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Re-saturated: Toward a Cultural Reconnection with Urban Water Campbell, Marissa 2021-05

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re-saturatedMarissa CampbellMay 4, 2021Advised by Kees LokmanSubmitted in partial fulfillment for the Master of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, University of British ColumbiaToward a cultural reconnection with urban waterCAMPBELL 2021II // re-saturated // IIICAMPBELL 2021RELEASE FORMLandscape Architecture  School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture  University of British Columbia Marissa CampbellRe-Saturated: Toward a Cultural Reconnection with Urban WaterIn presenting this report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Landscape Architecture, University of British Columbia, I agree that UBC may make this work freely available for reference or study. I give permission for copying the report for educational purposes in accordance with copyright laws. Marissa Campbell        May 4, 2021 Name          Signature        DateCAMPBELL 2021IV // re-saturated // VCAMPBELL 2021This project will consider the multi-functional urban blueway as an opportunity to increase public engagement with water and concern for waterscapes of tomorrow. Establishing a reciprocal relationship with water requires public support and awareness, which can be cultivated through design as visitors rethink these relationships and recognize their individual and cumulative responsibilities. Through the development of future narratives, this project will explore potential blue-green components of Vancouver’s proposed False Creek to Fraser River corridor — a critical opportunity to enlighten citizens on current patterns of use and mismanagement of water, and the collective role we play in shaping these systems for the better.abstractabstractCAMPBELL 2021VI // re-saturated // VIICAMPBELL 2021 Part 2 | Site Matters39  History of Still Creek43 Neighbourhood Analysis and Program: Renfrew-Collingwood49 Norquay Village: Site Analysis  Part 3 | Design59  Methodology GP260  Design Overview61 Future Scenarios67 Existing Site Condition69 Design Option 1: Connect81 Design Option 2: Cultivate97 Design Comparison99 Conclusion101 References Front Matteriii Release Formv  Abstractvi Table of Contentsviii List of Figures xi Acknowledgements Part I | Research I. Introduction03 Thesis Statement05 Methodology GP106 Schedule07 Mind Map10 Literature Map II. Discussion11  Water Urbanism in Vancouver15  On Reciprocity16  Blue-Green Infrastructure: A Critique20 Sensory Education + Experiencing Water23 Reconnection26  Precedent Analysistable of CONTENTs table of CONTENTsCAMPBELL 2021VIII // re-saturated // IXCAMPBELL 2021parts 1 + 2List of Figures05 Fig. 1.1  GP1 Methodology Flow Chart (Campbell, 2020)06  Fig. 1.2  Project Schedule (Campbell, 2020)07  Fig. 1.3  Conceptual Systems Map (Campbell, 2020)09  Fig. 1.4  Typical attitude towards urban water (Campbell, 2020)10  Fig. 1.5 Literature Map (Campbell, 2020) 14  Fig. 1.6 Still Creek near 22nd Avenue and Renfrew Street. (City of Vancouver Archives, 1989)18  Fig. 1.7  Green roof rendering at Vancouver House by Bjarke Ingels Group (Dezeen, 2015)19  Fig. 1.8 Sensing Water 1: Hand in Fast-Moving Water  (Dee, 2001)22  Fig. 1.9 Sensing Water 2: The Taste of Dew (Dee, 2001)24  Fig. 1.10 City of Vancouver’s conceptual blueway alignment (Campbell, 2021)30  Fig. 1.11  Play by the Rules: Proposed use of Great Lakes water (UrbanLab, 2012)30  Fig. 1.12  Sections through the Free Water District (UrbanLab, 2012)31  Fig. 1.13  Town Branch Creek sectional typologies (SCAPE Studio, 2013) 33  Fig. 1.14  Karst hydrology represented in its natural state (SCAPE Studio, 2013)34  Fig. 1.15  Karst geology manifested as unique typologies (SCAPE Studio, 2013)34 Fig. 1.16  View overlooking the Creekside Boardwalk Trail (SCAPE Studio, 2013)35  Fig. 1.17  Education Center Landscape Plan (Jones & Jones, 2004)36  Fig. 1.18  Rain drums (Jones & Jones, 2004)36  Fig. 1.19  Rainwater design for education (Jones & Jones, 2004)40  Fig. 2.1  Vancouver’s historic stream network and present-day park locations (Campbell, 2021)40  Fig. 2.2  Salmon spawning in Still Creek over time (Campbell, 2020)42  Fig. 2.3  Still Creek Timeline (Campbell, 2020)43  Fig. 2.4  Watershed Map (Campbell, 2020)44 Fig. 2.5  Watersheds of the Renfrew-Collingwood neighbourhood (Campbell, 2020)45 Fig. 2.6  Renfrew-Collingwood water flow analysis (Campbell, 2020)46  Fig. 2.7 Renfrew-Collingwood land use (Campbell, 2020)50  Fig. 2.8  Norquay Village in the Still Creek Watershed (Campbell, 2021)51 Fig. 2.9 Aerial perspective (Campbell, 2021)53 Fig. 2.10 City Rezoning Plan for Norquay Village (Campbell, 2021)54 Fig. 2.11 Stream conditions of Norquay Village (Campbell, 2021)55 Fig. 2.12 City-owned parcels along proposed Ravine Way linear connection (Campbell, 2021)56 Fig. 2.13 Existing infrastructure and proposed land acquisitions (Campbell, 2021)59  Fig. 3.1 GP2 Methodology Flow Chart (Campbell, 2020)62 Fig. 3.2 Future Scenario Matrix (Campbell, 2021)63 Fig. 3.3 Extents of Option 1: Connect (Campbell, 2021)64 Fig. 3.4 Extents of Option 2: Cultivate (Campbell, 2021)66 Fig. 3.5 Explorations of Feeder Street typologies (Campbell, 2021)67 Fig. 3.6 Existing Site Condition (Campbell, 2021)70 Fig. 3.7 Flow direction of city streets and private property boundaries (Campbell, 2021)70 Fig. 3.8 Design Option 1: Connect Schematic Isometric (Campbell, 2021)71 Fig. 3.9 Design Option 1: Connect Plan (Campbell, 2021)74 Fig. 3.10 Section 1A (Campbell, 2021)76 Fig. 3.11 Section 1B (Campbell, 2021)78 Fig. 3.12 Section 1C (Campbell, 2021)79 Fig. 3.13 Interactive cisterns and runnels flowing into nearby rain garden (Campbell, 2021)82 Fig. 3.14 Flow direction of existing and proposed streets and private property boundaries  (Campbell, 2021)82 Fig. 3.15 Design Option 2: Cultivate Schematic Isometric (Campbell, 2021)83 Fig. 3.16 Design Option 2: Cultivate Plan (Campbell, 2021)85 Fig. 3.17 Section 2A (Campbell, 2021)87 Fig. 3.18 Section 2B (Campbell, 2021)89 Fig. 3.19 Section 2C (Campbell, 2021)91 Fig. 3.20 Section 2D (Campbell, 2021)93 Fig. 3.21 Evening on the boardwalk plaza overlooking constructed wetland (Campbell, 2021)95 Fig. 3.22 Seasonal fluctuations in stream levels along Still Creek (Campbell, 2021)97 Fig. 3.23 Comparative Section Cut (Campbell, 2021)98 Fig. 3.24 Comparative Sections through existing condition, design options 1 and 2 (Campbell, 2021)99 Fig. 3.25 Connecting the blue-green network of Still Creek (Campbell, 2021)100 Fig. 3.26 Future Opportunities; Norquay Village in context of historic streams and present-day parks (Campbell, 2021)part 3list of figuresCAMPBELL 2021X // re-saturated // XICAMPBELL 2021AcknowledgmentsacknowledgmentsI would like to thank Kees Lokman for his guidance on this project, and for his enthusiasm and dedication as we all navigated a challenging year of online-learning. Thank you to Cameron Owen, Matt Gibbs, and Ileana Costrut for the exciting CityStudio collaboration, and all of the advice and encouragement throughout.This project could not have been possible without the support of amazing friends, family and classmates who have kept me open-minded, grounded and inspired.CAMPBELL 20211 // re-saturated // 2CAMPBELL 2021Part 1: ResearchCAMPBELL 20213 // re-saturated // 4CAMPBELL 2021How can landscape architecture instill and communicate reciprocity with water? A densifying city defined by property lines and private ownership leaves little space for the persistant free-flowing nature of water, which has been predominantly managed via grey systems and subgrade infrastructure throughout modern history. “Out of sight, out of mind” may be an expression of success when it comes to sewage and waste water, but this has gradually expanded to encompass water in all its forms, from rain to historic streams.There is a deep paradox in attempting to tame water. With aging infrastructure in a changing climate, urban centres are increasingly moving toward blue-green systems to better manage water and lessen their environmental impact. I argue that these systems have great potential to restore valuable cultural and biological connections to water in the landscape — connections that are deep-rooted in place. The manifold benefits of blue-green systems will be limited without a sincere reflection on the value of water as a part of us — as life-giver, as culture, as history and future.The basic water cycle is introduced to students at a young age as a fundamental life lesson, and yet application of this lesson rarely considers the impacts of the built environment. It is overwhelming to imagine an alternative system to a network of subterranean pipes that are out of sight, and exceptionally difficult to inspire care and concern for an unseen cause. This disconnect has severed the link between citizens and the water that sustains each of us.High annual rainfall rates leave few Vancouverites concerned about water scarcity. Household water consumption is high compared to the global average, Thesis statementand potable water regularly makes its way into landscape features. In addition to wasted resources, contamination and diverted flows have resulted in lasting ecological consequences felt throughout the regional watersheds.Blue-green infrastructure provides a critical opportunity to enlighten citizens on current patterns of use and mismanagement of water, and the collective role we play in shaping these systems for the better. Through the development of future narratives, this project will explore potential blue-green components of Vancouver’s proposed False Creek to Fraser River corridor. How can the multi-functional urban blueway increase public engagement with water and concern for waterscapes of tomorrow? Through interconnected and multisensorial water-driven design, unique educational and experiential interventions may prompt greater empathy for water and the life that it supports. Establishing a reciprocal relationship with water requires public support and awareness, which can be cultivated through design as visitors rethink these relationships and recognize their individual and cumulative responsibilities. Inviting water back into the urban landscape could be the first step toward an adaptable and culturally restorative relationship.thesis statementCAMPBELL 20215 // re-saturated // 6CAMPBELL 2021methodology | Gp1Fig. 1.1 GP1 Methodology Flow ChartLiterature ReviewMethodSynthesisOutputPrecedent AnalysisThesis QuestionDesign FrameworkHypothesis: Multifunctional rain and stormwater infrastructure has potential to become a dynamic cultural driver with a restorative agenda. Function +PerformanceCommunicatingWaterIdentityPlacemakingInvestigationsSCHEDULEschedule SeptemberMind MapLiterature ReviewCritical EssayPrecedent AnalysisHistoric TimelinesNeighbourhood Scale AnalysisMethodologyIterative SketchingGP1 ReportJanuaryOctober FebruaryNovember MarchDecember AprilCityStudio MeetingSite Scale AnalysisDesign ConceptDesign DevelopmentFinal ReportProductionCityStudio EventFig. 