power structure that supported the architectural residue of empire, that underpins Western enlightenment 24F60, with which this thesis contends. author Binyavanga Wainaina, we witness a moment in which language s many identities come into contact and link with people, place, materials, memories, identities, stories. Language relates the individual to collective resonances, enabling new relationalities and improvisations.  mistake. Where I am fluent, she is stilted. I switch to Swahili and she pours herself into another person: talkative, aggressive, a person who must have a Tupac t-shirt stashed away somewhere. 33F61 Sheng, a fluid linguistic phenomenon which emerged in Nairobi in the 1970s.62 A sophisticated form of code-switching, Sheng is a linguistic assemblage that bridges individual and collective identities of city dwellers. Sheng is  58 Achille Mbembe, Necropolitics (Durham: Duke University Press, 2019). 59 Something Torn and New: An African Renaissance (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2009), 16. 60 Lisa Lowe, The Intimacies of Four Continents (Durham: Duke University Press, 2015). 61 Binyavanga Wainaina. Twenty Years of the Caine Prize for African Writing (Northampton: Interlink, 2020), 65.  62 Harvard International Review, 2020, https://hir.harvard.edu/sheng-in-kenya/ 49  widely spoken throughout East Africa, especially among youth, and it is only gaining in popularity.63 Sometimes considered a creole, a slang, or an argot, Sheng (Swahili-English) is more accurately a new linguistic-cultural composite product 64 incorporating local Kenyan languages including Dholuo, Luhya, Kikuyu, and Kikamba, but also Hindi, Spanish, and American slang.65,66 There are also words that are specific to Sheng. This hybrid language is highly dynamic, differing regionally, not isolated to a single locale (Nairobi, for instance). As such, the language is constantly evolving and has the capacity to challenge ethnic, class, and linguistic inequalities that exist in Kenyan society.67  that embraces the complexities, multiplicities, and oscillations that exist youth, thugs, and matatu touts, Sheng appears to have shaken its negative connotations and has entered political, telecommunications, and media parlance.68 Scholars Annah Kariuki, Frida Kanana, and Hildah Kebeya from the Department of English and Linguistics at Kenyatta University identify operations of the Sheng code found in advertisements: borrowing, truncation, compounding, reduplication, metathesis, nativisation, and coining. Figure 27 highlights the characteristics of each operation. I suggest that these operations may be a productive starting point to begin architecturally deploying redescriptive acts of the McMillan Memorial Library. A new act of transformative architectural expression derived from a fluid hybridized linguistic code.  63 Sheng: How a Kenyan urban vernacular is gaining national acceptance Medium, 2019, https://medium.com/@ericgatobu/sheng-how-a-kenyan-urban-vernacular-is-gaining-national-acceptance-39683045ad94 64 Ibid. 65 Salomé Garn Harvard International Review, 2020, https://hir.harvard.edu/sheng-in-kenya/ 66 Sheng: How a Kenyan urban vernacular is gaining national acceptance Medium, 2019, https://medium.com/@ericgatobu/sheng-how-a-kenyan-urban-vernacular-is-gaining-national-acceptance-39683045ad94 67 Ibid. 68 Annah Kariuki, Fridah Erastus Kanana and Hildah Kebeya The growth and use of Sheng in advertisements in selected businesses in Keny Journal of African Cultural Studies 27, no. 2 (2015): 229-246, doi: 10.1080/13696815.2015.1029879 50  Operation Description Linguistic example borrowing simple loaning, with minimal contextual manipulation story (eng) > stori yangu (kisw) > yangu (mine) truncation word reduction, clipping (fore/back) of standard vocabulary (eng/kisw) house (eng) > hao katizia (kisw) > katsia (disrupt) compounding combination of two free forms resulting in new word mobile + kodi (eng/kisw) > M-kodi  reduplication double occurrence of standard vocabulary w/ new derived meaning chapu chapu (kisw) > chap chap (quickly) metathesis new derived word, with changed meaning dependent on context chanuka (kisw, to blossom, to become wise) > kunacha (to win) nativisation modification according to sound mdosi (sheng) > dosika (get rich) digital (eng) > digitika (digitized) uses a common Bantu language syllable structure: consonant-vowel-consonant-vowel (CVCV) coining new words not sourced from or based on another existing word chapaa (money) mdosi (wealthy person)    Figure 27: Sheng linguistic operations found in advertisements. Based on research from Annah Kariuki, Fridah Erastus Kanana and Hildah  and use of Sheng in advertisements in sele  Cultural Studies 27, no. 2 (2015): 229-246, doi: 10.1080/13696815.2015.1029879  51     Figure 28: An advertisement in Sheng Shaping New Identities: Sheng, Youth, and Ethnicity in Kenya, originally used in Annah Kariuki, Fridah Erastus Kanana and Hildah Kebeya The growth and use of Sheng in advertisements in selected businesses in Keny Journal of African Cultural Studies 27, no. 2 (2015): 229-246, doi: 10.1080/13696815.2015.1029879 52  C I T I Z E N  O F  T W O  W O R L D S  British-Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare examines colonialism and post-colonialism in his artwork, often situated in the context of globalization. His work, ranging from sculpture, to photography, painting, and film explores the entanglements between African and European history, examining the economic and political transactions and cultural exchanges between the two.69 His 1998 work Mr and Mrs Andrews without their heads is a layered story of these Afro-Euro-relationships. In it we see two figures (the Andrews) headless, with their dog. The composition and the posing of the figures are recognizable as a staging of Andrews, 1750). This reference imbues Shlevel of reading; cannot be read without the association to Gainsborough, to the real-life Robert Andrews and Frances Carter, landed gentry. The headless nature of the couple (a common absence in Shonibare 70. The sculpture is rendered in African Dutch wax fabrics, draping the mannequins in the brightly coloured print textiles, a hallmark of African fashion. The choice of fabric is intriguing: quintessentially African in many respects (similar fabrics can be found in Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, and many other countries), it has a global story. Originally batik from Indonesia, it makes its way to West Africa by way of reproductions in the mills of Amsterdam and Manchester. As a result, Mr. and Mrs without their heads is inscribed with a complicated lineage of colonial core-periphery relationships; life size fibreglass mannequins that synthesize multiple stories into a single artistic expression. The story of the original couple is modified, their assignment to a fixed point in a  69 Yinka Shonibare: 'I wanted to do a work connected to Trafalgar Square' The Guardian, 2010, https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2010/may/16/yinka-shonibare-fourth-plinth-trafalgar 70 ygrou NPR, 2009, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120393449 53  history of England is destabilized, and they are implicated in modern discourses around decolonialization and globalization. Through a manipulation of material language (one aspect), dichotomous identities are blurred, and I argue a spatio-temporal continuum is constructed, challenging presuppositions and singular narratives. This is one option for exploring the redescriptive potential of material transformations.     54           Figure 29: Thomas Gainsborough, Mr and Mrs Andrews, 1750. 69.8 cm × 119.4 cm (27.5 in × 47.0 in), National Gallery, London. 55          Figure 30: Yinka Shonibare, 1998, Mr. and Mrs. Andrews without their heads. Two mannequins, Dutch wax printed cotton textile, dog mannequin, painted metal bench, rifle. 