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[In]-visible : A narrative on precious workers of intimate daily cleaning Yang, Yang 2021-05-04

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|In|-visibleYang YangMaster of ArchitectureBachelor of design, in industrial designEmily Carr University of Art and Design (ECUAD)2018A narrative on precious workers of intimate daily cleaning  ByThe University of British ColumbiaMay 2021 © Yang YangSubmitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofInThe Faculty of Graduate Studies,School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,Architecture ProgramCommittee:Matthew Soules (Chair)Dr. Tijana VujosevicDr. Catharina GabrielssonIAbstractArchitecture needs daily support to be alive. If buildings exist as living bodies, the everyday routines are required for the functioning of this vast organism. The source of food, water and fresh air are fundamental supplements in feeding the “bones,” the “tissues,” and the “skin.” All these body parts refer to the structure, program and façade of the building, and inquire intensive maintenance to keep it alive and functional. Human activities are dusty. The facilities are enclosed factories that collect dusty particles from the working of bodies. These elements hold power to participate in degrading the building to its end. However, keeping a routine of cleaning the dust and particles is inevitably a way to maintain the space.Then the question came, who is doing all this dirty work?The project aims to explore the invisible precarious workers who maintain all the buildings while being simultaneously demanded for and disregarded by our society. The thesis dives into an investigation of architectural developments in addressing this current situation. Drawing on concepts such as tools, bodies and service spaces, the project takes from the study of unnoticeable daily intimate cleaning to hidden service space in an architectural context.IIIIIThis project explores how architecture interventions designed through the study of daily intimacy of cleaning and its relation to space could help recognize, reduce the social and political issues faced by precarious workers.IV“In a say it is your daily support work that keeps this whole building up just as much as the steel and marble and glass.”Mierle Laderman Ukeles, I make Maintenance Art one hour everyday, 1976VTable of ContentThe Tools & The BodyThe familiar and unfamiliar toolsBody as toolsFront MatterAbstractTable of ContentList of FiguresAcknowledgmentIntroductionIdentify the Invisible CoatWho does the dirty work?Case Study --- Architecture as weaponTreating the invisibleThe Hidden StoryIntroduction|In|-visible --- A narrative to reveal the life of precarious workers inside hidden architecture spaces --- Graphic NovelBibliographyVIIIVIVIIIIX1311112834404776List of FiguresVIIPHANTOM. Mies as Rendered Society Exhibition, Amy Frearson, 2013.A complete catalogue of cleaning tools, created by author 2021.Façade of Pharos Building, Vanessa van Dam, 2002, From Maintenance architecture.Indoor Dust Chemical measurement, 2018, From consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies. Indoor Dust Hazards concern, 2018, From consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies. The New Housekeeping: Efficiency Studies in Home Management, Christine Frederick, 1913, From The Labor-saving Kitchen: Sources for Designs of the Architects’ Small Home Service Bureau.The working body, Collected and edited by author, 2020, From various sources.Cleaning the KTH School of Architecture research and interview, created by students from KTH school of architecture and edited by author, 2020.Dirt, order and cleaning in the subway research and interview, created by students from KTH school of architecture and edited by author, 2020.US  Domestic workers research chart, created by Julia Wolfe and edited by author, 2020.Wage and Race of LA domestic workers, created by Julia Wolfe, edited by author, 2021.Domestic workers in different states in USA, created by author, 2020.Domestic Labor report Canada 2015, Elsa Galerand, Martin Gallié & Jeanne Ollivier Gobeil in collaboration with PINAY and the Service aux collectivités of UQAM, edited by author, 2020.The typology of hidden service space, Created by author, 2020.Thomas Jefferson’s Villa in Monticello hidden space, Edited by author, 2020.The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao cleaning entrance study , Edited by author, 2020.Life on six floors in a wealthy Edwardian home, Edited by author, 2020Lever house and window cleaning gondola, From Maintenance architecture, 2016.The cleaning gondola, From Maintenance architecture, Edited by author, 2020.The cleaning gondola, Operating at the Building Facade, From Maintenance architecture, Edited by author, 2020The first self-cleaning home which employed the use of 68 self-patented devices, Frances Gabe, 2002.Fig.1Fig.2Fig.3469Fig.4 12Fig.5 12Fig.6 14Fig.7 16Fig.8 21Fig.9 22Fig.10&11 24Fig.12 24Fig.13 24Fig.14 26Fig.15 29Fig.16 30Fig.17 31Fig.18 32Fig.19 35Fig.20 36Fig.21 36Fig.22 37VIIIWhat we often ignored, 2021. (Author)The display of cleaning tools, 2021. (Author)Late night working bodies, 2021. (Author)Workers’ uniform, 2021. (Author)Leonardo Da Vinci’s ‘Human Body’, 2021. (Author)Domestic workers in the crowd, 2021. (Author)A worker cleaning in home, 2021. (Author)Workers in three different historical reproduction period, 2021. (Author)Distribution of domestic workers by sex, 2021. (Author)The separation, 2021. (Author)Fig.23Fig.24Fig.25Fig.26Fig.27Fig.28Fig.29Fig.30Fig.31Fig.32404041414142434344AcknowledgmentTHANKS TOMatthew, Tijana and Catharina, for your thoughtful and kind advice. You are