1.2 Project ScheduleCAMPBELL 20217 // re-saturated // 8CAMPBELL 2021mind mapmind mapFig. 1.3 Conceptual Systems MapAltered flows impact overall watershedImpermeable + aging infrastructureSimplified ecologies + monoculture plantingChallenge to imagine/embrace an alternativeWater CycleSocial and Cultural ValueClimate ChangeEcologyCurrent PracticesExpensive maintenance costsCombined sewer overflowContaminationWater is perceived as abundant in CanadaHabitat deteriorationSpecies declineand biodiversity lossDependence on invisible systems + opaque processes for essential human needsLoss of access to “living” water in the urban landscapeSocial and cultural fragmentationHigh sanitation requirementsReduced groundwater levels Dependence on irrigationFlood riskHeavy rain eventsDroughtWater ShortageExacerbated inequitiesIncreased extreme weather eventsCultural disconnect from value of waterEasy access to waterOverconsumption of treated waterPotable water used for aestheticsUrban forestdegradationSterilized landscapesHeat Island EffectPublic Healthand WellbeingCAMPBELL 20219 // re-saturated // 10CAMPBELL 2021Fig. 1.4 Visualizing common attitudes towards urban waterLiterature mapurban waterliterature mapFig. 1.5 Literature Map1. Function + Performance4. Placemaking2. Communicating Water3. IdentityFuture ScenariosReconnectionMultisensorialExperienceUrbanEcology ReciprocityLanguageVisual Representation“Sense of Place”NaturalHeritageArchetypalBlue-Green InfrastructureCase Study: Free Water District, UrbanLabCase Study: The Henceforward, Water Ways and Way to the WaterCase Study: Town Branch Creek, SCAPE StudioCase Study: Cedar River Watershed Education CenterHarris, 1989Hutton, 2016Orff, 2016 Fennell, 2013Adams, 2018Selman, 2012Klein, 2018Owens, 2007McGregor, 2012Kimmerer, 2013 Buurman, 2017Spirn, 2014Perini, 2017 Carlisle, 2012Dee, 2001France, 2008 Kelly, 2008 CAMPBELL 202111 // re-saturated // 12CAMPBELL 2021“Water is typically expressed in the urban environment as an idealized abstraction of the water found in nature, which only exacerbates its plight.” Kate Orff, Toward an Urban Ecology. 2016, p.21water urbanism in vancouver  ampbellwater urbanism in VancouverImpervious surfaces have become the skeleton of urban form, suppressing the natural behaviour of water to cycle directly between atmosphere and soil. In spite of its life-sustaining significance, water is regarded as a rogue force to be controlled and transferred to suit human needs. Hard engineering methods, in the form of streets and pipe networks, funnel and transport water at high velocity to treatment plants and receiving waters1. Widespread environmental consequences of this system have cast doubt on its viability as a long term strategy in the context of climate change. Grey infrastructure contributes to intensified runoff rates and volumes,  resulting in contamination and habitat deterioration, combined sewer overflows, flooding, and reduced groundwater recharge2. Furthermore, disrupted hydrologic systems fail to metabolize due to a loss of connectivity, hindering their ability to “self-purify3.” In some regions, climate models predict an increase in extreme rainfall events throughout the winter, alternating with hot, dry summers — conditions that are already exacerbating the issues discussed above4.Urban centres have historically evolved around water bodies that were instrumental in providing routine human needs of city inhabitants. In the mid 19th century, demand for higher sanitation standards escalated, and urban water was engineered out of sight5. As stated by Kelly Shannon, “it is the deviation that (former) water bodies induce in the regular ordinariness of the built fabric that generates the most striking spatial quality of many water-based cities.” This is especially clear when analyzed against formal urbanisms of the 19th and 20th centuries which are comparatively lacking in dimension6.The young, water-based city of Vancouver precisely fits this description. Vancouver’s superimposed street grid minimally responds to the river and shoreline that border the majority of its perimeter. It is unsurprising that 120km of salmon bearing streams and tributaries were paved over during development of the city7, guided by the “clean urbanism” mentality presented by Shannon8. The past life of a stream network is nearly impossible to read in the resulting urban form.Some of the “lost” streams gained notoriety as odorous, disease infested hazards to locals, who DiscussionRedacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202113 // re-saturated // 14CAMPBELL 2021 water urbanism in vancouverFig. 1.6 Still Creek near 22nd Avenue and Renfrew Street. (City of Vancouver Archives, 1989)urged for their removal in the mid-1900s9. In addition to the aforementioned repercussions of grey-infrastructure and rapid development, hard engineering has rendered water invisible, gradually severing the link between people and water. Buurman’s Bringing People Closer to Water: Integrating Water Management and Urban Infrastructure, argues that a “fundamental change in the relationship citizens have with water” is integral to enacting any new approach to water management10. This is easier said than done, as we have been deprived of any association with water beyond what we know. What kind of new relationship do we want, and how do we get there? Rekindling an affinity for water in all of its forms will require a united effort, evolving through explorations that stray from our comfort zone. As stated by Kate Orff, “Water is typically expressed in the urban environment as an idealized abstraction of the water found in nature, which only exacerbates its plight. Designers need to develop more nuanced and flexible solutions for experimenting with water design in the public realm”11.Since the 1970s, Vancouver’s subterranean stream network has ignited  conversation. Community streamkeepers and volunteers have taken significant initiative towards recovery of the creeks, and others are enraptured by the prospect of uncovering their mysterious past12. While it may not be economical or even beneficial to daylight each of these lost creeks, they have come to represent a buried connection between people and water, and stand as a hopeful beacon that this relationship might be recovered.Anne W. Spirn applies this strategy to her research of the buried Mill Creek in Philadelphia noting that the stream network can not be revived in its entirety, but can still be celebrated through resilient landscapes design and soft approaches to stormwater management13. The same could be said of Vancouver, whose Parks and Recreation Board has already indicated water connectivity as a major priority for the city14. With considerate planning, a continuous and visually interconnected network of blue-green infrastructure (BGI) could be conceived of as an urban blueway, uncovering water and its processes while protecting existing ecological assets. As a metaphor for historic environmental and cultural conditions, the system has potential to be as poetic as it is functional.1 Robert L. France. Residential Street Design with Watersheds in Mind: Toward Ecological Streets. 2008. 289-290.2 Ibid., 290.3 Katia Perini and Paola Sabbion. Urban Sustainability and River Restoration: Green and Blue Infrastructure. 2017. 29.4 City of Vancouver. Rain City Strategy. 2019.5 Kelly Shannon. Water Urbanisms. Vol. 1. 2008. 6.6 Ibid., 6-7.7 Riley Finn. “In Search of the Lower Fraser’s Lost Streams.” Raincoast Conservation Foundation. 2019.8 Shannon. 6-7.9 Gerry Harris and Sharon Proctor. Vancouver’s Old Streams. 1989.10 Joost Buurman and Rita Padawangi. Bringing People Closer to Water: Integrating Water Management and Urban Infrastructure. 2017. 2532.11 Kate Orff. Toward an Urban Ecology. 2016. 21.12 Still Creek Streamkeepers. Still Moon Arts Society. Anne W. Spirn. “The Buried River.” West Philadelphia Landscape Project. 2014. Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. Strategic Bold Moves. 