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Sustainable Aging Society : A Landscape Study of Global Demographic Change Wenting, Yang 2021-05

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Sustainable Aging SocietyA Landscape Study of Global Demographic ChangeWenting Yang Graduate ProjectLARC 5982020-2021GP1 Supervisor: Kees LokmanGP2 Supervisor: Kees LokmanAdvisor: Kees LokmanRelease FormLandscape ArchitectureSchool of Architecture and Landscape Architecture University of British ColumbiaName:UBC Student number:Graduate Project Title:Sustainable Aging SocietyA landscape study to Global Demographic ChangeIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may take this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws.Name                         Signature                             DateIVTable of ContentsList of FiguresAcknowledgementsAbstractThesis StatementLiterature Review           Global Situation  Current Ageing Situation  Working Ratio  Ageing Population Expenditure Situation  Social Life Characteristic Situation of Typical Senior   Physical Health  Dementia and Alzheimer Diseases  Loneliness  Low income  Function of Landscape   Healing Process  Accessible Structure	 	 Social	Benefits	Community	Garden  Relationship between Green and Senior lifeConclusionPrecedent Study Sanatorium Community: Takarazuka Sun City Sanatorium Self-Sufficient	Community	Farm:	Singapore	Farm	Housing  Community Park Design: Tongva Park and Ken Genser Square Community Street Design: Shyft	 Design	for	Specific	Users:	7csContext / Site Matters Burnaby Site Population Distribution Senior Income Senior Centre Distribution  Burnaby Edmonds Centre	 	 Land	Use	Condition   Housing Type	 	 	 Commercial	Use   Greenspace13571314141618202224262830303233343639404244464851525456565859606161V   Transportation  Site Map Conditon  Important locations    New Vista   Edmonds Centre   Gordon Presbyterian Church and Don’t go hungry   Street conditionProgrammatic Issue Principles Design InterventionDesign Proposal Daily Life Experiences ICBC reported crashes data Site Maps Site Interview of Design Consideration  MaterialsThree Design Site  Intersection of Edmonds and Canada Way.    Site Map   Site Condition   Key Design Criteria   Design Description   Site Plan   Sections   Rendering  Intersection between Mary Ave and New Vista Crescent   Site Map   Site Condition   Key Design Criteria   Design Description   Site Plan   Sections  Humphries Avenue with Edmonds Community Centre and Gordon Presbyterian Church    Site Map   Site Condition   Key Design Criteria   Design Description   Site Plan   Sections   RenderingProject ScheduleBibliography616264646464666970727576777880848686889090929498104104104106106108110112112114116116118120122127130VIList of FiguresFig.	1					The	factories	of	Saint	Chamond	(circa	1890),	AccampoFig.	2					The	Demographic	Transition,	England	and	Wales,	1541	to	2015	Fig.	3					Total	FertilityFig.	4					Life	expectancy	at	birth	(both	sexes	combined)Fig.	5					Population	by	broad	age	groupsFig.	6					Population	in	1950Fig.	7					Population	in	2100Fig.	8					See	the	‘super-aged‘	nations	2020Fig.	9					See	the	‘super-aged‘	nations	2030Fig.	10			Proportion	of	Children	14	and	under	and	people	65	and	older	in	CanadaFig.	11			The	Rising	RatioFig.	12				Relative	consumption	expenditure	of	households	with	a	reference	person	aged	≥60	years-	Food	and	non	alcohol-ic	beverages/	Housing,	water,	electricity,	gas	and	other	fuelsFig.	13				Relative	consumption	expenditure	of	households	with	a	reference	person	aged	≥60	years-	Furnishings,	house-hold equipment and routine household maintenance/ HealthFig.	14				Relative	consumption	expenditure	of	households	with	a	reference	person	aged	≥60	years-	Clothing	and	footwear/	TransportFig.	15				Relative	consumption	expenditure	of	households	with	a	reference	person	aged	≥60	years-	Communications/	Restaurant and hotelsFig.	16				People	aged	≥	50	years	spending	at	least	three	hours	per	week	on	physical	activity	outside	of	work,	by	age	classFig.	17				People	aged	≥	50	years	participating	in	cultural	and	/	or	sporting	events,	by	age	classFig.	18				Healthy	eyesFig.	19				Diabetic	eye	diseaseFig.	20				Cataracts/	blurry	visionFig.	21				Yellowing	of	the	eyesFig.	22				Peripheral	field	lossFig.	23				Central	Field	lossFig.	24				Dementia	Village,NewsFig.	25				Vancouver	Island	Dementia	Village,	NewsFig.	26				Greater	Washington	Dementia	Friendly	Town,	NewsFig.	27				Canada’s	First	Dementia	Village,IBIFig.	28				Households	unable	to	face	unexpected	financial	expenses,	by	type	of	householdFig.	29				Two	different	living	environments	in	the	hospitalFig.	30				Methods	of	reducing	glare	from	surfacesFig.	31				Community	garden	with	seniors	and	kidsFig.	32				Tool	boxFig.	33				Sun	City	Takarazuka	CourtyardFig.	34				Sun	City	Takarazuka	LandscapeFig.	35				Deck	Level,	Home	FarmFig.	36				Biomass	Plants,	Home	FarmFig.	37				Aerial	View	towards	the	See,	Tongva	Park	and	Ken	Genser	SquareFig.	38				Observation	Hill,	Tongva	Park	and	Ken	Genser	SquareFig.	39				Intersection,	ShyftFig.	40				Street,	ShyftFig.	41				Title	Page,	Outdoor	Play	Canada	Fig.	42				Outdoor	Play	CanadaFig.	43				Partial	Metro	Vancouver	Site	MapFig.	44				Burnaby	Demographic	Information,1892-2041,	DiagramFig.	45				Burnaby	Demographic	Data,	DiagramFig.	46				Distribution	(%)	of	the	population	by	age	group:	65	year	and	over,	85	years	and	over,	DiagramFig.	47				Most	Common	Home	Language	in	Burnaby,	DiagramFig.	48				Burnaby	Site	Analysis,	DiagramFig.	49				BC	mapFig.	50				Social	House,	PhotoFig.	51				Affordable	Senior	Houses,	PhotoFig.	52				Single	Family,	PhotoFig.	53				Condos,	PhotoFig.	54				Site	Use	Analysis,	PhotoFig.	55				Site	Plan	and	Site	Images,	PhotoFig.	56				New	Vista,	PhotoFig.	57				Edmonds	Community	Centre,	PhotoFig.	58				Gordon	Presbyterian	Church	,	PhotoFig.	59				Don’t	Go	Hungry	,	PhotoFig.	60				Site	Map	DiagramFig.	61				Laneway,	PhotoFig.	62				Edmonds	Park,	Photo1VIIFig.	63				New	Vista	Crescent	,	PhotoFig.	64				Edmonds	park,	PhotoFig.	65				A	grocery	on	Edmond	street,	Photo	and	DiagramFig.	66				Gordon	Presbyterian	Church	and	Humphries	Avenue,		Photo	and	DiagramFig.	67				Self	Sufficiency,	IllustrationFig.	68				Accessibility,	IllustrationFig.	69				Equity,	IllustrationFig.	70				Social	Engagement,	IllustrationFig.	71				Design	Intervention,	DiagramFig.	72				Daily	Life	Experiences,	DiagramFig.	73				Daily	Life	Experiences,	MapFig.	74				ICBC	Crashes	Report,	TableFig.	75				Site	map,	MapFig.	76				A	participant	reviewed	images,	PhotoFig.	77				Questionnaire	and	result,	TableFig.	78				Design	consideration	board	1	with	result,	PhotoFig.	79				Design	consideration	board	2	with	result,	PhotoFig.	80				Result	Analysis	Diagram,	DiagramFig.	81				Key	Words	Diagram,	DiagramFig.	82				Touchable	plants	with	wider	pathways	and	accessible	materials,	PhotoFig.	83				Wood	structure,	PhotoFig.	84				Sunlight	with	shadows,	PhotoFig.	85				Colourful	plants,	PhotoFig.	86				Waving	pathway	with	semi-private	pathway,	PhotoFig.	87				Open-space,	PhotoFig.	88				Seating	on	street,	PhotoFig.	89				Large	social	area,	PhotoFig.	90				Exterior	lounge,	PhotoFig.	91				Water	feature,	PhotoFig.	92				Public	mini	sport	area,	PhotoFig.	93				Wood	Structure,	PhotoFig.	94				Green	Parking	Lot,	PhotoFig.	95				Anti-slip	Paving,	PhotoFig.	96				Running	Track,	PhotoFig.	97				Google	Satellite	Site	Map,	ImageFig.	98				Intersection	on	Edmonds	and	Canada	Way,	Site	MapFig.	99				Sidewalk,	Photo,	Look	NorthwestFig.	100		School	green	spaces,	Image,	Look	South	WestFig.	101			Undeveloped	area,	image,	Look	NortheastFig.	102			Plaza,	Photo,	Look	NorthwestFig.	103			Gas	station,	Photo,	Look	NorthFig.	104			Parking	lot	in	the	front	yard	of	Harmony	Court,	Photo,	Look	WestFig.	105			Rendering	Canada	Way	with	Plaza,	Face	NorthwestFig.	106			Site	Plan,	PlanFig.	107			Canada	Way,	Section	(A	A’),	Look	NorthwestFig.	108			Edmonds	Street,	Section	(B	B’)	Look	SouthwestFig.	109			Garden	and	Green	Buffer	in	front	of	Harmony	Court	on	Canada	Way,	RenderingFig.	110			Plaza	with	Benches,	RenderingFig.	111			Community	Garden	in	the	Front	of	Harmony	Court,	RenderingFig.	112			Vista	Crescent,	Site	MapFig.	113			Mary	Ave,	Image,	Look	EastFig.	114			Mary	Ave,	Image,	Look	EastFig.	115			Vista	Crescent,	Image,	Look	NortheastFig.	116			Vista	Crescent,	Face	Northwest,	RenderingFig.	117			Site	Plan,	PlanFig.	118			New	Vista,	Section	(A	A’),	Look	NortheastFig.	119			Google	Satellite	Site	MapFig.	120			Humphries	Avenue	with	Edmonds	Community	Centre	and	Gordon	Presbyterian	Church,	Site	MapFig.	121			Edmonds	Center	Parking	Lot,	Photo,	Look	Southwest	Fig.	122			Gordon	Presbyterian	Church	Parking	Lot,	Photo,	Look	NorthFig.	123			Humphries	Avenue,	Photo,	Look	NortheastFig.	124			Humphries	Avenue,	Photo,	Look	NortheastFig.	125			Rendering	on	Humphries	Avenue	Plaza	Next	to	Edmonds	Community	Centre,	Face	West,	RenderingFig.	126			Site	Plan,	PlanFig.	127			Humphries	Avenue,	Face	Southwest,	SectionFig.	128			Humphries	Avenue,	Face	West,	Rendering2VIII3IXI would like to thank my mother and my dog for supporting me at this particular time.I would also like to thank my supervisor Kees Lokman for all his support and encouragement during this long journey.  His kindness and inspirational thoughts will lead me to my career goals.Thank you, Fionn Byrne, for providing valuable feedback on my theoretical review.I would also like to thank all my classmates and SALA alumni, especially Huijing Chen and Tian Fang, who provided me with many great ideas. To Natasha De Vries, thank you for supporting me and providing regular virtual peer reviews this year.  To Sonia Jin, Christen Oakes, and Chris Rothery, thank you for providing thoughtful edits and great feedback and advice.Finally, thank you to all the Edmonds Community Centre residents whom I met this spring and who participated in my questionnaire.Acknowledgements445AbstractPopulation aging provides challenges and opportunities for societies and landscape architecture all over the world.  By analyzing a scenario of an aging society, landscape architects can find new theoretical and practical approaches to develop a sustainable  landscape community design which can help seniors living in urbanized cities.  Many cities have started to plan and develop a dementia-friendly society; therefore, aging-friendly design will be a trend in the future.  This design trend encourages landscape architects to broaden their design lens to include design of senior friendly cities. This thesis aims to create a new typology of landscape design for ageing societies, to provide accessible and friendly communities for all ages of people.67Thesis Statement8The world’s current proportion of aging population is unprecedented in human history. According to Patrick Condon’s book Five Rule of Tomorrow Cities, this demographic change is due to the 19th Century movement of farmers into cities, and the following increase in urbanization globally (Condon, 15). During this period, the Industrial Revolution began in West, and fertility rates dropped down significantly. The figure 2 shows the fertility rate of England and Wales over the past 500 years. The birth rate has remained close to the death rate after the year 1900, so population replacement becomes difficult, although there is a short period of “baby boom” in the 1960s (15). This demographic change is likely to continue because the urbanization is an ongoing global trend (12).When we zoom out to the entire world, Global fertility rates United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population DivisionWorld Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles 3WorldMedium-variant projections for 2020-2100 are shown as thin coloured lines, and uncertainty is shown in lighter shades for 95 per cent prediction intervals.United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population DivisionWorld Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles 3WorldMedium-variant projections for 2020-2100 are shown as thin coloured lines, and uncertainty is shown in lighter shades for 95 per cent prediction intervals.Figure 4: © 2019 by United Nations, ade available under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 3.0 IGO). United Nations,DESA, Population Division, World Population Prospects 2019. https://population.un.org/wpp/Figure 3: © 2019 by United Nations, made available under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 3.0 IGO). United Nations,DESA, Population Division, World Population Prospects 2019. https://population.un.org/wpp/Figure 1: The factories of Saint Chamond (circa 1890),  Accampo, Elinor. Industrialization, Family Life, and Class Relations: Saint Chamond, 1815-1914. Berkeley:  University of California Press,  c1989 1989. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8f59p261/9United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population DivisionWorld Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles 1World2019Total population (billions)....................................... 7.7Percentage of population under age 15................... 25.6Percentage of population aged 15-24...................... 15.6Percentage of population aged 25-64...................... 49.7Percentage of population aged 65+......................... 9.1Potential support ratio (persons 25-64 per 65+) ..... 5.5Annual rate of population change (percentage) ...... 1.1Crude birth rate per 1,000 population ..................... 18.2Total fertility (live births per woman)..................... 2.45Crude death rate per 1,000 population.................... 7.6Infant mortality (1q0) per 1,000 live births ............ 28Under-five mortality (5q0) per 1,000 live births .... 38Life expectancy at birth (years) .............................. 72.6Life Expectancy at age 65 (years)........................... 17.1Medium-variant projections for 2020-2100 are shown as thin coloured lines, and uncertainty is shown in lighter shades for 95 per cent prediction intervals.Figure 5: © 2019 by United Nations, made available under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 3.0 IGO). United Nations,DESA, Population Division, World Population Prospects 2019. https://population.un.org/wpp/(Figure 3) have dropped and world life expectancy (Figure 4) has risen over the past few decades. Furthermore, the future predicted interval of fertility rates gradually declines to 2.1 by 2035 (Figure 4).  Comparing the figures of World Population in 1950 (Figure 6) and 2100 (Figure 7), the shape of population structure is changed from a pyramid to an onion form. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), a fertility rate of 2.1 children per women is the standard to stabilize population growth (OECD). More specifically, a fertility rate lower than 2.1 is an indicator of an aging society. Currently, this scenario is centralized in Europe, North America and East Asia. Figure 2: Death rate per 1,000 people, Wrigley and Schofield (1981) “The Population History of England: A Reconstruction”; Brian Mitchell - International Historical Statistics (2010); UK ONS (2016) Brian Mitchell: http://www.eui.eu/Research/Library/ResearchGuides/Economics/Statistics/DataPortal/IHS.aspx#Access; UK ONS: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/Birth rate per 1,000 people Wrigley and Schofield (1981) “The Population History of England: A Reconstruction”; Brian Mitchell - International Historical Statistics (2010); UK ONS (2016), B r i a n Mitchell: http://www.eui.eu/Research/Library/ResearchGuides/Economics/Statistics/DataPortal/IHS.aspx#Access; UK ONS: https://www.ons.gov.uk/p e o p l e p o p u l a t i o n a n d c o m m u n i t y /birthsdeathsandmarriages/10There are many problems that come along with an ageing population. Nursing homes won’t be able to accommodate and assist the large number of seniors in a given area. After the Coronavirus pandemic spread out in Metro Vancouver from March 2020, seniors care centres quickly became the most severely impacted areas.In fact, the first person in Canada to die from COVID-19 was an 83-year-old man from Vancouver’s Lynn Valley Care Center (Hager). Later in that month, staff and residents in Figure 6: © 2019 by United Nations, made available under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 3.0 IGO). United Nations,DESA, Population Division, World Population Prospects 2019. https://population.un.org/wpp/United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division2 World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic ProfilesWorldMedium-variant projections for 2020-2100 are shown as thin coloured lines, and uncertainty is shown in lighter shades for 95 per cent prediction intervals.another two long-term care centres reported positive test results (Little).We can feel how hard it is for seniors to take care of themselves at the care centre in this special time.Designers should focus their attention on creating accessible design for aging populations to relieve pressure on medical resources and improve quality of life for seniors. The responsibility of caring for aging populations rests on us all, so accessible design should be encouraged as a part of our everyday life.11United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division2 World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic ProfilesWorldMedium-variant projections for 2020-2100 are shown as thin coloured lines, and uncertainty is shown in lighter shades for 95 per cent prediction intervals.Figure 7: © 2019 by United Nations, made available under a Creative Commons license (CC BY 3.0 IGO). United N tions,DESA, Population Division, World Population Prospects 2019. https://population.un.org/wpp/Presently, landscape designs specifically for seniors have focused on designing healing gardens. In the aging society, it is important to have landscape design and research for an aged population suffering from loneliness, poverty and chronic mental and physical disorders as well. As designers, we can provide accessible spaces for connection to each other and the outdoor environment. My thesis will intervene and propose new ways in which design can create a better urban environment for the elders and urban network in the future community. Accessible outdoor space can create a central social structure of landscape which allows seniors to socialize with others, and the social core atmosphere is branching out to streets and neighbourhood. On a deeper level, the type of design is accessible for seniors, which means access for all people. This binary design will create a cohesive force which brings neighbourhoods and elders together and the proposed landscape typology and design methods can be used as a model for all other aging societies.13Literature Review14Current Aging SituationThere are three-levels for categorizing aging society: Aging, Aged and Super-aged society. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United  Nations, when the proportion of people aged 65 years or older is more than 7%, the society enters an “aging society” (Tahara, 1102). Once the proportion is over 14%, it is considered “aged society” (1102). When the proportion of aged 65 years or older is over 21% in the total population, this is called “super-aged society” (1102). Today, except Japan, all twelve super-aged societies are in Europe (Figure 8). The data from Moody’s Investors Service, UN data forecasts that, by 2030, 34 nations are likely to have 20% of their population over 65 years old (Figure 9) (See the ‘super-aged’ nations). From the above data, this trend of an aging society is not localized in a small number of countries. It is a global phenomenon, not limited to all developing and some developed countries. On Figure 10, a line graph illustrates that the proportion of the population who is 65 years older exceeds the population who is aged 0 to 14 from 2016 in Canada. Is the Canadian urban structure prepared and ready to embrace challenges faced because of demographic change?Global Situation15Figure 8: See the ‘super-aged‘ nations 2020. Source: Moody’s Investors Service, UN data; Map:CNNMoneyFigure 9: See the ‘super-aged‘ nations 2030.Source: Moody’s Investors Service, UN data; Map:CNNMoneyFigure 10: Census 2016: Canada’s seniors outnumber its children for first time in survey history.(2017). The Globe and Mail, Source: Statscan, 2016 Census16may cause economic growth to slow down in aging societies. For example, one study examining the impact of aging societies on economic growth estimates that OECD countries will gradually decline in economic growth between 2005-2050 to 2.1% per year, rather than 2.8% which is estimated basic on economic growth from 1960 -2005 (Bloom,19). In these countries, numbers of business activities slow down and job opportunities reduce which can cause young workers to migrate and the vicious cycle of recession. In addition, less workforce may cause the government to decide to “increase the age of retirement” (Jones). When people get old, some of them may “have at least one [or Working RatioLabour is an important element for productivity growth in all societies. However, demographic change has altered the working-age ratio. (Figure 11). After 40 years, in most countries, the ratio of aged 65 years and older to working-age is 1:2. This means people who are available work are only two times the number of people who are over 65 years old. Some of the countries such as Korea, Poland, Spain and Japan are about 4:5, which means a population of labour is almost equal to people who are over 65 years old.  Globally, this profound demographic change may affect capital flow which means countries that have a younger workforce have higher support from investors. This 17Figure 11: Jones K. (2020). The Rising Ratio. visualcapitalist.com, Source: OECDmore] chronic [disorders] and require expensive, long-term care” (Jones). Deferral of legislative retirement age affects people who have potential health problems which reduce their quality of life. This can also increase the cost of living and pressure for their families. Moreover, the reduced number of taxpayers in the whole society may cause the remaining working population to pay higher taxes (Jones) or create a government deficit to support the aging population. Thus, we can see the aging society is a situation for all individuals. Although we cannot change the phenomenon immediately, user friendly designs may assist the society to adapt to the demographic change.18The information represented in Figure 12–15 display one of the financial features in the aging society: that seniors have higher health care and daily costs, and they spend less money on their appearances, transportation, communication, and entertainment. Consequently, people aged 60 or older have less shopping desire. This decrease of customer needs and purchasing power will act to slow the economy down. As landscape designers, we should consider more design opportunities to benefit the public such as solar panels, community gardens, water recycling, and eco-friendly materials. Additionally, we must recognize that the local economic structure will change, and entrepreneurs will invest in particular types of businesses which adapt to the needs of the senior population. This single job demand may cause the loss of other types of skilled workers. Therefore, the users of landscape will include the health care workers and staff of long term care facilities. Healing gardens will assist them to relieve pressure from everyday nursing services. Moreover, they spend less on the social expenses; this means the desires of social need are changed because they may more carefully consider financial issues, illness and safety of travel to distant destinations. This consideration creates an opportunity for landscape architects to design experiential exterior environments within domestic distance.Aging Population Expenditure Situation195Pensions, income and expenditureAgeing Europe — looking at the lives of older people in the EU  119Figure 5.20: Relative consumption expenditure of households with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively high levels of consumption for older people, 2015(%, relative to the share for all households = 100)50100150200EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayFood and non-alcoholic beverages50100150200EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayHousing, water, electricity, gas and other fuelsNote: the four consumption items shown are those where households in the EU with a reference person aged ≥60 years spent a disproportionally high share of their total expenditure (when compared with all households).