all wonderful.Friends, families, and mentor who give great support and helpful feedbacks during this process.Little Pola who is always there every late working night.IXX1IntroductionBuildings are ever-changing since the day it gets built. The built form gets covered and ruined by time, environment, and human being. It takes times for us to see the floor being covered with dust and window gets scratched. Buildings decolorate slowly and quietly. And with limited times, the after life of a space is often treated less as other things. The contemporary architectural culture tends to keep the imagery of architecture as its newly built state rather than its living state of being occupied. Spaces become a gallery which holds precious art works. Jane M. Jacobs pointed out in Building Must Die, “only occasionally does architectural discourse acknowledge the potential threats to the ‘life’ of buildings.”1  And by Hilary Sample, in her book Maintenance Architecture,  1. Cairns, Stephen and Jane M. Jacobs. Buildings must Die: A Perverse View of Architecture. Cambridge, Mas-sachusetts: The MIT Press, 2014. P. 13 2With the long history of neglect between architecture and maintenance, there is a need to focus on this repetition of labor that prolongs a building’s lifespan.Maintenance slows the process of decolorate of architecture. Buildings require endless repetitive labor work that is done by human bodies in the highly technological world. In order to endure the beauty of the built environment, there needs to encounter labor. The interior cleanliness also relates to the health concerns of the space. Architecture is viewed as healthy bodies with no ornaments designed in the interior for sensitizing purpose. Like the Paimio Sanatorium by Alvar and Aino Altor, as it is a place for treating sick bodies, the cleanliness is one of the most important goals for the unhealthy patients.Cleaning and maintenance of the building are positively related. Cleaning is the element that falls under the whole complete imagery of maintenance. While Maintenance is closely associated with a system or well-constructed skill groups, cleaning is often related to low skill and pay workers. This creates a particular social condition among the hierarchies of people who use the building. The division of social status through cleaning labor in architecture space has barely been discussed. Workers’ working environments are hidden from areas generally unseen by the people who inhabit the place. The hidden stories of precarious workers in architecture spaces are defined as “invisibilization” by Frida Escobedo in her study on modern Mexico architecture and its relation to immigrant domestic workers.  It seems to be a global tendency of architecture to conceal issues with domestic labor and the people who work in this area ------ consisting a large population of immigrants and indigenous people. The research divides the “invisibilization” of the precious workers in two different scales. On a smaller scale, these issues are connected to the body and the cleaning activities.  And on a larger scale, architecture set a space which allows for the occurrence of this division and invisibility. The study stands on the position that modern architecture dwelling space has caused the exclusion and exploitation of workers and inhabitants.“Dismissed as irrelevant to form making and design, maintenance has been cast aside, appearing (if at all) in the back-section advertisements of architecture magazines or categorized as a problem to be undertaken after construction, not treated as a disciplinary concern or as having any relevance to the production of an art form.”2 2.  Sample, Hilary and MIT Press Direct (eBooks). 2016. Maintenance Architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.33. Anderson, Bridget. 2000. Doing the Dirty Work?: The Global Politics of Domestic Labor. London;New York;: Zed Books. P. 2The Tools & The Body1. The familiar and unfamiliar toolsTools are not unfamiliar to people. It is the most fundamental human activity that is “one of those subjects that almost everybody has a position on.”3 Most domestic cleaning tools are used in daily routine while a lot of commercial tools are only used by certain workers. The cleaning tools have a long development history. From a bundle of twisted strips to a molded plastic broom, the design of the tools has been through various stages in history. The Barcelona Pavilion held a special exhibition by Spanish architect Andres Jaque in 2013.  He filled the space with the abandoned objects found in the basement storage area and placed them against Mies van de Rohe’s iconic structure. The Barcelona Pavilion was dismantled in 1930 and reconstructed in less a year. The basement area was created as hidden storage containing maintenance rooms that are not accessible by the public. Visitors are unaware of its underground space as Jaque imagined the space to be mysterious. Other than cleaning tools like vacuum cleaners and, cleaning carts, there are many objects that indicates the maintenance history of the building. For example, broken glass doors that were replaced, old cushions from the iconic Barcelona chairs, and salt that keeps the pond clean. The objects and tools are telling a full secret history of how the building is maintained which breaks the illusion of architecture always being precious and beautiful art. The tools reveal the most hidden story of the building and its history.4Figure 1. PHANTOM. Mies as Rendered Society Exhibition, Amy Frearson, 2013, From Dezeen. https://www.dezeen.com/2013/01/04/phantom-mies-as-rendered-society-by-%EF%BF%BCandres-jaque/.5While cleaning tools remains some of the most common objects in daily