2019.CAMPBELL 202115 // re-saturated // 16CAMPBELL 2021blue-green infrastructure: a critiqueReciprocity with water can not be achieved without reconsidering how urban water management is executed. Increasingly, green infrastructure, and more recently blue-green infrastructure has begun to supplant hard engineering methods. Many sources discussing the merits of BGI will define it using similar terminology. BGI can be described as an “interconnected network of green space that conserves natural ecosystem values and functions and provides associated benefits to human populations18.” It “is synonymous with vegetated systems that must be diverse and multi-scalar, from riparian corridor to green bioswale to green wall19”. The City of Vancouver’s One Water framework refers to green rainwater infrastructure as a system that “mimics natural water processes. It works with plants, soils, trees, and built structures to capture and clean rainwater before returning it to our waterways and atmosphere20”. Each of the above descriptions, among others, present BGI as a primarily  pragmatic solution with a long list of benefits that vary by project.Without doubt, BGI is successful in marrying functions, especially compared against its mono-purpose counterpart. Yet there is a distinctly formulaic quality to the language used to describe these solutions. The prescriptive application of a swale or raingarden could easily devolve into a mimetic and familiar approach, comparable to the coordination of pipes and storm sewers. Grey to green is not a 1:1 trade-off; blue-green infrastructure is seen, felt and experienced. “In recent decades, a cocktail of nostalgia and ecological concerns catapulted water back onto the scene of urbanism. A stereotypical uncovering of rivers, usually with adjacent pathways, biking trails and the like, pop-up in fashionable journals and become topics of interest”21. Such projects are a feat when we consider the state of many urban environments.  We have come a long way, but why settle for a stereotype when there is work to be done?Buurman dives into the ways in which a sociological framework can be better incorporated into water sensitive design. “Development of... new approaches has a strong technical focus and stormwater management is traditionally the domain of engineers (Costa et al. 2015); yet blue-green infrastructure: a critique on reciprocityFor millennia, local ecological knowledge ensured a symbiotic balance of human impact on their environments. Water in particular, is an area where First Nations’ concepts and teachings often overlap15. A widely shared perspective embraces water as a sacred relative; anything connected to water should be considered with respect. “Water is not about ‘use’ but rather about proper relationships...One’s relationship with water should be based on respect and an ethics of thanksgiving and should fulfill specific responsibilities. Proper relationships to water ensure that water is, in turn, able to fulfill its responsibilities”16.This notion of reciprocity is positioned as a key theme in Robin Wall Kimmerer’s book Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants. She elaborates on the power of language in conveying relationships — a complex system that is lost in translation. In essence, a “grammar of animacy” communicates through verbs, while the english language is dominated by nouns. “To be a stream” is alive, whereas “a stream” is dead17. To reconsider a relationship with water in our urban landscapes transcends culture and language. If we design a journey for water, what verbs would we use? How much are we willing to share the city with water? The principle of reciprocity may guide us toward a revitalized connection with water, and inspire adaptable waterscape design.15 Deborah McGregor. Traditional Knowledge: Considerations for Protecting Water in Ontario. The International Indigenous Policy Journal. 2012.16 Marina Guessous. “Water Is Knowledge.” Water Teachings. Robin Wall Kimmerer. Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge, and the Teachings of Plants. 2013Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202117 // re-saturated // 18CAMPBELL 2021 blue-green infrastructure: a critique Fig. 1.7 Green roof rendering at Vancouver House by Bjarke Ingels Group (Dezeen, 2015)application will only be successful if there is a good understanding of the social values of water and how people interact with it. Pragmatic application of design guidelines and public participation in project development will not be sufficient”22.The results of pragmatism are in fact evident in Vancouver’s fabric. Local rapid development has been critiqued for a monotonous aesthetic language, resulting in a skyline of sterile glass towers that land poorly on the street23. New developments typically check all of the “green” requirement boxes, yet BGI is not always integrated with the level of care needed to promote vibrant and connected green spaces. This perfunctory consideration manifests as elegant, untouchable gardens in vacant courtyards, or inaccessible green roofs. Housing shortages and population growth indicate a need for further densification in a city with a finite amount of available land, suggesting that this pattern will continue. Lacking a synthesized framework, piecemeal application of BGI inhibits community engagement and legibility of the landscape performance.BGI elements such as those described above, do not reflect the depth to which water contributes to the identity of place. Rather, they highlight the limitations of municipal property lines, a framework that water will never adhere to by choice. As landscape architecture becomes increasingly transdisciplinary, I argue that designers must further exercise their hand in creative interpretations of BGI, to extend it beyond the predictable scope. This could have the greatest impact in streetscapes, margins and interstitial spaces — the connective urban tissues where sensitive water design can be expressed in unexpected ways.18Perini and Sabbion. Urban Sustainability and River Restoration: Green and Blue Infrastructure. 4.19Ibid., xv.20City of Vancouver. Water Urbanisms. 7.22Buurman. Bringing People Closer to Water: Integrating Water Management and Urban Infrastructure. 2533.23Naoibh O’Connor. “Vancouver Buildings’ Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder.” Vancouver Courier. 2020.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202119 // re-saturated // 20CAMPBELL 2021Considerate integration of blue-green infrastructure is a promising step towards establishing a reciprocal relationship with water and igniting public concern. The following approach considers how BGI conditions can be enriched at two scales. The first is at the urban watershed scale, where coordinated planning of BGI should be considered as a cohesive network. The second is at the site scale, where sterilized monotony can be quelled through sensorial engagement and education. WATERSHED SCALEWhat can be done? A lack of character and connectivity could be remedied by injecting the landscape with living, breathing water rather than the abstracted ideal described by Orff. She goes on to define water as “a primary place-making and identity driver. It takes the form of what it touches, roiling sediments and nutrients on continental scales, splashing over obstructions and dispersing pollutants”24. If water has the capacity to shape sensory education + experiencing waterentire cities, BGI has potential to be far more meaningful and regenerative in its site-specificity.The Rain City Strategy has indicated that a citywide framework for BGI will emerge in a future stage of the plan25. This idea is also being implemented in Copenhagen, building upon their 2012 Cloudburst Strategy to formulate a coordination effort of surface solutions and blue-green landscapes26. A cohesive, city-wide system for BGI is possibly the most impactful way to reintroduce a holistic connection to water, linking the city to surrounding water bodies and preserving them through projects of varying scales. An interconnected visual or sensorial articulation of the hydrologic system can create order while defying the grid. It is an inspiring initiative, but the quality and character of the overall system can only be as meaningful as its parts. How can the finer elements of water-focused infrastructure become more engaging, compelling and educational?sensory education + experiencing water Fig. 1.8 Sensing Water 1: Hand in Fast-Moving Water (Dee, 2001)Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202121 // re-saturated // 22CAMPBELL 2021 sensory education + experiencing water Fig. 1.9 Sensing Water 2: The Taste of Dew (Dee, 2001)SITE SCALEStephanie Carlisle argues that meaningful and adaptable landscapes stem from an intimate understanding of the site, expanding the design scope to include subgrade conditions. “For landscape architecture projects to perform and persist over time, landscape architects need to not only design the benches, plantings, and pathways on the surface of the ground, but to have a deep understanding of the site’s underlying substrate”27. Graduating from a superficial approach to one engrained deeply in the earth and human processes on it exposes different challenges. Landscape architects are now facing a complex set of conditions and unavoidable confrontation with the grit and messiness of reality which is often “designed out” of the surface. It is at this intersection where new opportunities for engagement with water could exist.Botanist and landscape architect, Catherine Fennell, argues against homogenized design at all scales, claiming it to be a simplification of nature in which the tidy and orderly obscures the intricate textures of reality. “Complex landscapes activate our senses, to the extent that things and phenomena which may seem everyday and ordinary become legible. We acquire volumes of information and construct