(1) 2010.Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)5 Pensions, income and expenditure  Ageing Europe — looking at the lives of older people in the EU120Figure 5.20 (continued): Relative consumption expenditure of households with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively high levels of consumption for older people, 2015(%, relative to the share for all households = 100)50100150200EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayFurnishings, household equipment and routine household maintenance50100150200EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayHealthNote: the four consumption items shown are those where households in the EU with a reference person aged ≥60 years spent a disproportionally high share of their total expenditure (when compared with all households).(1) 2010.Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)5Pensions, income and expenditureAgeing Europe — looking at the lives of older people in the EU  121Figure 5.21: Relative consumption expenditure of households with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively low levels of consumption for older people, 2015(%, relative to the share for all households = 100)0255075100125EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayClothing and footwear0255075100125EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayTransportNote: the four consumption items shown are those where households in the EU with a reference person aged ≥60 years spend a disproportionally low share of their total expenditure (when compared with all households), excluding education.(1) 2010.Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)5 Pensions, income and expenditure Ageing Europe — looking at the lives of older people in the EU122Figure 5.21 (continued): Relative consumption expenditure of households with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively low levels of consumption for older people, 2015(%, relative to the share for all households = 100)0255075100125EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayCommunications0255075100125EU-28BelgiumBulgariaCzechiaDenmark (1 )GermanyEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpainFrance (1)CroatiaItalyCyprusLatviaLithuaniaLuxembourgHungaryMaltaNetherlandsAustriaPolandPortugalRomaniaSloveniaSlovakiaFinlandSwedenUnited KingdomNorwayRestaurants and hotelsNote: the four consumption items shown are those where households in the EU with a reference person aged ≥60 years spend a disproportionally low share of their total expenditure (when compared with all households), excluding education.(1) 2010.Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)Figur  12: Relative co sumption expe diture of househol s with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively high levels of consumption for older people, 2015. Ageing Europe. (2019). Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)Figur  14: Relative co sumption expe diture of househol s with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively high levels of consumption for older people, 2015. Ageing Europe. (2019). Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)Figur  13: Relative co sumption expe diture of househol s with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively high levels of consumption for older people, 2015. Ageing Europe. (2019). Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)Figur  15: Relative co sumption expe diture of househol s with a reference person aged ≥60 years — relatively high levels of consumption for older people, 2015. Ageing Europe. (2019). Source: Eurostat (online data codes: hbs_str_t225 and hbs_str_t211)Comparison of Comsumption Options for aged 60 years and over( , relative to the share for all households = 100)(%, relative to the share for all useholds = 100)( , relative to the share for all households = 100)(%, relative to the share for all useholds = 100)20Social Life  Frequency of participation in physical and cultural activities are altered with age. For instance, from Figures 16 and 17, the majority of seniors engage in less physical activity as they grow old because of increased encounters with illness, disease and weakness. In Germany, unlike other European countries, the proportion of German residents who are involved with outdoor physical activity is increasing from 60.4% (65-74 years old) to 60.8% (over 75 years old). In contrast, a decline in physical activity is seen across the rest of Europe (Eurostat,129). Furthermore, in Figure 17, we can see the amount of recreational participation decreases as people grow older. A 2015 Aging Europe report described the reason of the phenomenon as being  “a range of issues, including not having any interest; not having transport; poor health; lower levels of income; or living away from urban centres (where a majority of events take place)”(130). The reasons do not reveal seniors being unwilling to socialize and participate in events. However, anxiety and absence of self-reliance limit elders to develop the ranges and radius of activities. This effect causes seniors to lack enough physical activities and sport exercises every day, which limits the elders’ health physically and mentally. Therefore, adjacent outdoor places are required to provide accessible living areas adjacent to home, for seniors to enjoy. 21Figure 16:  People aged ≥ 50 years spending at least three hours per week on physical activity outside of work, by age class, 2017. Ageing Europe. (2019). Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_hch07)Figure 17: People aged ≥ 50 years participating in cultural and / or sporting events, by age class, 2015.(% participating at least once in the previous 12 months). Ageing Europe. (2019). Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_scp01)6 Social life and opinions Ageing Europe — looking at the lives of older people in the EU130Older people participating in cultural activitiesCulture can enhance the quality of life: it provides an opportunity to engage with the world and may promote feelings of belonging, thereby contributing to well-being. The information presented below relates to a 2015 ad-hoc module that formed part of the EU survey on income and living conditions.More than one third of people aged 75 years or more participated in cultural/sporting eventsParticipation in cultural and/or sporting events tends to decline as the population gets older. This may be linked to a range of issues, including: not having any interest; not having transport; poor health; lower levels of income; or living away from urban centres (where a majority of events take place).In 2015, almost two thirds (62.9 %) of the EU-28 population aged 50-64 years participated in cultural and/or sporting events (at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey); lower shares were recorded for people aged 65-74 years (56.7 %) and for people aged 75 years or more (37.6 %). This pattern of falling participation rates for older people was repeated in each of the EU Member States, other than a marginal increase in the participation rate for people aged 65-74 years in the Netherlands (see Figure 6.2).Figure 6.2: People aged ≥50 years participating in cultural and/or sporting events, by age class, 2015(% participating at least once in the previous 12 months)0102030405060708090100EU-28SwedenNetherlandsDenmarkFinlandLuxembourgFranceAustriaUnited KingdomGermanyIrelandCzechiaSloveniaBelgiumEstoniaSlovakiaLatviaPortugalLithuaniaSpainPolandCyprusHungaryMaltaGreeceItalyCroatiaBulgariaRomaniaIcelandNorwaySwitzerland50-64 years 65-74 years ≥75 yearsNote: cultural and sporting events are defined as trips to the cinema, live performances (theatre, music concerts, ballet), trips to cultural sites (historical monuments, museums, art galleries or archaeological sites) or sporting events. The figure is ranked on the share of the adult population (aged ≥16 years) participating in cultural and/or sporting events.Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_scp01)% 6Social life and opinionsAgeing Europe — looking at the lives of older people in the EU  129Figure 6.1: People aged ≥50 years spending at least three hours per week on physical activity outside of work, by age class, 2017(%)0102030405060708090EU-28 (1 )Estonia (2 )Slovakia (2)DenmarkNetherlandsSwedenUnited Kingdom (2)IrelandFinlandSloveniaGermanySpainPolandBulgariaCzechiaFranceItalyLithuania (2 )GreeceCyprusLatviaBelgiumHungaryRomaniaAustriaPortugalMaltaCroatiaNorway50-64 years 65-74 years ≥75 yearsNote: Luxembourg, not available. Th  figure is ranked on the share of the adult population (aged ≥16 years) spending at least three hours per week on physical activity outside of work.(1) Estimates.(2) Low reliability.Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_hch07)In most of the Member States, the share of people aged 75 years or more spending at least three hours per week on physical activity was lower than the share for people aged 65-74 years, reflecting increasing levels of illness, disease and frailty among older people. However, a different pattern was observed in Germany: as the share of people aged 75 years or more spending at least three hours per week on physical activity (60.8 %) was not only marginally higher than the share for people aged 65-74 years (60.4 %) but also higher than the average for the whole of the adult population (54.4 %).% 22Physical Health Senses such as vision and hearing become weaker as people grow older. Also most seniors often experience the problem of being housebound. These situations require specific design modifications for the living environment. First of all, blindness and impaired eyesight (Figure 16-21) require landscape designers to effectively use colour, shape and size with clear contrast to allow seniors to have more abilities to distinguish the landscape space (Wei,12). Furthermore, signs need to be clear and easy to identify and read (Zhou,24). Eyesight deterioration and disease with age present severe problems like lack of peripheral vision. From these two issues, we can see how the eyesight can affect people’s ability to way find. Secondly, hearing loss means that people require a quiet and close environment to communicate. Another issue associated with the hearing problem makes it difficult Characteristic Situation of Typical Senior for people to maintain their balance, causing them to fall more quickly than others. Moreover, “one of most common, and often the most restricting disabilities experienced by elderly people is reduced mobility: Elderly people often walk slowly and cautiously, some my shuffle” (Stoneham, 4). Therefore, reduced mobility and housebound residents need flat top thresholds and cannot walk without handrails. In some cases, uneven or unpaved streets and roads cause seniors to lose the opportunity to explore and interact with the world outside of their community. Finally, most seniors suffer from chronic disease such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, arthritis, etc. Landscape designs should include better environments for safe physical activities. For example, the study shows the people who are walking 30 minutes a day can reduce by 19% risk of chronic 23diseases. Walking can also prevent seniors from Coronary heart diseases ( Zheng,181). Thus, to improve the physical health of elders requires a developed health care system and a walkable environment to accommodate seniors.Figure 18-23: Drew, Susan. Designing for an Aging Population. YouTube, January 10, 2020. https://youtu.be/XPOsRwHD7L8Figure 18Figure 21Figure 19Figure 22Figure 20Figure 23Health Eye and Five Impaired Eyesights24Dementia and Alzheimer’s dis-ease can lead to mental problems such as memory loss, reduced cog-nitive functions, self-oriented disor-der, and reduced communication and logical thinking skills (Mooney, P, 24). The article from the Economist indi-cates that dementia affects over 50 million people in the world today, and the number is consistently increasing. About 1.7% of people who are 65 to 69 years old suffer dementia, and until 90 years old, the proportion of new cas-es “doubles every five years” (Long,3). These irreversible diseases need more care and support, so it adds pressure on both patients and their families. Es-pecially in 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, seniors with dementia have faced huge challenges. Their cognitive ability is further reduced due to the re-duction of social contacts. Until April, the number of dementia patients who died was “second only to COVID-19” (3) patients. Seniors who are unpro-tected from illness and many live with chronic diseases are particularly vul-nerable to COVID-19 as they have dif-ficulty remembering to keep socially distanced.  