activates, it is often put away in domestic and commercial spaces. They are usually stored in closet or storage spaces, and only taken out when needed. Most of the time in commercial spaces, tools are more complex and larger in mass. Although tools are essential in maintaining spaces, they are often closely connected to a certain group of people that society view separately from others. There is a social hierarchy between the inhabitance of the building and people who care for the building, and tools appeared to be the symbolic of that hidden class division. There is a tendency that these tools ought to be showed in order to capture the history and story behind modern architecture. If tools are displayed separately from the human body and social conditions, then they are apolitical but full of stories.Industrial evolution brought great change to the maintenance of buildings and spaces. Buildings have shifted from having almost no organized sensitizing system to a more organized cleaning methodology. Many tools are now integrated with high technological features. A new form of maintenance/cleaning professions and businesses were created to fulfill the needs of the market. Every office/ commercial building required groups of skilled workers to maintain. New technologies enabled architects to look for new interventions and ideas. With innovative structure and materials, modern architecture has been well developed while envisioning a new way of life.  However, these new materials and interventions sometimes requires different maintenance methods. Most of the time, traditional tools are still applied in new form of architecture and material. But there are cases that tools are invented to adapt to specific architectural elements of the building in order to reduce the amount of cleaning work. 6The ToolsDust mop In/Out door broom MopM opCommerical mop (Large)Commerical mop (Small)Floor scrubber Floor polishF loor sweeperBuilt-in Vacuum Floor carpet cleaner VacuumFloor treatmentIndustrial vacuum Pick stick Shovel Knife7Duster Sponge Surface brush Scraper Metal scrub ClothBrushP lunger Triangle  brush Toliet  brushSqueegeeSafety rope & Hanging chairWall treatmentBathroom treatmentWindow treatmentWindowing cleaning gondola8Dust pan Bucket Spray bottleGarbage binG arbage bagCution SignCleaning cartFigure 2. A complete catalogue of cleaning tools, created by author ContainerLandscapeBow rakeLeaf blower Grass trimmerMower Pole saw SawHand held sewShear large Trimming tool small9The installation façade of the Pharo building design by Dutch artist Vanessa van Dam calls attention to the relation of architecture and maintenance. Van Dam focuses specifically on façade window washing, and the phenomenon that most building façades are covered with glass openings in modern architecture. The Pharos building is located outside of Amsterdam and is designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox. The proposal of the installation is to install industrial size window wipers on the eighty-five glass openings on the façade. Each invented window wipers are individually programmed and activated by sensors based on weather conditions. The wipers are in action frequently due to the rainy weather in Amsterdam. With each wiper on the window waving in a different rhythm, the façade is constantly changing to greet the guest. Not only it is a fun installation to look at, it also brings clean and maintenance to the foreground with this embodied installation of cleanliness. The contrast between the transparent glass and the long mechanized black wiper puts cleaning tools into dialogue with modern architecture cleaning methodology. More recent interventions of cleaning tools are closely connected to robotic technology. These cleaning tools are smarter and believed to be more efficient.Figure 3. Façade of Pharos Building, Vanessa van Dam, 2002, From Maintenance architecture1011The Tools & The Body1. Body as toolsThe physical environment The work environment of the domestic workers is surrounded by unsafe dusty toxicity. Workers that spend most of their days indoor working are the primary collector for interior dust. As part of the waste from different sources of everyday living, dust is more than just dirt. Chemical particles from daily used items like TV, cleaning product, furniture, makeup, and perfume can shed chemicals into the air and onto the floor. The cleaning activities used by tools and automated cleaning equipment can leave some of the dust in the cleaners’ body. With minimal protection, the working environment is polluted and unsafe. Far from that, many domestic workers with no registration and health insurance make them powerless and silent when exposed to harm. A group of scientists from George Washington University embarked on the first study on the chemical within daily consumer products concerned with indoor dust. It provides a picture of the toxic chemicals in the home while measuring different chemicals contained in US indoor dust. “Phthalates occurred in the highest concentrations, followed by phenols, RFRs, fragrance, and PFASs.”4 Several phthalates and RFRs had the highest residential intakes. With these chemicals hidden in the dust and into the body while performing cleaning in space, domestic workers are unprotected from the physical harm. Dust collected from everyday consumer products is an extension of the industrialization that segregates the workers through invisible harm.4. Mitro, Susanna D., Robin E. Dodson, Veena Singla, Gary Adamkiewicz, Angelo F. Elmi, Monica K. Tilly, and Ami R. Zota. “Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-Analysis of U.S. Studies.” Environ-mental Science & Technology 50, no. 19 (2016): 10661–72. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b02023.12Figure 4. Indoor Dust Chemical measurement, 2018, From consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies.Figure 5. Indoor Dust Hazards concern, 2018, From consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies. This is an unofficial adaptation of an article that appeared in an ACS publication. ACS has not endorsed the content of this adaptation or the context of its use.Original version: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.est.6b0202313Said Christina, a 40-year-old domestic worker who spent most of her life cooking and cleaning in Guayaquil, Ecuador. She is one of the many workers in the area who has experienced inequality where employers’ prioritize their corporeal needs over the employees. Workers’ bodies matter as a domestic working employee. The workers’ body reveals the social categorization of classes where people work with their bodies are clearly separated from an employer or middle-class group. Like many places in the world, there is a rooted social construct that views cleaners’ bodies as deviant and worthless. Domestic work account for physical labor and the embodied inequality between the employer and employee. The body, as tools, interacts with space through cleaning. However, the body is part of the conversation about the issue. Only a few researchers have put the social meanings of workers’ bodies at the center of their analysis. Domestic workers do not produce permanent goods; instead, they perform repetitive production of labor, they are devalued in part because of the intangibility of their service. Mostly women’s bodies are dealing with cleaning, cooking, washing in the population of workers. There are two complementary approaches that apply to the working body in society. The first one is rooted in Marxian theory, where one views the body as a limited source. They are damaged in the production process, as a repetitive machine. Workers’ bodies in the factory are destroyed and damaged by capitalist expansion within the factor. Indeed, labor-power is centralized in the production and accumulation of the capital world. The body and movement’s efficiency are essential to production, even in a domestic setting where the workers’ (mainly women) efficiency is crucial. There are many studies in factories and homes targeting the working body to produce new designs to improve the body’s efficiency in production. Christine Frederick’s kitchen efficiency study was devoted to improving the efficiency of domestic spaces. She studied the movement of the body working in a domestic space and used diagramming to look for a more efficient kitchen layout. Until today, bodies are still deeply involved with paid work. The “Bodies as resources” perspective is defined to describe types of works that need human labor—such as janitors, maids and street cleaners. “I was cooking, and I felt like I was suffocating. I wanted to lie down because I felt sick ... I took [spread out] some newspapers and lay on the kitchen floor. I felt like I was dying that I couldn’t get air. . . . And the employer gets home, and the other employee tells her, “The empleada [domestic worker] is sick.” “Oh, no,” she says, “what’s my daughter going to eat now, who will cook for her?”5The social environment5. Erynn Masi De Casanova, “Embodied Inequality,” Gender & Society 27, no. 4 (2013): pp. 561-585, https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243213483895.14The second one is rooted in Bourdieu’s (1990)6 concept of habitus and symbolic interaction that view the body as a symbol. Habitus is a physical embodiment of social and cultural capital, deeply developed habits, skills and positions, even when people are unconscious of how social structure produced disposition and behaviors. Appearance, dress, and movement communicates a body’s status in turns of race, class, gender, and occupation. Society has an embodied habitus that reproduces class inequalities and separation. It is a source of social conflict of people between different classes. Workplaces are agents of socialization while reinforcing habitus. The idea of occupational habitus is commonly related to people’s work identities. Precious work and---cleaning jobs are settings for the construction of occupational habitus. Workers are required to wear a uniform during their work which can carry on afterwards in transit. It forms social identity and separation. Diagram showing badly arranged equipment, which makes confused intersecting chains of steps, in either preparing or clearing away a meal. Diagram showing proper arrangement of equipment which makes a simple chain of steps, in either prepar-ing or clearing away a meal.STOVEDINNING ROOMDINNING ROOMCABINETICE BOX ICE BOXSINKSINKDRAINDRAINDRAINDRAINTABLETABLEAAABBPreparing ClearingFigure 6. The New Housekeeping: Efficiency Studies in Home Management, Christine Frederick, 1913, From The Labor-saving Kitchen: Sources for Designs of the Architects’ Small Home Service Bureau6. Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge, Ontario: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010).15Through the working body, architecture is viewed differently. People could have a vision of the building after occupied, including how the building starts and ends. Following the workers’ movement, space is being identified through this repetition every day. When most contemporary architecture pieces show their beauty in magazines, the behind-the scenes story is not revealed to the public. Architecture is alive when there is a story around the everyday. There needs to be more emphasis on stories of spatial experience within modern architecture. The stories of neglected working bodies will reveal an unequal embodied habitus in society.16The Working body17The Working bodyFigure 7. The working body, Collected and edited by author, 2020, From various sources1819Identify the Invisible Coat1-  Who does the dirty work?The implications of “work” in architecture ranges from labor and practice, to design and build. There is a need to explore how the building is built, moreover, the life after its construction. Most of the “work” in the building remains unspoken but is the most crucial part of the maintenance. It is rather vital to understand and question the limits of a building, when it gets built, how it stands and remains in the environment. Buildings are not fixed objects, nor occupied by only one or group of people. While thinking about groups of people who occupies the architecture, it is commonly the architects and the inhabitants that comes to mind. However, workers and cleaners are also deeply involved with the existence of the building. Each building needs a large amount of labor work in it. These invisible laborers’ stories are rarely heard by the public, unknowing of who they are and how they work and where they live. Looking into different labor in buildings, especially embodied labor, gives a more in-depth understanding of what is hidden.20School of Architecture KTH maintained documentation of housework that captures different laborers’ participation in maintaining buildings. Through different fieldworks and interviews, people who work as cleaners, plumbers, and architects can reveal some information about these invisible workers from the design, build and maintenance stage of the building. The project questions the limit of architecture beyond its material and artistic thoughts. Two of the researches focused on a group of school cleaners, and the other case interviewed a subway station cleaner. One case looks into school cleaners in the KTH campus. Most of the cleaners on campus are female—their area is comprised of 52 people and three people in the architecture department. The cleaning normally happens in the early morning, around 4:30 to 6:30, before they arrive. All workers work 8 hours a day and 40 hours per week. The tools usually used in cleaning are mops, brooms, and cloths with basic detergent. They are put into two cleaning carts where they are carried around. On occasion, they will use the polish machines to clean the floor. The machines and equipment are stored underground in the larger storage area. All cleaners are all contract, and are paid monthly. The job is time-sensitive and sometimes require tiring repetitive labor to wash the dirty mops in the sink. The other precedent takes its research into a subway station (T- cenentralen). The cleaning job is more intensive compare to the campus. The public area require constant cleaning twenty-four hours a day and seven days a week—tools includes shovels, broom, pick-stick, mop, scraper, knife, hands and feet. Most of the task is to pick up garbage and dirt dropped from people. High-pressure water washing is sometimes used where the body can’t reach. 85% of the workers are men, and 15% are women. The workers are contract-based, and is done by an external cleaning company. One shift is about 5 hours, but there is a constant change in shift times. There are daytime shifts, evening shifts and late-night shifts. The work hours are increased in rush hour, and all workers must maintain a character by wearing a uniform.Precedent  study (the people)21Cleaning the KTH school of ArchitectureGround floor escape plan with cleaning storage8 hours a day, 40 hrs a week52 Cleaning employees, 3 in architecture building, half female and half maleStart 5:30-6:30 to end 14:00-14:30 (Daytime/night shift)Working Hours Cleaning Tools# Of employees12AM 5:30 AM 14:30PM 12AMCleaning cartCombined tools on two cartsFloor polish and vacuum machinesFigure 8. Cleaning the KTH School of Architecture research and interview, created by students from KTH school of architecture and edited by author, 202022Dirt, order and cleaning in the subwayPlan of Centralen (1957)Working Hours5 hours a day, 40 hrs a week12AM 6:00AM 7:00AM 14:00PM6:30AM 14:30PM 23:00PM12:00AMNight and day shift, 3shift, irregular shift300 Cleaning employees, 85% male and 15% female# Of employeesCleaning ToolsSpecial characteristicsBlack working clothes with MTR logotype, steel cap shoes & glovesBroom, shovel, pick-stick, mop, scraper, micro fiber cloth, knife, spray bottle, plastic bags, paper, cleaning trolley, water, floor machine and skyliftFigure 9. Dirt, order and cleaning in the subway research and interview, created by students from KTH school of architecture and edited by author, 202023In current North American reports, janitors and cleaning workers are in the low-income group. Situations are a bit different in Canada and the USA, but the two countries have similar issues in labor-related workers. Many workers are misclassified by employers to be paid less. The working environment is hidden, so as their stories. The current conditions of the workers are unseen by the general public. Most of the population of domestic and commercial cleaners are immigrants. Some are legal, while a large amount remains illegal.USAIn the United States, based on the 2007 Nation Domestic Workers Alliance (BDWA)7, domestic workers often experience low payment across the industry and rarely receive employment benefits. The report targets four different parts of essential services and needs from current domestic workers in the USA. It includes wages and benefits, employment contracts, workplace health and safety,  and material hardship. Cleaning workers in domestic and commercial spaces are mostly paid