mental maps that not only ground us in place but enable us to learn — haptically, tactilely, and kinaesthetically”28. She posits that order in natural systems comes from incremental forces of constant disequilibrium that can not be perfectly mimicked through current trends in form and pattern of the built environment.Multi-layered and multi-functional landscapes therefore must embrace variation, even messiness, over efficiency29. Variety in topography, microclimate, and ecotones can all be enhanced by water processes, and can promote a richness in ecological and experiential qualities of which the sterile city is devoid. Witnessing the interaction of water with other systems will enhance educational benefits, encouraging positive reception of water for further integration into the urban landscape. Exposing and enlivening urban waterscapes through increased complexity will also increase their multisensorial value.Juhani Pallasmaa’s acclaimed The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses, argues that our historic inclination towards sight over the other four senses has resulted in an impoverished built environment. The age of technology continues to intensify vision and hearing as priviledged senses, while the others are relegated to “draw collective awareness in our occularcentric and obsessively hygienic code of culture,” as congenial and easily discerned sensations, such as the fragrance of flowers or temperature of the air30.Phenomenological and sensorial experiences of water can deepen our understanding of larger systems31. Interdisciplinary artist and researcher, Sheri R. Klein, presents a four-phase framework for experiencing and interpreting everyday landscapes to promote “sensitive-seeing”. These include the paths of beholding, immersion, reflection, and action. The first three encourage understanding a landscape from various perspectives for “pleasure, meaning, and discovery”32. Through these experiences of learning and understanding, the landscape becomes a call to action.24 Orff. Toward and Urban Ecology. 19.25 City of Vancouver. Rain City Strategy. 2019.26Tredje Natur. Green Climate Adaptation. 27 Stephanie Carlisle. “The Performative Ground: Rediscovering The Deep Section.” Scenario Journal. 2012.28 Catherine Fennell. “Matrices, Margins and Messiness.” Ground Up Journal. 2013. 60.29 Margie Rudick. Wild by Design. 2016.30 Juhlani Pallasmaa. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. 1996. 18-19.31 Sheri R. Klein.  “Coming to our Senses: Everyday Landscapes, Aesthetics, and Transformative Learning.” 2018. 6-7.32 Ibid., 6-7.CAMPBELL 202123 // re-saturated // 24CAMPBELL 2021 reconnectionFig. 1.10 City of Vancouver’s conceptual blueway alignment (Campbell, 2021)Vancouver has started preliminary scoping for a blueway corridor connecting False Creek to Fraser River. The proposed idea suggests linking the existing network of open streams and water bodies in Metro Vancouver (Still Creek and Burnaby Lake in particular), to a series of daylit streams and Blue-Green Infrastructure that will meander through Vancouver, via neighbourhoods with comparatively fewer open water assets. Using exploratory interventions and future scenario building, I will consider how the blueway initiative can protect and enhance existing water bodies while equitably supporting a densifying city in a changing climate. The design project will strive to define site-specific water-driven interventions that are visibly interconnected and multisensorial to create unique educational and experiential opportunities. By alternating between urban-scale and site-scale analysis to identify enriching and interconnected opportunities for BGI, I will attempt to visualize ways in which Vancouver’s rain water can be invited into the physical and cultural landscape of the Renfrew-Collingwood neighbourhood.reconnectionCAMPBELL 202125 // re-saturated // 26CAMPBELL 2021 precedent analysis Precedent Analysislist of projectswater ways and way to the waterPoint of Viewurban lab | free water districtFuture-ForwardSCAPE studio | TOWN BRANCH CREEkPlace-Makerjones & jones architecture the henceforward | Episode 16cedar river watershed education centreEducatorCAMPBELL 202127 // re-saturated // 28CAMPBELL 2021The Henceforward Podcast, Episode 16 “Water Ways and Way to the Water”, 2017“A really  interesting  narrative... develops  when  thinking  about marking waterways and thinking about where these flows used to be and still are underground, and this narrative of losing rivers as though we can no longer find them when that’s not the case. We know where they are. We know because we buried over them, and then marked them, and the narrative of “lost”... is very settler colonial. It ties into this idea of discovery.”Greer Brabazon, “The Henceforward”. 2017precedent analysis  campbellRationale: I am introducing a podcast as the first precedent to outline an attitude and tone that will guide my design process. This online discussion has prompted me to consider how relationships with urban water must accept and care for the current condition of water in all its forms, rather than holding out for an “ideal” that does not presently exist.Summary: This episode of The Henceforward focuses on decolonization and learning how to relate to land and water, positioned through an urban indigenous ethic. The hosts speak of finding ways to love the current state of landscapes, first as a form of reckoning with the imperfections, ruptures, and toxicity of today’s world. The urgency in addressing modern challenges and complications around land, water, and equality is a catalyst for activating communities to intervene against past and ongoing acts of violence against people and the planet.precedent | the henceforward episode 16: water ways and way to the waterMajor Themes:Varied cultural relationships with water in CanadaLanguage used to discuss waterUrgent need to reconsider ways of caring for waterOverview:Location:  Toronto, OntarioProducers:  Eve Tuck and Sefanit HabtomProject Type: PodcastYear:  2017“What is to be said about manufacturing, separation, and decimation that can only be the gathering of bodies speaking to each other via emancipation of the systems like  water,  which  is  shapeless  and  takes  on  many  forms,  decontaminating  the contaminated, rewriting norms, a deep remember is needed to transform and wade through the waters. I  ask  you, which  peace  will  you  be  in  this  existing mass charade?”Simone Weir, excerpt from “Bodies Encrypted, Land Inscripted”Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202129 // re-saturated // 30CAMPBELL 2021Dunn, Sarah, et al. “Bowling: Water, Architecture, Urbanism”. Applied Research and Design, San Francisco, California, USA, 2017.Fig. 1.11 Play by the Rules: Proposed use of Great Lakes water (UrbanLab, 2012)Play by the rules:01 Take what you need02 Use it, for free03 Collect and clean all leftover water04 Continue cleaning in constructed wetland05 Send water along an ecoboulevard to the lake06 Recharge the lake Fig. 1.12 Sections through the Free Water District (UrbanLab, 2012)precedent analysis Rationale: I selected this project to study as an example of the use of scenario building, specifically to frame an idea of water urbanism in the future. It is useful to recognize the far-reaching design consequences that a reconsideration of water management and usage could lead to.Summary: Described as a “world-class urban recycled freshwater manufacturing center, business incubator, and educational institution” the Free Water District is the first phase in a multi-stage initiative to attract water-intensive industries to Chicago, inspiring relocation from water scarce areas to the water abundant Great Lakes region. The mixed-use city scale proposal encourages a sustainable and controlled use of fresh water to simultaneously promote environmental and economic health alongside water and flood management.Lessons Learned: The use of future scenario building to position this project within a context that is not yet realized is effective and affords the designers creative agency. I find the forward-thinking narrative compelling and effective in situating viewers in a time and place that reaches beyond today’s reality, without being too far-removed. I also appreciate the ambition and experimentation in integrating water-based infrastructure with architecture and landscape. The neighbourhood scale, post-industrial site is an excellent opportunity to devise a new urban form that is driven by water. It is interesting to consider how the shoreline plays a role in expressing and repairing the human relationship to the Great Lakes.Critique: I appreciate the extensive research to frame this project as a visioning plan within a speculative future, but I am not convinced by the representation used to express the design of the Free Water District. Recognizing that UrbanLab is injecting fun into the serious topic of water health and security, I find the jump between the idea and its representation to be challenging. The whimsical forms and sections are compelling, but one gets lost in the fine details that do not seem to reflect the project’s big ideas around water equity. The diagrammatic nature of the landscape feels cartoonish and I am left wanting more resolution. precedent | free water districtOverview:Location:  Chicago, IllinoisDesigner:  UrbanLabStatus:  Speculative Design ResearchContext:  Post-industrial Great Lakes districtProgram: Business & education districtYear:  2012 Urban Scale       InstallationSpeculative              RealizedMajor Themes:Water security; water resource managementDevelopment of Future ScenariosInfrastructure as cultural projectRedacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202131 // re-saturated // 32CAMPBELL 2021 precedent analysis  campbellJane Hutton, “Making Rocks Public,” in Toward and Urban Ecology. 