165 x 635 x 254 cm with plinth  56  T H E  U N R E L I A B L E  N A R R A T O R  Edward Said rhetorically poses the following to Noam Chomsky of his book The Fateful Triangle (1983), which closely examines the pro-Zionist biases of American media and many Western intellectuals, specifically homing in on the 1982 Lebanon War. Chomsky presents a compendium of facts and analysis, using evidence of the pro-Zionist bias as expounded by the US media itself. He establishes the baseline master-narrative which defines discourse, action, and a future for the Palestinian people. Said questions uncompromising criticism of the master-narrative, reconciling fact with the fact teller, and what the quest for truth entails. Said writes,  a theory of intellectual activity, and in an epistemological account of ideological structures as they pertain to specific problems as well as to concrete historical and geographic circumstances. None of these things is within the capacity of a solitary individual to produce, and none is possible without some sense of communal or collective commitment to assign them a more than personal 71 This thesis embraces subjectivity or the subjectivities of all. It does not curate the stories but rather sets up a forum of subjectivities, one in which multiple possibilities are potential presents and futures.72 What constitutes a potential is open to interpretation, hyperbole, negotiation, unsolicited, but not without recourse to challenge, debate, query. The documentary material, as set out by Foucault, is simultaneously retrospective and forward looking when read critically as a set.73  71 The Selected Works of Edward Said, 1966-2006 (ed. Moustafa Bayoumi and Andrew Rubin). (New York: Vintage Books, 2019), 268.  72 Paolo Virno. Déjà Vu and the End of History. (London: Verso, 2015). 73 Michel Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge (New York: Vintage Books, 2010). 57  Adjacencies, overlaps, and frictions between the documents present potentials. To put it another way, an active non-hierarchical multithread space reveals latent futures. This methodology of emergent relationalities is scalable and intrinsically engages with questions of autochthonous knowledge making and crowdfunded production of ideas. In New Urban Worlds, by AbdouMaliq Simone and Edgar Pieterse, the uninhabitable is at odds with Western preconceptions of environmental requirements for human sustenance, normalizing spatial inequalities as a fait accompli.74 As a residual colonial artifact, the McMillan Library is a product of definition and description, a form of knowledge-making, legitimated by ideological propaganda of empire. The story of the library is monolingual, spoken by an unreliable master narrator. Dismantling the ideological scaffolds that inscribe hegemonic definitions into the n75, an epistemological interrogation that erodes the borders between the habitable and the uninhabitable. Through a methodology of redescription, derived from the documentary materials, the distinction between the habitable and unhabitable begins to be dissolved. A new space emerges, one in which we are all unreliable narrators with something to contribute. The Maisons Tropicales by Jean Prouvé are ongoing examples of architecture with crises of identity, identities bought, dressed, and reconstituted to the highest bidder. D.J. Huppatz critiques Jean Prouvé's Maison Tropicale protoype projects of the mid-twentieth century, or rather, more specifically, critiques how the story of their 'rediscovery' has been told. In "The Poetics of the Colonial Object,"34F76 Huppatz remarks that design history lacks a framework within which the merits of Prouvé's aluminium fabrication innovation do not obscure the fact that the  74 AbdouMaliq Simone and Edgar Pieterse, New Urban Worlds: Inhabiting Dissonant Times. (Cambridge: Polity, 2017). 75 Ibid. 76 D.J. Huppatz, "Jean Prouvé's Maison Tropicale: The Poetics of the Colonial Object," Design Issues 26, no. 4 (2010): 32-44. 58  maisons were entirely metropolitan superimpositions of capitalist superiority and exploitation in today's Niger and Republic of Congo. I explore redrawing as a way of revealing present/absent forces of the concrete pad on which the prototypes were assembled. Malian filmmaker and professor in the Department of Cinema Studies at New York University Tisch School of the Arts, Manthia Diawara, states in Maison Tropicale 77, and the concrete pad remains on standby for reconnection.  Mozambican-born artist and educator Ângela Ferreira uses sculpture and photography to tell a more complete story of the Maisons. In her work Maison Tropicale (2007) she deconstructs of Maison Tropicale's famed aluminium components and cages them in a shipping container skeleton. Using a modified shipping container provides a reference through which the structures' intercontinental displacement and deployment is communicated. The components of the building are remade in wood at 1:1 scale and flat packed into the space. The container frame then cuts through two rooms: a sequence in which the body moves through a space in which the components of Maison Tropicale are experientially ascribed new meaning through reorientation and scale, materially neutralizing the industrial fetish.    77  ing, 2019, https://vimeo.com/364323895 59        Figure 31: Insertion, removal, erasure, Maison Tropicale, Niamey, abandoned concrete pad construction re-drawings, by author, 2020. Conte, graphite, charcoal on vellum. 8.5x11 in.  60        Figure 32: Concrete pad left behind in Niamey, Niger, after the maison was removed. Photograph by Ângela Ferreira, 2007. Light jet print mounted on aluminium 120 x 150 cm. 61        Figure 33: Pilotis decapitated, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, after the maison was removed. Photograph by Ângela Ferreira, 2007. Light jet print mounted on aluminium 120 x 150 cm.    62        Figure 34: Maison Tropicale, Ângela Ferreira, 2007. Sculpture, wood, aluminium, steel. 1000 x 217 x 257 cm.   63  L I M I N A L  F L U I D I T Y  This thesis thus far has concerned itself with the notion of multiplicity and fragmentation, incompleteness not as a definite error but an opportunity to be potentialized, work to be continued. Later in the thesis language and translation will be explored in relation to the bigger ideas. A key aspect of fragmentation, another way of framing it perhaps, is ompares what David Michael Levin defines as assertoric gaze and aletheic gaze: assertoric gaze is narrow, dogmatic, intolerant, rigid, fixed, inflexible, exclusionary and unmoved, whereas the aletheic gaze, associated with the hermeneutic theory of truth, tends to see from a multiplicity of standpoints and perspectives, and is multiple, pluralistic, democratic, contextual, inclusionary, 25F78 The term aletheic (or alethic) pertains to linguistic modalities of truth, primarily necessity, possibility, or impossibility. 26F79 Without delving too far into the realm of Relativism, suffice it to say that aletheic (in English largely interchangeable with epistemic) refers to the appearance of truth as predicated on multiple context-dependent reasons. 27F80 In this regard, embracing this interpretability or being elastic as to switch, improvise, empathize, beyond the surface reading, is intrinsic to an architecture of potential, that of possible worlds. While running messages and notes between community members, Simone touches on this idea of contextually dependent truths: the slants, sleights, phrasing, pacing, acts of empowerment in a challenging environment:  78 Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2012), 41. 79 William Frawley (ed.), The Expression of Modality. (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006). 80 Boris Kment, "Varieties of Modality", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/modality-varieties/. 