Although  landscape architec-ture cannot treat Dementia and Alzhei-mer’s diseases, it can help to reduce stress and help patients improve quali-ty of their daily lives. For example, in the study of Alzheimer residences’ outdoor environment which was researched by Patrick Mooney, a professor at SALA in the University of British Columbia, “circular and loop corridors and walk-ways minimize frustration” because elders can continue their walking and finding their home (Mooney, P, 29). As we can see, the landscape plays an important role in assisting Dementia patients to interact with nature and ex-terior environments. Except this worth research and study, Municipal plan-ners also pay attention to the living environment of patients suffering from dementia in this decade. For example, The Village Langley is Canada’s First Dementia Village. According to IBI ar-chitecture company, the purpose of Dementia and Alzheimer Diseases25the design is “specifically to enable people with dementia to live their lives as fully and freely as possible.” (IBI). Along with this design innovation built, Vancouver, Vancouver Island and Se-attle also started to make Dementia Friendly city and communities which mean the accessible urban structure is a consensus in the future design. For instance, “Way finding is a key” (Katz), so the new proposal mobilizes human senses and community interaction. The sign of navigation can be recog-nized by touch, sight and sound. The staff at the stores have been trained to assist dementia patients when they ask for help (Katz). This complete ur-ban structure of build elements and community can encourage Dementia residents to increase their societal ac-tivities which creates an earlier inter-vention environment. Fig. 24 Featured Stories +Archive, Providence Health Care, [News],[photography]. January 25, 2019. https://www.providencehealthcare.org/news/20190125/provi-dence-begins-delivering-dementia-village-care-now-anticipation-bricks-and-mortarFig. 25 Checknews, [News],[photography].January 10, 2019. https://www.cheknews.ca/vancouver-islands-first-dementia-village-planned-for-the-comox-val-ley-526416/Fig. 26 Katz, Jonathan Paul. Good urban design can make Greater Washington more dementia-friendly. Greater Greater Washington [news] October 27, 2020. Eytan, Ted. (2020). The Wharf [photography] https://www.flickr.com/photos/taedc/50536358906/in/dateposted/Fig. 27 IBI. (2019)Canada’s First Dementia Village .(Photography) https://www.ibigroup.com/ibi-insights/canadas-first-dementia-village/Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 2726LonelinessDue to the different marital statuses, many seniors are single, divorced, separated or widowed and live alone. These solo seniors have more difficulties in life than seniors who live with family. For example, the Eurostat report indicated that “older people (aged 65 years or more) living alone in the EU-28, [the 27 European countries and the United Kingdom], were less able (38.0%) than the average for all households to face unexpected financial expenses, while households composed of two adults (at least one of which was aged 65 years or more) were less likely to experience such difficulties (23.4 %)” (Eurostat, 123). The Figure 28 reveals that all these counties, without exception, face the same situation. Besides, elders who have lived alone are at high risk of mortality, approximately 7.5 years higher than seniors who have stronger social connections (Valtorta, 520). Also, the numbers of solo residents are increasing when people grow older. Therefore, solo seniors need more attention from societies and designers. Furthermore, “people who live alone or lack social contacts may be at increased risk of death if acute symptoms develop 27because there is less of a network of confidantes to prompt medical attention” (Steptoe). Unknown futures can make people experience feelings of nervousness, depression, and loneliness. Social ties to the living environment is important to protect people from emergencies. Thus, the accessible landscape can allow seniors who live alone to be visited and connect with people easily. 5Pensions, income and expenditureAgeing Europe — looking at the lives of older people in the EU  123Figure 5.22: Households unable to face unexpected financial expenses, by type of household, 2017(%)0102030405060708090EU-28LatviaCroatiaBulgariaGreeceRomaniaLithuaniaCyprusIrelandItalySloveniaPortugalSpainEstoniaPolandSlovakiaUnited KingdomHungaryFranceGermanyFinlandCzechiaBelgiumDenmarkNetherlandsAustriaLuxembourgSwedenMaltaIceland (1 )SwitzerlandNorwayHouseholds with one adult aged ≥65 yearsAll householdsHouseholds with two adults, at least one aged ≥65 years(1) 2016.Source: Eurostat (online data code: ilc_mdes04)More than one third of all older people living alone was unable to face unexpected financial expensesWhile financial resources are the main factor in determining the risk of poverty, the focus for measuring material deprivation is on being able to afford/the enforced inability (rather than choice) to pay for a range of basic products and services; many of these products and services are considered necessary for a normal standard of living.In 2017, around one third (33.8 %) of all EU-28 households were unable to face unexpected financial expenses (3). Older people (aged 65 years or more) living alone in the EU-28 were less able (38.0 %) than the average for all households to face unexpected financial (3) Note that within the survey for EU statistics on income and living conditions (EU-SILC) there may be some variation between countries in terms of the unexpected financial expenses that are covered — examples include financing medical surgery, a funeral, a house repair, or replacing consumer durables such as a new washing machine or a car.expenses, while households composed of two adults (at least one of which was aged 65 years or more) were less likely to experience such difficulties (23.4 %).Figure 5.22 shows that in those EU Member States where a relatively high share of all households was unable to face unexpected financial expenses in 2017, it was common to find that households with older people faced even greater difficulties. On the other hand, in those Member States where a relatively low proportion of all households were unable to face unexpected financial expenses — principally across western and Nordic Member States — it was commonplace for an even lower share of households composed of older people to face such difficulties.Figure 28: Households unable to face unexpected financial expenses, by type of household, 2017. Ageing Europe. (2019). Source: Eurost t (online data code: ilc_scp01)28Low incomeFinancial issues affect peoples’ health and well-being. The Canada Health Act does not include essential services, such as “human support, residential care, prescription medication, community mental health, vision and dental care” (Ivanova, 42) for high needs groups in Canada. Low-income seniors’ health care expenses, thus, will fall on seniors’ families (42). The financial pressure causes younger generations difficulties in following their chosen career paths. Also, low-income seniors have a high risk of food insecurity. J.C. Herbert Emery, a professor in the Department of Economics at the University of Calgary, had a study about the increased legislated age of federal pension income in Canada, and how it will affect low income seniors’ health in 2013. In this article, he revealed the importance of seniors’ benefits, which help low income seniors who are 65 years and over decrease their 50% risk of food insecurity from 11.6% vs 22.8%, who were less than 65 years old and relied 29on a “employment, employment insurance and worker compensation or welfare” (Emery, 963). These financial issues may cause poor conditions of health from malnutrition and illness, and it carries a high risk of mortality. On the other hand, the low income seniors have high risk of mental stress. For example, people who are “reliant on conditional income sources such as Employment Insurance/ Workers’ Compensation/ Special Assistance… [suffer] stress brought on by stigma, marginalization and feelings of disempowerment and hopelessness” (McIntyre,180). During these processes, seniors can lose a sense of human dignity, virtually suffering from poor physical and mental health in a dependent and tragic environment. 30Healing ProcessHealing is essential for all humans. Agnes E. Van den Berg who is an associate professor and senior researcher at Wageningen University and Research Center conducted research relating the stress release impact between reading and gardening. In this study, participants were asked to do a saliva sample by chewing a special cotton swab for a minute to analyze the salivary cortisol levels. The research was collected over three different time periods: before, after and during the activities (Van den Berg, 5). According to Van den Berg’s 30 minute test, the participants who were gardening released stress sooner than people who were reading indoors (3). This shows that people should be encouraged to go outside and visit the landscape. In addition, Ulrich’s study tested the relationship between windows overlooking nature and recovery stages after medical operations. The patients who lived close to windows used drugs with less analgesic strength, spent less time in the hospital, and had fewer negative comments from medical workers than wall view patients (Ulrich, 421). These results describe the relationship between humans and nature. Humans are a part of nature and need Function of Landscape31nature. In the book Planting Design, Patrick Mooney describes rules of the healing process identified in the landscape: “fascination, extent, be away, and compatibility” for the human experience. Based on this theory of landscape design, people have a greater chance to release stress in their daily life. (Mooney, 38). As a landscape architect, to reference landscape techniques can make the sensory experiences rational and logical. Figure 29: Two different living environments in the hospital, Illustrated by Author.32Accessible StructureLandscape architects must consider the accessibility of different built elements for seniors, including walkways, lighting, and seating. Walkable pathways must also consider width, gradient, slopes, and curbs. With careful and thoughtful design of spaces, slopes, structures that are accessible, people move frequently which increase the opportunities for social interaction and engagement between individuals. In addition, the walkable pathway can provide free exercise opportunities for low income seniors. Glare from sun reflected on the hard surfaces can hurt people’s eyes (Stoneham, 50), so designer can select “tarmac” (60), “wood”, “expos-bonded resin aggregate”(61) which are non glare materials. Also, tall structures can also help provide shade in the area such as “trees, pergolas or parasols” (51). Additionally, the seating area can provide spaces both private and social, for people with