2016, p. 72“In three-dimensions, the complex-ity of the underground network is mind-boggling. From the limited human perspective, water merely appears and disappears from the Earth’s surface. ...This proposal translates the nonlinear, episodic appearance of water on the surface ...into a public space strategy.” precedent | town branch creekMajor Themes:Daylighting to construct a blue corridor that combines parks and trails with water filtrationConnecting communities via water to strengthen identity of placeUse of mineral cycles and processes to create space and public discourse around history and identityRegional analysis of subgrade hydrology and geologic processes to inform designOverview:Location  Lexington, Kentucky Designer  SCAPE StudioStatus  Under constructionContext  Converted streetProgram Public trail & park networkYear  2013Urban Scale       InstallationSpeculative              RealizedFig. 1.13 Town Branch Creek sectional typologies (SCAPE Studio, 2013)Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202133 // re-saturated // 34CAMPBELL 2021Hutton, Jane. “Making Rocks Public,” in Toward an Urban Ecol-ogy. 2016, p. 70-78.Orff, Kate. 2016. Toward an Urban Ecology. New York, NY: The Monacelli Press.precedent analysis constraints of the urban grid without being limited by it. Punctuated water features allow water to be conveyed underground to accommodate other built elements without disruption to the design. The project highlights the cultural and social value in conducting site analysis at a regional scale and below the surface.Critique: There is an emphasis on education and experience of water in this project, but I am critical of the transparency around the overall water system. It is not clear what water is flowing in and out of the creek to populate the features and how other supporting water systems are connected. An example is the splashpad, which is not drawn from the creek, nor does it drain into it. Perhaps some of these connections will be more apparent once the project is complete. Fig. 1.15 Karst geology manifested as unique typologies (SCAPE Studio, 2013)Fig. 1.16 View overlooking the Creekside Boardwalk Trail (SCAPE Studio, 2013)Rationale: SCAPE Studio’s blue corridor proposal is unique as a creek restoration project at the urban design scale, making it a useful precedent when considering the connection of blue-green systems at a network scale. It combines elements of blue-green infrastructure to protect and clean the stream, which is to be strategically daylit to integrate a into an existing urban fabric. The expressions of water are designed to provide a varied experience and educate citizens. This project embraces the challenge of addressing the abstract and nonlinear reality of water. Summary: 4 km of blueway daylighting the Town Branch Creek takes the place of an arterial road in Lexington to incorporate trails and linear parks as a revitalized public network. Rather than converting the geometry of the street into an open water body, the project draws upon the regional Karst geology to convey water in a unique way.Lessons Learned: To design a landscape that is able to adapt to the existing built condition and the natural landscape history, this project dives deep into the subgrade hydrology and natural geology of Kentucky. The resulting proposal includes many different urban water conditions and “expressions” of water that are each inspired by a naturally occurring geologic process. Town Branch Creek celebrates natural history and makes it apparent to citizens, deepening connections to place and nature. As a precedent, this demonstrates the value of looking beyond the landscape surface and uncovering the rich potential that geologic history (or any in-depth analysis) can bring to a project. This approach can also be pragmatically generative in deviating from conventional systems of water management to draw upon elements of time and process. This project is successful in adapting to the Fig. 1.14 Karst hydrology represented in its natural state (SCAPE Studio, 2013)Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.Redacted for digital publication due to copyright.CAMPBELL 202135 // re-saturated // 36CAMPBELL 2021Rationale: An example of placed-based water education occurs in the landscape design of the Cedar River Watershed Education Center in Seattle.  Multi-sensorial expressions of water are designed to generate a holistic visitor experience of seeing, hearing, and feeling water as an educational journey. Summary:  The Cedar River provides 60-70 percent of Seattle’s drinking water, and the education center is located outside of the city on previously disturbed land. To minimize impact to the river, the design repurposes potable water used in the centre’s fire suppression system to create a small constructed stream. In a post-occupancy evaluation guests expressed that seeing and hearing the water move through the landscape communicated how precious it is. Lessons Learned: I appreciate the use of hand drawings as the project was designed at a transition point in rendering techniques as computer drawing became more mainstream. The hand-rendered plan is more informative and evocative than many digital drawings, suggesting that a looseness precedent analysis in representation may be more appropriate for communicating designs with water as a focus.Critique: Lisa Owens critiques the project in Landscape Architecture Magazine, noting that an urban dweller might not make the connection that this soft landscape is part of the same watershed as their city. Given that guests are knowingly visiting an educational centre, it is unsurprising that they report that the landscape features contributed to their learning experience. However, the successful educational devices of this project that repurpose and retain water could be adapted to other contexts and could possibly absorb additional layers of meaning within the urban landscape.Fig. 1.19 Rainwater design for education (Jones & Jones, 2004)Fig. 1.18 Rain drums (Jones & Jones, 2004)Owens, Lisa, et al. “The Feel of a Watershed.” 2007. Land-scape Architecture Magazine 97 (8): 24, 26-28, 30-32, 34-39Overview:Location:  Seattle, WashingtonDesigner:  Jones & Jones Architects and Land-   scape ArchitectsStatus:  Completed Landscape DesignContext:  Urban water sourceProgram: Education and tourismYear:  2004Major Themes:Landscape as educational device Multi-sensorial expression of waterCollecting and retaining water stormwaterUrban Scale       InstallationSpeculative              Realizedprecedent | cedar river watershed education centreFig. 1.17 Education Center landscape plan (Jones & Jones, 2004)CAMPBELL 202137 // re-saturated // 38CAMPBELL 2021Part 2: Site Matterssite mattersCAMPBELL 202139 // re-saturated // 40CAMPBELL 2021Fig. 2.1 Vancouver’s historic stream network and present-day park locationsa history of still creekFig. 2.2 Salmon spawning in Still Creek over timeStill Creek was the first of Vancouver’s partially open stream network to receive focused attention around daylighting initiatives. It connects to 3 of the 47 original salmon-bearing streams (Beaver creek, Musqueam Creek, and Spanish Bank Creek). Portions of Still Creek and its tributaries were culverted or channelized to efficiently relocate water and keep the city dry, with far-reaching consequences still felt today.The following timeline describes the factors impacting the health of the regional stream system, specifically looking at Still Creek. Rapid development and infrastructure to support a densifying city have resulted in a disrupted and polluted stream. The past five decades have seen a dynamic shift in attitude, with ever-increasing efforts underway to rectify stream ecology.1932 Collectively remembered as the last salmon spawn at Still Creek for 80 yearsStill Creek is historically home to many salmona history of still creekContext2012-2017 Chum salmon return to Still Creek2020 onward The future of urban salmon populations is still uncertain, but concentrated efforts to restore stream ecologies are a promising step forward.?CAMPBELL 202141 // re-saturated // 42CAMPBELL 20211908 Seymour River Bridge transports water and pedestrians19291886time immemorial 1911Bartholomew’s Parks and Pleasure Drives envisions the  integration of waterways into urban fabric, with Still Creek as a natural connection between Vancouver and Burnaby.1913The Lea Report provides a regional sanitary strategy, and recommends a separated system, rather than combined.1914Labour Day parade celebrating sewer systems. Still Creek is designated for stormwater runoff.Formation of Vancouver Water Works Co. and initial implementation of freshwater supply to Vancouver from the North Shore.First Nations inhabit the land of modern day Vancouver, living in harmony with natural systems prior to settler occupation and the industrial revolution.Severe sewage pollution results in contamination, illness, and beach closures. Open waterways are regularly treated as dumping grounds.a history of still creek1935 1910s-1960s 196119531988 199420022006Most streams through Vancouver were paved over for further development. Citizens  advocated for the diversion of urban creeks due to high pollution levels.Policy approved to daylight and protect Still Creek, improving public connections from Burnaby Lake to the B.C. Parkway at 29th Avenue Station.Inflow and Infiltration Pro-gram eliminates sewer con-tamination from neighbouring properties1996Carmen Rosen initiates commu-nity activities to promote  en-gagement with Renfrew Ravine.The City of Vancouver endorses the Still Creek Rehabilitation and Enhancement StudyCompletion of first city-led improvements to Still CreekStill Creek, one of the only creeks to remain open would later be revitalized and protectedongoing Volunteer streamkeepers at workLands affected by filling of Still Creek from 14th-18th AvenuesRawn Report recommends region-al sewerage and drainage areas, treatment plant locations, and enclosure of Still CreekFig. 