64  the small remuneration and the structure it provided, going back and forth across different parts of the city equipped with a mission, a foreign courier that really could not be completely trusted but also someone who had no deep social connections, who di28F81 Thinking of this aletheic gaze in the context of space, we encounter a discussion around the senses. The privileging of the eyes, as has been the case in much of Western architecture (including that of the former colonies) is limiting and isolating, restricting our experience of the world 29F82. In this thesis I take the position that the expression of stories might find a useful parallel in an exploration in the transformative potential of the material syntax of imperial debris, the texture of memory.83   A positive plaster cast of the interior of a room of an abandoned Victorian North London home, Rachel Whiteread creates an object of an abandoned space; a new inverted reading of an everyday space. 84 Ghost , takes the unremarkable negative space and transfigures it into something seemingly extraordinary. Through the impressions inscribed on the object, Ghost is a continuum between interiority and exteriority, it is a threshold object in which both positive and negative space can be read simultaneously. Multiple perspectives  and apparently mutually exclusive  both held to be true. This liminal fluidity is made not only visible but tangible through According to Whiteread, part of the  81 AbdouMaliq Simone, Improvised Lives (Cambridge: Polity, 2019), 43. 82 Juhani Pallasmaa, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2012).  83 James E. Young, The Texture of Memory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993). 84  https://gagosian.com/artists/rachel-whiteread/ 65  concept of Ghost sive concept of 85 The cast object could be ascribed a resonant attitude, 86, upon which the viewer projects their own memories. I argue that this work also forms a link between the past  the old Victorian house (playing out life in this room pre-abandonment) to its moment of casting  and its contemporary viewing by gallery-goers. While Ghost could be simply read as a mummification of the air87, I contend that the disorientation of the viewer is an (perhaps) involuntary act of redescription of the object by the viewer as one spatially aroom with a fireplace is both specific and universal, a 1:1 negative copy, and interpretative and imagination provoking.    85 Haunting Sculpture: 'Ghost' Sculptor Rachel Whiterea , The Washington Post, 2008, https://www.washingtonpost.com/express/wp/2008/10/09/haunting_sculpture_ghosts_rachel_whitere/ 86 Ibid. 87 hiteread, Ghost, 1990  National Gallery of Art, https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.131285.html 66         Figure 35: Fireplace view of Ghost, by Rachel Whiteread, 1990. Plaster on steel frame, 269 x 355.5 x 317.5 cm (105 7/8 x 139 15/16 x 125 in.).   67  Part III: Collecting stories  A  D R I V E R  O F  D E V E L O P M E N T  Thus far, the thesis has touched on establishing two different but related frameworks through which a specific example of residual colonial architecture will be evaluated. The first is an epistemological recalibration through seeing, thinking, and making. The second is a re/de-construction of the dominant homogenizing valence of Europhonism and its impact on memory and identity, through architecture. The third section of this thesis gathers possible visions of the future of the architectural typology in question - the library. The library as an architectural public anchor sits at a nexus of political, socio-economic, and cultural discussions and agendas, and the McMillan Memorial Library in Nairobi is not an exception. The African Library & Information Associations and Institutions (AfLIA) outlines seven aspirations regarding the future of libraries in Africa which recognizes that, in an African context, libraries have a mandate that far exceeds housing collections of books. Rather, it states that libraries are key public institutions primed for driving development through access to information and knowledge. 35F88 The theme of the 2021 AfLIA Conference is Fourth Industrial Revolution, sustainable development, and African libraries, a hyperconnectivity between "people, machines, and locations." At the moment, AfLIA's Open Access Week, running from October 19 25, is about taking action to build structural equity and inclusion, with a specific focus on the mother tongue, and second languages. Outlined in the African Centre for Cities call for papers for Ecotones #7 Reconfiguring, Repurposing the City: Ecotones in the Global South, October 29 31, are ways cities can be  88 "How African Libraries Contribute to the African Union 2063 Agenda: The Africa We Want  African Library & Information Associations and Institutions, 2019, https://web.aflia.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/AfLIA-AU-agenda-2063-final.pdf 68  framed. Not mutually exclusive, nor exhaustive, the following align with this thesis:  Cities as assemblages of environmental, historical and political forces shaping populations and social relations  Cities as sites of cultural confluence and continuum in the context of global centre-periphery relationships  Urban geographies as shaped by  and shaping  imagination, language, the arts and literature Cities as generators of ideological formations, identity projects etc.)  e creativities, and/or sites of polyglossic encounters between native and non-native speakers 36F89 Earlier in the thesis I framed the McMillan Memorial Library in terms of assemblages, continuum, confluence, through ideological flows and core-periphery relationships. In this section I examine the concept of polyglossia, as assemblage of language in space. I posit that spaces of polyglossic encounter begin to collect stories and make them readily accessible. This aligns with the Asmara Declaration seen previously and builds on my discussion around improvisational identities and socialities. This section repositions the library with a forward outlook, architecturally postured towards programmatic potential. As touched upon in the brief introduction to Sheng, I take a closer look at the multilingualism of Nairobi, and Kenya more broadly. As framed by the  89 Call for papers: Reconfiguring, Repurposing the City: Urban Ecotones in the Global South, African Centre for Cities, last modified December 5, 2019, https://www.africancentreforcities.net/call-for-papers-reconfiguring-repurposing-the-city-urban-ecotones-in-the-global-south/ 69  vitality as necessary to discussions of the emergent potential of colonial architectural debris. P O L Y G L O S S I A  In the African continent there are an estimated 1000 to 2000 languages, of which 75 languages have more than one million speakers. 37F90 Kenya, a country of around 52 million has two national languages  English and Swahili. There are, however, another 67 spoken in Kenya approximately, although some of those languages are considered moribund, nearly extinct, dormant, or extinct. Encouragingly, ten Kenyan languages are classified as educational, and another 30 are developing, including Kenyan Sign Language. 38F91  discusses language in his book Something Torn and New (2009) as critical to the memory and identity of both the individual and the collective.92 Programmatically, the library, particularly a former colonial one, is an opportune venue to prototype architecture in relation to this concept of polyglossia as it relates to autonomy from the colonial master-narrative. In Chapter 3: parallels between the European Renaissance and the African Renaissance currently underway 39F93 One of the key parallels he discusses is throwing off the yoke of linguistic hegemony: the imposition of a dominant language, a tool of power which dictates the terms and paradigmatic frameworks of thinking and being; the struggle of the individual to self-identify and identify with a new collective: discovery and recovery: By discovery  90 https://alp.fas.harvard.edu/introduction-african-languages 91 David M. Eberhard, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty-third edition (Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 2020), http://www.ethnologue.com. 92  , Something Torn and New (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2009). 