disabilities and families with baby carriages. Furthermore, handrails and hand grips on walls, furniture and planting beds also help seniors to access the space and motivate them to interact with nature. These furnishing design considerations can help designers create public spaces that are accessible and enjoyable for seniors and other people.Figure 30: Methods of reducing glare from surfaces Stoneham, Jane, Landscape Design for Elderly & Disabled People pp. 51. re-illustrated by Author.33 Social Benefits Community GardenThe social environment of gardening provides spaces for low-income residents to build up extra income which releases pressure on the government. Participating in gardening helps seniors to build up self-autonomy and a social network and contribute to sustainability. For instance, when people share work in the community gardens, medical care workers can gain trust and better establish doctor-patient relationships with patients with “low social-economic background” (Ruck,31). Secondly, although gardening cannot take the place of industrial food processing, a community garden is an excellent way to supply foods for low income people. The hard work on taking care of plants can build up self-autonomy. Therefore, the dual purposes of community gardens can reduce stress when people grow older or live with financial issues.34Relationship between Green and Senior lifeKemperman uses “a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN)” to evaluate the living environment of 1501 people who are aged 60 years or older in the Netherlands and get the result about how landscape affects people who participate in green space subjectively and objectively. The results show that the lack of maintenance in landscapes reduces visual experience, as well as feelings of safety. These factors lead to decreased frequency that people participate in the green space. At the same time, the changes of social activities with relatives and friends will reduce, so the author suggests that green space is essential for an aging society. However, designers need to plan for long-term appearance and maintenance of the landscape to ensure future motivation of seniors to participate in the outdoor environment and social activities (Kemperman, 52). Another way to motivate people to go out is wildlife watching. Wildlife habitats can be created by planting native species. The native plants are easier to maintain because of appropriate 35climate and weather. Wildlife and plants create a fascinating landscape which attracts seniors to explore the outside environment. Exploration activities also attract kids and families to visit and learn (Stoneham, 126-127). Kids and wildlife can represent hope, which helps elders build a faith of life. Figure 31: Community garden with seniors and kids, Illustrated by Author.36Conclusion This thesis discusses the roles of landscape in providing health benefits and an accessible exterior environment for aging society. Though the aging population has specific needs in accessing landscapes, they receive similar benefits such as releasing stress, communicating with a social network and increased independence. In reality, many people do not realize that all of us are required to help at some point in our lives, and we all are getting older. As landscape designers, we have the tools to reimagine the existing conditions, such as furniture, paving, green space, signage, terrain and technological structures. If the landscape designer can use these considerations to achieve the complex needs of seniors, this integrated typology of landscape design can contribute for all ages and different urban conditions.37Figure 32: Tool Box, Illustrated by Author39Precedent Study40Brief:This project is located in a high-elevation site. SWA applied a landscape grading design format. For example, they used a cut and fill technic to rebuild the landscape which provides a green hill along with a wandering pathway. The designer used the idea of courtyards to extend experiences such as social and solitary opportunities. In the fives courtyards, the paths easily follow and help seniors to memorize walkways to accommodations. Also, the new underground parking lot provides more community social space on the ground-floor (Wei,11). At the same time, the street becomes narrow and severe to walk. In the arrival courtyard, SWA used the water fountain idea from the Alhambra in Spain connect with Fountain Courtyard, which makes the connection between the neighbourhood and Sanatorium community. In another three courtyards, the design uses landscape materials to extend social and solitary experiences. For example, on the SWA website, the design proposal describes the “tree plantings and a wisteria trellis” produces a private space in the shade (Sun). The various stone borders separate the courtyards in different sizes, which provides an opening area for a small group and a large space for social events. With regard to the architecture, all buildings face southeast and southwest which allow all residents live with abundant sunlight.Project:Takarazuka Sun City SanatoriumLocation: Takarazuka,	Osaka,	JapanCompany: Half	Century	More	Co.,LtdLandscape Architect: SWA    Figure 33: “Sun City Takarazuka.”SWA Group.https://swacdn.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/11185551/Sun-City-Takarazuka-Tom-Fox-8053.jpgCase Study: Sanatorium CommunityKeywords:	Extend	Space,	Multiple	Use,	Courtyard	41Take away: When I saw the images for the first time, the colours made me calm down. I realized in the elderly community only three main calm and comfortable colours, such as green, grey and beige are used in the landscape of plants, paving and structure. The structure of plants is well maintained, and trunks are bound vertically. Moreover, the plants’ growth upward and connect to the residents’ patios. Upright plants allow the residents to connect with landscape vertically and horizontally and reduce the distances for elders to connect with green space and fresh air. Besides, the design used geometrical shape on the floor structure and created different themes in detail which allow people to experience various courtyards landscape. However, the connection design between external neighbourhood has lacked. This large difference between inside and outside will make people lose the interest in the experience of exploring outdoor community. Over an extended period, residents will become incapable of social interactions with other groups of people in the suburb. Figure 34: “Sun City Takarazuka.”SWA Group.https://swacdn.s3.amazonaws.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/11185533/Sun-City-Takarazuka-Tom-Fox-8021.jpg42Brief: Since Singapore has less agriculture land, the project is aimed at resolving issues associated with both food scarcity and the growing aging population. “Vertical urban farm”( Wei,12) is popular concept and replaces the traditional way of growing food. Additionally, the design brings the grazing on a vertical farm so that people can participate in the exterior environment frequently. Moreover, gardening and raising food offers part-time positions for seniors, which motivates them to have a social connection in the community (12). This principle of design reduces the economic and social pressure for seniors. In the diagrams, the aquaponic farm was described for recycling and purifying the storm water for farming and fishery. The waste of agriculture can be converted to electricity and fertilizer for the whole farm. Additionally, the design proposal includes a home for aging population to live in their traditional family-style accommodations, which means seniors live with the next generation and grandchildren. Case Study: Self-Sufficient Community Farm Keywords:	Food	Crisis,	Agrotechnology,	Aquaponic	FarmProject: Home	FarmLocation: SingaporeLandscape Architect:  SPARK    Figure 35 Deck Level, SPARK. https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/547c/d4b6/e58e/ce91/b800/0014/slideshow/0240_03_deck_level.jpg?141746703743Take away:In this project, the designer uses farmland to help to solve a few conflicts such as individual and society, new family structure and transitional family unit, economic and relief, food and shortage. The self-sufficient community helps the city to reduce the pressure from assisting seniors. When seniors live with their family, they can reduce the feeling of loneliness and help them to develop psychological health. Also, the designer uses technology to recycle energy from storm water and waste to help the community reduce the economic pressure. The job offers from vertical farms can help senior build their self-respect. This design encouraged me to design a community garden, a gallery, a stage or a farmers market for elders to find their self-respect.Figure 36: Biomass Plants, SPARK. https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/547c/d577/e58e/ce91/b800/0019/slideshow/0240_13_biomass_plant.jpg?141746722644Brief:James Corner advocated that public space should consider a universal design which allows city preparation to face demographic changes in 2050. At the same time, public space should be friendly and accessible for any senior, child or adult with have vision, hearing, housebound problem or any other disability and infirmity symptom. The universal design element should consider “accessible, comfortable, participatory, ecological, legible, multi-sensory, predictable, and walkable/traversable.” (Bianchini)Project: Tongva Park and Ken Genser SquareLocation: Santa	Monica,	CALandscape Architect:  James	Corner	Field	OperationsCase Study: Community Park Design Keywords:	Equality,	Accessibility,	ConnectionFigure 37: Aerial View towards the See, Steve Proehl. https://urbannext.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/27PARK_STEVE-PROEHL.jpg45Take away: A practical park design cleverly uses one block of community to create a modern, accessible communication space. The location and accessible pathway allow all people to move inward and outward to the park. This park reminds me of the Central Park in New York; the space allows people to escape the busy urban environment. In addition, the access ramps and multiple pathways create the space for private and social opportunities. The core of the design is to bring people together; thus, all landscape techniques refer to the idea of connection. Figure 38: Observation Hill , Joakim Lloyd Raboff. https://urbannext.net/tongva-park-and-ken-genser-square/46Brief:The design for this project is based on researching Singapore’s traffic design. Because of limited the national territorial area and not enough public space because traffic in everyday life, the design method uses “lamppost and bollard system” (AgileAgeingAlliance,191) which is an intelligent and adjustable lampposts and bollards structure to reduce car lanes when there is not rush hour. Besides, the “car life city” and the “real-time digital map” (191) can help the re-navigate the traffic. While the road becomes clear, the space left over can use for different events.Case Study: Community Street DesignKeywords:	Equality,	Time	Dimension,	Smart	City	Project: ShyftLocation: SingaporeLandscape Architect:  Insiya	Jafferjee;	Collaboration	with	Amir	Afshar,	Paco	Bockelmann,	Timi	Oyedeji		Figure 39: Intersection, Shyft, Insiya Jafferjee, [Video]. http://www.insiyajafferjee.com/shyft47Take away:Shyft uses a smart infrastructure intervention to change the urban street system and make the street space more useful for pedestrians. We can imagine, the smart city uses the technology to help the elderly to socialize with the exterior community. The lamppost and bollard maybe not an excellent option for aging society, especially for blind people and housebound residents, but the idea of the landscape changed in time dimension should be recommended. In this case, a car city can transfer to a walking city. Furthermore, we expect self-driving cars can be controlled by smart technology and improve seniors’ life with accessible street design.Figure 40: Street, Shyft, Insiya Jafferjee, [Video]. http://www.insiyajafferjee.com/shyft48Brief:7Cs focused on the outdoor environment in Vancouver 2-5 years in the future with a proposal project led by several academic scholars and institutions in Vancouver. The project consists of character, context, connectivity, change, chance, clarity and challenge. These are the seven elements that designers should think of when designing public space for children.Character: Outdoor environment design should keep one character as an experience goal for the environment. The authors suggested four existing landscape characters, model, organic, modular and re-use.Context: designers need to understand the surrounding geographic, neighbourhood conditions. Connectivity: The outdoor public spaces are not isolated and need to be connected with the surrounding area by physical, visual features, which help kids to build cognitive abilities.Change: The design should be flexible and diverse for different users and times.Chance: Spaces should provide chances for exploring and developing cognitive activities, and different physical height can motivate children to experiences various environment. Clarity: Outdoor public spaces have a clear cognitive guide to avoid safety issue such as Case Study:  Design for Specific UsersKeywords:	Equality,	Cognitive	Ability,	FunProject: 7CsLocation: VancouverOrganization: Outdoor	Play	CanadaParticipants:Susan	Herrington,	Chandra	Lesmeister,	Jamie	Nicholls,	Kate	Stefiuk;	Consortium	for	Health,	Intervention,	Learning	and	Development	(CHLD)Figure. 