2.3 Still Creek TimelineCAMPBELL 202143 // re-saturated // 44CAMPBELL 2021 neighbourhood analysisFig. 2.5 Watersheds of the Renfrew-Collingwood neighbourhood norquay villagerenfrew-collingwoodBurnaby LakeDeer LakeTrout LakeStill CreekBurnabyVancouverNew WestminsterCoquitlamchina creek still creek neighbourhood analysis:renfrew-collingwoodchina creek still creek BurnabyVancouverNew WestminsterCoquitlamFig. 2.4 Watershed MapThe Rain City Strategy has identified priorities for each of the China Creek and Still Creek Watersheds based on a range of criteria. The portion of the Still Creek Watershed within the municipal boundary of Vancouver is largely defined by the Renfrew-Collingwood neighbourhood. Priorities for the health of the overall watershed include reducing Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) through the separation of all sewers, as well as addressing issues of overland flooding resulting from low tree canopy and limited permeable landcover. CAMPBELL 202145 // re-saturated // 46CAMPBELL 2021Open StreamHistoric Stream1M ContoursSewer Trunk MainSewer MainWater TransmissionWater DistributionFig. 2.6 Renfrew-Collingwood initial water flow analysisOverland Flow Direction Studyneighbourhood analysisFig. 2.7 Renfrew-Collingwood land useCommercialComprehensive DevelopmentIndustrialLight IndustrialMulti-Family DwellingTwo-Family DwellingOne-Family DwellingTree CanopyPublic ParkExisting GreenwayApproved GreenwayBikewayRapid Transit LineTransit StationCAMPBELL 202147 // re-saturated // 48CAMPBELL 2021Neighbourhood analysis:stakeholdersThose concerned with future interventions and improvements throughout the Renfrew-Collingwood neighbourhood include:Primary stakeholders:• Existing long-term residents of the area, who are aging or have grown up locally and require their own home• Future residents as the neighbourhood densifies, specifically families with school age children and young couples seeking affordable housing• Non-human residents of Still Creek and its surrounding habitatSecondary stakeholders:• Employees who work in Renfrew-Collingwood • Cyclists and pedestrians who commute or recreate along the urban trail network and park system• School field trip groups• TouristsNeighbourhood analysis:prioritiesPriorities identified by the Renfrew-Collingwood community include:Housing:• Preserve single family home character through architecturally interesting new development• Responsible densification via neighbourhood-appropriate housing types, including infill housing, rowhouses, duplexes, and low rise typologies focused around schools and rapid transit stations• Gound-oriented housing for aging populationTransportation and Connectivity:• Improve greenway connections and bikeways• Safer walking and transit access via crossings, sidewalks, traffic calming• Improved walking connections to schools and community centresPublic Realm and Community:• Street greening and beautification• More accessible and multi-cultural programs for childres and seniors• Community park involvement opportunitiesRecreation:• Increase outdoor recreation along Still Creek• Increase parks in underserved areas• Shared gardens for kids to play• Activate and green lanesEnvironment:• Continued enhancement of Renfrew Ravine• Still Creek daylighting and conservation• Rain water management and rain water collection at home (rain barrels)• Ecosystem improvement and habitat reconnectionneighbourhood analysisCAMPBELL 202149 // re-saturated // 50CAMPBELL 2021Norquay Village has been identified as a sub-neighbourhood of Renfrew-Collingwood with potential to fulfill many of the overarching community needs. The Norquay Village Public Benefit Strategy has projected a population increase of 5000 between 2013 and 2043, requiring 3400 new housing units. The strategy envisions a complete community with Norquay Park at its heart. Densified housing typologies and improved active transportation and park connections can become opportunties to enhance water management and education.  The 1.5 sq. km district is just south of the open Still Creek watercourse, with surface water generally flowing north. Public realm and park improvements to support community growth should prioritize stormwater management as an envrionmental protection measure for the neighbouring sensitive ecosystem of Renfrew Ravine, and the Still Creek watershed at large. The site mapped in Fig.2.8 will be analyzed in the following diagrams with the intention of developing adaptable and experiential BGI interventions throughout.norquay villageneighbourhood analysis29th ave stationrenfrew ravinekingswaywatershed boundary Still creekwatershedchina creekwatershedFig. 2.8  Norquay Village in the Still Creek Watershednorquay village: site analysisCAMPBELL 202151 // re-saturated // 52CAMPBELL 2021Fig. 2.9 Aerial perspectivefalse creeknorquay parkslocan parkbrock park29th ave stationnanaimo stationrenfrew stationjohn norquay elementaryscope of interventiontrout lakerenfrew ravine parkearlesrenfrewbc parkwaykingswaystill creek29th avecentral valleynorquay village: site analysislegendstill creekexisting greenwayfuture eastside crosscutpotential future bluewayCAMPBELL 202153 // re-saturated // 54CAMPBELL 2021china creek watershed29th ave stationrenfrew ravinekingswayrezoning per area plan:mid-rise/mixed use 4-storey low-rise stacked townhouse duplex and infillFig. 2.11  Stream conditions of Norquay VillageFig. 2.10 City Rezoning Plan for Norquay Villagenorquay village: site analysis2m contour linesdesign siteCAMPBELL 202155 // re-saturated // 56CAMPBELL 2021 norquay village: site analysisFig. 2.12 City-owned parcels along proposed Ravine Way linear connection Fig. 2.13 Existing infrastructure and proposed land acquisitionsCAMPBELL 202157 // re-saturated // 58CAMPBELL 2021Part 3: DesigndesignCAMPBELL 202159 // re-saturated // 60CAMPBELL 2021methodology | Gp2Context Analysis and MappingEducationalBlue-GreenInfrastructureMulti-SensorialExpression of Urban WaterSymbiotic Public Spaces (Symbolic and Literal)Textural LandscapesInputsOutputsMethod InvestigationsSynthesisNatural and urban watersheds, permeability, land coverage, tree canopy, density and demographics dataVancouver & Metro Vancouver projections, strategies for development and climate adaptationNorquay Village Public Benefits Strategy and Public Realm PlanFuture-Narrative DevelopmentFunctions-Priorities MatrixDesign InvestigationsSuitable Programmatic ComponentsThesis QuestionDesign FrameworkFig. 3.1 GP2 Methodology Flow Chartmethodology | gp2The design proposal considers how landscape architecture can promote a restorative relationship with water. The City of Vancouver has defined increased water connectivity as a high priority, with specific targets and strategies outlined in the Rain City Strategy. This project builds on these ideas by asking how design can enrich public experiences of water in educational and evocative ways. Norquay village was once defined by a cedar swamp landscape character, but has been drained and modified over time in support of urban development. Today issues of contamination, flooding and low summer flow remain ongoing consequences. The objective of this design is to simultaneously improve the ecological function of the Still Creek watershed while actively engaging local communities in the process.Through two speculative design scenarios, the project explores how a blue corridor could integrate water through Norquay Village while providing amenity space to a changing neighbourhood. A hybrid system of blue-green infrastructure and partial stream daylighting metaphorically reveal Still Creek, with rain water being collected and infiltrated to metabolize the corridor in a variety of ways, and replenish groundwater levels to enhance downstream overviewdesign overviewCAMPBELL 202161 // re-saturated // 62CAMPBELL 2021future scenariosThe future scenarios are structured on a matrix comparing publicly owned land and population density of the neighbourhood. The first scenario, Option 1: Connect, is indicated in pink. It assumes some population increase, with most land being privately held. This results in a narrow corridor of blue-green infrastructure that manages overflow from feeder streets and some adjacent private properties. Option 2: Cultivate, in blue, attempts to increase density alongside a more robust stormwater park, and organizes mixed-use development around a spine of blue-green interventions and partial stream daylighting.These options were selected to demonstrate realistic alternatives for the site. Option 1 adheres to a similar area plan to the existing neighbourhood strategy, introducing a gentle intervention that aligns with existing city-owned land. Option 2 is a more ambitious proposition in terms of land requirements, but suggests typologies that are already familiar to Vancouver, similar to the mixed-use buildings of Olympic Village.future scenariosFig. 