minimum wages and sometimes even lower. The vast majority of the cleaners’ population are Latino, and over half of them appear to be born outside of America. Among all the states in the US, California has the most people employed as domestic workers, mostly Latin immigrants. Cleaning jobs like domestic works is the easiest to obtain as a legal or illegal immigrant. Even though the pay received many be increase from previous job elsewhere, the income is far less than what is required to afford living in big cities like LA. The high rental payment and cost of living lead to financial hardship for workers. Especially almost 50% of cleaning workers are women, as some female workers are responsible for their own family cleaning and caring for their children as well. Current research report (the situation)7. Waheed, Saba, Lucero Herrera, Reyna Orellana, Blake Valenta, and Tia Koonse. Rep. Profile, Practices and Needs of California’s Domestic Work Employers. Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Labor Center, 2016.24Figure 10&11. US  Domestic workers research chart, created by Julia Wolfe and edited by author, 2020Fig. 13 Wage and Race of LA domestic workers, created by Julia Wolfe, 2020Figure 12. Domestic workers in different states in USA, created by author, 2020.3295 358,013WhiteB lack Hispanic Asian AmericanOther41.7%21.7%61.5%6.5% 7.9%13.3%23.8%28.4%11.9%17.1%29.1%6.3%6.9%62.9%29%64.6% 54.8%20061015202008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018All other workersHouse cleanersNannies41.6811934.420.83.3less than high schoolEducationF oreign BornWork relationshipL ivingEmployee Indenpendent contractorLives in low-income housinghigh school College/Assoicate’s degreeBachelor and up57.642.447Foreign Born Not Foreign Born25CanadaMeanwhile, in Canada, the history of cleaning and domestic service began in the 20th century. There was a high demand for domestic workers in Canada who are immigrants from Britain, Ireland and other European nations. Until 1955, where Canada expanded its immigration policy of domestic workers, all domestic workers remained under the image of a western white woman.“Since the mid-1950s, the Canadian government organizes, through its border and immigration policies, a workforce importation assigned and confined to the work of “services women” in the private sector of domesticity. This policy was not uniquely Canadian. It was part of a broader framework of the reorganization of the international labor division, which also affects the domestic work sector, sometimes referred to as ‘reproductive’ or ‘care.’”8Under these policies, a constantly increasing number of immigrants come to Canada to work as cleaners or in-home caretakers. However, the requirements only allows for a live-in home situation where all workers have to stay in the home they serve. The separation of the cultural difference and privilege from the white middle-class family cannot provide a sense of home for foreign workers. It was only 2009 that the government of Canada announced the removal of the live-in requirement. The wages of the workers are different based on the employers. There is an assumption that domestic workers are uneducated, which may be the cause for their low pay. However, separate from the US, where many workers working in the field can hold high education, such as undergrad degree, in their prior country. Among all the immigrant workers, many are Filipino migrant workers aged between 25 to 40. Some of the workers are forced to move and work in Canada because they cannot make ends meet in the Philippines after graduating from university. 6. Elsa Galerand, Martin Gallié and Jeanne Ollivier-Gobeil, Domestic Labour and Exploitation: The Case of the Live-InCaregiver Program (LCP) in Canada, SACPINAY Research Report, January 2015, online: http://www.mcgill.ca/lldrl/labour-law-and-development-researchlaboratory263%12%9%80%High school CollegeDegreeBachelor’s DegreeMaster’sDegree40-50 hrs5 1-60 hrs6 1-70 hrs7 1 hrs and over29%25% 25%19%5 Days Per week6 days per week7 days per week77%19%9%Withholding of immigrant documents Physical ViolenceAccusations Insult Psychological, morcal and sexual harassmentThreats19%58%48% 48%41%16%Immigrate family structureWorking hours per weekEmployers relationshipDays of the weekEducationFig. 14 Domestic Labor report Canada 2015, Elsa Galerand, Martin Gallié & Jeanne Ollivier Gobeil in collaboration with PINAY and the Service aux collectivités of UQAM, edited by author, 2020SIngle withoutchildrenCouple withoutchildrenSingle withchildrenCouple withchildren6%16%48%35%2728Identify the Invisible Coat2- Architecture as weaponWhile cleaners play such an important role in architecture, their working environment and movements remain hidden and separated. Often, spaces limit what the public can see while hiding the workers’ circulation using different typologies. To keep the building presentable and clean, cleaning workers must disappear and only be allowed in the service area. Architecture is a weapon of exclusion by its program and circulation layout. Many service areas of the building are purposefully hidden and unseen through different typologies and treatments. “Cleaning is neither the pure, individual creation of the architect nor the pleasurable consumption of the user; thus, architectural culture undervalues it. Maintenance, however, is essential to the functioning of society and should be understood as critical to the life of architecture. Cleaners are the mediators between architects, buildings, and their users.”929The hidden circulation In between the wall The separation and unhealthy environmentFig. 