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Walking Waterways : Guardianship of Land and Water in Dasiqox De Vries, Natasha 2021-05-04

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WALKING WATERWAYSGuardianship of Land and Water in DasiqoxNatasha De VriesSupervisor : Dr Patrick MooneyRELEASE FORMAbstractLandscape ArchitectureNatasha De Vries 05/03/2021Date1. Smith, Linda R. “NABAS CEAA Panel Submission, 2013.” 2013.Name SignatureSchool of Architecture and Landscape ArchitectureUniversity of British ColumbiaNatasha De VriesWalking Waterways : Guardianship of Land and Water in DasiqoxIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study.  I giver permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws. The Tsilhqot’in identify by two names : Tsilhqot’in meaning people of the river and Nenqayni meaning ‘people of the earth’.1 The Dasiqox area is and has been an important resource for drinking water, cultural practices, and food security.  Through 150 years of colonialism complex forest management systems tied to Tsilhqot’in culture and use of the land were banned resulting in increasingly poor forest health.  This has decreased the resiliency of the landscape as climate and resource pressures increase placing the waters of Dasiqox at risk.  The establishment of Dasiqox by the Tsilhqot’in is to protect and improve on what remains, asserting their rights to steward the land. This  project is focused on examining how landscape management and restoration practices in Dasiqox can be designed in ways that are self funding, support traditional land management practices, and allow visitors to participate in the restoration processes to better understand the cultural and ecological values of this place.2List of FiguresFig. 1: Dasiqox Summary (Dasiqox, 2020)Fig. 2: Wildlife Invintory (Wayne McCrory, 2014)Fig. 3: Nabas Panel Submission (Linda Smith, 2013)Fig. 4: Nabas Oral History (Linda Smith, 2013)Fig. 5: Visualization of New Prosperity Mine (Taseko Mines, 2010)Fig. 6: Timeline of Iron Levels in the Chilcotin and Significant Events (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 7: Dasiqox Watershed Axo (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 8: Traditional Land Management (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 9: 150 Years of BC Mismanagement (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 10: Lower Fraser Watershed Health (WWF, 2020)Fig. 11: Lower Fraser Watershed Threats (WWF, 2020)Fig. 12: Water Quality Dasiqox River (BC Ministry of Forestry, 2015)Fig. 13: Sub-Alpine Landslide Risk (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 14: Dasiqox Watershed Forestry Zones (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 15: Dasiqox Ecological Sensitivity (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 16: Average Riparian Zone in Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 17: Tin Hat Hut (Sunshine Coast Trail, 2017)Fig. 18: Los Angeles River (2018)Fig. 19: Los Angeles River Restoration (2019)Fig. 20: Los Angelis River Proposal (2015)Fig. 21: Berry Shrubs of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 22: Trees of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 23: Shrubs and Groundcover of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 24: Perennials of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 25: Grasses of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 26: Food Plants of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 27: GP Schedule (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 28: BC Bing Images Modified (De Vries, 2021 / Bing, 2021)Fig. 29: Ecotourism (Dasiqox, 2018)Fig. 30: Salmon Finishing in the Chilcotin (Tsilhqot’in, 2018)Fig. 31: Leading Edge Mill (Yunesit’in, 2018)Fig. 32: Greenworks (Yunesit’in, 2019)Fig. 33: Map of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021 / Bing Images, 2021)Fig. 34: Bear Habitat in Dasiqox Modified from McCrory, 2014 (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 35: Erosion in Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 36: Dasiqox Map (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 37: Seed Cycles Diagram (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 38: Seedling Nursery Shuswap (Shuswap Nursery, 2019)Fig. 39: Greenworks Inside (Yunesit’in, 2019)Fig. 40: Site Diagram : Seed House (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 41: Seed House Plan (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 42: Seed House Axo Diagram (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 43: Inside Greenhouse (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 44: Greenhouse Plan (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 45: Seed House Plants (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 46: Seed House Visualization (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 47: Seed House Plan (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 48: Dry Seed Collection (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 49: Wet Seed Collection (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 50: Shade House Visualization (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 51: Cut block (Dasiqox, 2018)Fig. 52: Site 1 Map (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 53: Road Access (Drone Flight Over Dasiqox, 2018)Fig. 54: Cut block Restoration (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 55: Site 1 Diagram (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 56: Mulch Collection (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 57: Nitrogen Fixing (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 58: Phased Restoration (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 59: Site 1 Plan (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 60: Soil Work (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 61: Berry Seeding By Animals (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 62: Berry Seeding by Humans (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 63: Site 1 Section A (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 64: Site 1 Human Use Year 2 (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 65: Site 1 Human Use Year 5 (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 66: Site 1 Animal Use Year 2 (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 67: Site 1 Animal Use Year 2 (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 68: Site 2 (Bing, 2021)Fig. 69: Site 2 Diagram (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 70: Annual Xeni Gwet’in Wagon Ride (Xeni Gwet’in, 2019)Fig. 71: Site 2 Plan (De Vries, 2021 / Bing, 2021)Fig. 72: Site 2.1 Plan (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 73: Site 2.1 Section A (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 74: Site 2.1 Section B (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 75: Site 2.2 Plan (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 76: Site 2.2 Section (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 77: Taseko Lakes (Great Adventures, 2017)Fig. 78: Site 3 Diagram (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 79: Sub Alpine Zone (Great Adventures, 2017)Fig. 80: Site 3 Diagram (De Vries, 2021 / Bing, 2021)Fig. 81: Site 3 Plan (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 82: Site 3 Section A (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 83: Site 3 Section B (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 84: Site 3 Human Use (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 85: Site 3 Animal Use (De Vries, 2021)3Table of Contents516-1938-44296-72130-358-1522-2856-6536-3745-5566-75EthicsPositionality This project takes place on Tsilhqot’in land in an area co-managed by two Tsilhqot’in communities Yunesit’in and Xeni Gwet’in.  It has proceeded with ethics clearance from UBC Behavioral Research Ethics Board [BREB] and research approval from the Dasiqox Tribal Park Initiative.Acknowledgments + Key TextsWatershed AnalysisSeed HouseSchedule + Landscape Architecture’s RoleBackground ContextPrecedentSite 1Site SelectionTraditional Ecological Management vs. 150 Years of BC ManagementPlants of DasiqoxSite 2DesignSite 3My position in this work is that of an outsider.  My family is entirely Dutch immigrants. While I have grown up in Canada, education on First Nations in Canada is often lacking.  There are of course gaps in my own knowledge and my own ways of communicating what I have learned from others.  To assist with this I was in conversation with members from the Dasiqox Tribal Park Initiative and works published and funded by them.  For me data collection and analysis feels like a very narrative and conversational activity.  It feels like the landscape conveying information to you and trying to tell you about itself.  Human curiosity and desire to learn about a place is the root of numeric data.  Unfortunately due to Covid restrictions the amount of ground truthing that could be experienced was limited in this project so a large amount of this work is reliant on others reports.  While this has drawbacks it also gave me the opportunity to primarily listen to what other experts and people from this place had to say. I think one of the most surprising things from this study is just how much information there is out there compared to what we cover in our education.  So for anyone reading this study if you are curious about something or feel like you are missing part of a story I encourage you to look.  Search algorithms are trained to give us what we typically look for and the most popular search results.  Unfortunately, this often must still be a very conscious effort on the part of the researcher to find that less publicized and funded portion of history.  4ACKNOWLEDGMENTSKey TextsBefore I explain a bit more about Dasiqox, I want to thank Russel Myers Ross and Jonaki Bhattacharyya for their contributions and resources in this project – and everyone else who allowed me to continue studying this land.  This research is only possible because of the work the Tsilhqot’in Nation has put forward in sharing and protecting their land and culture.  Without the conversations had throughout this project, and the texts previously published this work would not have happened.  I would also like to thank John Bass for the introducing me to Dasiqox through his UBC studio and my supervisor Dr. Patrick Mooney.  4 5Fig. 1: Dasiqox Summary (Dasiqox, 2020)Fig. 3: Nabas Panel Submission (Linda Fig. 2: Wildlife Invintory (Wayne McCrory, Fig. 4: Nabas Oral History (Linda Smith, Teẑtan Biny: In 2008 Taseko Mines proposed the original Prosperity Mine on Tsilhqot’in land.  The original proposal suggested draining Teẑtan Biny also known as Fish Lake (a sacred and culturally significant site) and turning it into a tailing pond for a large scale gold and copper mine.  By 2010 BC had granted a provincial permit after a review by the Environmental Assessment Office [EAO], resulting in the EAO review to be viewed by most as a ‘rubber stamp’ procedure. The July 2010 Federal review panel found Prosperity Mine would cause ‘Significant adverse environmental effects’.   The expected impact zone of the mine was suggested to be containable within the Fish Creek Watershed.3While each watershed is a basin, which suggests some level of containment, 1:50 000 scale watersheds often identify where the basin ‘ends’ and starts contributing to another larger watershed.  In the case of Fish Lake, water does collect at the lake and is largely contained by the surrounding ridge lines, but also flows into the Dasiqox River by means of Lower Fish Lake Creek.  