3.2 Future Scenario MatrixCAMPBELL 202163 // re-saturated // 64CAMPBELL 2021The objective of this corridor is to manage overflow from streets and adjacent properties, and use the water to create an experiential active transportation corridor that promotes water literacy. Stacked townhouses will gradually be introduced to the surrounding parcels over time, resulting in a similar population density and neighbourhood character to the existing area plan vision.Option 1 | connectThis design scenario claims a larger area and focuses on introducing ecological value to the neighbourhood. The creation of an infiltration park enables management of water from the surrounding streets and buildings, and provides outdoor amenity space for residents and visitors. Mid-rise mixed-use typologies frame the corridor, reducing the total impermeable land cover while increasing neighbourhood density.option 2 | cultivatefuture scenariosFig. 3.3 Extents of Option 1: Connect Fig. 3.4 Extents of Option 2: CultivateCAMPBELL 202165 // re-saturated // 66CAMPBELL 2021In both scenarios, the systems rely on feeder streets to infiltrate water and transport overflow into the corridor. These sections show some ideas for street typologies that could be integrated into a residential neighbourhood like Norquay Village. This project focuses on the corridor, but acknowledges that  another essential piece of the system exists in the surrounding street design. Modifications to existing streets could include reduced parking and one-way streets in low traffic areas, to make way for permeable “tributary lanes” and wider pedestrian walkways to support safe active transportation.FEEDER STREETS two-way street with converted parking laneone-way streeTfuture scenariosFig. 3.5 Explorations of Feeder Street typologiesCAMPBELL 202167 // re-saturated // 68CAMPBELL 2021 existing site conditionFig. 3.6 Existing Site ConditionCAMPBELL 202169 // re-saturated // 70CAMPBELL 2021design option 1 | Connectdesign option 1: connectFig. 3.8 Design Option 1: Connect Schematic IsometricFig. 3.7 Flow direction of city streets and private property boundariesDesign development for Option 1 is sensitive to the existing topographic condition. There is a gentle valley running roughly north-south where the creek once flowed, interspersed with relatively flat areas. In this scenario, 10 buildings are removed to form the corridor, and the urban form develops over time, based on the existing zoning plan. Two gentle ridgelines determine the flow direction of water along streets, while water from private property is piped directly into the corridor. The plan is organized around a  multi-use path for cyclists and pedestrians, and the design widens and narrows in response to existing buildings. These spatial constraints result in a very linear system with an emphasis on active mobility. As one travels downhill from Kingsway, they enter the corridor next to a water mist splash plaza, adjacent to the existing daycare. This is followed by a series of runnels and cisterns that allow visitors to engage directly with harvested rainwater, to irrigate the planting and provide playful and therapeutic experiences as water travels through the landcape. The hundred-meter rain garden flows continuously across the next lane and street, toward a large deck where cyclists can wash their bikes seasonally using harvested water. Finally, the wetland walk traverses a retention area with wetland planting, sited at the low point of the topography where more water will collect. A proposed car-free street intersects with the existing low point, and provides a safe connection to the elementary school. This corridor metaphorically reveals Still Creek, and benefits the watershed by restoring groundwater levels and reducing the volume of contaminated runoff entering the storm sewer.CAMPBELL 202171 // re-saturated // 72CAMPBELL 2021 design option 1: connectFig. 3.9 Design Option 1: Connect PlanCAMPBELL 202173 // re-saturated // 74CAMPBELL 2021Cisterns collect water off of private rooftops to be repurposed in a variety of ways along the blue corridor. This system challenges the staus quo of privately versus publicly managed water – restrictions that could be reconsidered in implementing a more holistic infrastructural system. This section displays the potential for public interaction with rain water, which has historically been viewed as a sanitary risk. An integrated approach to living with water in the city must begin to question the preconceived notions of how water fits into daily life, and seek ways to safely transform rain into an amenity.Community rain gardens are planted with species for phytoremediation. The gardens can operate similarly to exsiting initiatives such as Vancouver’s Green Streets program, where residents can adopt a portion of the garden to assist with, enhancing local accountibility for the health and maintenance of the plants. The combined efforts of human stewardship and plant processes will highlight the presence and value of rain water.SECTION 1ARAINWATER CISTERNcommunity rain gardendesign option 1: connectFig. 3.10 Section 1APlanting for phytoremediationAcerrubrumCAMPBELL 202175 // re-saturated // 76CAMPBELL 2021This section cuts through the bike wash station, a rain water amenity that is accessible to recreational and commuter cyclists due to its location along the Multi-Use Ravine Trail, and proximity to the East Side Crosscut Greenway along Dutchess Street. This resource provides a simple system for residents who don’t have access to a hose, which is  a common limitation of apartment living. It operates seasonally, using harvested water when available, and is constructed on a permeable boardwalk structure so that runoff can enter the retention area underneath. The unobtrusive post structures allow for flexibility of the space when water isn’t available, and the wide boardwalk can function as a deck for passive recreation year-round. SECTION 1Brain water bike washcommunity deckretention area with wetland plantingdesign option 1: connectFig. 3.11 Section 1BCAMPBELL 202177 // re-saturated // 78CAMPBELL 2021In this section we see a typical condition of the wetland walk. This zone of the blueway prioritizes habitat planting, such as fruiting plants for birds species. Due to the scheme’s limited space for amenities, the retention area is accessible in dry summer months for children to play and explore, providing a multi-functional and transformative landscape feature.SECTION 1Cwet season conditiondry season conditiondesign option 1: connectFig. 3.12 Section 1CCAMPBELL 202179 // re-saturated // 80CAMPBELL 2021Fig. 3.13 Interactive cisterns and runnels flowing into nearby rain gardendesign option 1: connectCAMPBELL 202181 // re-saturated // 82CAMPBELL 2021design option 2 | Cultivatedesign option 2: cultivateFig. 3.15 Design Option 2: Cultivate Schematic IsometricFig. 3.14 Flow direction of existing and proposed streets and private property boundariesDesign Option 2: Cultivate supports a scenario with increased population and city land. It invites the midrise buildings that would otherwise be located along Kingsway into the site. The flow direction of the retained streets and lanes is similar to Design Option 1, but revised grading leverages the existing low points to daylight part of Still Creek and develop a large constructed wetland.In this design, the blocks are opened up with the blueway forming a central spine surrounded by mixed-use development. This provides residents with valuable outdoor amenity space, and commercial units for restaurants and shops to occupy. In this scenario, the proposed East Side Crosscut Greenway is absorbed into the corridor instead of following Dutchess street. This ensures enough street space for vehicular traffic despite the removal of several through-roads, and provides a unique but direct pedestrian and cyclist experience through the corridor. A larger wetland plaza and mist spray park create an entryway off of Kingsway. From here Still Creek is daylit for approximately 250m, based on the existing topography of the site and the subgrade infrastructure in this location. A network of trails allow people to experience changing water levels from different perspectives as the landscape transforms throughout the season. A wide boardwalk juts through the site as an informal gathering space and view point. Further down, a large wetland retention area creates habitat for bird species, and transitions into an urban woodland flowing into Slocan park.CAMPBELL 202183 // re-saturated // 84CAMPBELL 2021 design option 2: cultivateFig. 3.16 Design Option 2: Cultivate PlanCAMPBELL 202185 // re-saturated // 86CAMPBELL 2021The entry plaza introduces a grid of trees that extend off of the street trees distributed along Kingsway. The mist splash pad provides a low water useage alternative to typical potable water features, and offers play value while programmatically connecting the plaza to the larger splash pad located across the street at Norqay Park. The terraced wetland helps to accommodate the grade change needed to daylight Still Creek further north, and creates an urban aesthetic to complement the busy Kingsway arterial while also presenting attractive habitat planting and stormwater management. SECTION 2aLiquidambar styracifluaboardwalk crossingTerraced wetland plazaWetland planting for phytoremediationdesign option 2: cultivateFig. 3.17 Section 2ACAMPBELL 202187 // re-saturated // 88CAMPBELL 2021This section shows a cut through the daylit portion of Still Creek. The banks are planted with stabilizing vegetation that supports a riparian habitat zone. Both the wide boardwalk running parallel to the stream and the narrow trail nework provide opportunities for visitors to experience the water. Depending on seasonal creek levels, the streamside trail could be submerged in places, while the boardwalk is elevated to allow for year-round use. A pedestrian bridge, shown in elevation, retains the connection along Ward Street, and creates an aerial vantage point overlooking Still Creek. The new urban form of mixed-use buildings also generates an appealing viewshed accross the corridor. SECTION 2BSalixpurpureaBetulanigraImmersive boardwalkStreamside trailAcercircinatumdesign option 2: cultivateFig. 