41: Outdoor Play Canada, https://www.outdoorplaycanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/seven-cs.pdf49a bright and clearly marked exit sign and a clear material transection.Challenge: The playground design provides with a challenging element to stimulate users. Furthermore, In the proposal, the authors generally explain the current situation of the outdoor playground, and specifically discuss measurement, activities and needs based on the different physical characteristics and “perceptual motor activities” (Susan, 37) of the children. In this proposal, the comparison diagram draws the reader’s to attraction to the new design scenario. Take away:This structure and questions of the proposal guide readers on how to consider the needs of specific users. The simple diagrams are helpful resources for comparing different schemes. The before and after diagrams and measurement diagram can communicate a clear design expectation for readers. At the same time, the diagram intensified the detail of the design. Also, Time lapse is a great resource to observe behaviour that users’ experiences. Through records of the users’ experiences, the design can be easily evaluated and identified. Figure 42: Outdoor Play Canada, pp.35 https://www.outdoorplaycanada.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/seven-cs.pdf51Context / Site Matters52Burnaby was established in 1892 (History). In the early last Century, Burnaby Centre was used for agricultural purposes between Vancouver and New Westminster (Official Community Plan for Burnaby,13). However, the geographical location in the lower mainland creates an opportunity to become a significant “transportation corridor” (13) between Vancouver, New Westminster, and other Metro Vancouver cities. Public transportation also provides an opportunity for people to live in Burnaby and work in other cities. The rise of car culture and affordable real estate prices provided an opportunity for Burnaby’s population growth during the 1940s and 1950s (13). In 1986, Skytrain was established which provided more opportunity for population growth. As a result, real estate, industrial and commercial areas have developed in Burnaby (13), changing the existing suburb town into a mixed-use central location and became a city in 1992 (13). 53Figure 43: Partial Metro Vancouver Site Map, (Google Map, Illustrated by Author)54Figure	46:	Distribution	(%)	of	the	population	by	age	group:	65	year	and	over,	85	years	and	over(	Resource:	Statistic	Canada	2016,	Analysed	by	Author)65 Years and OverFigure	45:	Burnaby	Demographic	Information	(Resource:	Statistic	Canada	2016,	Analysed	by	Author)Population DistributionBurnaby’s aging population, of people 65 years and over,  is about 15.8% of the total population. The population of women is 2% larger than the population of men. People who are over 85 years old make up about 2.2% of the population. Predicted PopulationFigure	45:	Burnaby	Demographic	Information	1892-2041	(Resource:	Burnaby	Official	Website	and	Statistic	Canada	2011,	2016,	Analysed	by	Author)Secondly, Burnaby is a multiple culture community. English is the most commonly spoken language while other languages, such as Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, Punjabi, Tagalog, Italian, Persian, etc. are also spoken. 5565 years and OverFigure	46:	Distribution	(%)	of	the	population	by	age	group:	65	year	and	over,	85	years	and	over(	Resource:	Statistic	Canada	2016,	Analysed	by	Author)85 years and Over0-14 Years65 Years and OverFigure	45:	Burnaby	Demographic	Information	(Resource:	Statistic	Canada	2016,	Analysed	by	Author)15-64 YearsBurnaby Demographic Data Northwest CommunityNortheast CommunityNorthwest CommunitySouthwest CommunitySouthEast CommunityFigure	47:	Most	Common	Home	Language	in	Burnaby(		Resource:	Town	Centres,	City	of	Burnaby,	Analysed	by	Author)Italian: 2%Other Languages: 8%Korean: 2% Cantonese: 11%Mandarin: 6%English: 70%Persian: 1%Persian: 1%Other Languages: 9%Korean: 4% Cantonese: 7%Mandarin: 11%Russian: 1%English: 67%Other Languages: 14%Punjabi: 1%Tagalog: 2%Korean: 2% Cantonese: 9%Mandarin: 17%English: 55%Punjabi: 3%Tagalog: 3%English: 58%Other Languages: 13%Korean: 3% Cantonese: 8%Mandarin: 12%56Proportion Senior (65 Years and Over) in Four Burnaby Communities (Resource:	Burnaby	City	Profile	by	Quadrant	(2016)	Redrawn	by	Author)Most Common Home Language in Burnaby (Resource:	Burnaby	City	Profile	by	Quadrant	(2016),	Redrawn	by	Author)Senior Low income Proportion in Burnaby (Resource:	Burnaby	City	and	The	House	Registry,	Redrawn	by	Author)Town CenterTown CenterNortheastNorthwestFour Burnaby CommunitySouthwestSoutheastSenior HouseAffordable Senior HouseSenior Service CenterSenior IncomeThe senior low-income distribution in Burnaby is relatively even. However this is not true in Edmonds Centre, which is a place with an unequal distribution of income. Over 30% of seniors are low income in the south of Edmonds centre; 25.1-29.9% of seniors in the north of the Edmonds centre; 25.6-25% of seniors west of Edmonds centre are low income Finally, 20-25.5% in East of Edmonds centre of seniors are low-income.Senior Centre Distribution Most senior centres are centralized along major streets like Kingsway, Hastings, Canada way, Lougheed highway and Town Centres.According to the research, seniors in the middle class have more access to cars, gyms and other paid activities than low-income seniors (Van Holle, 7). We can narrow our lens to Edmonds street, where they need more social help in free access public spaces.25.6-25%20-25.5%25.1-29.9%30%Over57Figure 48: Burnaby Site Analysis58Figure 50*59Burnaby Edmonds Centre is located in the Southeast quadrant of the municipal Town Centre in Burnaby. In 1994, the city planning department, and the community planned to establish a commercial centre. The key design criteria is listed below. (Edmonds Town Centre Plan,1)1. Establish a commercial area with housing and various facilities including parks, schools, and recreation centres.2. Increase identity of the Edmonds Town area.3. Provide better road condition for the transportation of people from other locations.4. Protect ecosystems and the natural environment.*Figure 49: Blank map of BC provincial ridings following the 2009 redistribution, CC0, EmarseeLocationSoutheast BurnabyEdmonds Centre60Land Use ConditionHousing TypeThe house types in this area include single-family, apartment, condos, social houses, and affordable senior houses.Figure 52: Single Family Figure 53: CondosFigure 50: Secial house Figure 51: Affordable Senior HousesFigure 50-53, Images by Author.61Commercial UseMost commercial uses are focused on Kingsway and Edmonds Street. Medium	Density	Multiple	Family	Residential	High	Density	Multiple	Family	ResidentialLow	Density	Multiple	Family	ResidentialHigh	Density	Mixed	UseLow	Density	Mixed	UseMedium	Density	Mixed	UseInstitutionalCommericialOthersGreenspaceThere are many suitable locations for public and school parks.TransportationThe area encourages people to use cars with some emphasis on biking. Edmonds StreetCanada WayKingsway Figure 54: Site Use AnalysisBike LaneMain	Traffic	Road62The area is full of institutions including: community centres, churchs, daycares, parks and elementary schools.Figure 55: Site Plan and Site Images, Photography by Author.6364important locationsEdmonds Centre The recreation centre is located at the intersection of Edmonds Street and Humphries ave. This community centre provides indoor exercises for all ages, from preschool to seniors. These various facilities such as Yoga, Gym, and Swimming Pool provide activities for teenagers and youth creating a cohesive environment for Edmonds centre. The exterior park provides trails, playgrounds, exercise opportunities, seating areas, and an open lawn with free 24 hour access for the entire community (Edmonds Community Centre).Figure 56: New Vista, (Photography by Author) Figure 57: Edmonds Community Center, (Photography by Author)New VistaOne of the most important senior centres in Edmonds Community was established in 1953. It is located between Canada Way and Mary Ave. New Vista was a recovery house for “single women with psychiatric problems” in 1943. However, after 1957, the facility extended to a large community with “125 apartments”(Our Story). Along with demographic change, New Vista society had developed many senior houses around Edmonds Community in the past 65 years. Today, New Vista has a variety of housing for different uses, such as apartments, high rises and houses. 65Edmonds Centre The recreation centre is located at the intersection of Edmonds Street and Humphries ave. This community centre provides indoor exercises for all ages, from preschool to seniors. These various facilities such as Yoga, Gym, and Swimming Pool provide activities for teenagers and youth creating a cohesive environment for Edmonds centre. The exterior park provides trails, playgrounds, exercise opportunities, seating areas, and an open lawn with free 24 hour access for the entire community (Edmonds Community Centre).Figure 57: Edmonds Community Center, (Photography by Author)Gordon Presbyterian Church and Don’t go hungry The Church was established for “Christian Education” (Our History) in 1911. The location is on Humphries Avenue and next to Edmonds Community Centre. The exterior parking lots of Church are very busy on Saturdays when there is free food supply from Don’t Go Hungry. This organization which was created by Rev. Laurie McKay of St. Aidan’s Presbyterian Church ( Our Story, Don’t Go Hungry) to serve people in need. The community service project functions as a social activity where people can line up on the pathway, street, and parking lot to pick up free food. By bringing together different groups of people and volunteers the event brings cohesion to the entire community. Figure 58: Gordon Presbyterian Church, (Photography by Author) Figure 59: Don’t Go Hungry (Photography by Author)66Street conditionThe street condition in Edmonds town needs more consideration for elders.Figure	 61:	 Many	 pathways	 are	 narrow,	unwalkable and lacking enough public space for social and environmental improvement.Figure	62:	The mixed-use street without curbs is for all users.Figure	63:	Some places are less accessible at night,	such	as	parks.Figure	 64:	 The blurry walking condition between the commercial zone and sidewalk makes public space unclear.Figure	65:	The pathway is narrow and cannot accommodate groups of people when an event happens.	