93 , Something Torn and New (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2009), 72. 70  exploration and conquests or the creation of colonial otherness the movement through which the literary languages of the various European peoples finally shook off Lat Before this, Latin had occupied a position not too dissimilar from that occupied by European languages in Africa today: [I]t was virtually the sole vehicle of off froOverwhelmed by the pervasive presence of Latin, the pioneers were at first apologetic, time and again finding it necessary (much like Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill in the case of her choice of Irish) to answer the question as to why they wrote in the vernacular. For Dante, writing in Del Vulgari Eloquentia about two kinds of speech, the foreign and the vernacular, nobler, both because it is enjoyed by the whole world (though it has been divided into [languages with] differing words and paradigms), and because it is natural to us, while the other is He defends his choice of the Italian of Tuscany as the language of critical commentary, on the basis of it being the language of his primary experience. better known a route is, the more safely and quickly it may be traveled, I shall proceed only along that language which is my 40F94 From this, one can take the position that freedom of language is the frothers. If a multitude of languages and mother tongues are to be encouraged and ultimately legislated, how does society remain  lation. 94 , Something Torn and New (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2009), 83. 71  intelligible and collaborative as opposed to further dividing and differentiated? , is the act of translation: obviously genuine  but the solution is not to continue burying the languages and the means of African memory under a Europhonic paradise. On the contrary, as noted in point [four]* 41F95 The library serves, in one of many respects, as a repository of documents, typically language based (of some description). These documents are perceptible manifestation of language; and also linguistically  is the document intelligible in some way, are the characters and their arrangement recognizable, comprehensible, and digestible. One can pull a book off a shelf, open it, yet still not be able to make sense of the symbols presented before them. The Asmara Declaration on African Languages and Literatures, January 2000, Asmara, Eritrea, recognizes this, 42F96 see Figure 38, framing the act of translation as an invaluable tool to promote and facilitate dialogue among languages and peoples. How can this be explored through architecture? How can architecture, specifically through residual colonial architecture, begin to empower this dialogue without diminishing the linguistic autonomy of the individual? Does architecture even have a part to play in this conversation? This thesis argues that architecture has already been complicit in colonial linguicide and that the library is a highly contestable space in which architecture does have a future responsibility and positive potential in this discussion. While the introduction of a whites- 95 Ibid, 95. 96 The Asmara Declaration on African Languages and Literatures,  University of Pennsylvania African Studies Center, January 2000, https://www.africa.upenn.edu/Govern_Political/asmrlit.html 72  Business District certainly was an ideological, racialized colonial project, it remains present in the city nearly 90 years later.   73          Figure 36: McMillan Memorial Library, digital assemblage, by author 2020.   74        Figure 37: Facade overlay, detail, 1. Digital collage, drawn by author, 2020.   75  Returning to Spiralism, Jean-Claude Fignolé illustrates some of the challenges of translation  between French and Haitian Creole, diglossically the high and low official languages of Haiti respectively. His first book Les Possédés de la pleine lune (1987), is a work of fiction that  Originally written in French, Fignolé attempted to translate the work into Creole, to share it with the original tellers of the stories that made up the work. However, Fignolé could not write in Creole, only speak and read, and the people of his village could not read. Fignolé laments this: become a medium between the people and me. But this has not been the case; it has moved us apart. When I translated some passages for the people of my village, I thought that the book, which was their story, was going to create a close communication between us, but, on the contrary, it has established a distance. They were listening to the story as if was not theirs, simple because my Creole  which was translated from the French  was not their language, tinged with sensitivity and emotion. My Creole could not trigger their imagination and make them realize that I was talking about them and that they were themselves the creators of these stories. I was telling stories that I had heard from these people, but I had transformed them; I had created upon their own creation. This should have established a communication between us at the level of creation, but it did not. I think that if I had written the book directly in Creole and if they could have read it in Creole, they would have been able to identify themselves in the book, not only as actors of these stories, but also as creators, 76  because it was the very story of their life that they had told me 43F97  Language impacts how we relate to each other and position ourselves in the world, and there are challenges around facilitating a mutual intelligibility (as acknowledged in the Asmara Declaration). In Discovering Home , however, we read another story of language, one in which translation is not a predicate for sociality, commonality, or resonance. Wainaina beautifully describes a moment of a family reunion  offering an evocation toward a polyglossic common ground. ards Christmas. Booze flows, we pray, we chat, and bond under the night rustle of banana leaves. I feel as if I am filled with magic and I succumb to the masses. In two days, we feel like a family. In French, Swahili, English, Kikuyu, Kinyarwanda, Kiganda and Ndebele we sing one song, a multitude of passports in our luggage. 44F98  97 Marie- Callaloo 15, no. 2, Johns Hopkins University Press, (1992): 436 98 Binyavanga Wainaina Twenty Years of the Caine Prize for African Writing (Northampton: Interlink, 2020), 74-75. 77     Figure 38: The Asmara Declaration on African Languages and Literatures, originally from January 2000. Print out by author, 2020, retrieved from the University of Pennsylvania African Studies Centre.   78     Figure 39: List of languages of Kenya, page 1. Excel document by author, data from SIL, retrieved 2020.  79     Figure 40: List of languages of Kenya, page 2. Excel document by author, data from SIL, retrieved 2020.   80     Figure 41: List of languages of Kenya, page 3. Excel document by author, data from SIL, retrieved 2020.   81  Conclusion: Towards spaces of storytelling  This thesis operates between scales: the macro global core-periphery exchange; the meso district-block patterns; and the micro building-body resonances. These relationships of power are fluid, liminal, and all (potentially) present in the colonial residual architecture. Each of these is informed by the site and context, as framed through contemporary discourse as discussed. Backgrounded by the rapid urbanization of I explore the legacy of colonial architecture of the former British Empire as entangled in the ongoing challenges of polyglossic public space. Within this context, I ask how can architecture destabilize master-narratives that subsume the making, expression, and collection of stories? In Graduate Project II, 2021, I intend to explore three points of theoretical architecture transformation of the McMillan Memorial Library: the facade, material syntax, and the volumetric plan, drawn from the content of the thesis thus far. This Part IV will bring together making, expression, and collection of stories, through the generation of documentary material, towards spaces of storytelling. I have explored the contemporary discourse around improvisational urban frameworks that perforate delineations between binaries that reinforce singular narratives of world history. I have discussed languages, memory, and identity of the 'periphery' in relation to the colonial residual library, a non-neutral tabula. By connecting to macro/micro relationalities of power, I advocate for a process of redescription of the McMillan Memorial Library, using the habitable/uninhabitable grey zone of the library as an opportunity to destabilize a hegemonic given to make space for celebrated differentiation and common ground.   