Underground streams feed the lake and creeks, making complete containment of water very difficult in this area.  Taseko suggested this unpredictability could be factored into their water containment plan.The second proposal for New Prosperity Mine was still inadequate. It suggested the creation of a tailings pond 2km upstream from Fish Lake to ‘preserve the lake and its fish population’.  The mine itself was to be 500m from the mouth of Fish Lake with waste rocks stored nearby, along with processing sites and storage for reclamation soil.  Upper Fish Creek and Lower Fish Creek’s outflow would be cut off and artificially fed water to replace the natural stream flow. Watershed:A catchment area or drainage basin that channels rainfall and snow melt to creeks, streams and rivers that exist within the catchment area.  The watershed divide is the line which divides the area contributing to the watershed vs the area contributing to the neighbouring watershed.  These waterways eventually lead to reservoir wetlands and aquifers. Watershed systems exist at multiple scales, the smaller the scale the more focused the stream flow and water quality information becomes.  Typically the smallest are based on the Federal NTS [National Topographic Systems] maps at a 1:50 000.2 “Even with expensive water treatment measures, the protection of Fish Lake water quality is unlikely to success [sic] in the long term,” Federal Review PanelThe Trigger : New Prosperity Mine6Fig. 6: Timeline of Iron Levels in the Chilcotin and Significant Events (De Vries, 2020)2. “Chilcotin River at Christie Road Bridge (BC08MB0007).” Select Variables and Date Range to Graph- Fresh Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance - Environment and Climate Change Canada. Accessed September 20, 2020. https://aquatic.pyr.ec.gc.ca/WQMSDOnlineNationalData2019/en/Variables/Graph/BC08MB0007. December 22, 2020. https://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/ems/graphingExceedenceCriteria.3. Linnitt, Carol. A timeline from birth to death of Taseko’s embattled New Prosperity mine in B.C. The Narwal, May 14, 2020. https://thenarwhal.ca/timeline-birth-to-death-tasekos-embattled-new-prosperity-mine-bc/.Fig. 5: Visualization of New Prosperity Principles Key Principles of Dasiqox12345678Everything is interconnectedDasiqox is an extension of the land, animals, and people who are strong and healthy together, because they are a part of each otherTsilhqot’in are the river people - all use of the land will keep the waters clean and flowingCommited to maintaining traditional practice of taking only what they needTsilhqot’in health and well-being cannot be separated from the land, water, and air.  Land, water, and air give life. The spirit of the land (mountains, waters, and all parts) are part of the Tsilhqot’in spirit. It holds places to connect with ancestors and share with future generationsIt is out on the land where we learn, teach, and share Tsilhqot’in knowledge through the past, present and future.Dasiqox is a place for Tsilqot’in people, culture and language.It is the right and responsibility of Tsilhqot’in people to steward how the land is used.Water is lifeRespectHealing, health and well beingHonouring spiritCaretakingThriving cultureSharing KnowledgeDasiqox is based on the concept of a ‘Tribal Park’.  The typical conservation model of Class A Parks interrupts human activity on the land, taking away First Nations rights to hunt, fish, trap, and harvest the resources on land with Class A status.  The model Dasiqox is pursuing ensures and protects First Nations traditional practices and rights to stewardship and management of the land.4 Eight principles are outlined in Dasiqox’s vision statement that have acted as a way to reflect back on the design.  The following principles are important context to understanding the goals behind the formation of Dasiqox.5The new proposal exhibited continued failure to recognize cultural significance, archaeological value, or mention that the mine was to take place on Tsilhqot’in land. The proposals by Taseko Mines contained a myriad of significant ecological concerns. For landscape architecture and other industries that work with the land, perhaps the most worrisome is the ego exhibited in the sureness that water can be contained and controlled to prevent contamination.  This is not a unique issue. The same sureness that was exhibited here was exhibited in the containment of the Los Angeles River, the Mount Polley Mine tailings ponds, the WAC Bennet dam and so many other larger scale and smaller scale infrastructure projects.  While some projects were constructed some time ago (Los Angeles River), clearly our impulse to control water rather than manage and respect it has not been curbed.  The Dasiqox river supports a vast area of land. It supports habitat, and contributes healthy water to the Chilcotin and Fraser River Watersheds.  After lengthy legal battles the Tsilhqot’in Nation was able to have title recognized by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2014 and stop the project.3  Despite this, legal battles still loom over the Dasiqox area along with logging and mining claims throughout the region.  To further protect this area the Tsilhqot’in Nation has proposed the formation of Dasiqox to create a place that is there for them and to safeguard this area for future generations.  7Fig. 1: Dasiqox Summary (Dasiqox, 2020)Fig. 7: Dasiqox Watershed Axo (De Vries, 2020)204. Plotkin, Rachel. David Suzuki Foundation, 2018, pp. 1–56, Tribal Parks and Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas : Lessons Learned from B.C. Examples.5. Bhattacharyya, Jonaki, et al. Dasiqox Tribal Park, 2018, pp. 1–12, Nexwagweẑʔan Vision StatementTSILHQOT’IN TRADITIONAL LAND MANAGEMENTComplex management through traditional ecological knowledge of the community to encourage regrowth, support and share the land with animals  and maintain watershed healthTsilhqot’in traditional land management is complex and site specific. The Tsilhqot’in traveled to different camping sites and settlements throughout the forests of Dasiqox based on seasonal use caring for the land and interacting with it as they did and still do today6“Tsilhqot’in people are the caretakers of our lands.  It is our responsibility and our right to steward how the land is used by local people and by visitors.  We exercise this responsibility as guardians and monitors, and as we practice our traditional ways of knowing and being on the land” Nexwagweẑʔan Community Vision and Management Goals for Dasiqox, April 201858Fig. 8: Traditional Land Management (De Vries, 2021) 6. Woodward & Company. vol. 1, Roger William, on His Own Behalf and on Behalf of All Other Members of the Xeni Gwet’in First Nations Government and on Behalf of All Other Members of the Tsilhqot’in Nation (Plaintiff) and Her Majestry the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia, the Regional Manager of the Cariboo Forest Region and the Attorney General of Canada (Defendants)Argument of the Plaintiff.Robust Salmon (ts’eman) and Steelhead Trout (dek’any) Runs7 Fishing is done on log rafts, then fish are dried and smokedFishing Gaft hook : ʔetesɨhFishing with a rod : ʔetelhjɨnsh7 Birds eat berries and help spread seeds throughout forestGrizzly’s (nunitsiny) Fish in the river and carry the carcass (ʔeghaygg) into the bush where they bury them fertilizing the soil8Cultural practices like fishing on rafts and log docks were and are practiced on the river with plentiful runs of genetically unique salmon and trout.  These runs provided plenty of food for both the dry land grizzly bears as well as the Tsilhqot’in. 8 The grizzly’s carry their catches into the forest to eat them and leave the carcass partially consumed fertilizing the soil.  The Tsilhqot’in are taught to bury excess salmon like the bears to improve the fertility of the land.  This in turn provides berries and medicine from the plants that gain nutrients from the salmon.89Fig. 8: Traditional Land Management (De Vries, 2021)7. Fpcc. FirstVoices, www.firstvoices.com/explore/FV/sections/Data/Athabascan/Tsilhqot’in (Xeni Gwet’in)/Tsilhqot’in (Xeni Gwet’in)/learn/words/?page=1&pageSize=10.8. McCrory, Wayne, et al. McCrory Wildlife Services Ltd., 2014, Inventory of Wildlife, Ecological, and Landscape Connectivity Values, Tsilhqot’in First Nations Cultural/Heritage Values & Resource Conflicts in the Dasiqox-Taseko Watershed, BC Chilcotin.9. Myers Ross, Russel. Apr. 2021.Under brush and trees hold the slope and build soil to allow for future growth, water is slowed and filteredControl burns to clear brush and activate seed germinationBerry picking (ʔets’unebah) and traditional plant collection from the wide variety of native plants7With care - complex under stories thrived holding slopes, cooling waters, and filtering and slowing run off. The Tsilhqot’in also maintained the landscape through control burns.  This kept dry underbrush from over accumulating and becoming a fire hazard. Many of the plant seeds indigenous to this area are coated in resin and germinate after scarification and exposure to low levels of fire.  Interruptions to control burns limited the regrowth potential of the forests.10In addition, when berry picking the Tsilhqot’in taught that you sing while collecting berries to give thanks to the land and to keep the bears away.  Often a basket and a stick was used, but not all the berries were to be picked.  Some should be left on the shrub and others should be allowed to fall to the ground as fertilizer, food or future seeds – you only take what you need.  These areas often became favourite berry picking spots and in addition to creating large areas of berries for gathering, they created fire breaks within the forest. Throughout the woods are trails that the animals use to wander through the land. 910Fig. 8: Traditional Land Management (De Vries, 2021)7. Fpcc. FirstVoices, www.firstvoices.com/explore/FV/sections/Data/Athabascan/Tsilhqot’in (Xeni Gwet’in)/Tsilhqot’in (Xeni Gwet’in)/learn/words/?page=1&pageSize=10.8. McCrory, Wayne, et al. McCrory Wildlife Services Ltd., 2014, Inventory of Wildlife, Ecological, and Landscape Connectivity Values, Tsilhqot’in First Nations Cultural/Heritage Values & Resource Conflicts in the Dasiqox-Taseko Watershed, BC Chilcotin.9. Myers Ross, Russel. Apr. 2021.10. The Narwhal. “The Art of Fire: Reviving the Indigenous Craft of Cultural Burning.” The Narwhal, 20 Sept. 2020, thenarwhal.ca/indigenous-cultural-burning/.Small carnivore habitatForest intentionally thinned to allow for food growth (mountain potatoes, berry bushes) and the creation of firebreaksHorse trails (Naŝlhiny-ten) horses follow these trails known to them through the forestWild horses roam free and when Tsilhqot’in people are in need of a horse go out and tame oneMule deer  (nists’i) and other mammals are sources of food from hunting and trappingThe Tsilqot’in also have their own traditional trails which are marked by ground that has been compacted by thousands of years of walking on it.  This robust habitat supports small mammals, cariboo, and mule deer all of which feed and contribute to the land and are hunted and trapped as part of Tsilhqot’in culture.6 11Fig. 8: Traditional Land Management (De Vries, 2021)150 YEARS OF BC MISMANAGEMENTFish Stocks Critical LowsHorse HabitatAvian PopulationPlant ResiliancyForest CoverStable, habitat increasingly Moose + Cariboo Critical LowsThe people cannot perceive themselves existing without the river and the land. The balance and connection between land and people is now altered and becoming more and more fragile, as the speed of progress is destroying ecosystems faster then the people can deal with. Essentially, what affects the land affects the people. - Linda Smith1These landscapes are inherently tied to humans and human use – before colonization they were managed landscapes by the Tsilhqot’in people and they are once again managed by the Tsilhqot’in today. 