15 The typology of hidden service space, Created by author, 202030It is often not uncommon to hide circulation and assign separate entrances for cleaning workers. In history, hidden hallways and servant cores are used to serve the employers better. Workers/servants are seeing as slaves. They use different staircases in the servant core, which connects the service areas like the kitchen and laundry spaces. Thomas Jefferson’s Villa in Monticello has many hidden circulations in the house. Secret doorway and, stairs are designed for servants to disappear while still serving the house. The servant core and circulation connects with every room and all the service area are located in the basement. The entrance of the basement on the side of the building, as is separate from the main entrance. The hidden staircase and core spaces are limited in width and height to fit with the house’s whole structure. The entry of these staircases and hidden areas are designed to integrate and blend into decoration and furniture pieces. The hidden circulationFig. 16 Thomas Jefferson’s Villa in Monticello hidden space, Edited by author, 202031In a modern setting where slaves no longer exist, the hidden circulation and service area still uses architecture methodology to hide cleaning workers. Modern architecture creates many different types of cleaning works that people haven’t seen before. The changing of the building structure and material provide opportunities to incorporate service entrance  between gaps, and store items that are unable to be seen by the public. The development of modern architecture allows the building to gain different structural layouts. Through the change of form and structure, new spaces are created. Frank Gehry’s the Guggenhim Museum Bilbao forms many unseen areas using its unique and irregular shape. The organic white walls inside the building require a large amount of care and fixing. There is a team of cleaners explicitly created for repainting the walls. Some spaces are several stories high. Cleaners have to climb into these spaces and hock them up on the steel trusses to clean the dust on the higher-level walls. The entrance of the cleaning work starts at a small metal door on the rooftop. Cleaners have to get inside and eventually between the wall gap to access the hooks for hanging. Although it is an essential circulation for cleaners, it is not on the architectural drawings. In between the wallFig. 17 The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao cleaning entrance study , Edited by author, 2020Wall cleaning entranceIn between wall space32The unhealthy living condition is one of the main threats for workers—especially workers who work as domestic servants. The workers often live in places that are considered uninhabitable. Occupying the unseen location in the building which are not livable. Life on six Floors in a wealthy Edwardian home captures the living condition of servants’ everyday lives through a section drawing. The servants’ rooms are hidden in the roof attic, and is significantly smaller compared to other rooms. The spaces under the roof are usually the coldest of hottest. Servants’ bodies become thermal insulation for the rest of the house. Meanwhile, the pantry and kitchen are located underground with low light access.The separation and unhealthy environmentFig. 18 Life on six floors in a wealthy Edwardian home, Edited by author, 202033343- Treating the invisibleIdentify the Invisible CoatArchitecture relies on endless labor to maintain. The ultimate goal of maintenance is to restore the built environment in the continually changing architectural space. It follows alongside the building till its end. Within crowded cities, maintenance becomes public while remaining unseen and invisible. Maintenance has its right to new technologies and thoughts. Many architects and designers have focused on methods to reveal the hidden stories of cleaning workers. New tools are invented to help with risky activities in window washing like PIRO’s Windoro bot and GEKKO’s Solar-panel-cleaning robot. Smart Façade shapes are designed to consider the dust and other environmental aspects. They study the program’s layout to promote a different connection model while tackling class and gender division. Automated self-cleaning tools aiming to free the cleaning works from architecture. All methodologies explore the “invisibilization” of the repetitive cleaning works in buildings through various focuses. The intervention of the toolsThe Lever House, built-in 1952, is the first building with a large curtain wall façade design. The building designed by SOM, located in midtown Manhattan, used to be the soap company’s headquarter. The configuration of the building consists of a tower above the open courtyard at its base. The all-glass façade meant that the building needed constant window washing to maintain its cleanliness while the interior is open-concept office space. The different interior and exterior concepts require workers to formulate different strategies for the interior and exterior. The exterior of the building ends up developed with a specific methodology. The motorized gondola is designed to clean the curtain walls better. The stainless steel mullions and tracks are built into the building façade for the gondola to move vertically. While the workers are cleaning the façade on the gondola, it draws attention from the public since it was the first window washing gondola seen on the building façade. In this way, the cleaning activities become an advertisement.35Figure 19. Lever House - Skidmore, Owings & Merrill - 1952, photo by Drew Dies.36Figure 21. The cleaning gondola, Operating at the Building Facade, From Maintenance architecture, Edited by author, 2020Figure 20. The cleaning gondola, From