82             Folder Two   83  Preamble Graduate Project II is an opportunity to test the research hypothesis through design. As established at the end of the last section, I chose to investigate three points of architectural entry into the destabilization of the colonial library: the façade, the material syntax, and the volumetric plan. I utilized the linguistic operations found in the construction and evolution of Sheng lexicon, previously discussed. These modifiers were applied to the existing architecture and programmed according to various programs found in documentary material connecting to the McMillan Memorial Library. The communication of these design ideas took the form of an assemblage of documents, a virtual desktop, fully navigable by end users and publicly accessible via a stable internet connection. This platform engages the user or reader as an active participant in the navigation sequence, in effect enabling an improvised path through both the existing library documentary material and imagined design documents. Though only preliminarily explored, this visual navigation is accompanied by a backing track, an assemblage of sounds found in archival mp4 files and aural documentation of contemporary Nairobi. This design exploration raised important questions of orality and non-textual forms of storytelling. This connected me to architects, thinkers, designers, and artists that expanded my own thinking and modes of making, representation, and communication.  The work culminated in http://graduatework.cargo.site. By starting at the final assemblage, I will work backwards in scale, first describing website structure, then design logic, and conclude with a closer look at some of the most important drawings. Other supplementary drawings will be included in Appendix B.  84  Virtual Desktop  At the core of the final thesis work is the incomplete, the expanding, the improvisational, and the resonant. The homepage of the website is an assemblage of documents, both existing and created, that lie side-by-side, overlapped, obscured, and nested, unified their relation to the tre of gravity is the McMillan but not exclusively its colonial past. Its segregated beginnings exist in a more complex, varied, fragmentary matrix. The stories of the library operate in this expanded matrix, and subsequent design should, I argue, draw on the subjectivities, incongruities, frictions, the diversity that exists in these documentary relationships of relationships. Entries or uploads are draggable and therefore relationships subject to change or interpretation. The stories of the McMillan Memorial Library are reconfigurable or improvisational. The homepage operates like a visual wiki or portals to move between, the unfolding of the library beyond its physical walls. Reading Zimbabwe by visual artist and educator Nontsikelelo Mutiti and designer Corey Tegeler99 served in part as an inspiration for thinking digitally about the thesis work and what opportunities exist in redescribing a physical space via the internet. The independent digital platform aims to collate the stories of Zimbabwe within a context of knowledge production and power through a digital catalogue of Zimbabwean literatures.    99 About . Reading Zimbabwe. Accessed May 4, 2021. Retrieved from: https://readingzimbabwe.com/about 85      Figure 42: Homepage screen print. Author, 2021. Webpage.   86  Navigation The website is not intended to prescribe a single route or sequence of navigation. As a redescription of the library itself, an assemblage of constituent fragments, the maneuverability through the documentary material must not be fixed and therefore is subject to modification. To clearly connect design imaginaries with a linguistic underpinning, however, I created a drawing that is an assemblage of drawings overlaid with the Sheng operations. This composite drawing can be read as multiple, simultaneous projections of the space: plan, section, elevation. It is arguably the most complete drawing of the redescribed library, but as no single fragment is weighted differently from the rest, the reading is flattened into a non-hierarchical composition. This emphasised the revisiting of the homepage for further elucidation on how a linguistic modifier might transform a colonial library redescribed.   87            Figure 43: Navigation page, composite assemblage, screen capture. Author, 2021. Webpage.   88  Dethroning the piano nobile  I argue for a new architectural datum for the transformed McMillan Memorial Library, a reset, from which new improvisations can unfold. This thesis speculatively proposes a shift in the ground of the library. Elevated by fifteen marble stairs, the front doors to the library sit higher than many of the entrances in the immediate context of the library. I suggest the demolition of the neoclassical stairs as an initial but fundamental destabilization of the colonial ideology that is fused into its architecture and consequently the experience of that architecture. The marble is excavated, chipped, and becomes the texture of the newly poured ground. The primary level of the library now lies co-planar with the city and its life in totality. Interiorly, the relation between the body and existing elements of the neoclassical architecture are disrupted, making space for new openings in the opportunities for spatial configuration. Critically, the colonial piano nobile has been metaphorically dethroned and the architecturalized power hierarchy has been reduced. A simple Nolli plan describes the planar implications of this sectional shift, inviting the city into space. The new ground now connects the interior of the library with its exterior, a unification across a former ideological border. This begins to reverse the compartmentalization that defines the colonial segregation from the uninhabitable.    89       Figure 44: Nolli plan showing the library elevated piano nobile (white). The stairs are visible and separated the city from the interior.   Figure 45: Nolli plan showing the city (orange) as indistinguishable from the interior of the library.   90   Figure 46: Portico, stairs intact. Author, 2021. 91   Figure 47: Portico, stairs removed, front doors shifted. 92     Figure 48: Marble chips in a continuous ground, graphite on paper. Author, 2021.   93  Linguistically motivated design transformations  The shift of the main floor of the library down to existing street level, recalibrated the relationship with the elements within the space: windows, stairs, ceilings- access to natural light, vertical circulation, head heights. This presents an opportunity to establish new resonances with the space, without the erasure of the realities of colonial Kenyan history. By using linguistic operations, the imagined design transformations co-opt the colonial residue into a new architectural vocabulary, through which the redescribed library might be articulated. In an interview with Balmoi Abe of Mambo Heritage, a collective partnered with Book Bunk for the transformation of the McMillan, he confirms the need to open the façade and roof to the city and environment. I originally discussed this as a necessary perforation of the colonial architecture. Each design idea is worked through in a fragmentary way, acknowledging that complete resolution in this thesis is not possible and would run counter to the thesis framework. The assemblage of fragments allows space for interpretation in the disjuncture or imagination that exists between fragments. The use of cadded linework is a conscious choice to emphasize a subversion of conventional representation of non-conventional design possibilities, further destabilizing hegemonic architectural articulation and communication.   