12Fig. 9: 150 Years of BC Mismanagement (De Vries, 2021)Decline in Salmon Runs : 2020 Estimates 52 00012 Decline in bird populationSteelhead runs in decline 2017 - 2021 : HOLDS ON FISHINGAfter 150 years of Canadian colonialism, salmon stocks are at record lows, bird habitat has decreased.  Biodiversity is down - replaced with mono-culture plantings of lodgepole pine.  Because of mono-cultures and bans on control burns, seed banks have been heavily damaged by interruptions to their regeneration cycles.  Bans on control burns also allowed for the accumulation of dry underbrush.  When paired with extensive amounts of beetle kill pine, this can result in disastrous fires like those seen in the region during the 2017 fire season.1113Fig. 9: 150 Years of BC Mismanagement (De Vries, 2021)11. Verhaeghe, et al. Tsilhqot’in National Government, 2017, The Fires Awakened Us.12. “‘The Fish Can’t Get through’: Tsilhqot’in Issues Salmon Closure Notice after Big Bar Landslide | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 4 Sept. 2019, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/tsilhqot-in-national-government-issue-salmon-closure-1.5269466.Ban on control burns, debris accumulates - Pine ages making it more susceptible to Pine beetle132014 Peak Pine Beetle, ongoing issue in BCBC Forestry plants Lodgepole Pine mono-cultures.  This creates large drifts of pine making corridors for the beetle to quickly spread through devastating BC forests13Sheet flow across roads and clear cuts strip nutrients from soil and increase erosion ratesCLEAR CUTSTraditional trails, settlements and cultural sites damaged or erasedPoor Regrowth14Fig. 9: 150 Years of BC Mismanagement (De Vries, 2021)13. Kelly, Ash. “On the Heels of the Pine Beetle Epidemic, Fires in B.C. Have Burned Valuable Timber Stands | CBC News.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, July 29, 2017. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/fires-compound-losses-of-harvestable-timber-in-b-c-s-interior-1.4226228.2017 - 2021 : Holds on moose huntingIncreasing pressure on acceptable habitat.  Cariboo are now rarely seen in the area2017 Fires, loss of viable soil and seed banksDead stands increase fire risksMoose habitat and numbers have decreased significantly.  Hunting has been put on hold14150 YEARS OF BC MISMANAGEMENTFish Stocks Critical LowsHorse HabitatAvian PopulationPlant ResiliancyForest CoverStable, habitat increasingly Moose + Cariboo Critical LowsWild horse habitat is shrinking, and the cariboo have largely disappeared with concerns about the security of the moose population increasing.  Clear cuts offer little habitat value and allow water to sheet wash down the forestry roads that connect them.  Regrowth has been reported to be poor in many cut blocks.  The creation of these blocks and roads has also done immeasurable damage to traditional trails, cultural sites and animal trails through the forest.  15Fig. 9: 150 Years of BC Mismanagement (De Vries, 2021)14. “Interior First Nations Asks B.C. to Partner on Moose, Caribou Stewardship.” Prince George Citizen, www.princegeorgecitizen.com/local-news/interior-first-nations-asks-bc-to-partner-on-moose-caribou-stewardship-3741570.WATERSHED ANALYSIS Fig. 10: Lower Fraser Watershed Health (WWF, 2020) Health GoodFig. 11: Lower Fraser Watershed Threats (WWF, 2020) Threat HighLower Fraser Lower FraserWater Quality:Condition of the water, including physical, chemical and biological conditions.  Often used to discuss the use of water (recreational or consumption).17“The Chilcotin river monitoring site has seen some of the biggest changes - an increase in metal concentrations, even though there is not much development in the area.  Scientists are investigating what exactly is driving the change, but an increase in sediments due to changes in stream flow may be a factor.” Ministry of environment and Climate Change Strategy BC (August 29, 2020)Typical Seasonal Flood2007 Spike Unconfirmed Causes2019 200 Year Flood Level StormFig. 12: Water Quality Dasiqox River (BC Ministry of Forestry, 2015)18Dasiqox: The Dasiqox river and watershed data sets are somewhat sparse but they do still paint a bit of a picture of the water conditions within Dasiqox.  Rather than trends and impacts of major events on water quality, the Dasiqox samples are more reflective of ‘check-ins’ to assess the continued health of the watershed. While some of these samples go slightly outside of the ‘drinkable’ water quality guidelines, most of these samples are incredibly close to the acceptable level and vary depending on where the sample was collected.  Many of these sample sites are in areas where there was concern for if water was being effected by industry (ie: road crossings), different sample locations may have shown higher water quality results.19  The quality and health of the rivers in Dasiqox is shown to be very high.  Within the drinking range some high levels of iron and other minerals are present, but these are no where near the scale of particulates seen in the Chilcotin.  While there is not enough data to make judgments on causes, there are characters of concern that can contribute to lower water and habitat quality within the Dasiqox watershed that can be addressed.  Lower Fraser Basin:There are nine major watersheds within BC: the Mackenzie, the Fraser, the Columbia, the Pacific Ocean Seaboard, the Nass, the Skeena, the Stikine, Taku and the Yukon.15  The Fraser is then split into 5 sub-watersheds.  Despite overall health in the Lower Fraser watershed being classified as  ‘good’, overall water quality in the watershed is considered ‘poor’.16  These poor water quality ratings paired with a high threat level are not a doomsday message, but they are a strong warning for what the future of our rivers can become if we are not careful.  Many rivers and lakes are already at the point where interaction with the water can be hazardous to a persons health, creating a barrier to physical interaction of people and water.  The Dasiqox watershed (Existing within the Chilcotin Watershed) can be described as a pristine.  Industrial clear cuts, fires, pine beetle, exploration of mining potential, and climate change have all threatened the watershed which is the main support - “the lungs”9 - of this area.  Despite the damage, Dasiqox is one of what seems to be a decreasing amount of drinkable water bodies within BC. 1615. “Watersheds.” April 25, 2017. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.bctomorrow.ca/blog/watersheds#:~:text=BC has 9 watershed Basins,Basin includes many smaller watersheds.16. “Lower Fraser,” Watershed Reports, https://watershedreports.wwf.ca/#sws-08M/by/health-overall/health)17. Rep. British Columbia Approved Water Quality Guidelines : Aquatic Life, Wildlife & Agriculture. Victoria, BC: Government of BC, 2019.18. “Chilcotin River at Christie Road Bridge (BC08MB0007).” Select Variables and Date Range to Graph- Fresh Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance - Environment and Climate Change Canada. Accessed September 20, 2020. https://aquatic.pyr.ec.gc.ca/WQMSDOnlineNationalData2019/en/Variables/Graph/BC08MB0007. December 22, 2020. https://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/ems/graphingExceedenceCriteria.do?userAction=showGraph&multilistRequestor=graphingExceedenceCriteria&officeMultilistRequestor=graphingExceedenceCriteria&bean.p_ems _id=E216942&x=40&y=27#.19. “Canadian Drinking Water Quality.” Latest Summary Report. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/ems/graphingExceedenceCriteria.do?userAction=showGraph&multilistRequestor=graphingExceedenceCriteria&officeMultilistRequestor=graphingExceedenceCriteria&bean.p_ems_id=E216942&x=40&y=27#.SUB ALPINE ZONE:Landslides, washouts and mudslides are natural occurrences within the landscape.  As a glaciers melt moraines (loose gravel and debris) form in the areas that the glacier has receded from.   The existence of these moraines and landslides in the area due to the loose earth and cracks formed as the glacier melts are exacerbated by climate change.  Glacial melt and global warming are global scale issues, however this does not mean some action cannot be taken.  The continued and increased health of this area as it encounters climate change is one way to increase its resiliency – which can also be watched through continued monitoring. Fig. 16: Average Riparian Zone in Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)20MORAINELANDSLIDEWATERSHEDLANDSLIDE RISK ZONE17120 KMN8 Forestry ZonesEcological VulnerabilityProject Focus: Interior Douglas Fir (IDF dk4) Sub-Boreal Pine - Spruce (SBPS xc)SITE 3 SITE 3SITE 1 SITE 1SITE 2 SITE 2The watershed itself is 120 km long and spans from the glacial source of the river to the confluence of the Chilko and Dasiqox.  Within this watershed there are 8 unique forestry zones the two primary ones being interior douglas fir and sub-boreal pine.BC’s Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification [BCE] of these areas has sorted the habitat in the Dasiqox watershed into three different categories based on sensitivity.  This data assists with forest management and sorts Dasiqox based on broadly homogeneous macro-climates.  These sensitivities are based on how these areas are changing across BC.  In this case IDF dk4 is the most vulnerable area.18Fig. 14: Dasiqox Watershed Forestry Zones (De Vries, 2021)20Fig. 15: Dasiqox Ecological Sensitivity (De Vries, 2021)20ANIMALS OF DASIQOXGRIZZLY BEARS:SALMON:Habitat Fragmentation: The Dasiqox area provides habitat many species including grizzly bears, moose, wolves, wolverines, eagles, big horn sheep, as well as yearly salmon runs.  In totally 37 Red or Blue listed species were accounted for within the what was entitled the ‘Taseko Management Area’.  This report accounts for the southern half of the Dasiqox area.  The northern area, Tachelach’ed also known as the Brittany Triangle, is home to wild horses.21  Within the last 50 years, logging activity has impacted much of the surrounding area and the watershed.  While the logging activity has been more sensitive within the watershed, roads still cut across many streams and creeks compacting soil and segmenting hydrologically sensitive habitat areas.  Riparian zones are often left with the minimum required protection.  Dasiqox’s goals are “ecological health, cultural revitalization, and sustainable livelihoods for our [Tsilhqot’in] people”.  Dasiqox is to be Nexwagwezʔan, translating to [it is] “there for  us”. Forestry activity does not have to be in direct conflict with ecological health, but for this to be done with respect to the ecological goals of Dasiqox and under the control and management of the Tsilhqot’in.  To fully address habitat segmentation roadways should be considered alongside the forestry blocks they lead to, diversity of plant material and habitat being reestablished, and the key species that are using the habitat.5The sockeye salmon in Dasiqox’s rivers are genetically unique. The salmon that come up here are not the same as those present in other existing provincial parks in the Cariboo-Chilcotin land use plan. They are identified as “super fish” with larger hearts and extensive cardio-respiratory systems.  