Maintenance architecture, Edited by author, 202037The self-clean houseFrance Gabe designed the first self-cleaning home in 1984. As an architect and artist, she believed that modern houses require too much maintenance to keep clean. The amount of housework is endless and repetitive. Cleaning workers or women who did all the housework are trapped, and it is unfair to have all works done by a certain body. The amount of labor involved in the houses is invisible and unequal. She then designed the world’s first self-cleaning house. The house utilizes 68 self-patented devices that washed and dried itself. Not only the walls and floors, but objects like clothes, dishes and a dog. The house is designed to collect water from the gutters and funnel it into pipes into overhead sprinklers installed in every room, as well as drain directly over the dog house. Within an hour, the rooms could be washed and dried. The house aims to reduce the amount of cleaning works by inventing a sufficient solution that frees the labor workers from ongoing works.Figure 22. The first self-cleaning home which employed the use of 68 self-patented devices, Fran-ces Gabe, 2002Spray ApparatusDrainage direction arrow3839The Hidden Story (Design project)Who cares? Who cleans?Who did all the dirty works for us?Where are they, and how do they live?The thesis explores the hidden story and spaces in architecture to help recognize the social and political issues faced by precarious workers.WHAT WE OFTEN IGNORED ...Floor ScrubberFloor PolishSignVacuumCleanerCleaning CartMop40We often ignored cleaning tools scattered at the corner, arranging from domestic to commercial, familiar to unfamiliar.Figure 23. What we often ignored, 2021.Figure 24. The display of cleaning tools, 2021.1269341Figure 25. Late night working bodies, 2021.Figure 27. Leonardo Da Vinci’s ‘Human Body’, 2021.Figure 26. Workers’ uniform, 2021.The body is viewed as a limited source, reproduction material. In factories, they are deconstructed and damaged by capitalist expansion. It’s all about efficiency and labor power.42Figure 28. Domestic workers in the crowd, 2021.The body is symbolic. Uniforms are forms of identity that communicate a body’s status, where society has an embodied habitus that reproduces class inequalities and separations. Workers often stand out from the crowd. But most of the time, they are invisible.43Figure 29. A worker cleaning in home, 2021.Figure 30. Workers in three different historical reproduction period, 2021.This invisibility hides in cleaning work, especially in domestic homes, where cleaning, mopping, whipping, cooking, washing and serving happens. The capitalist organization of social reproduction has undergone major historical shifts,  from the 19th-century regime of liberal competitive capitalism to large-scale production during the post-war and the present era of globalizing financial capitalism.17% Male83% FemaleDISTRIBUTION OF DOEMSTIC WORKERS BY SEX 201044Figure 31. Distribution of domestic workers by sex, 2021.Figure 32. The separation, 2021.The process of “social reproduction” has been cast as women’s work. And it is often women who do domestic works. Boundaries and walls are built, architectural spaces are separation between the servant and served. There is always separation in architectural spaces between domestic workers and owners. And it is not only limited to separation, but furthermore, it is hiding the work of these people assuming the unseen bodies never exist.45The Hidden Story|In|-visible --- A narrative to reveal the life of precarious workers inside hidden architecture spaces --- Graphic novel 4647Copyright © 2021 Yang Yang All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. For permission requests, write to the publisher, addressed “Attention: Permissions Coordinator,” at the address below. ISBN: 978-0-000000-0 (Paperback)ISBN: 978-0-000000-0 (Hardcover)Library of Congress Control Number: 20450714924Any references to historical events, real people, or real places are used fictitiously. Names, characters, and places are products of the author’s imagination.Front cover image by Yang Yang. Book design by Yang Yang.Printed by Doggy Inc., in Canada.First printing edition 2021.Publisher6333 Memorial Rd #402, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z2, Canadawww. precariousworkersrights.com484950No one cares about the tools that are scattered at the corner. No one noticed the late-night working bodies in offices. They sometimes wear uniforms or not, but we could always tell them apart.  Their bodies are viewed as limited source of reproduction materials. They are deconstructed and damaged by capitalist expansion. The bodies are labor machines and symbolic items.   Cleaning workers are often invisible, especially in domestic spaces where they are treated unequally. Most of the population who do domestic works are women who had a long history of undergoing social reproduction. In history, the capitalist organization of social reproduction has experienced major historical shifts.  It starts from the 19th-century regime of liberal competitive capitalism to large-scale factory production during post-war and the globalizing financial capitalism in the present era. There are always boundaries and walls between servant and served. These separations are documented and narrated in this book to discuss and investigate the architecture’s role. Introduction51525354555657585960616263646566676869707172The invisible crisis will not be resolved by thinker but deep transformation and recogonition of our society.737475BibliographyAnderson, Bridget. Doing the Dirty Work?: The Global Politics of Domestic Labour. 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