People	have	to	walk	on	the	driveway,	which creates a potential safety hazard.Figure 61Figure 64Figure 60, Site Map DiagramFigure 61-65, Site Map Diagram, (Photography by Author)67Figure 62 Figure 63Figure 64 Figure 65Based on the location where the situations happened, I decided to focus close to Edmonds street.6869Program70PrinciplesThis project will follow four principles to achieve social needs.Firstly, A lot of independent seniors are experts with the most experience in their fields, but physical and mental health factors affect the speed of work. Meanwhile, low-income seniors need more food supply to release financial pressure. The fast-growing vegetables bring food and regain confidence for members of community farms.Secondly, the accessible street structure near residences will encourage elders to go outside. The nearby community will provide a pavilion, sound barriers and colour cognitive road signs.Self-sufficiency  AccessibilityFigure 67 Figure 68Figure 67-70, Drawn by Author71Thirdly, the space structure needs equity on Time-space efficiency. The smart bollard I learned from the Shyft project can change the street structures for car use to pedestrian streets. Increasing the outdoor spaces for local people and making seniors feel the outdoor area, community and shops are close to them.Finally, The outdoor spaces need more social engagement. The centre social core will attract different people to join the community and keep the body moving actively. Equity Social EngagementFigure 69 Figure 7972Design InterventionThe beginning of intervention design typologies focus on memory, accessibility, social interaction, cultivation, and all-inclusive spaces.The memory of design intervention features easy loop trails, colourful houses, and colorul furniture, which can help seniors remember their location. These landmarks in the community also help seniors to notice their location, reducing frustration and anxiety.The design will consider different paving materials for accessibility. The flat sidewalk without sloped driveways will make the street more accessible. The stops on the MemoryColorLandmarkMaterialsMultiple PathsStopsSeatTrailsPavillionAccessibility Social InteractionLoop73corner provide a rest area to encourage seniors to continue their daily walking goals. In the social interaction section, multiple seating zones provide space for individuals and groups. The trails can help low-income seniors exercise outdoors. The pavilion provides a safe space to hang out in the rain. The cultivating design intervention SeatTrailsPavillionPlanting BedCommunity GardenNeighborhood Green SpaceKidsFamilyAll PeopleFigure 71, Design Intervention Diagram by AuthorSocial Interaction Cultivating All Inclusiveis installed in multiple places in the neighbourhood to help more seniors achieve self-sufficiency. Finally, the design will have different programs for all manner of people.7475Design poroposal & Resolution76Figure 72, Daily Experience Diagram by AuthorFigure 73, Daily Experience Map by Author77Daily Life ExperiencesAccording to their daily life experiences, seniors leave home early in the morning for groceries. The walking pathway and improved public transportation assist their journey. After breakfast at home, some may send kids to elementary school, keep a household, or stay at home. Some of the elders will hang out with neighbours or have outdoor activities. After lunch, some seniors will move outdoors for rest in the afternoon if the weather looks nice. In this everyday journey, shops, public institutions, and streets are important for most of the activities that happen on Edmonds Street.According to ICBC reported crashes data, Edmonds Street represents the highest risk for collision, after the major traffic street of Kingsway. The highest-risk areas are at the intersections with Canada Way, Mary Ave, and Humphries Ave. Figure 73, Daily Experience Map by AuthorFigure 74, Crashes Report, Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Reported Crashes, Nov.16,20207879Therefore, to help seniors quickly access the public space in Edmonds Centre, I picked these three frequently used areas that lack sufficient safety features.Figure 75, Site Map80age 27 63 64 84 12,13(5)33 5 41 40-65 40-65 79 94 70 78 721 Living condition1 live in neighborhood y y y y y y y y y y y y2 work in neighborhood y3 Rent in neighborhood(short term) y4 only visit y5 own a business in neiborghhood6 Otherslikehood to Edmonds StreetY/N like Edmonds street y y y y y y y y y y y y yY/N like Edmonds street and canadaway y n y y y n n nMode of Transportation1 Walk y y y y y y y yy2 Bike y y y3 Transit y y4 car y y y y5 car share6 others yTop Design Consideration 1 Tree canopy 1 1 1 1 42 Seat area 1 1 1 1 1 1 63 shrubs 1 14 garden 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 85 community garden 1 1 1 1 46 water feature 1 1 1 1 1 57 public art 1 1 28 lawn (dog) 1 19 lighting 1 1 210 dog area 011 playground for kids 1 1 212 accessiblilty 1 1 213 private area 1 114 food and drink foodtruck 1 1 1 1 1 515 covered gathering areas 016 stage, Plaza 1 1 217 sport area 1 1 1 1 1 1 6others 1 1 1 1 4sports for kids and bus for friendsBefore I started the final design, I asked the residents to rank their top design consideration and design features in the ageing community. The questionnaires were presented in 4 languages: English, Simple Chinese, Korean and Hindi. The questions asked about living condition, mode of transportation, satisfaction and design consideration.The top choices collected are garden, sports area, rest area, art piece and food truck. Site interview of Design Consideration Figure 76, A participant reviewed images, (Photography by Author) Figure 77, Questionnaire and resultFigure 78 Design consideration board 1 with result Figure 79 Design consideration board 2 with result81Figure 80 Result Analysis Diagram82Green spacesTouchable plants with wider pathways and accessible materials Wood structureSunlight with shadows Colourful plants Waving pathway with semi-private pathwayFigure 81 Key Words DiagramFigure 82 Horatio’s Garden South West- Salisbury, Horatio’s Garden website https://www.horatiosgarden.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/HG-Salisbury-Shots-20-1800x750_c.jpgFigure 83 Grass Terraces, Contemporary Landscape, San Francisco Photography: © ShadesOfGreenFigure 84 Sun City Tower Kobe,SWA, https://www.swagroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Sun-City-Kobe-David-Lloyd-505.jpgFigure 85 De Ontmoeting,Amstelveen,ActueelBy Kees Hummel, Ferry Streng, Dirk Verwoerdhttps://rijnboutt.nl/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/De-Ontmoeting-Amstelveen-18.jpgFigure 86 De Ontmoeting,Amstelveen,ActueelBy Kees Hummel, Ferry Streng, Dirk Verwoerdhttps://rijnboutt.nl/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/De-Ontmoeting_MG_3193.jpg83The seating areaOpen-space Seating on streetLarge social area Exterior loungepublic areaWater feature Public mini sport areaFigure 87 Glenora, Images by Salisbury, https://salisburylandscaping.ca/gallery/glenora/Figure 88 Constitution Avenue, Photography by John Gollings, Jane Irwin Landscape ArchitectureFigure 89 Pride Parklet, 1400 Lonsdale (East),City of North Vancouver https://www.cnv.org/-/media/city-of-north-vancouver/images/image-panels/play/parklet-pride-open-streets-14-lonsdale-e.ashx?la=en&hash=BA2039C7876453DE47C1A0E863FC142CB6294CFCFigure 90 Jin Xuan, WTD Wisto landscape http://labang-img.oss-cn-shenzhen.aliyuncs.com/P5mrGuPY.JPG!detailFigure Figure 91 Downtown Brooklyn Public Realm Vision,BIG Figure 92 Downtown Brooklyn Public Realm Vision,BIG84Figure 93 Grass Terraces, Contemporary Landscape, San Francisco Photography: © ShadesOfGreen Figure 94 Car Parks 2.0 © Studio NAB https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5db4/8d0d/3312/fd22/3f00/0899/slideshow/Car_Parks_2.0_15_%C2%A9Studio-NAB.jpg?1572113664Figure 95 The Edge Park,  Photography © Alison Cartwright  by W-Architecture, http://landezine.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/01-w-architecture-the-edge-park.jpgFigure 96 LIOT GERSON/GETTY IMAGES https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/track-royalty-free-image-1592835218.jpg?crop=0.667xw:1.00xh;0.0714xw,0&resize=980:*Wood StructureAnti-slip Paving85Materials In terms of designing an accessible and sustainable area, materials will include running track, anti-slip paving, wood surfaces on railings, wood surfaces on paving, and green space parking design. Figure 94 Car Parks 2.0 © Studio NAB https://images.adsttc.com/media/images/5db4/8d0d/3312/fd22/3f00/0899/slideshow/Car_Parks_2.0_15_%C2%A9Studio-NAB.jpg?1572113664Figure 96 LIOT GERSON/GETTY IMAGES https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/track-royalty-free-image-1592835218.jpg?crop=0.667xw:1.00xh;0.0714xw,0&resize=980:*Green Parking LotRunning Track -Tarmac86The Intersection of Edmonds Street and Canada WayThe area on Edmonds Street has a seniors house, school park, gas station, and commercial area. The front space and backyard of Harmony Court is a large parking lot. The green line shows elders from Harmony Court need to walk on the main traffic road to Edmonds public park for 15-30 minus depending on their body conditions or 5 minutes to the less maintained Cafferky park.87Figure 98 Site  Map Figure 97 Google Satellite Site Map 88Site conditionFigure 90: The dangerous and narrow sidewalk is next to Canada Way and In front of Agecare Center. It brings walking difficulty for residents.Figure 100: The green space of the school park in the south is less enjoyable because of safety and traffic on Canada Way. Figure 101: Additionally, the location is not fully developed. Especially on the East Edmonds Figure 99 Figure 100Figure 102 Figure 10389Streets. The pathway next to the driveway reduces the desire to walk on Canada Way.Figure  102: The parking lots, trees and streets around the senior centre block the access for residents to enjoy the school park.Figure 103: The fast driveway and gas station provide a feeling of a temporary area that reduces social engagement. Figure 104: The front parking provides an opportunity to design an eco-friendly public landscape.Figure 100 Figure 101Figure 103 Figure 104Figure 99-104, Photography by Author90Key Design Criteria1. Increase the connection between seniors, kids and school parks. 2. Reduce traffic and provide a sound buffer on Canada Way. 3. Create Harmony Court as a welcoming front space.Design DescriptionThe priority design principle is social engagement that mostly happens on the plaza, street and sidewalk. The new design replaces existing on-ground parking with seating and plaza space. Secondly, the design increases accessibility on streets and in the plaza. All walking paths are 3 meters in width with two materials. The green space surrounds the curbs to increase safety in the area. The driveway reduces to 4 or fewer lanes to limit the speed of traffic. The green buffers reduce the noise and air pollution from traffic. Multiple planting zones provide shade and space for individuals. In the equity principle, Edmonds street has the opportunity to transform into a pedestrian zone for events. Finally, The wood trail helps seniors and enjoys gardens. The community garden in the park and in front of the harmony court provide a self-sufficient opportunity. 