This makes protection of this unique population important for the security of the salmon stock in this area.8There are many important species within Dasiqox, but two primary keystone species will be the focus of this design work:  the salmon, and the grizzly bear.The Grizzly’s of Dasiqox are also unique and are referred to as Dry Land Grizzly Bears.  This population of Grizzly’s range has been significantly decreased due to urbanization and damage to salmon bearing rivers.  Other Dry Land Grizzly populations are being pushed further north into less urbanized habitat, and the genetic stock has decreased with some portions of the species being nearing extinction.  The health of the Dasiqox Grizzlies is necessary for the health of the genetic pool to help rebuild dwindling populations and protect the population within Dasiqox. With significant loss to bear habitat in North America, many bear populations have dropped significantly. The Dasiqox watershed protects approximately 36 Grizzly’s by 2007 estimates.  Dasiqox represents 7.5% of the entire South Coast Mountain DNA study area which is 40 000km2.  Because of its mix of whitebark pine nuts, salmon runs, berries, and low recreational use, the area is able to support a significant amount of Grizzlies despite being only 3000km2.  While Dry Land Grizzly bears can survive better without salmon than their coastal counterparts, there are dips in their health, size, and offspring when it is removed from their diet.  The forest around them can also suffer as the salmon carcass’ that are introduced into the forest by the grizzly’s.  These carcass’ are helpful in increasing the fertility around the land where they have been buried.8 19Minimal Riparian Protection Fig. 16: Average Riparian Zone in Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)21. Spouck, Lenmart, et al. Renewable Resources Consulting Services Ltd., 1997, Inventory of Red and Blue Listed Species, and Identified Wildlife in the Taseko Management Zone July-August 1996 and February 1997 . PRECEDENTS20Sunshine Coast TrailThe Sunshine Coast trail is a 180km network of trails along the Sunshine Coast in partnership with the local government, Parks BC, and local First Nations.  The hikes join together in a chain allowing for users to choose hikes that suit their needs and fitness levels.  The popular ‘hut to hut’ hike allows users to hike along the entirety of the trail stopping in campsites or rented cabins for the night before continuing on.  The trail themselves are carefully monitored, cycled for use, and designed in ways that utilize local materials and lend themselves to the character of the local area.The trail brings through traffic to nearby towns.  The initiative formally started in 1992 by Scott Galspey and Eagle Walz to protect the last stands of disappearing old growth and threats from logging companies. The trails were thought of as a way to ensure the community occupied and experienced these areas and thus would want to protect them.  The effects of the trail have not just been conservation, nearby towns have tapped into the trail as part our their tourism industry - a needed adjustment for many towns dealing with a changing resource industry. This trail network is particularly useful due to its length, complexity, and connections between tourism and conservation.  By layering in of multiple programs, the trail has become a tourism magnet for more global hiking enthusiasts and locals. The intent of this trail increasing public knowledge and attachment to the area and understand it’s value.While Dasiqox’s goal is not to halt forestry activity it is important to bring the forestry industry and management of this area under the control of the Tsilhqot’in Nation and continue forestry in a way they see fit.  Network systems can potentially be used to aid supervision of forestry activity, educate visitors on forestry practices.  Through this network planning landscape architects are involved in not just the design of the trail but the protection of the old growth forests that these trails are intended to protect.Primary Field : Conservation | TourismPrecedent : Trail Systems Fig. 17: Tin Hat Hut (Sunshine Coast Trail, 2017)Fig. 18: Los Angeles River (2018)Fig. 19: Los Angeles River Restoration (2019)Fig. 20: Los Angelis River Proposal (2015)22. Fralic, Brandon, and Rachel Wood. “The Sunshine Coast Trail Is British Columbia’s Best-Kept Secret.” REI. September 2017. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.rei.com/blog/hike/sunshine-coast-trail-british-columbias-best-kept-secret.23. The L.A. River Story. Performed by Eric Garcetti. Youtube. July 16, 2015. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acJjuBm-Q43U.The Los Angeles River often exhibits low flow levels; however, is naturally prone to winter floods.  As urbanization grew, settlements began encroaching on river flood plains narrowing the courses of the river and increasing occupation of hazard zones.  In response to repeat floods that caused significant damage to the cities, the US Army Corps of Engineers was approached to provide a solution.  The resulting channeling of the river has resulted in a significant lack of health in the river, loss of riparian habitat, lack of access to water and rivers for cultural or recreational activities.In 2016 the city began research and work towards the revitalization of the river and its habitat zones.  This comes after California had already lost 90% of their riparian zones and patterns of species decline had become apparent in the region.  The project is expected to cost several hundreds of millions of dollars and the process will take decades.  The Los Angeles River begins to paint a picture of the devastation of river loss, how development on the land and disconnects between natural waterways harms rivers, the complexity of restoration, and the cost of restoration.  Many people have mixed feeling about placing economic value on environmental systems as they do not often communicate the complexity of the benefits of these systems.  But if the restoration of a river is worth hundreds of millions, why is the protection of healthy river systems not valued in the same way.  In this project proper ecological restoration and landscape management is vital to the success of the project.  It is not only human use that we need to consider as landscape architects but water health and animal use of the land.Precedent : Over Control of Water Primary Field : Engineering | Ecological Remediation | Landscape ArchitectureThe Los Angeles River21Plants of Dasiqox : INDEXThe following plants are a selection of native plants present in the Dasiqox area based on vegetation tables for forestry zone IDF dk4 in the Cariboo Region2224. Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). USDA, US Forestry Service, www.feis-crs.org/feis/.Drought ToleranceGrizzlySmall MammalsNitrogen FixingSunSunFlammabilityFlammabilityLowFull Partial ShadePoorOkayGoodMedium HighFire RecoveryFire RecoveryMooseGoatCaribooSongbirdsForestryBlack BearGame BirdsRemediationGrouseFood SourceMedicineCultural / CeremonialSeed / Recovery NotesDeerHabitat BenefitsHuman UseTraitsXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXSeeds viable 10 years aggressive tolerant grower, germinates easilySeeds viable 12 years, germinate in 15 daysGrows well from seed Seeds viable 1 year, sprouts after fireIncreases fertility in soil, full benefits after 25 yearsXXXXXXXXXXX- - -- -XXXXXXXMILDX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXCh’inAmelanchier alnifoliaServiceberryNuŵɨshShepherdia canadensisSoapberryNiẑt’an [Berries]Viburnum eduleHigh Bush CranberryNiẑt’an [Berries]Vaccinium ovalifoliumOval Leaf BlueberryNiẑt’an [Berries]Vaccinium membranaceumMountain HuckleberryNiẑt’an [Berries] Symphoricarpos occidentalisSnowberryʔunchunsh [rose hips]Rosa acicularisPrickly RoseBERRY SHURBS23Fig. 21: Berry Shrubs of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)T’aŝ Populus tremuloidiesBlack Cottonwoodʔel Pinus contorta var. latifoliaLodgepole PineTs’u [Spruce]Pinus albicaulisWhite SpruceTs’utsen [Balsam Fir]Abies lasiocarpaSubalpine FirDrought ToleranceGrizzlySmall MammalsNitrogen FixingSunSunFlammabilityFlammabilityLowFull Partial ShadePoorOkayGoodMedium HighFire RecoveryFire RecoveryMooseGoatCaribooSongbirdsForestryBlack BearGame BirdsRemediationGrouseFood SourceMedicineCultural / CeremonialSeed / Recovery NotesDeerHabitat BenefitsHuman UseTraitsXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXSeeds viable 1-2 months Seeds viable 1 year Seeds viable 1-2 months, recover 1-2 years after fireTrees most fertile after 150-200 yearsRecovers from roots 1-2 years after fireRegenerated by fire, seed life 2-3 years, 2 year germinationFire melts resin on seeds allowing growthX MILDX- - -XXXXXXXXXXXXX X XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXCh’es [Alder]Alnus rubraSitka Alderʔests’ichenPinus albicaulisWhitebark PineT’aŝbayPopulus tremuloidiesAspenTREES24Fig. 22: Trees of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Nen gwet’an [Plants]Ceanothus velutinusSnowbrushK’i [Willow]Salix scoulerianaScoulers willowTelhant’aẑEmpetrum nigrumCrowberryNiẑt’an [Berries] Vaccinium scopariumGrouseberryK’i [Willow]Salix brachycarpashortfruit willowK’i [Willow]Salix glaucagray leaf willowDenɨsh [Kinnikinnick Berry]Arctosaphylos uva-ursiKinnikinnickDrought ToleranceGrizzlySmall MammalsNitrogen FixingSunSunFlammabilityFlammabilityLowFull Partial ShadePoorOkayGoodMedium HighFire RecoveryFire RecoveryMooseGoatCaribooSongbirdsForestryBlack BearGame BirdsRemediationGrouseFood SourceMedicineCultural / CeremonialSeed / Recovery NotesDeerHabitat BenefitsHuman UseTraitsXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXSeeds viable 200+ years, require scarification from fire aggressive tolerant grower, germinates easilySeeds viable 2 years, cuttings ineffective.Seeds viable 4-6 weeks, grows well in nurseriesSprouts easily, germinates in 12-24 h. Needs viable soil.XXXXXX-- - -XXXXXXMILDX XX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXSHURBS GROUNDCOVER25Fig. 23: Shrubs and Groundcover of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Drought ToleranceGrizzlySmall MammalsNitrogen FixingSunSunFlammabilityFlammabilityLowFull Partial ShadePoorOkayGoodMedium HighFire RecoveryFire RecoveryMooseGoatCaribooSongbirdsForestryBlack BearGame BirdsRemediationGrouseFood SourceMedicineCultural / CeremonialSeed / Recovery NotesDeerHabitat BenefitsHuman UseTraitsXXXXXXXXXXGrows in damaged soil Grows in damaged soil Grows in damaged soilXXXXXXX- -XXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXʔelagi [Flower]Lupinus articusArctic Lupinʔelagi [Flower]Lupinus nootkantensisNootka Lupinʔelagi [Flower]Lupinus ochroleucusBluntlobe LupinDlunichiAchillea millefoliumYarrowʔelagi [Flower]Aster Sp.Astersʔelagi [Flower]Astragalus sp.Astragalusʔelagi [Flower]Potentilla anserinaSilverweedPERENNIALS26Fig. 24: Perennials of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Dinaẑ [Grass]Elymus spicatusBluebunch (Pseudoroegneria)Dinaẑ [Grass]Pseudoroegneria spicataBluebunch (Elymus)Tl’egweẑɨshEquisetum arvenseHorsetailDinaẑ [Grass]Festuca saximontanaRockymountain fescueDinaẑ [Grass]Poa fenderianaMuttongrassʔelagi [Flower]Trifolium repensWhite Cloverʔelagi [Flower]Dryas drummondiiMountain AvensDrought ToleranceGrizzlySmall MammalsNitrogen FixingSunSunFlamabilityFlamabilityLowFull Partial ShadePoorOkayGoodMedium HighFire RecoveryFire RecoveryMooseGoatCaribooSongbirdsForestryBlack BearGame BirdsRemediationGrouseFood SourceMedicineCultural / CeremonialSeed / Recovery NotesDeerHabitat BenefitsHuman UseTraitsXXXXXXXXXXXXXX X- --XMILDX X XXXXXXXGRASSES27Fig. 25: Grasses of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)Drought ToleranceGrizzlySmall MammalsNitrogen FixingSunSunFlamabilityFlamabilityLowFull Partial ShadePoorOkayGoodMedium HighFire RecoveryFire RecoveryMooseGoatCaribooSongbirdsForestryBlack BearGame BirdsRemediationGrouseFood SourceMedicineCultural / CeremonialSeed / Recovery NotesDeerHabitat BenefitsHuman UseTraitsXXXXXXCultivating this plant has seen little success, it regrows itself at the same sites it is found.XXXSeeds sprout one month after plantingXXXX- -XXXXXXXXXXGalitsɨh [Carrot]unspecifiedWild CarrotTl’etsen [Onion]Allium cernuumNodding OnionSunt’inyClaytonia lanceolataWild PotatoNiẑt’an [Berries] Vaccinium caespitosumDwarf BlueberryNen gwet’an [Plants]Lathyrus ochroleucusPale PeaFOOD PLANTSThe following plants are unlikely to be useful in restoration but are edible.  