3.18 Section 2BCAMPBELL 202189 // re-saturated // 90CAMPBELL 2021SECTION 2CCornus masSpiraea douglasiiThe oversized boardwalk over the constructed wetland can function as a narrow plaza, inviting visitors to participate in urban events within a unique environment. Farmers markets, performances, or community meetings and demonstrations (such as Vancouver’s Streamkeepers Society events) can occur here. Midrise buildings are constructed with underground cisterns to collect rooftop rainwater throughout the year. This can be accessed in the case of an emergency, but will more often be used to irrigate the wetland planting during dry summer months. The relationship between the built environment, residents, and landscape systems will enhance communities’ awareness of and connection to water.Green RoofPinus contortaunderground cistern for summer irrigationDry condition | boardwalk plazacommercial patio spaceAcer rubrumdesign option 2: cultivateFig. 3.19 Section 2CCAMPBELL 202191 // re-saturated // 92CAMPBELL 2021The wetland habitat is located at the low point of the site, with large areas of planting transitioning uphill toward the proposed urban woodland at Slocan Park. A gradient of planting types promote biodiversity and aesthetic interest throughout the widest point of the corridor. Boardwalk paths create an immersive experience within the vegetation, providing opportunties to view wildlife along the public pathways. This circulation strategy also serves to limit human use of the planted landscape, allowing sensitive species to establish and support a diverse future ecosystem with minimal disruption.SECTION 2DQuercus roburMalus fuscaThuja plicataCONSTRUCTED WETLANDwetland habitatdownspout feeds community rain gardenCornus sericeadesign option 2: cultivateFig. 3.20 Section 2DCAMPBELL 202193 // re-saturated // 94CAMPBELL 2021 design option 2: cultivateFig. 3.21 Evening on the boardwalk plaza overlooking constructed wetlandCAMPBELL 202195 // re-saturated // 96CAMPBELL 2021 design option 2: cultivateFig. 3.22 Seasonal fluctuations in stream levels along Still CreekCAMPBELL 202197 // re-saturated // 98CAMPBELL 2021design comparisondesign comparisonFig. 3.24 Comparative Sections through existing condition, design options 1 and 2Fig. 3.23 Comparative Section CutThis comparison shows the same section cut in both scenarios to highlight differences between the two. The existing built form is mainly single family homes, featuring the Vancouver Special and other character homes. In Design Option 1, townhouses are gradually integrated along the street and the blueway is sandwiched between low- to mid-density housing that is designed to retain a similar neighbourhood character to today. In contrast, Design Option 2 allows for wider spacing between buildings and a much larger outdoor amenity space. In addition to water management, this multi-functional corridor fosters community connections to nature, and can be used year-round for different purposes.Existing conditiondesign option 1: connectdesign option 2: CultivateCAMPBELL 202199 // re-saturated // 100CAMPBELL 2021conclusionconclusionFig. 3.25 Connecting the blue-green network of Still Creek Fig. 3.26 Future Opportunities; Norquay Village in context of historic streams and present-day parksThis project is symbolic of many other neighbourhoods in Vancouver that are challenged with managing water, where it could be more tightly integrated into the urban fabric. Blueway connections as links between existing park spaces can function as an adaptable strategy across a range of scales, in response to a variety of spatial constraints. Norquay Village is just one example of a neighbourhood that would benefit from such treatment, and in the greater context, it is possibe to see how topography and flow patterns could be better considered in other areas to develop multi-functional landscapes in a city with limited space.While the two design options presented encourage engagement with water at a personal experiential level, a major shift in planning and designing for water is ultimately needed in Vancouver, where extreme rain events and summer droughts aggravate our already neglected waterways. These design explorations posit the need to reframe blue-green systems as essential infrastructure that might better inform how our city lives with and benefits from its rainfall. CAMPBELL 2021101 // re-saturated // 102CAMPBELL 2021Adams, Jennifer D.., David A. Greenwood, Mitchell Thomashow, and Alex Russ. “Sense of Place.” Urban Environmental Education Review. (2018): 261-270. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Benedict, Mark. A. and McMahon, E. T. Green Infrastructure: Linking Landscapes and Communities. The Conservation Found, Island Press, 2012.Buurman, Joost and Rita Padawangi. “Bringing People Closer to Water: Inte-grating Water Management and Urban Infrastructure.” Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 61, no. 14 (2018): 2531-2548.Carlisle, Stephanie and Nicholas Pevzner. 2012. “The Performative Ground: Re-discovering The Deep Section.” Scenario Journal, 2012,, Laura B., Timon McPhearson, Cecilia P. Herzog, and Alex Russ. 2018. “Green Infrastructure.” Urban Environmental Education Review. (2018): 261-270. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Costa, Carlos S., Conor Norton, Elena Domene, Jacqueline Hoyer, Joan Marull, and Outi Salminen. 2015. “Water as an Element of Urban Design: Drawing Lessons from Four European Case Studies.” Sustainable Water Use and Management, (2015): 17–43.Dee, Catherine. Form and Fabric in Landscape Architecture: A Visual Introduction. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001.Dunn, Sarah, et al. Bowling: Water, Architecture, Urbanism. Applied Research and Design, San Francisco, California, USA, 2017. Fennell, W., Catherine. “Matrices, Margins and Messiness,” Ground Up Journal 02, no. 5 (2013): 58-61. referencesFinn, Riley. “In Search of the Lower Fraser’s Lost Streams.” Raincoast Conser-vation Foundation, August 24, 2019., Robert L. “Residential Street Design with Watersheds in Mind: Toward Ecological Streets.” In Handbook of Regenerative Landscape Design, 331-356. CRC Press, 2008.Guessous, Marina. “Water Is Knowledge.” Water Teachings, n.d., Gerry, Sharon Proctor, Jim Wong-Chu Personal Library Collection, and Vancouver Public Aquarium Association. Vancouver’s Old Streams. Revis, 1989. ed. Vancouver: Vancouver Public Aquarium Association, 1989.Hutton, Jane. “Making Rocks Public” In Toward and Urban Ecology, 70-78. New York, NY: The Monacelli Press, 2016.Kimmerer, Robin Wall. Braiding Sweetgrass: Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowl-edge, and the Teachings of Plants. First ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Milkweed Editions, 2013.Klein, Sheri R. “Coming to our Senses: Everyday Landscapes, Aesthetics, and Transformative Learning,” Journal of Transformative Education 16, no. 1 (2018): 3-16.McGregor, Deborah. (2012). “Traditional Knowledge: Considerations for Pro-tecting Water in Ontario,” The International Indigenous Policy Journal 3, no. 3 (2012)., Nansen. “Sustainability and Urban Creek Rehabilitation,” Sus-tainable Heritage Case Studies. 2019.’Connor, Naoibh. “Vancouver Buildings’ Beauty in the Eye of the Beholder” referencesCAMPBELL 2021103 // re-saturated // 104CAMPBELL 2021Vancouver Courier. January 28, 2020., Kate. Toward an Urban Ecology. New York, NY: The Monacelli Press, 2016.Orff, Kate. “Urban Ecology as Activism,” Landscape Architecture Foundation. Filmed 2016, video., Lisa, et al. “The Feel of a Watershed,” Landscape Architecture Magazine 97, no. 8 (2007): 24, 26-28, 30-32, 34-39.Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Chichester: Wiley, 1996.Perini, Katia, Paola Sabbion, and Wiley Online Library. Urban Sustainability and Riv-er Restoration: Green and Blue Infrastructure. Chichester, West Sussex, United King-dom: Wiley Blackwell, 2017.Ruddick, Margie. Wild by Design: Strategies for Creating Life-Enhancing Landscapes. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2016.Selman, Paul.“Physical Connections in Landscapes,” In Sustainable Landscape Planning: The Reconnection Agenda, 68-90: Routledge, 2012.Shannon, Kelly. Water Urbanisms. Vol. 1. Amsterdam: SUN, 2008.Spirn, Anne W., “The Buried River,” West Philadelphia Landscape Project. Filmed 2014, video., Eve and Sefanit Habtom. “Water  Ways and Way to the Water,” The Henceforward Podcast. Episode 16, Recorded 2017., Julia and Wade Davis. Lo-TEK: Design by Radical Indigenism. Cologne: Taschen, 2019.Policies and ReportsCity of Vancouver. Council Report. Integrated Blue-Green Systems Planning. 2019. of Vancouver. Rain City Strategy. 2019. of Vancouver. Rain City Strategy Appendix D: Watershed Characterization. 2019. of Vancouver. Renfrew-Collingwood Community Vision. 2002. of Vancouver. Norquay Village Public Benefits Strategy. 2013. of Vancouver. Norquay Village Public Realm Plan. 2016. + Associates, Karen Hurley + Associates., Dayton + Knight Engineers., & Hudema Consulting Group. Still Creek Rehabilitation and Enhancement Study. 2002. Still Creek Integrated Stormwater Management Plan. 2006.Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation. Strategic Bold Moves. 2019. 2021105 // re-saturated


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