94  T H R O U G H  T H E  F I R E P L A C E  Moving into the library one is confronted with a faux fireplace, Lord non-functional, a colonial homely hearth. I propose removing this wall entirely, in effect punching an opening through the north wall of the library, neutralizing the court <> library axis of power. No longer rary visitor is met with a view to the Syed Abdullah Shah Memorial Library. Not only does this connects the McMillan with an important neighbour and calls attention to the network of libraries and information that exists beyond the Nairobi blue stone walls.    95          Figure 49: The fireplace relocated according to the new ground plane. Photoshopped existing image, by author, 2021.   96          Figure 50: The fireplace, prior to removal. Author, 2021.   97          Figure 51: New opening, fireplace removed. Opening dimensions preserved. Author, 2021.   98          Figure 52: View to the Syed Abdullah Shah Memorial Library. Author, 2021.   99  R E V E R S A L  Sectionally, I propcorners. Currently, the library has no connection to the upper wings, one of which historically has housed the Africana collection. Establishing a visual and aural transparency between the upper and lower levels is intended to allow for the public and the less public spaces to synthesize and dialogue. The reversal of the corners links the two floors, brings in more daylight, and starts to differentiate the two symmetrical hemispheres of the library. The move flips the existing language to interface with the environment and improve socialities within the library.   100         Figure 53: Initial drawing of fillet reversal, creating light scoops and a generous central skylight. Drawing by author, 2021, graphite on paper.   101          Figure 54: Original section, author, 2021.   102          Figure 55: Modified section, author, 2021.   103          Figure 56: Rendered section. New mezzanine is shown, and insertion of a new language. Author, 2021.   104  A  N E W  W I N D O W  As the elevational relationship with the window changed with the shift of the ground plane to city level, the walls surface area increased, presenting an opportunity to rethink the formal language of the opening to the exterior. This fragment is an idea about subtracting ornamentation and inserting a new opening between the existing language of the windows. The inserted window, shown with a wooden frame, is operable. The view outside to the jacarandas and other trees and plants  the site is lush with vegetation  affords a more generous albeit fragmented framing. Throughout the fragments there was intent around material inscribing ghosts or shadows of other formal elements (sills, pediments, lintels, for example).   105          Figure 57: Current windows, exterior (left), interior (right). Author, 2021.   106          Figure 58: Modified windows, exterior (left), interior (right). Author, 2021.   107          Figure 59: Rendered modified window openings. Author, 2021.   108  A N  A R C H I V A L  S P A C E  This design imaginary began as an exploration of the new relationship a library user has with the staircase, the only vertical circulation core that takes a visitor to the second level. The final drawing is a combination of two spaces: the modified stairwell, and the subsequent mezzanine/archival space that emerged. The clipping of the stairs provided extra floor height, making a mezzanine possible. Under the mezzanine level is a relatively shorter, more intimate, and darker archival space, a prominent insertion into the building on ground level. These archival documents (multi-media) should be highly visible and persistent. Archive in this case does not necessarily mean  to borrow a Sheng term  oldskool, or outdated. Much like the website, an archive in this context is a collection of fragments of the world as it is or appears to be, embellished or banal. In an assemblage these pieces, residue, impressions, catalogues, cuttings, clips are forms of stories and storytelling, do be navigated and deciphered. The material of this space is rammed earth, red earth, that is strong is color and a smell of minerals. The idea of the land or earth is what unifies the collection. It can be programmed as well and inscribed upon. On the outside of the wall the stairs or ascension sequence is extended, also programmed, not simply a path of conveyance.  109     Figure 60: The stairwell, as a device for seating. Author, 2021, graphite on paper.    110          Figure 61: The mezzanine (left) and the stairwell (right) fragment. Author, 2021.   111          Figure 62: Archive (left) under mezzanine and stairwell (right). The circulation core becomes a childrens reading area, enclosed by the staircase. Author, 2021.   112  T H E  M A R K E T  S P A C E  I propose transforming the parking space (the outdoor interior) into a flexible extension of the library, a market space. Documents show book library. To open the walls to the outside, the wings become fluid with the market space with the ability to acts as stalls or one unified gathering place. This provides a lot of floor space to the library for programming and increases the amount of natural light into the interior.   113         Figure 63: Original floor plan, stairs still present. The U-shaped plan is cut off from its central courtyard. Author, 2021.   114         Figure 64: The wings now open on to the courtyard, the walls dissolved. Author, 2021.   115         Figure 65: Market space, awning doors shown in plan. Author, 2021, graphite on paper.   116         Figure 66: Section sketch showing awning swing and sliding door. Author, 2021, graphite on paper.    117         Figure 67: CAD drawing of interior wall that opens on to market space. Author, 2021.   118         Figure 68: Rendered market space, seen through the wall from the library interior. The market becomes materially part of the s interior elevation. Author, 2021.   119  P E O P L E - W A T C H I N G  Finally, the last design idea exists in the transformation of the portico. Within the portico is a narrow balcony that serves as the passage between the two wings. It is a short, dark space, that is currently little more than an outdoor corridor. I propose widening this passage to form a new outdoor level that can be programmed as a bar/café. This space has one of the best views of the city from the library, looking down Wabera St to the law courts. It is a spot for people-watching. The Central Business District is home to many cafés and bars, much like other global cosmopolitan centres like London and New York (see Interview with Balmoi Abe in Appendix B). This is a program that Book Bunk specifically hopes to include in the new McMillan space. Though small, I frame this café as a counterpoint to the transience of its former life as a corridor. The extension of the space also requires a decapitation of the existing columns, which now support an entirely new program for the library. Rather than the best view of the city remaining as an architectural afterthought that connects the libraries upper floors, why not make this an intentional destination and spot of stasis to watch the life of the city unfold for a while?   120           Figure 69: Friday prayers, Wabera St. Video from Mambo Heritage Instagram, gif still by author, 2021.   121          Figure 70: New cafe. Existing columns are synthesized into the extension. Author, 2021.   122          Figure 71: New cafe, front section. The cut line shows how the existing architectural elements are unified to support the new cafe program. Author, 2021.   