Mountain potato in particular is a culturally significant plant, but attempts to cultivate it outside of areas where it grows naturally have so far been unsuccessful.9  These plants may not be where initial energy should be concentrated but as projects grow they can be factored in, in ways that allow for the development of techniques that will allow for propagation either in nursery or directly on site. This is important for the security these plants.  Climate change and industry activity places the stock of traditional plants at risk.  Protection of areas where they do grow is important, but without techniques to encourage regrowth they will always be vulnerable. 28Fig. 26: Food Plants of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTUREROLE IN RESTORATIONMany of the problems that exist within Dasiqox are system wide. A large amount of focus when discussing landscape architecture is the urban setting, and there are many important restoration works that need to happen in urban environments where we are nearing critical points in habitat loss – but that does not negate the needs of rural environments that have been stressed by urbanization, industrialization, colonization.It is important to help these areas increase their resilience before they too reach critical points.  These rural systems and tributaries of the Fraser currently are the backbone of heavily urbanized environments. The significant decline in health of the lower Fraser is lessened by the continued health of up-river areas like Dasiqox. In the BCSLA Standards of Professional Conduct and Practice it states that we are sanctioned to (b) “nurture and further the professional application of landscape architectural knowledge and technique as it relates to the planning, design, development preservation, protection, restoration, reclamation, rehabilitation, enhancement, and management of the environment”25  With pollution, environmental degradation, and environmental risks becoming more apparent issues in rural and urban environments it is our responsibility to better understand the environments we are working with to serve their needs and carry out not just design work but landscape management as well.  Through improving our own knowledge we can better fulfill our duties to the environment and collaborate with other experts in the field. 29GP1: GP2:Research (including consultation)RefineSite AnalysisEdit / VisualizePrecedentsEthicsDefining the ProjectDesignSchedule :Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb March AprilFig. 27: GP Schedule (De Vries, 2020)25. British Columbia Society of Landscape Architects. 2016, Standards of Professional Conduct and Practice.CONTEXTMappingFRASER RIVERCHILCOTIN RIVERDASIQOX RIVER650 kmVancouver to Dasiqox(by road)Dasiqox RiverChilcotin RiverFraser RiverPacific OceanDasiqox is East of Williams lake and is approximately 30 000 km2.  Dasiqox encompasses the Dasiqox watershed offering it the same protections that the Chilko watershed has been afforded by Tsilos Provincial Park.530Fig. 28: BC Bing Images Modified (De Vries, 2021 / Bing, 2021)Mapping1 2 3Capstone Restoration ProjectsEco tourism / Self-FundingRoles: Roles: Roles: Guardians Guardians Guardians Guides ResearchersVisitorsCommunity Members Researchers Guides VisitorsMonitoring / LongevityLearning on The LandCommunity InvolvementSlope StabilityProtection from pollutants Habitat RestorationClimate StrategiesGuardianship / Data CollectionCut block RestorationMulchRoadside ErosionNursery GrowthClimate ResiliencyOn Site PlantingSeed HouseLEADING EDGE MILLMULCH, BEETLE KILL PINE WOODGREENWORKSOPTION TO TIE INTO EXITING GREEN HOUSE  EFFORTS TO GROW PLANTS FOR RESTORATIONGUARDIANSHIP PROGRAMTIE EFFORTS INTO EXISTING FOCUS OF DEVELOPING MONITORING PROGRAM AND RESTORATIONECOTOURISMINVOLVE VISITORS IN RESTORATION AND EDUCATE ON CULTURAL AND ECOLOGICAL VALUES OF DASIQOXThe Overall structure for this project is as follows : The design builds off of the existing guardian programs, leading edge mill, green works green house, and a budding eco-tourism program within dasiqox that in this scenario is focused on restoration ecotourism.  Local seed collection and needed restoration plants are to be produced at the seed house – which can then be used to facilitate work at three cap stone projects.  These projects are representative of common erosion and habitat loss issues experienced in Dasiqox.  31Fig. 29: Ecotourism (Dasiqox, 2018) | Fig. 30: Salmon Finishing in the Chilcotin (Tsilhqot’in, 2018) | Fig. 31: Leading Edge Mill (Yunesit’in, 2018) | Fig. 32: Greenworks (Yunesit’in, 2019)Site selectionDASIQOX WATERSHED 120 KMSITE 3FRASER RIVERCHILCOTIN RIVERSITE 2Ts’ilʔosProvincial ParkBig Creek ParkNunsti ParkSITE 1YUNESIT’INWILLIAMS LAKEXENI GWET’IN DASIQOXThe Tsilhqot’in identify by two names : Tsilhqot’in meaning people of the river and Nenqayni meaning ‘people of the earth’. The Dasiqox area is and has been an important resource for drinking water, cultural practices, and food security.1 Three capstone projects were selected based on accessibility, potential habitat value, and current or potential environmental degradation. To connect to the existing green houses, the seed house is sited in Yunesit’in.  32Fig. 33: Map of Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021 / Bing Images, 2021)The first site is near the most actively logged area. Due to sensitive hearing and aversion to noise, grizzly bears will typically avoid areas with even minimal noise like human conversation or people on horse back, for about 300m.  This places a majority of the watershed near the high movement corridor as less viable habitat, making intervention important for encouraging animal use in these areas again as logging moves out of it.  The entirety of the river is critical fish habitat with the area near Site 3 being known for high grizzly bear habitat use, salmon spawning and as a fishing site.8MAJORITY STREAMS ARE FOURTH ORDER STREAMS<20 YEARS OLD CUT BLOCKS>20 YEAR OLD CUT BLOCKS300m BUFFER  IMPACTED GRIZZLY ZONEHIGH GRIZZLY BEAR MOVEMENT CORRIDORGRIZZLY AND FISHING LOCATIONCRITICAL FISH HABITATSECOND ORDER STREAM Site 3:Loose Glacial TillRoad Near River, Goat Winter RangeSite 1:Road AccessClear Cuts and Beetle Kill PineSite 2:Road and Bridge CrossingHigh Run Off Risk, River CrossingN33Fig. 34: Bear Habitat in Dasiqox Modified from McCrory, 2014 (De Vries, 2021)EROSIONEROSION ALONG THE DASIQOX WATERSHEDDesigning to assist with community lead landscape management.  The primary focus of this study is integrating soil and water health using existing initiatives by the Yunesit’in and Xeni Gwet’in and through utilizing local plant and animal communities.Site 3:Loose Glacial TillRoad Near River, Goat Winter RangeSite 1:Road AccessClear Cuts and Beetle Kill Site 2:Road and Bridge CrossingHigh Run Off Risk, River CrossingAll three of these sites are experiencing erosion.  The first due to vegetation loss, the second due to stress placed on river banks by the presence of roads, and the third due primarily because of accelerated glacial melt.  Erosion along rivers can be good for river health as they do naturally move, however it is no longer healthy when that erosion creates high levels of increased sediment in the river. High levels of sedimentation effects fish populations and the drink-ability of the water.  Interventions to eroding areas are focused on areas with damage to vegetative layers due to industrial activity.2034Fig. 35: Erosion in Dasiqox (De Vries, 2021)FRASER RIVERCHILCOTIN RIVERHWY 20100 km64 km25 km20 kmTASEKO LAKE ROADYUNESIT’IN TO SITE 2XENI GWET’IN TO SITE 2SITE 119 kmSITE 2SITE 3DASIQOXDASIQOX WATERSHED 120 KM15KM0MNYUNESIT’INWILLIAMS LAKEGREEN HOUSEHANCEVILLEALEXIS CREEKTSILOS PROVINCIAL PARKXENI GWET’INGREEN HOUSESITE 1SITE 2.1SITE 3An emphasis has been placed on restoration materials being produced locally.  It is important not only to maintain traditional practices while restoring the landscape, but to increase the resiliency of the project through supplies being accessible within the community and for the program to become self funding and self supplying for when other areas in dasiqox are in need of restoration. 35Site ConnectionsFig. 36: Dasiqox Map (De Vries, 2021)“ ” Our past is embedded within the clear cuts; the broken landscapes hold our most cherished memories - Linda Smith36Seeds mannually added to the ground seed bankSeed burrial depth dependent on clay content in soil, size, and shape of seed. Seed bank storage stratification changes based on stage of successionSeed rain deposits itself in ground through rain and ground disturbancesEarthworms and other insects ingest and bring seeds to lower depthsSmall mammals consume seed, process it and release it back to the landscapeSmall mammals bury seeds for storage and forget about their storesSmall percentage of seed is released from cone on the groundWet-Dry cycle forming cracks allow bulky seeds into groundCone opens on tree releasing seed onto forest floorMEADOW (0-5 Years) YOUNG FOREST (5-25 Years)OLD FOREST (25-200 Years)GROUND SEED BANKTECHNICAL OUTPUTSHUMAN USESMALLLARGEMEDIUMSUCCESSION + SEED STRATIFICATIONRestoring Seed Cycles123456Restore SoilReplenish Seed BanksFilter and Slow WaterMonitorTraditional PracticeKnowledgeHelp increase nutrients and viability of soilAs we move onto the design phase there are six main goals each site to reflect on.  Three related to technical outputs and Three related to human use of these spaces.Reintroduce plant diversity and habitat valueEncourage plant regrowth to assist water flowAnimal activity and habitat changes (forest and water health)People are an important part of landscapes and landscape managementPassing on of skills and education for visitors on the value of this land37Fig. 37: Seed Cycles Diagram (De Vries, 2020)• PLANTS ARE TRANSPORTED INTO DASIQOX INSTEAD OF BEING GROWN IN THE AREA • RESTORATION PROJECTS ARE CONTRACTED OUT BY THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT AND LOGGING COMPANIES • RESTORATION IS DEPENDENT ON PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT FUNDING DESPITE INCREASING PUBLIC CONCERN FOR HABITAT LOSS AND CLIMATE CHANGE EXISTING CONDITION : SEED HOUSEWild SeedSeed OrchardsSilviculture prescriptionSPARTree seed CentreNurseryStorage shipmentSite preparationNSA Hot liftSummer / fall plantSpring plantPlantability assessmentStock type selectionPost-harvest assessmentStock type selection75%BC plants 200-280 million seedlings a year25%Image : Tree production nursery in ShuswapCurrently when replanting cut blocks trees are sourced from as far as Vancouver Island or whatever commercial farm is currently growing the preferred interior species of lodgepole pine.  