91Figure105,Rendering Canada Way with Plaza, Face Northwest9293Figure106, Site Plan9495Figure107, Canada Way, Face Northwest, Section (A A’)Canada Way and Plaza Improvement Section9697Figure108, Edmonds Streets, Face Southeast, Section (B B’)Northeast Edmonds Street ImprovementSection9899Figure109, Garden and Green Buffer in Front of Harmony Court on Canada Way100101Figure 110, Plaza with Benches102103Figure 111, Community Garden in the front of Harmony Court104Intersection between Mary Ave and Vista CrescentThis street is the pathway for when elders visit Edmonds Centre and Edmonds park from the senior centre. This street is mixed-use by pedestrians, bikers and drivers. The long street increases the distance by vision and imagination. There is less public green space which the city can’t control for climate change adaptation.Site ConditionFigure 113: Limited sidewalk condition and less maintenance. The various and uneven pattern on hardscape make a difficult walking environment.Figure 114: Busy Silkdwalk and less attractive landscape spaces.Figure 115:The mixed-use streets without curbs make the area less walkable for seniors. Additionally, the original design did not follow the Burnaby streetscape structure.Figure 113105Figure 112, Site MapFigure 114 Figure 115Figure 113-115, Photography by Author106Key Design Criteria1. provide better sidewalk condition2. create social and rest area on an internal residential street 3. increase multiple plants and improve climate change through landscape management.Design DescriptionThe main principle applied is accessibility. In order to enhance the opportunity to communicate with neighbours, the multiple stops on the corners and within the streets can help seniors relax from walking. All sidewalks will maintain the flat walking condition with two materials. The rest area is made from wood, such as the floor, handles, railing seat and planting bed. The seating area on the street and corner can increase social engagement. Self-sufficient plants on the resting area can increase the public services for climate change. The clear street structure creates a safe environment.107Figure 116, Rendering On Vista Crescent, Face Northwest108109Figure 117, Site Plan110111Figure118,  New Vista, Section (A A’), Look NortheastVista Crescent ImprovementSection112Humphries Avenue with Edmonds Community Centre and Gordon Presbyterian Church The area is busy for people to move around. Most of the on-ground area is used for car culture, parking and driving. The pedestrian area is limited on the street and only centralized in the service centres. CAR DEALER113Figure 119, Google Satellite Site MapFigure 120, Site MapCAR DEALER114Site ConditionFigure 121: Lacks public spaces on the sidewalk. The street is mixed with people who attend events, pedestrians and cars.Figure 122: This mark shows people line up in the parking lot for a special event. The busy flow in the community centre and the church requires more plaza spaces.Figure 123:  The Cracked street condition with unclear walking spaces and driving lanes.Figure 124: The green space outside of the community centre is less enjoyable and mixed with parking.Figure 121Figure 123115Figure 122Figure 124Figure 121-124, Photography by Author116key design Criteria1. Prioritizing pedestrian areas will help the community grow.2. Reducing cars will redirect the parking design for social needs. 3. Providing more interaction spaces in front of the church and community centre.Design Description Based on the flow of pedestrians, the East and West side have fewer activities because of higher traffic. The North and south side is private, with some small communication areas. The centre area on Humphries avenue is a busy location. Since many people get through this space, equity and engagement are important principles to apply in this location. The new design moves the original parking and extends the sidewalk as a plaza. Since people hang out mainly in the parking lot of the church and front community centre, the plaza will leave space close to the parking entrance and entrance of the community centre. The street painting will break the boundary between the two communities and provide an even holding area with a food truck and event holding space. The pedestrian-only zone at the weekend and day time on Humphries ave will lead people to stop, view, and engage others. Private seats, semi-public rest areas and public benches allow people to stay longer in this location. The corner water feature can attract people’s attention as they walk, while also reducing  traffic noise and creating a dialogue with interior swimming pools. The 900mm between each bench creates space for wheelchairs. The ground light can allow neighbours to hang out at night. A self-sufficient vertical garden brings people more attention to the site.117Figure125 Rendering on Humphries Avenue Plaza Next to Edmonds Community Centre118119Figure 126 Site Plan120121Figure 127 Humphries Avenue, Face Southwest, SectionHumphries Avenue ImprovementSection122123Figure 128 Humphries Avenue, Rendering124There are many Aging community in Metro Vancouver and in all over the world. The demographic change can cause	 worry	 and	 conflict	 in	 society.	However,	 landscape	 architects	 can	renovate	the	existing	street,	community	and environment to adopt the changes. Socal	 engagement,	 accessibility,	equality	and	a	self-sufficient	community	can transform passive social actions into active social actions in community.125126127Schedule 128Timeline Strategy ResearchSite AnalysisResearch DrawingDesign Strategy Concept DesignDrawing FrameworkFinal DrawingJanuary           February           March           AprilGP2 Schedule	 The	research	will	focus	on	Burnaby	site	and	provide	a	deep	understanding	of	the	cultural,	economic,	and	political	effects.	Also,	understanding	the	existing	and	ongoing	policies	are	helpful	for	design	strategies	to	build	up.	The	drawings	and	sketches	will	continually	develop,	along	with	research	and	design.	129Exercise 2: MappingExercise 1: TimelineExercise 5: DrawingExercise 4: ExperimentsExercise 3: Neighbourhood Interview	 Researches	focus	on	family	structure	history	in	different	areas	(North	America,	Europe,	Asia).	Human	immigration	and	migration,	and	significant	world	issues	which	change	family	structures	and	health	care	structures.	 Mapping	different	site	conditions:	transportation,	weather,	land	use,	culture,	slope,	economics,	accessibility	etc.	Mapping	on	three	different	scales,	city	scope,	street	scope,	5	m2 scale.	 Preparing	3-5	questions	relate	to	living	conditions,	the	expectation	of	the	site	and	interview	the	residents. 1. Experiencing day and night walk and walking with a blindfold to understand more sensitive conditions of the site.2.	If	the	design	involves	a	furniture	design,	preparing	a	physical	model	record	experience	of	residents	onsite.	 A	series	of	drawings	shows	the	before	and	after	changes	in	diagrams,	plans,	sections,	perspective	drawings.130BibliographyAgileAgeingAlliance and Tata Steel, “Neighbourhoods of the Future 2019-Creating a Brighter  Future for Our Older Selves.” Tata Steel, 2019.Bianchini, Jacquelyn. “ASLA Publishes Guide to Universal Design.” The Dirt ASLA. August 20, 2019. URL: dirt.asla.org/2019/08/20/asla-publishes-guide-to-universal-design/Bloom, David E, Canning, David, and Fink, Gunther, “Implications of Population Aging for Economic Growth.” NBER Working Paper, No.16705. January 2011.Condon, Patrick. M. “Five Rules for Tomorrow’s Cities Design in an Age of Urban Migration, Demographic Changes, and a Disappearing Middle Class”. Island Press. Washington, 2019.“Edmonds Community Centre”. City of Burnaby. URL:burnaby.ca/things-to-do/community-centres/edmonds-community-centre.html“Edmonds Town Centre Plan”.  Burnaby City Council, September 26,1994.URL: burnaby.ca/Assets/city+services/policies+projects+and+initiatives/community+development/Edmonds+Town+Centre+Plan+1994.pdfEmery, J.C.Herbert, Fleisch, Valerie C., and Mclntyre, Lynn. “Legislated changes to federal pension income in Canada will adversely affect low income seniors’ health”. Elsevier. 2013.Vol.57, 6, pp. 963-966.Eurostat. “Ageing Europe-Looking at the lives of older people in the EU-2019”, Publications office of European Union, 2019. Imprimerie Bietlot in Belgium, September 2019. DOI: 10.2785/26745131Hager, Mike. How the coronavirus took North Vancouver’s Lynn Valley Care Centre. The globe and mail. Vancouver. March 21, 2020.“History”.City of Burnaby. URL:burnaby.ca/About-Burnaby/About/History.html IBI. “Canada’s First Dementia Village”. August 29, 2019.URL: www.ibigroup.com/ibi-insights/canadas-first-dementia-village/Ivanova, Iglika, et al. “Poverty and Inequality Among British Columbia’s Seniors”, CCPA. April 2017.Jones, Katie. “The Problem of an Aging Global Population, Shown by Country”, Visual Capitalist. January 15, 2020. URL: visualcapitalist.com/aging-global-population-problem/Katz, Paul Jonathan. “Good urban design can make Greater Washington more dementia-friendly” Greater Greater Washington. October 27,2020.URL: ggwash.org/view/79427/good-urban-design-can-make-greater-washington-more-dementia-friendlyKemperman, Astrid, and Timmermans, Harry. “Green spaces in the direct living environment and social contacts of the ageing population” Landscape and Urban Planning.September 2014. Vol.129, pp: 44-54.URL: linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S016920461400125XLittle, Simon. Coronavirus outbreaks in 2 new seniors’ homes, as B.C. reports 145 new cases.Global News. Vancouver. March 25, 2020.Long, Simon. “The perils of oblivion”, Special report Dementa. The Economist, 20 August 2020. p.3-4McIntyre, Lynn, et all. “Impact of a guaranteed annual income program on Canadian seniors’ physical, mental and functional health”, Canadian Public Health Association. JSTOR. 2016. Vol.107, No.2, pp176-182.Mooney, Patrick. “Planting Design.” Routledge, New York. 2020. Mooney, P., & Nicell, P. L. “The importance of exterior environment for Alzheimer residents: 132Effective care and risk management.” In Healthcare management forum. vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 23-29. Sage, CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications. DOI:10.1016/S0840-4704(10)61202-1OECD, “SF2.1 Fertility rates.” Family Indicator. OECD, 2020, Accessed on December 20 2020. doi: 10.1787/8272fb01-en“Official Community Plan for Burnaby, British Columbia”.  City of Burnaby Planning & Building Department, May 2014.URL: burnaby.ca/Assets/city+services/policies+projects+and+initiatives/community+development/OCP+PDFs/OCP+1998+(full+version).pdf“Our History”. Gordon Presbyterian Church. URL: gordonchurch.com/our-history“Our Story”. New Vista Healthcare & Housing. URL: newvista.bc.ca/our-story/“Our Story”. Don’t go Hungry: A Food Support Program.URL: dontgohungry.ca/Ruck, Kerry. “The health benefits of community gardening” Kai Tiaki Nursing New Zealand. July 2020. Vol.26.No.6. pp.30-31“See the ‘super-aged’ nations”, CNN Money.Steptoe, Andrew, et al. “Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women”, PNAS. April 9, 2013. Vol. 110 No. 15 pp. 5797-5801. URL: doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1219686110Stoneham, Jane, and Thoday, Peter. “Landscape Design for Elderly & Disabled People.” Packard Publishing Limited. 1994. pp.3-4“Sun City Takarazuka.” SWA Group.URL: swagroup.com/projects/sun-city-takarazuka-2/Susan, Herrington and Chandra, Lesmeister. “The design of Landscapes at child-care centres: Seven Cs”. Landscape Research. vol. 31(2)  January 1st. DOI:10.1080/01426390500448575Tahara, Yoshio. “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Super-Aging Society - Is There an Age Limit for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation?”, Circulation Journal. Vol. 80, Issue 5. pp.1102-1103, April 25, 2016. DOI: doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-16-0307Ulrich Roger S. “View through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery.” Science, New Series, April. 27,1984. Vol. 224, Issue 4647. pp. 420-421.Valtorta, Nicole, and Barbara Hanratty. “Loneliness, isolation and the health of older adults: do we need a new research agenda?.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine vol. 105,12 March 2012, pp. 518-22. DOI:10.1258/jrsm.2012.120128.Van den Breg, Agnes E, and Custers, Mariette H.G. “Gardening Promotes Neuroendocrine and Affective Restoration from Stress”, Journal of Health Psychology. Sage Publications. Vol. 16 (1). pp. 3-11. DOI: 10.1177/1359105310365577.Van Holle, Veerle, et al. “Relationship between neighborhood walkability and older adults’ physical activity: results from the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in Seniors (BEPAS Seniors)”. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. vol.11, Issue 1. BioMed Central Ltd. August 23, 2014. DOI: dx.doi.org.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/10.1186/s12966-014-0110-3. 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