123   Figure 72: Cafe, section render. Author, 2021. 124             Figure 73: Cafe render, author, 2021.   125  Reflection The design ideas presented are an extension of the research, in some respects an architectural gesture driven by the literature around assemblage and improvisation, and the richness that exists in a fragmentary architecture design methodology. It emphasizes relationality and interpretation, and the potentials that exist in the multiplicity of documentary materials that should inform the future design of the space. I have explored an architectural methodology from which assemblage is a process of working and designing and also a design outcome. A key focus was to centre the stories at the heart of any design proposals, starting with a deliberate move to reconstruct a ground plane co-planar with the diverse topography of tangible and intangible Nairobi city life. While it is difficult to track the direct correlation between a linguistic operation found in Sheng and a design intervention, this thesis  shows that rules of architectural modification that embrace individual and collective identity can be found in disciplines outside of a Western definition of architecture. Indeed, collaboration and design logic can be found in all facets of urban life of the periphery, an important step in disrupting ideology of the colonial periphery and that perhaps is not peripheral after all. It is possible to look to the linguistic matrix of non-Europhonic languages, in this case East African, to inform and motivate design transformations that undo the singularity of the core-periphery narrative. This thesis demonstrates that a fragmentary, assemblage-based approach to architectural research and communication is a productive, and often unpredictable, design methodology, capable of generating meaningful resonances.  126  Primary Bibliography  African Centre for Cities Call for papers: Reconfiguring, Repurposing the City: Urban Ecotones in the Global South, African Centre for Cities, last modified December 5, 2019, https://www.africancentreforcities.net/call-for-papers-reconfiguring-repurposing-the-city-urban-ecotones-in-the-global-south/ AfDB-Funded Thika Superhighway: A Masterpiece for East - President Mwai Kibaki  African Development Bank Group, November 12, 2012, https://www.afdb.org/en/news-and-events/afdb-funded-thika-superhighway-a-masterpiece-for-east-africa-a-national-pride-president-mwai-kibaki-9986 African Library & Information Associations and Institutions. "How African Libraries Contribute to the African Union 2063 Agenda: The Africa We Want  African Library & Information Associations and Institutions, 2019, https://web.aflia.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/AfLIA-AU-agenda-2063-final.pdf Anderson, Porter. Sharjah World Book Capital Program Backs Kenyan Library RestorationPublishing Perspectives, 2019,  https://publishingperspectives.com/2019/12/sharjah-world-book-capital-program-backs-kenya-mcmillan-library-restoration/ L 1, 2020. Vimeo video recording, private link.  https://www.bookbunk.org/ Yinka Shonibare: 'I wanted to do a work connected to Trafalgar Square'Interview with Yinka Shonibare, The Guardian, 2010, https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2010/may/16/yinka-shonibare-fourth-plinth-trafalgar Haunting Sculpture: 'Ghost' Sculptor Rachel Whiterea Interview with Rachel Whiteread, The Washington Post, 2008, https://www.washingtonpost.com/express/wp/2008/10/09/haunting_sculpture_ghosts_rachel_whitere/ frican and African American Studies, Harvard University, https://alp.fas.harvard.edu/introduction-african-languages Eberhard, David M., Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty-third edition (Dallas, Texas: SIL International, 2020), http://www.ethnologue.com. Einashe, Ismail. September 8, 2019, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-49580863 o Places Journal (online), February 4, 2011, https://placesjournal.org/article/red-and-gold-a-tale-of-two-apartheid-museums/ 127  Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Vintage Books, 2010. Frawley, William. (ed.), The Expression of Modality. (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2006). Gagosia  https://gagosian.com/artists/rachel-whiteread/ Harvard International Review, 2020, https://hir.harvard.edu/sheng-in-kenya/ Gathara, Pa Berlin 1884: Remembering the conference that divided Africa Al Jazeera online, November 15, 2019, https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2019/11/15/berlin-1884-remembering-the-conference-that-divided-africa/ Sheng: How a Kenyan urban vernacular is gaining national acceptance Medium, 2019, https://medium.com/@ericgatobu/sheng-how-a-kenyan-urban-vernacular-is-gaining-national-acceptance-39683045ad94 Herbling, David and Dandan Li. C lt a road to nowhere in Ke ly 18, 2019, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-07-19/china-s-belt-and-road-leaves-kenya-with-a-railroad-to-nowhere Huppatz, D.J. "Jean Prouvé's Maison Tropicale: The Poetics of the Colonial Object," Design Issues 26, no. 4 (2010): 32-44. HuyssenTwilight Memories: Marking Time in a Culture of Amnesia. New York: Routledge, 1995. Kariuki, Annah, Fridah Erastus Kanana and Hildah Kebeya The growth and use of Sheng in advertisements in selected businesses in Keny Journal of African Cultural Studies 27, no. 2 (2015): 229-246, doi: 10.1080/13696815.2015.1029879 Kment, Boris. "Varieties of Modality", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/modality-varieties/. McMi Commonwealth Writers, 2015, https://www.commonwealthwriters.org/lady-mcmillan-the-library/  / The East African Review, 51 (2016). Lowe, Lisa. The Intimacies of Four Continents. Durham: Duke University Press, 2015. Marsalis, Wynton. Wynton at Harvard, Chapter 13: The Meaning of Swing, Jazz at Lincoln Centre, 2017, YouTube video, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NmiRyRZDhQ0&list=RDXi27zn7YNFo&index=14 Mbembe, Achille. Necropolitics. Durham: Duke University Press, 2019. 128  Moyo, Dambis Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. National Gallery of Art  O National Gallery of Art, https://www.nga.gov/collection/art-object-page.131285.html Noero Architects  Noero Architects, https://www.noeroarchitects.com/project/red-location-competition-entry/ Olden, Anthony. Libraries in Africa: Pioneers, Policies, Problems. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 1995.  Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2012. Reading Zimbabwe. Accessed May 4, 2021. Retrieved from: https://readingzimbabwe.com/about Roux, Naomi. house for dead mation in Red Location, Social & Cultural Geography,19, no.4 (2018): 407-428, DOI: 10.1080/14649365.2017. The Selected Works of Edward Said, 1966-2006 (ed. Moustafa Bayoumi and Andrew Rubin). New York: Vintage Books, 2019, 268. Theory, Culture & Society, 11, (1994), 5-10. Simone, AbdouMaliq and Edgar Pieterse. New Urban Worlds: Inhabiting Dissonant Times. Cambridge: Polity, 2017. Simone, AbdouMaliq. Improvised Lives. Cambridge: Polity, 2019. Sizani, Mkhuseli. PE's vandalised Red Location Museum could reopen soon Sowetan Live, 2019, https://www.sowetanlive.co.za/news/south-africa/2019-11-27-pes-vandalised-red-location-museum-could-reopen-soon/ Sourieau, Marie-Agnès.  Callaloo 15, no. 2, Johns Hopkins University Press, (1992): 436 South African (SAHO), 2011, https://www.sahistory.org.za/place/new-brighton-location Stamber NPR, 2009, https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120393449 Stoler, Ann Laura. Imperial Debris: On Ruins and Ruination. Durham: Duke University Press, 2013. The Martin Luther King, Jr. Rese Mboya, Thomas JosephStanford University, n.d., https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/mboya-thomas-joseph on Tropicale  Trailer [trailer for Maison Tropicale (2008), Third World Newsreel, Vimeo video recording, 2019, https://vimeo.com/364323895 129  Ullman, Dana. When Coal Comes to https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/06/09/when-coal-came-to-paradise-china-coal-kenya-lamu-pollution-africa-chinese-industry-bri/ The Asmara Declaration on African Languages and Literatures,  University of Pennsylvania African Studies Center, January 2000, https://www.africa.upenn.edu/Govern_Political/asmrlit.html Van Mead, Nick. China in Africa: win-31 July 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2018/jul/31/china-in-africa-win-win-development-or-a-new-colonialism Virno, Paolo. Déjà Vu and the End of History. London: Verso, 2015. wa Thiong'o, . Something Torn and New: An African Renaissance. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2009. Wainaina, Binyavanga. Twenty Years of the Caine Prize for African Writing. Northampton: Interlink, 2020.  future demise of the world capitalist system: concepts for Comparative Studies in Society and History, 16, no. 4 (1974), 387-415. https://www.wolffarchitects.co.za/projects/all/inkwenkwenzi/ Young, James, E. The Texture of Memory. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.   130  Secondary Bibliography Adjaye, David. Constructed Narratives. Zürich: Lars Müller Publishers, 2017.  Amin, Ash and Nigel Thrift. Seeing Like a City. Cambridge: Polity, 2016. Bachelard, Gaston. The Poetics of Space. New York: Penguin Books, 2014. Borges, Jorge Luis. Labyrinths: Selected Stories and Other Writings. New York: New Directions, 2007.  Parables and Other Allegories: The Work of Melvin Charney, 1975-1900. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991. Demissie, Fassil. African Identities, 5, no. 2 (2007), 155-165, doi: 10.1080/14725840701403317 Easterling, Keller. Extrastatecraft. London: Verso, 2014. Cities of Artificial Excavation. ed. Jean-François Bédard. 1994. Eliot, T.S. Collected Poems 1909 1962. London: Faber and Faber, 2002. Faria, Nuno, Filipa César, and Tobias Hering (eds.). The Struggle is Not Over Yet. Berlin: Archive Books, 2018. Humanities, May 17, 2018, https://medium.com/@simpsoncenter/learning-to-inhabit-ruins-in-postwar-liberia-4f77b7772cf dencies: Chimurenga chronicles the now- Six Degrees, New Museum, September 17, 2013, https://www.newmuseum.org/blog/tag/chimurenga Mudie, Ella. vid Goldblatt and the i Places Journal (online), November 2019, https://placesjournal.org/article/david-goldblatt-and-the-indeterminate-landscape-south-africa/ inking methods and modes International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 40, no. 1 (2015), 236-246, doi: 10.1111/1468-2427.12278 International Development Policy, 10 (2018), 26-52, doi: https://doi.org/10.4000/poldev.2626 Rodney, Walter. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1981. City, 24, no. 3-4 (2020), 473-492. Vesely, Dalibor. Architecture in the Divided Age of Representation. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004.  131  Appendix A Throughout the course of my research in Graduate Project I, I have created numerous documentary materials, an outcome of my engagement with the discourse but also an embodiment of the poeitic thinking-making I write about in relation to the stories of the McMillan Memorial Library. In this way, my work blurs the end and the means, the relationalities can always be expanded, added to, layered: an incomplete assemblage. In this appendix I include output from the term which shows the development of my thesis, approximately in chronological order.   132        Figure 74: Sketch of McMillan Memorial Library, drawn by author, 2020. Red fineliner, pencil crayon, graphite, whiteout tape, oil pastel on newsprint. An anachronism dialoguing with a grid.   133         Figure 75  Maxar/ESRI/Open Street Map. GIS compiled by author, 2020.   134   Figure 76: City figure ground, Central Business District. McMillan shown in red. Maxar/ESRI/Open Street Map. Drawing by author, 2020. 135   Figure 77: Position in relation to other libraries in the CBD. Maxar/ESRI/Open Street Map. Drawing by author, 2020. 136   Figure 78: Cyber café names are listed. Maxar/ESRI/Open Street Map. Drawing by author, 2020. 27Nix Alyusra Amigos Began Behums Enterprise Bermin Bhif Way Big Brother Bright Star Capital Booster Checha Cybercell Ltd. Citiwisenika Compuzone Cyber 20 Cyber Cliq Etivine Exchange Comm F.A.S.T. Friendly Gauma Enterprises Geogian Geolya GFG Hadahssahs Cyber and Kinyozi Harrywang Kenya Hirizon P.P JN Twice Logics Jubet Kampus Kawa KOM Kwa Raha Zao La Victory Landmark Light Wave London Maximedia Micelink Interactive Milky Way Minclick Nexcom OPTIC Options Park Park Plaza  Room 104 Purple Haze Rotz Shelights Skywaves Stephan Summit Superchat Surfcity TechnoHub Tembo.store Top Most Transworld unnamed unnamed unnamed Zynix 137         Figure 79: City blocks as seen through elevation. Digital drawing by author, 2020.   138   Figure 80: Detail of mosque entrance off Kigali Road. Drawing by author, 2020. 139   Figure 81: Detail of the space between Stanbic Bank and Mojo's on Banda St. Drawing by author, 2020. 140   Figure 82: Closeup of Stanbic Bank Building on Kenyatta Ave and Avenue House. Drawing by author, 2020. 141          Figure 83: McMillan Memorial Library, digital assemblage, by author 2020.   142       Figure 84: Photographic assemblage of interior space of the McMillan Memorial Library, digital collage by author, 2020. 143        Figure 85: Plan of McMillan Memorial Library, ground floor. Drawn by author and scanned, 2020. Digital drawing on newsprint and trace paper.   144         Figure 86: Facade of the McMillan Memorial Library. Digital drawing printed on newsprint and tracing paper. Scanned drawing by author, 2020. (Misprints prime the printing surface, rotated plan drawing underlay).  145  Appendix B The following drawings relate to Folder Two (Graduate Project II) and loosely are iterations of design-thinking, an extension of the research. These can be found on http://graduatework.cargo.site.   146         Figure 87: Facade original, stairs shown. Author, 2021.   147         Figure 88: Facade, stairs removed. Front door now lies co-planar with the city topography.   148   Figure 89: CAD drawing of continuous ground, interior and exterior. Plan view. Author, 2021.   149         Figure 90: Collage of concrete floor with marble chips inset. Black and white marble from original portico stairs and landing. Author, 2021.   150   Figure 91: Door section, between interior wing and market. Author, 2021.   151   Figure 92: Glazed passage between two wings, author 2021.   152   Figure 93: Passage material collage, author, 2021.   153         Figure 94: Digitally edited archival photograph, showing stairs removed and openings shifted to ground level. Author, 2021.   154          Figure 95: Original floor plan. Author, 2021.   155          Figure 96: Ground floor, proposed. Author, 2021.   156          Figure 97: Mezzanine level, proposed. Author, 2021.   157          Figure 98: Second floor, proposed. Author, 2021.   158          Figure 99: English Breakfast, Al-Yusra, author, 2021.   159          Figure 100: Receipt for English Breakfast, author, 2021.   160          Figure 101: Swahili Breakfast, Al-Yusra, author, 2021.   161         Figure 102: Receipt for Swahili Breakfast, author, 2021.   162         Figure 103: Somali Breakfast, Al-Yusra, author, 2021.   163         Figure 104: Receipt for Somali Breakfast, author, 2021.   164        Figure 105: Early collage, digital and hand drawing. Author, 2021.   165        Figure 106: Early collage, digital and hand drawing. Author, 2021.   166     Figure 107: Early sketch exploring linguistic operations. Portico cafe. Author, 2021.   167     Figure 108: Early sketch exploring linguistic operations. Decapitated column. Author, 2021.   168     Figure 109: Early sketch exploring linguistic operations. Spatial programming borrowed from Al-Yusra active frontage. Author, 2021.   169        Figure 110: Early programmatic diagram for library. Collage and text, drawn from Instagram tags. Digital CAD drawing and hand paper collage. Author, 2021.   170                    

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