Only 25% of the seeds used in these nurseries are wild seed to increase the potential for germination. The availability of seedling supply is extremely dependent on what the provincial government announces its tree planting goals are. 26 38Fig. 38: Seedling Nursery Shuswap (Shuswap Nursery, 2019)26. BC Ministry of Forests, Fundamentals of Natural Lodgepole Pine Regeneration and Drag Scarification• PRODUCE SEEDS AND MATERIALS FOR RESTORATION• SHOWCASE AND EDUCATE VISITORS ON PLANTS AND RESTORATION• ECONOMICALLY SUPPORT RESTORATION PROJECTS• ECOTOURISM• PLANT SALES• FUTURE RESTORATION PROJECTS BEYOND DASIQOX CONTRACTED TO INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES SEED HOUSEImage : Greenworks Yunesit’in (Existing Greenhouses)64kmYUNESIT’IN TO SITE 2SITE 119 kmSITE 2SITE 3DASIQOXGREEN HOUSEHANCEVILLEXENI GWET’INGREEN HOUSESeed house centralizes the process of growing seedlings within the community allowing them to use commercial or local wild seed to grow the plants that are most useful for restoration and under story plants that have important habitat and cultural values that are not usually considered in forestry replanting of cut blocks.   39g. 39: Greenworks Inside (Yunesit’in, 2019)Fig. 40: Site Diagram : Seed House (De Vries, 2021)Yearly HighYearly Low3023103mm57mm-20Planting TimeJune-AugustFrost Free Average Dry Days / monthJune RainfallAugust RainfallSeed Early Fall (September) : Allow for frost cycle germination avoid summer droughtMore Mature Plants : May after soil warms.  High June rainfallWarmest MonthColdest  MonthAverageAverageAugustDecemberHighest RainfallLowest Rainfall200100M0MNThe site in Yunesit’in builds off the existing three solar powered green houses (constructed for food security) to work on food security of traditional foods through landscape restoration.  Weather can typically be described in this area as dry and cold, prime times to plant are typically early fall right before frosts for seeds that may require cold germination and more typically for plants that will be coming from the nursery May – directly after the frost clears and right before the wettest month of June.  40Fig. 41: Seed House Plan (De Vries, 2021)PLANT PRODUCTION MACHINES Shade housesSeed houseGreen house30 000 seedlings1500 /plot1y growthGermination2-3 y growthMain GreenhouseOutdoor plotsOutdoor plotsSOIL MIXERWATERERREPOTTEREASY TOPPERGermination RoomNursery TablesVertical Storagerepotted and moved outsideThe fully operation seedling nursery will support 30 000 seedlings a year, which is quite small considering the potential needs, but doable for the size of the community and initial learning curve.  The indoor greenhouse allows for germination, after a year the plants mature outside in shade houses, and a reception and office area exists on site to receive visitors and allow workers to gather. 41Fig. 42: Seed House Axo Diagram (De Vries, 2021)Inside GreenhouseService BerrySoap berryOval Leaf BlueberryMountain HuckleberrySnowberryPrickly RoseLodgepole Pine Sitka AlderAspenScoulers willowCrowberry KinnickinikArctic Lupin Nootka Lupin YarrowAstersGREENHOUSENursery PlantsTrees : Restoration FocusedPerennials :Shrubs : Restoration FocusedShrubs : GrowableDrought TolerantNitrogen FixingGERMINATION ROOMNURSERY MACHINE AND RE-POTTING AREASEED TABLES31m30 000 SEEDLINGS15mSEED TABLESSINKDEMONSTRATION AREABENCHBENCHTABLEInside the greenhouse germination demonstrations can be run for the local schools, community and visitors before they go out into Dasiqox.  The primary plants to be initially grown are restoration focused with later expansion to cultural plants and plants that provide traditional food sources like berries – Saskatoon being a local favorite.  The plants above are all known to be viable for nursery growth – which is not the case for all plants in the Dasiqox region.42Fig. 43: Inside Greenhouse (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 45: Seed House Plants (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 44: Greenhouse Plan (De Vries, 2021)Seed House / Common reception / OfficeSEEDHOUSE 10.5m6mSEED MARKETOFFICEPORCHBATHROOMKITCHENLOUNGESEED HOUSEYARROW / ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM : Seed collectionSASKATOON BERRY / AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA : Seed CollectionSEEDLINGGROWINGSTORINGFLOWERINGSEEDING / COLLECTINGSTORING SEEDLINGFLOWERINGFRUITINGWASHINGDRYINGSEED EXTRACTIONDRY SEEDS WET SEEDSExtra seeds can be packaged and stored at the seed house for sale or to be distributed to the community for their own use.  The nursery process focuses heavily on collecting and growing plants for restoration. The Tsilhqot’in highly value learning on the land which is best experienced through the capstone projects.  43Fig. 46: Seed House Visualization (De Vries, 2021) Fig. 48: Dry Seed Collection (De Vries, 2020) Fig. 49: Wet Seed Collection (De Vries, 2020)Fig. 47: Seed House Plan (De Vries, 2021)1500 /plot2-3 y growthOutdoor plots5.5m7.5m1 526 #4 POTSOUTDOOR PLANT STORAGEOUTDOOR SHADE HOUSESShade house example44Fig. 50: Shade House Visualization, plan, diagram (De Vries, 2021)Key Site FactorsEXISTING CONDITION : SITE 1NORTHERN MOST ROAD ACCESSLARGE CUTBLOCK POTENTIAL REDUCED HABITAT USE BY FORESTRY ACTIVITYNEAR REMOTE ERODED ARES ACCESSIBLE BY RIVERSMALL CARNIVORES• CUTBLOCKS SHOW SLOW RECOVERY RATES • FOREST DIVERSITY HAS DECREASED THROUGH FORESTRY EMPHASIS OF PLANTING JUST LODGEPOLE PINE• LACK OF RESTORATION HAS FURTHER STRIPPED SOILS• PLANTS HAVE DIFFICULTY ESTABLISHING• EROSION RISKS INCREASE• SEDIMENT IN RIVERS INCREASE64kmYUNESIT’IN TO SITE 2SITE 119 kmSITE 2SITE 3DASIQOXGREEN HOUSEHANCEVILLEXENI GWET’INGREEN HOUSEWe now move from Yunesit’in to one of the cut blocks we are trying to repair.  As a reminder this site was chosen due to it’s proximity to the river, accessibility and the pressure being put on the surrounding habitat. 45Fig. 51: Cut block (Dasiqox, 2018)Fig. 52: Site 1 Map (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 53: Road Access (Drone Flight Over Dasiqox, 2018)HABITAT IMPROVEMENTFOOD / SEED SOURCE GROWTHECOTOURISM / INVOLVE VISITORS BERRY PICKINGSTRATEGIES FOR CUT BLOCK REPAIRFocusSITE 1 : CUTBLOCK REPAIR• ESTABLISH BERRY PATCH AS FIREBREAK• REBUILD SOIL AND INCREASE HABITAT VALUE AND USE• SUPPORT GUARDIANSHIP OF OVERALL WATERSHED HEALTH• ECOTOURISM RESTORATION PROJECTS• EDUCATION ON FOREST HEALTH LOCAL USE• ACCESS TO DASIQOX RIVER FOR OBSERVATION• FUTURE RESOURCE SHARING - BERRY/SEED COLLETION + HABITAT CONTRIBUTIONSThe cutblock repair intends to establish a berry patch within the block as a firebreak and place for berry collection, rebuild soil and increase habitat use, while using restoration focused ecotourism as a way to fund restoration and educate visitors on how the animals and landscape of dasiqox exists and has been impacted.  46Fig. 54: Cut block Restoration (De Vries, 2021 )100mDasiqox RiverNunsti Provincial ParkCut BlockInformal Trail to RiverDASIQOXAverage Age of TreesAverage Tree HeightCutblock Projected Age Cutblock Projected heightPrecipitationFrost Free Days AirOvernight16718.3m24 6.3Low (375mm)Regenerating Slower than Projected76 DryColdSandy Loam:Well drained, 28% course fragmentsclaysiltloamloamysand sandclay loamsilt loamsandy loamsilty claysandy claysilty clay loamWater Source : PrecipitationWater Storage:2.5cm - 4cmNo Water Table AccesThis is the specific cutblock, we’re dealing with sandy loam soil, the cut block is projected to have trees up to 6.3m tall already – but if it was replanted the trees haven’t taken and the soil has continued to degrade. 47Fig. 55: Site 1 Diagram (De Vries, 2021 / Bing 2021)Key MaterialsFertilizer : BC Forestry Fertilizer : Urea Recommended amount: Low : 200-250 kg N/haHigh : 450 kg N/haNitrogen fixers:Low :100-300kg N /haEstimated ProductionHigh : 500kg N /haSoap berrySnowbrushIdentify beetle kill pine within site limits where ground conditions appear acceptableLeave in stumps and excess limbs as mulchCut larger pieces down to size for transportMulch on site and place in test plotsTransport Back to Leading Edge Mill to Mulch and store/distribute as neededORSitka AlderPale PeaArctic LupinNootka LupinBluntlobe Lupin12Mulch from Beetle Kill Pine345The supplies for this restoration is mulch made of beetle kill pine from the surrounding area that can be shredded on site or be stored and shredded at Leading Edge Mill, and nitrogen fixing plants.  BC forestry uses urea in forest fertilization – but natural nitrogen fixers like the native soap berry have similar if not better outcomes in nitrogen fixing.  Soap berry in particular is known to grow very well on the poor soils around dasiqox and to have a buffer effect on the surrounding area with the plants around the shrub seeing increased fertility. 48Fig. 56: Mulch Collection (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 57: Nitrogen Fixing (De Vries, 2021)27,RESTORATION FLOW1. SELECT TEST PLOTSSelect Small Test Plots on SiteMulch Test Sites + Seed CloverExpand to New PlotsExpand to New PlotsComplete?Monitor As Per Established Monitoring ProgramPlant Shrubs and Lodgepole Pine into CloverAssess Viability of Site and ApproachAssess Viability of Site for Further WorkContinue To MonitorWhile GrowingContinue to Mulch to Improve SoilSee of mulch has improved soilReseedEstablished?Established?YESMAYBE REPLANTYESYESYESNONONONOYR 1YR 2YR 2YR 3-5The restoration flow is as follows.  Mulch the site if needed, or seed white clover, maintain it using the ecotourism program to help keep human presence in the area during the planting season to monitor.  If it establishes consider planting in shrubs like soapberry.  After 3-5 years the soapberry can be pulled out and left as mulch for further nutrient repair and more fragile and habitat rich berries like saskatoon can be planted into the more viable soil.49Fig. 57: Nitrogen Fixing (De Vries, 2021)27,Fig. 58: Phased Restoration (De Vries, 2021)Each Phase 2 plots @ 500m2AA’SITE 1Phase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5Phase 6500m22%1.2%500m2FORESTRY ROADSHELTERMOBILE CABIN MOBILE CABINMOBILE TOOLSHED500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2Restoration Order100mSeed + PlantCheck Soil Health + Survey ScanThis process is split into 6 phases, each of the phases being 2 plots of 500m2 plants.  These drifts were designed using the contours of the site and remaining vegetation patches to try to build the soil up from the lower slope up to the top allowing for maximum filtration and soil repair as the process continues.  50Fig. 59: Site 1 Plan (De Vries, 2021) Fig. 60: Soil Work (De Vries, 2021)FIGURE : ANIMAL SEEDING OF BERRIES FIGURE : HUMAN SEEDING OF BERRIESRecord GPS coordinates of seed sourceThe more berries produced on a plant the more viable it is likely to beCollect by hand or comb berriesPlace bags around clusters to collectDrop Sheet to catch berriesBirds: consume berries and spread over far distancesShrubs: dropped berries seed themselves nearbySmall Mammals: consume and bury berriesLarge Mammals: Spread seeds and fertilizer 51Fig. 61: Berry Seeding By Animals (De Vries, 2021) Fig. 62: Berry Seeding by Humans (De Vries, 2021)Mobile Cabin Phase 1 (5+ years) Unlogged PatchGravelAttractive to Grizzly, Black Bear, Small Mammals, Song birds, Game birds, Grouse, DeerLow flammability, okay fire recorveryService berry, oval leaf blue-berry, snowberry, prickly rose, soap berryForestry RoadForestry RoadUnlogged ForestSITE 1 : Section AThe cabins are modeled after mobile tiny homes so as the process continues through the more than 1km long cut block the residences for visitors and guardians can move with them.   52Fig. 63: Site 1 Section A (De Vries, 2021)Phase 3 (2-5 years) Phase 4 (1 years)Unlogged PatchSoapberry, Prickly Rose White CloverAttractive to Grizzly, Black Bear, Small Mammals, Song birds, Game birds, Grouse, Deer Mild polinator benifitsLow flammability, good fire recorveryIn this section diagram of restoration the area closes to the cabin has been planted for numerous years and had the additional berries mixed in while the furthest drift has only the clover introduced. 53SITE 1 : Human Use YR 2 YR 5Ecotourism and EducationTravel to by HorseMonitoring growth and repairTeaching youth and visitors The site is to be used for ecotourism and education, allowing for groups to learn about how the landscape and animals support eachother while working towards regrowing traditional berry patches54Fig. 64: Site 1 Human Use Year 2 (De Vries, 2021) Fig. 65: Site 1 Human Use Year 5 (De Vries, 2021)YR 2 YR 5SITE 1 : Animal UseMule Deer occupying the siteGrizzly occupying the siteOff season, or when work is complete the cabins are removed and the landscape is there for the animals55Fig. 66: Site 1 Animal Use Year 2 (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 67: Site 1 Animal Use Year 2 (De Vries, 2021)• ROADS SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASE EROSION RISKS DIRECTLY ADJACENT TO CRITICAL FISH HABITAT• BARE SLOPES INCREASE RISK OF ROAD CLOSURE DUE TO SLIDES• LACK OF RESTORATION HAS FURTHER STRIPPED SOILS• PLANTS HAVE DIFFICULTY ESTABLISHING• EROSION RISKS INCREASE• SEDIMENT IN RIVERS INCREASEEXISTING CONDITION : SITE 264kmYUNESIT’IN TO SITE 2SITE 119 kmSITE 2SITE 3DASIQOXGREEN HOUSEHANCEVILLEXENI GWET’INGREEN HOUSEThis is the site along the main road that connects Xeni Gwet’in and Yunesit’in. Because it is highly accessible and largely flat area near the bridge, this site is an potential area to teach and practice traditional forest management practices through the restoration process – especially as it is an area that will see frequent pass through even after the project is completed.  56Fig. 68: Site 2 (Bing, 2021)Fig. 69: Site 2 Diagram (De Vries, 2021)SITE 2 : ROAD SIDE EROSION• MAINTAIN AND IMPROVE ROADS• REBUILD SOIL AND INCREASE HABITAT VALUE AND USE• SUPPORT GUARDIANSHIP OF OVERALL WATERSHED • ECOTOURISM RESTORATION PROJECTS• EDUCATION ON FOREST HEALTH LOCAL USE• ACCESS TO DASIQOX RIVER FOR OBSERVATION• RESTORE HABITAT AND MONITOR POTENTIAL HIGH POLLUTION ZONESGoals here are simple improve road safety by securing eroding slopes, protect the water by keeping road particles and sediment out of the river, use the existing bridge to observe salmon runs or any ill effects from the road on the river, and practice traditional landscape management and teaching.  57Fig. 70: Annual Xeni Gwet’in Wagon Ride (Xeni Gwet’in, 2019)100mAverage Age of Trees:Average Tree HeightPrecipitationFrost Free DaysAir:Overnight:20219.1mLow (375mm)70DryColdSilty Loam:Well drained, 25% course fragmentsWater Source : PrecipitationWater Storage:2.5cm - 4cmNo Water Table Accesclaysiltloamloamysand sandclay loamsilt loamsandy loamsilty claysandy claysilty clay loamHorse CorralMarshDASIQOXXENI GWET’IN2.12.2Taseko Lake RoadDasiqox RiverSite 2.1 is to be a mix of nursery planting to repair soil and direct seeding to practice cultivating and growing the plants directly in the earth and encouraging regrowth through traditional berry picking methods58Fig. 71: Site 2 Plan (De Vries, 2021 / Bing, 2021)Step 1 : Step 2 : Step 3 : Add in drought tolerant and nitrogen fixing shrubsWith healthy Soil introduce food / cultural plants and more direct seedingEstablish fibrous roots Soap berry SnowbrushBlue bunch (Pseudoroegneria)Rockymountain fescue White CloverSitka AlderService Berry Mountain HuckleberryNootka Lupin YarrowAstersAstragalusABA’B’SITE 2.1Phase 2Phase 1Phase 3Phase 4Phase 5Restoration OrderTASEKO LAKE ROADBRIDGEFORESTRY ROADMOBILE TOOLSHED500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m2500m500mSHELTER3%6%0.5%100mThe same phased approach used in site 1 is applied here to order the priority of restoration according to where the greatest impact can be made.  A temporary mobile toolshed has been placed on the site as well as a small shelter for taking breaks at. 59Fig. 72: Site 2.1 Plan (De Vries, 2021)SITE 2.1 : Section ARiver Phase 4 (2 Years) Phase 5 (1 Year)Undamaged VegetationWood ShelterSoap berry, snowbrush, sitka alderWhite Clover, Blue Bunch Grass, Rocky Mountain FescueWhite Clover, Blue Bunch Grass, Rocky Mountain FescueAttractive to Grizzly, Black Bear, Small Mammals, Song birds, Game birds, Grouse, Deer Attractive to DeerFlammable, okay fire recoveryMild fire resistance, okay fire recoveryCloser to the river, plants are focused on restoration to increase the riparian buffer zone.  As this area is near to the road creating a tolerant buffer to catch pollution and run off from the road before it reaches the river is the main focus of this planting.60Fig. 73: Site 2.1 Section A (De Vries, 2021)Phase 3 (3 Years) Tool Shed Phase 2Gravel RoadMobile toolshed present when work is ongoingWhite Clover, Blue Bunch Grass, Rocky Mountain FescueSoap berry, snowbrush, sitka alder, Service Berry, Mountain Huckleberry, Astragalus, Nootka Lupin, Yarrow, AstersAttractive to Grizzly, Black Bear, Small Mammals, Song birds, Game birds, Grouse, DeerMild fire resistance, okay fire recoveryNearer to the road there is room for the plants to be focused on cultural plants like wildflowers, Saskatoon berry and other important edible or medicinal shrubs.61River Monitoring From BridgeSITE 2.1 : Section BRiver Phase 1 (5 Years)Road Buffer, not as suited for edible plant growthWhite Clover, Blue Bunch Grass, Rocky Mountain FescueSoap berry, snowbrush, Service Berry, Mountain Huckleberry62Fig. 74: Site 2.1 Section B (De Vries, 2021)Phase 1 (5 Years)Undamaged VegetationForestry Road Phase 2Attractive to Small Mammals, Song birds, Game birds, Grouse, DeerMild fire resistance, okay fire recoveryWhite Clover, Blue Bunch Grass, Rocky Mountain FescueSoap berry, snowbrush, Service Berry, Mountain Huckleberry63Live Stake1. If soil has remained poor 2. Live stake into mulch3. Support and maintenance through growth4. Pull out nitrogen fixers and plant habitat and cultural plants into improved conditionsSITE 2.2500m500m500m500m500m500mTASEKO LAKE ROADPhase 1Phase 2Phase 3Restoration Order30%1%50%SITE 2.2 : PROTECT ROADS100mA A’Site 2.2 where we have the more classic restoration model scourers willow and waddle fencing is used to hold up the slope and re introduce a vegetative buffer to the slightly damaged area to prevent it from accelerating. 64Fig. 75: Site 2.2 Plan (De Vries, 2021)EROSION NEAR RIVER/ROAD PLANT LIST SITE 2.2 : SECTION ARiverPhase 1Year 3 Gravel RoadPhase 1Year 3Phase 2Year 1Soap berryLodgepole Pine Aspen Scoulers willowBlue bunch (Pseudoroegneria)Rocky mountain fescueScouler’s willow a few aspensWaddle fenced soap berryWaddle fenced soap berry, lodgepole pine Scouler’s willow, Aspens Soap berry Soap berry, Lodgepole PineRocky Mountain Fescue, Blue Bunch Rocky Mountain Fescue, Blue Bunch65Fig. 76: Site 2.2 Section (De Vries, 2021)Key Site • THREATENED DUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE• SLOW RECOVERY ZONE• HIGH RISKS FROM ATV AND POTENTIAL MINING ACTIVITIES• LACK OF RESTORATION HAS FURTHER STRIPPED SOILS• PLANTS HAVE DIFFICULTY ESTABLISHING• EROSION RISKS INCREASE• SEDIMENT IN RIVERS INCREASE64kmYUNESIT’IN TO SITE 2SITE 119 kmSITE 2SITE 3DASIQOXGREEN HOUSEHANCEVILLEXENI GWET’INGREEN HOUSEEXISTING CONDITIONGRIZZLY BEAR FISHING SPOTTRADITIONAL PLANT COLLECTIONTOURISM RECREATION AREA AND LOCAL Site 3 is a very important habitat area that is increasingly threatened by higher than average glacial melt.  The growth rate and soil building in this area is extremely slow so without assistance recovery would be difficult.  Monitoring of this area for the behaviour of wildlife and changes to water flow is also important. 66Fig. 77: Taseko Lakes (Great Adventures, 2017)SITE 3 : SUB-ALPINE EROSION• PROTECT CRITICAL FISH HABITAT AND GOAT HABITAT• ENCOURAGE HABITAT USE BY GRIZZLY’S AND OTHER WILDLIFE• SUPPORT GUARDIANSHIP OF OVERALL WATERSHED HEALTH• ECOTOURISM RESTORATION PROJECTS• EDUCATION ON FOREST HEALTH + LOCAL USE• POTENTIAL FURTHER ECOTOURISM TO SEE FISH/BEARS/GOATS ETC FROM THIS SITE• ACCESS TO DASIQOX RIVER FOR OBSERVATION• FUTURE RESOURCE SHARING - BERRY/SEED COLLECTION + HABITAT CONTRIBUTIONSFocusRIVER OBSERVATION SUBAPLINE SLOPE SUPPORT AND ADDRESS Wattle FencingTesting and Observation Keep visitors on trails and in designated areasMost of the interventions here are habitat based, it is likely that visitors may come to this site to see animals Like the mountain goats, bears, eagles, or migrating salmon.  this site is adjacent and contains goat winter habitat, grizzly habitat, and critical fish habitat.67Fig. 78: Sub Alpine Zone (Great Adventures, 2017)50mAverage Age of Trees Average Tree HeightElevation 1100mPrecipitationFrost Free DaysAirOvernight167 23.6mLow (1088mm)64DryVery ColdWater Source : PrecipitationWater Storage:2.5cm - 4cmNo Water Table Acces Loamy SandWell drained, 75% course fragmentsclaysiltloamloamysand sandclay loamsilt loamsandy loamsilty claysandy claysilty clay loamGrizzly HabitatStreamCritical Fish HabitatLoamy Skeletal morainal soilGoat Winter HabitatDasiqox RiverForestry RoadThe selected area is the lower area of the slope which is to be repaired using the existing vegetation as a frame work.  It is unlikely the whole slope will become vegetated, but by improving the lower slope excess sediment can be caught instead of blocking the river and habitat value can encourage important animals like bears to interact with the landscape helping refertilize these damaged areas. 68Fig. 79: Site 3 Diagram (De Vries, 2021 / Bing 2021)SUB ALPINE PLANT LISTStep 1 : Step 2 : Step 3 : Add in drought tolerant and nitrogen fixing shrubsHabitat PlantsEstablish fiborous roots Lodgepole Pine Whitebark PineBlue bunch (Pseudoroegneria)Rockymountain fescue White CloverSoap berry Prickly RosePhase 1Phase 2Phase 3Phase 4Restoration Order100mABA’B’The plan is a  phased approach to catch sediment, large woody debris in the river to shore up edge and provide more shelter for salmon habitat allowing them to hide from grizzly bears.  The sub-alpine zone does not allow for quite as many plants to grow.  A high failure rate for the initial attempts to grow the plants and rebuild soil nutrients would not be unsurprising.  The key hope is to get soapberry established and potentially lodgepole pine or whitebark pine in the future.69Fig. 80: Site 3 Diagram (De Vries, 2021)SITE 3 : Section ACabin for extended monitoringClover establishingCloverMulch and plant 3 year old soap berry, will likely have to replant and mulch numerous times to build soilWaddle fenced clover, slow water and debris to allow lower planting to establishFinal goal establish vegetation and attract animals, first 5-10 years may just be spent building soil.Phase 1CabinRoadPhase 3Clover, Soap berryThe site has a temporary cabin, potentially visitors could stay here but it is more likely they might stay at the nearby lodge that is owned and run by the Tsilhqot’in.  The cabin is more likely to house guardians and those working on monitoring or restoration projects for extended periods of time.  The tool shed is also temporary with a simlar focus and supplies for guides bringing visitors further into the landscape.  70Fig. 81: Site 3 Section A (De Vries, 2021)The dock ties into the large woody debris secured along the edge of the river to prevent it from eroding.  This allows the dock to work with the debris to improve salmon habitat and provides water access without disturbing fragile soils and root zones.  A water monitoring station is placed at the edge of the dock within the low flow zone of the river creating a permanent monitoring spot at the outflow of Taseko lakes into the Dasiqox River.  This is a significant spot as contamination further down the river is unlikely, and two abandoned mines potentially flow into the Dasiqox River through Taseko lakes. Pollution from the mines is currently contained and considered negligible based on previous water quality tests. A permanent monitoring station allows for the continued verification of Dasiqox’s water quality and enables an alert system for if the re are unexpected changes and one of the abandoned sites or another unknown cause threatens the river.  Remote water monitoring stationRiverPath Gravel Sand Bank (under dock)71SITE 3 : Section BUndisturbed VegetationUndisturbed VegetationUndisturbed Vegetation RoadPhase 3 Phase 3 Phase 3Clover, Soap berry, lodgepole pineClover, Soap berry, lodgepole pineClover, Soap berry, lodgepole pineExisting Vegetation helps buffer edge and contributes to soil collection to allow for new growth72Fig. 82: Site 3 Section B (De Vries, 2021)Large woody debris: Shade and create shelter for salmon during high flows. Keeps them out of grizzly reach and slows water decreasing erosionGravel Sandbar at low flowGravel Sandbar at low flowRiver73SITE 3 : Human Use SITE 3 : Animal UseEcotourism and EducationGuardianship, research, monitoring74Fig. 85: Site 3 Human Use (De Vries, 2021)Fig. 86: Site 3 Animal Use (De Vries, 2021)TSILHQOT’IN TRADITIONAL LAND MANAGEMENTComplex management through traditional ecological knowlege of the community to encourage regrowth, support and share the land with animals  and maintain watershed healthRESTORATION FUELED BY GUARDIANSHIP AND EDUCATIONSITE 3 : SUB-ALPINE EROSIONSITE 2 : STEEP SLOPE EROSIONSITE 1 : CUTBLOCK REPAIRSEED HOUSEECOTOURISM STRATEGY TO ADDRESS KEY ISSUES WITHIN THE DASIQOX WATERSHED IN A WAY THAT CAN BE FINANCIALLY SELF SUSTAININGINCREASING ENVIRONMENTAL RESILIENCY IN DASIQOX75Fig. 8: Traditional Land Management (De Vries, 2021)End Notes1.Smith, Linda R. “NABAS CEAA Panel Submission, 2013.” 2013.2. “Chilcotin River at Christie Road Bridge (BC08MB0007).” Select Variables and Date Range to Graph- Fresh Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance - Environment and Climate Change Canada. Accessed September 20, 2020. https://aquatic.pyr.ec.gc.ca/WQMSDOnlineNationalData2019/en/Variables/Graph/BC08MB0007. December 22, 2020. https://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/ems/graphingExceedenceCriteria.3. Linnitt, Carol. A timeline from birth to death of Taseko’s embattled New Prosperity mine in B.C. The Narwal, May 14, 2020. https://thenarwhal.ca/timeline-birth-to-death-tasekos-embattled-new-prosperity-mine-bc/.4. Plotkin, Rachel. David Suzuki Foundation, 2018, pp. 1–56, Tribal Parks and Indigenous Protected and Conserved Areas : Lessons Learned from B.C. Examples.5. Bhattacharyya, Jonaki, et al. Dasiqox Tribal Park, 2018, pp. 1–12, Nexwagweẑʔan Vision Statement6. Woodward & Company. vol. 1, Roger William, on His Own Behalf and on Behalf of All Other Members of the Xeni Gwet’in First Nations Government and on Behalf of All Other Members of the Tsilhqot’in Nation (Plaintiff) and Her Majestry the Queen in Right of the Province of British Columbia, the Regional Manager of the Cariboo Forest Region and the Attorney General of Canada (Defendants)Argument of the Plaintiff.7. Fpcc. FirstVoices, www.firstvoices.com/explore/FV/sections/Data/Athabascan/Tsilhqot’in (Xeni Gwet’in)/Tsilhqot’in (Xeni Gwet’in)/learn/words/?page=1&pageSize=10.8. McCrory, Wayne, et al. McCrory Wildlife Services Ltd., 2014, Inventory of Wildlife, Ecological, and Landscape Connectivity Values, Tsilhqot’in First Nations Cultural/Heritage Values & Resource Conflicts in the Dasiqox-Taseko Watershed, BC Chilcotin.9. Myers Ross, Russel. Apr. 2021.10. The Narwhal. “The Art of Fire: Reviving the Indigenous Craft of Cultural Burning.” The Narwhal, 20 Sept. 2020, thenarwhal.ca/indigenous-cultural-burning/.11. Verhaeghe, et al. Tsilhqot’in National Government, 2017, The Fires Awakened Us.12. “‘The Fish Can’t Get through’: Tsilhqot’in Issues Salmon Closure Notice after Big Bar Landslide | CBC News.” CBCnews, CBC/Radio Canada, 4 Sept. 2019, www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/tsilhqot-in-national-government-issue-salmon-closure-1.5269466.13. Kelly, Ash. “On the Heels of the Pine Beetle Epidemic, Fires in B.C. Have Burned Valuable Timber Stands | CBC News.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, July 29, 2017. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/fires-compound-losses-of-harvestable-timber-in-b-c-s-interior-1.422622814. “Interior First Nations Asks B.C. to Partner on Moose, Caribou Stewardship.” Prince George Citizen, www.princegeorgecitizen.com/local-news/interior-first-nations-asks-bc-to-partner-on-moose-caribou-stewardship-3741570.15. “Watersheds.” April 25, 2017. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.bctomorrow.ca/blog/watersheds#:~:text=BC has 9 watershed Basins,Basin includes many smaller watersheds.16. “Lower Fraser,” Watershed Reports, https://watershedreports.wwf.ca/#sws-08M/by/health-overall/health)17. Rep. British Columbia Approved Water Quality Guidelines : Aquatic Life, Wildlife & Agriculture. Victoria, BC: Government of BC, 2019.18. “Chilcotin River at Christie Road Bridge (BC08MB0007).” Select Variables and Date Range to Graph- Fresh Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance - Environment and Climate Change Canada. Accessed September 20, 2020. https://aquatic.pyr.ec.gc.ca/WQMSDOnlineNationalData2019/en/Variables/Graph/BC08MB0007. December 22, 2020. https://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/ems/graphingExceedenceCriteria.19. “Canadian Drinking Water Quality.” Latest Summary Report. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://a100.gov.bc.ca/pub/ems/graphingExceedenceCriteria.20. BC Goverment Ministry of environment, lands and parks geographic data 1:20 000 TRIM, NAD 1983 UTM 10N21. Spouck, Lenmart, et al. Renewable Resources Consulting Services Ltd., 1997, Inventory of Red and Blue Listed Species, and Identified Wildlife in the Taseko Management Zone July-August 1996 and February 1997 . 22. Fralic, Brandon, and Rachel Wood. “The Sunshine Coast Trail Is British Columbia’s Best-Kept Se-cret.” REI. September 2017. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.rei.com/blog/hike/sunshine-coast-trail-british-columbias-best-kept-secret.23. The L.A. River Story. Performed by Eric Garcetti. Youtube. July 16, 2015. Accessed December 22, 2020. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=acJjuBmQ43U.24. Fire Effects Information System (FEIS). USDA, US Forestry Service, www.feis-crs.org/feis/.25. British Columbia Society of Landscape Architects. 2016, Standards of Professional Conduct and Practice.26. BC Ministry of Forests, Fundamentals of Natural Lodgepole Pine Regeneration and Drag Scarification27.  Reid, Anya, et al.  A systematic Review of Forest Fertilization Reserach in Interior British Columbia.  2017.76Other References:77Interviews:Studio John Bass : September - DecemberRussel Meyers Ross : April 5Jonaki Bhattacharyya : April 5Ground conditions:Steen, O. A., and R. Coupe. A Field Guide to Forest Site Identification and Interpretation for the Cariboo Forest Region. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Forests, Research Program, 1997. Turner, RJW, R Franklin, M Ceh, N Hastings, and CL Wagner. “Southern British Columbia Geological Landscapes Highway Map.” Map. Geological Survey of Canada, Popular Geoscience No. 98E. Victoria, BC: Government of BC, 2012. Floods and Sediment Pollution:Schmunk, Rhianna. “Hundreds Stranded in Communities as Chilcotin River Flooding Washes out Roads | CBC News.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, July 10, 2019. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/chilcotin-river-flooding-xeni-gwet-in-first-nation-1.5206568. British Columbia, Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. New web reporting tool illustrates health of B.C.’s rivers. Government of British Columbia, August 29, 2020. https://archive.news.gov.bc.ca/releases/news_releases_2017-2021/2020ENV0044-001606.htm. Titus, Murray. “Flood Warning Issued on Chilcotin River above Site of Fraser River Slide.” British Columbia. CTV News, July 10, 2019. https://bc.ctvnews.ca/flood-warning-issued-on-chilcotin-river-above-site-of-fraser-river-slide-1.4500561. Vogels, Marjolein. “Effects of Past and Present Mining on Fine Sediment Geochemistry of Floodplain Soils, Horsefly River, BC, Canada.” Thesis, Faculty of Geosciences Department of Physical Geography, 2013. MacIntosh, Jeff. “Oilsands Study Confirms Tailings Found in Groundwater, River | CBC News.” CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, February 22, 2014. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/oilsands-study-confirms-tailings-found-in-groundwater-river-1.2545089.  “Climate Adaptation and Erosion & Sedimentation.” EPA. United States Environmental Protection Agency, September 29, 2016. https://www.epa.gov/arc-x/climate-adaptation-and-erosion-sedimentation. Canada, Environment and Climate Change. “Government of Canada.” Canada.ca. / Gouvernement du Canada, January 7, 2016. https://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/water-overview/pollution-causes-effects/erosion-sedimentation.html.Pine Beetle:Canada, Natural Resources. “Government of Canada.” Natural Resources Canada. Government of Canada / Gouvernement du Canada, October 2, 2020. https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/fire-insects-disturbances/top-insects/13397. Girvan, Jim, Murray Hall, Gerry Van Leeuwen, Alice Palmer, and Russ Taylor. “B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic.” Wood Business. Canadian Forest Industries, January 14, 2019. https://www.woodbusiness.ca/bc-mountain-pine-beetle-epidemic-484/. Soil Data:“Story Map Series.” Governmentofbc.maps.arcgis.com, governmentofbc.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=cc25e43525c5471ca7b13d639bbcd7aa.Water Data:Cariboo Water Tool, cariboo.bcwatertool.ca/stream.Weather Data:Kgg. “Climate Alexis Creek.” Meteoblue, 1 May 2021, www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/historyclimate/climatemodelled/alexis-creek_canada_5883519.Water Monitoring Basics:“Stream and River Monitoring.” Environmental Measurement Systems, 23 Jan. 2019, www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/environmental-monitoring-applications/stream-and-river-monitoring/.Large Woody Debris:“Wood for Salmon.” The Nature Conservancy | California Conservation Science, www.scienceforconservation.org/science-in-action/wood-for-salmon.D’Aoust, S. G. (1998). Large woody debris fish habitat structure performance and ballasting requirements (T). University of British Columbia. Retrieved from https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0050314Cariboo Region:O. A. Steen, and R. A. Coupe. “A Field Guide to Forest Site Identification and Interpretation for teh Cariboo Forest Region” Ministry of Forests Research Program. 1997.

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